Ieai:

Caaaeuei? a?aeiiino?

Noieeoey Aieaa??? – Nio?y

Aieiai? aeaoe iaeiia?oi? ?noi??? Aieaa???

Aieaa??y oa eiioi?noe/iee ?aaeei N?N?

Aieaa??y oa ?a?iiaenueeee nithc

Aieaa??y oa IAOI

?aoa?aiaeoi 8 aa?aniy 1946

I?eeiyooy eiinoeoooe?? 1991

O?yae O. Ae?i?o?iaa

Aieaa??y a einianueeiio eiioe?eo?

Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia ii i?aeaioiaoe? ? i?e?aeiaiith Aieaa??? aei IAOI

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a

Aieaa??y – aea?aeaaa, ?icoaoiaaia a i?ai?/ii-no?aei?e /anoei?
Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa.

Aieaa??y — aeoaea noa?iaeaaiy aea?aeaaa ,ia? oeny/ie?oith ?noi??th. Aiia
ia? aeeeth/ii aaaaoo ?noi??th. A oe?e iaaaeee?e e?a?i?, ?icoaoiaai?e ia
ii?ic? ?a?iie ? Ac??, caeeoeee na?e ne?ae i?aeoe/ii an? aaeee? eoeueoo?e
noa?iaeie. O?ae?eoe?, a?aee, ?eieyie, a?caio?eoe?, ?iia??y Iniaia. An?
aiie anoeaee iiaoaaoe ia aieaa?nuee?e caie?, an? aiie caeeoeee ooo
iace?/aii? iai’yoieee: oneiaeuei?, oi?oaoe?, o?aie, ia/ao? ? i?aaeiaoe
ienoaoeoaa.

Aaaaoa Nio?enueeay oeiaiaeia, ?icaei??aeaey aace?/? aei??a, i?ae?aniee
ee?iao aeyaeeeny i?e/eiith iiyaa i?noa a aeoaea noa?iaeaai? /ane. ?
oaeoii oa, ui Nio?y ia o?eueee iaeia c yeiaeaeaai?oeo i?no Aieaa???, aea
? an??? ?a?iie.

Noieeoey Aieaa???, aieiaiee iie?oe/iee, aeiiii?/iee iaoeiaee,
eoeueoo?iee, o?ainii?oiee oeaio?. Ianaeaiiy 1 096 389 aeoo?. ?icoaoiaaia
a na?aaei?e /anoei? Cao?aeii? Aieaa???, a Nio?enuee?e oeiaiaei?, ia
aenio? 550 i, a i?aei?aeae? a?? A?oioa ? Ethe?i. Aaaaoi i?ia?aeueieo
aeaea?ae. *i?ia iaoaeo?a?y, iaoeiiaoae?aia, o?i?/ia, eao/oeiaa,
oaenoeeueia, oa?/iaa, iie?a?ao?/ia i?iieneia?noue. O?ainii?oiee oeaio?,
i?aeia?iaei? cae?cie/i? e?i?? ? oina, aa?iii?o. Iao?i. Oi?aa?neoaoe,
aeaaeai??, Aieaa?nueeay aeaaeai?y iaoe (AAI), ioca?, oaao?e, iia?a ?
?io? iaoeia? ? eoeueoo?i? ?inoeoooe. Caa?aaeeny caeeoee ?einueeeo
(e??iini? no?ie, caeeoee aoae?aaeue), ?aiiueio?enoeyinuee? (oea?ea?
«Na?oe Aai?ae» ? «Na?oea Nio?y») ? na?aaeiueia?/i? a?o?oaeoo?i?
iai’yoieee (Aaieoe aaoe aeaeaiey, oea?eaa «Na?oea Iaoea
Naia?aeae?enueea»), aaaaoi ?noi?e/ieo iai’yoie.

A ?acoeueoao? anaia?iaeiiai ?ooo 18 aa?aniy 1885 ?ieo aoei i?iaieioaii
C’?aeiaiiy eiyc?anoaa Aieaa??y ? No?aeiiai ?oiae??. Oea a?aeaoeiny i?ioe
aie? aaeeeeo nee. A?ae?aco i?ney oeueiai na?anueeee ei?ieue I?eai
iaieinea a?eio Aieaa???. Aea ?aaoey?i? na?anuee? a?enueea, ui
aoi?aioeeny a iaae? e?a?ie, aoee ?icaeo? o?eueee ui noai?aiith
aieaa?nueeith a?i??th ? aeia?iaieueoeyie. Aooa?anonueeee aeiaia?? 1886
?ieo aeciaa noaoon c’?aeiaii? Aieaa???. A ?acoeueoao? anaia?iaeiiai ?ooo
18 aa?aniy 1885 ?ieo aoei i?iaieioaii C’?aeiaiiy eiyc?anoaa Aieaa??y ?
No?aeiiai ?oiae??. Oea a?aeaoeiny i?ioe aie? aaeeeeo nee. A?ae?aco i?ney
oeueiai na?anueeee ei?ieue I?eai iaieinea a?eio Aieaa???. Aea ?aaoey?i?
na?anuee? a?enueea, ui aoi?aioeeny a iaae? e?a?ie, aoee ?icaeo? o?eueee
ui noai?aiith aieaa?nueeith a?i??th ? aeia?iaieueoeyie. Aooa?anonueeee
aeiaia?? 1886 ?ieo aeciaa noaoon c’?aeiaii? Aieaa???.

5 aa?aniy 1944 ?ieo, eiee ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea ciaoiaeeeeny ia
aieaa?nueei-?oioinuee?e iaae?, N?N? iaieinea a?eio Aieaa???.
Ceaaiaeaeaieie ae?yie c ica?i?iei iii?ii ? aeayeeie /anoeiaie
aieaa?nueei? a?i??. *a?aiia A?i?y oa?eoea aei e?a?ie. A i?/ ia 9
aa?anaiue iiia?o?/ia aeaaea aoea iiaaeaia ? ?? cai?iea o?yae
A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo ia /ie? c E?iiiii Aai?a?aaei, e?aea?ii iacaeaaeii?
ia?o?? «Eaiea». ?aoa?aiaeoi 8 aa?aniy 1946 ?ieo iaieinea e?a?io
?anioae?eith. ?? ia?oei ea??aieeii noaa Aai?a?e Ae?i?o?ia. 4 aa?aniy
1947 ?ieo iaaoea /eiiino? iiaa eiinoeoooe?y. I?ney 10 eenoiiaaeo 1989
?ieo a e?a?i? ii/aeeny e?oii? ci?ie a iie?oe/iiio ? noni?eueiiio aeeoo?.
E?a?ia noaea ia aeaiie?aoe/iee oeyo ? ia?aoiaeo a?ae ieaiiai? aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

21 aeiaoiy 1997 aoa i?eeiyoee caeii, yeee oneeea e?i?th ia «iiaio
aeaeiioi?caoe?th e?a?ie», ?ai?oa i?iaieioaio i?aceaeaioii.

I?e Noiyiia? ? Einoia? Aieaa??y c?iaeea e?oii? e?iee o iai?yi?
iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue. E?a?ia i?aaia ?ioaa?aoe?? c
e?a?iaie ?a?iie. Oeeaaeaiee ?yae oaiae c ?a?iiaenueeei nithcii. Aieaa??y
— /eai i?ia?aie IAOI «Ia?oia?noai a ?i’y na?oo».

1944 ?. Neeaeaiiy iiia?o??. I?eo?ae aei aeaaee A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo.

1946 ?. Neanoaaiiy iiia?o?? i?ney anaia?iaeiiai ?aoa?aiaeoio.

1948 ?. Aieaa??y i?iaieioaia Ia?iaeiith ?anioae?eith.

1962-1989 ??. I?aae?iiy Oiaei?a AEeaeiaa.

1989 ?. A?aenoaaea O. AEeaeiaa ia can?aeaii? OeE AEI.

1991 ?. Ia /a?aiaeo aeai?ao aei aeaaee i?eoiaeeoue Nithc aeaiie?aoe/ieo
nee (NAeN).

1994 ?. Ia iiaeo aeai?ao a?eueo?noue aiein?a iaea?aeothoue nioe?ae?noe
(eieeoi? eiioi?noe).

1996 ?. Ia i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai?ao ia?aiiao aa?a eaiaeeaeao a?ae NAeN
Iao?i Noiyiia

1997 ?. IAeN (C’?aeiai? Aeaiie?aoe/i? neee) acyee ia?aiiao ia aeai?ao.

2001 ?. N?iaii Naenao?ane? aeaeea?o? nai? aaaeaiiy aeeoe ? i?aoethaaoe a
Aieaa??? ? aeey Aieaa??? ? noai?th? na?e iie?oe/iee ?oo Iaoe?iiaeueiee
?oo Naiaii Ae?oai? (IAeNA). IAeNA ia?aiaaa? ia aeai?ao ? 24 eeiiy 2001
a, N?iaii Naenueeiao?aaionuee? aeaa eeyoao, ye i?i?no? — aieiaa
Aieaa???.

22 n?/iy 2002 ?ieo anooiea ia iinaaeo iiaee i?aceaeaio ?anioae?ee
Aieaa??? Aai?a? Ie?aaiia

A 1944 ?., i?ney anooio *a?aiii? A?i?? ia oa?eoi??th Aieaa??y, ?? o?yae
iaieinea a?eio I?ia//eie. A na?ii? oeueiai ae ?ieo Iao??ioe/iee o?iio,
noai?aiee ?ooii Iii?o, ocya aeaaeo a nai? ?oee. O aa?ani? 1946 ?. ia
ieioeiio ?aoa?aiaeoi? aoea a?aei?iaia iiia?o?y. C aeiaoiy 1944 ?.
aieaa?nueea a?i?y a?aea o/anoue a aieiaeo ae?yo ia
?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeiio o?iio? o neeaae? 3-ai Oe?a?inueeiai o?iioo.
AEi?noeee eo?n A?I(e) a ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo ii?oeioaaa eiae?oe?th
A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo. Ia?oith iciaeith eiioe?eoo noaea a?aenoaaea e?aea?a
ACIN A.I.Ae?i?o?iaa, yeee ai?a?oaaa a NOA. A 1945–1946 ?iceie ona?aaeei?
A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo iiaeeaeany, ? e?aea? ACIN Ieeiea Iaoeia i/ieea
«oa?ieio iiiceoe?th», ui aeeth/aea nioe?ae?no?a ? i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
ia?o?e. sse o?yae, oae ? iiiceoe?y iaee iai?? e?ea?aeiaoaaoe iiia?o?th ?
noai?eoe ?anioae?eo. A 1946 ?. Aieaa??y i?iaieioaia ia?iaeiith
?anioae?eith. Ia aeai?ao 27 aeiaoiy o Aaeeeee ia?iaeiee ca??, yeee
iiaeiai aoa ?ic?iaeoe iiao eiinoeoooe?th, iiiceoe?y iaa?aea ae. 30%
aiein?a ? io?eiaea 99 c 465 i?noeue. A?I(e) io?eiaea 277 i?noeue. O?yae,
iiai?noth ui ciaoiaeeeiny i?ae ?? eiio?ieai, aoa noi?iiaaiee Aai?a??i
Ae?i?o?iaei, yeee a 1945 eenoiiaae? iiaa?ioany c N?N?.

A 1950 ?ioe? c Aieaa??? aeaii?oiaaii 250 oen. oo?ie, ? a 1951–1952
aeecueei 160 oeny/ c ieo aoei ia?anaeaia aei Oo?a//eie. Uia oneeeoe
aeaiaioe aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio a oe?e eaiiai?? ? ca?o/eoeny
i?aeo?eieith Aieaa?nueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, a 1953 ?e aoa aeiaeaiee
noaoon iao??a?oaoo, yeiai aiia iicaaaeeany a XIV noie?oo? i?e caoiieaii?
e?a?ie oo?eaie-iniaiaie.

A ethoiio 1950 *a?aaieia i/ieea AEI. I?ney nia?o? Noae?ia a 1953
iiceoe?? *a?aaieiaa a Aieaa??? noaee neaaoaoe. Ia?aaea?nieeii ci?i
c’yaeeany eiai a?aenoaaea c iinoa ea??aieea AEI a 1954 aa?aci?. Ia?oei
nae?aoa?ai OeE AEI noaa Oiaei? AEeaeia, a a 1962 ?. a?i noaa aeaaith
aea?aeaae. I?ae /an eiai i?aae?iiy eiiia?o?y ceeeany c aea?aeaaith.
I?ney iaae?iiy O?ouaaa a 1964 aioo??ia?o?eia iie?oeea AEeaeiaa
caiaeeeany aei eaa??oaaiiy i?ae «?aa?c?ii?noaie», oiaoi
i?ithaineaanueeeie aeaiaioaie, ? «aeiaiaoeeaie», oiaoi noae?i?noaie ?
i?ieeoaenueeeie aeaiaioaie. A?i iaiaaaany noai?eoe oe?ieo aaco aeey
nai?? i?aeo?eiee na?aae ia?o?eieo eaae??a ? ia?iaeo, caeeeeath/e aei
iii??iino?. I?ioa iie?oeea AEeaeiaa ia aoea aacaeiaaiiith. A ciai?oi?e
iie?oeoe? Aieaa??y eii?thaaea N?N?. Aieaa??y aenooieea i?ioe
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i a *aoineiaae?? ? a na?ii? 1968 ?acii c N?N?,
Oai?ueiith, Iieueuath ? AAe? a?aea o/anoue o aaaaeaii? ?? oa?eoi??th
a?enuee Aa?oaanueeiai Aeiaiai?o.

Ooieoe?th ia?eaiaioo ? eiinoeoooe?eiiai cai?o a e?a?i? c /a?aiy 1990
?ieo ii/eia? aeeiioaaoe Aaeeeee ia?iaeiee ca??. A ea?oi? 1990 AEI aoea
ia?aeiaiiaaia a Aieaa?nueeo nioe?ae?noe/io ia?o?th (ANI). O Aaeeeiio
ia?iaeiiio cai?? ANI io?eiaea 211 c 400 i?noeue, a Nithc aeaiie?aoe/ieo
nee (NAeN) – 144 i?noey.

Aae aei na?aaeeie XX a. Aieaa??y aaaaeaeany «ai?iaeii ?a?iie»: aieiaieie
noaooyie ?? aenii?oo aoee othothi, iai/?, o?oeoe, o?iyiaeiaa ie?y, ii
ae?iaieoeoao yei? aiia ? ca?ac caeia? ia?oa i?noea a na?o?. Aieaa??y
iaaaaaoa i?ia?aeueiith ne?iaeiith: ooo aaaeaoueny aeaeiaooie o?eueee
ao?iai aoa?eey, cae?cieo ? ia?aaioeaaeo ?oae. I?ioa ca i?neyai?ii?
aeanyoe??//y aoea noai?aia e?oiia aaaaoiaaeocaaa i?iieneia?noue. A
70—80-o ??. Aieaa??y e?aee?oaaea na?aae nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i a iaeano?
?ic?iaee eiii’thoa??a ? i?ia?ai aeey ieo. A 1995 ?. a aieaa?nuee?e
?iaeono??? ia?aaaaeaea i?iaeoeoe?y o?i?/ii?, iaooiia?a?iaii?, oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino? ? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Ana a?eueoa cia/aiiy i?eaeaaaa?
oo?eci: a 1996 ?. e?a?io a?aea?aeaei 6,8 iei. ?iicaioe?a. Aaee/aciith
iiioey?i?noth ei?enoo?oueny *i?iiii?nueea iiaa?aaeaey — ciaiaieo?
eo?i?oe Cieio? i?nee, Niiy/iee aa?aa, a oaeiae a??nuee? eo?i?oe Ai?iaaoe
? Iaiia?iai.

1971 ??e – ??e ooaaeaiiy iiaa eiinoeoooe?y, yea ocaeiieea aeiiii?/ia,
iie?oe/ia ? ?aeaieia?/ia iiaiiaeaaeaey eiioi?no?a. Ia ii/aoeo 1970-o
?ie?a ?icaa?ioeany eaiiai?y i?ioe i?aa aeayeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei,
cie?aia aieaa?iiiaieo ionoeueiai (iiiae?a), oeeaai ? oo?ie. Oey eaiiai?y
io?eiaea ?aeaieia?/io i?aeo?eieo ia aeanyoiio c’?cae? AEI (1971) o
aeaeyae? oace i?i nioe?aeueio iaeii??aei?noue, ui ?inoa, ia noaae??
«?icaeiooiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa». A 1973–1974 iiiae?a
aeioooaaee i?iyoe ionoeueiainuee? i??caeua ia aieaa?nuee?. Ianoaiiy ia
i?aaa aoi?/ieo oo?ie i?eaaei aei iinooiiaiai cae?eooy oo?aoeueeeo oe?e ?
ia/aoae; /enei aeaeaiue ia oo?aoeuee?e iia? nenoaiaoe/ii nei?i/oaaeiny,
a aoa?noe/ia i?iiaaaiaea aoea iai?aaeaia a ia?oo /a?ao i?ioe ?neaio. Oey
eaiiai?y aeinyaea aiiaath a 1984–1985, eiee an?o oo?ie i?eioneee
i?eeiyoe neia’yinueei-aieaa?nuee? ?iaia ? i??caeua.

I?ney oe??? eaiiai??, ui noi?iaiaeeeany ?ai?an?yie, eiioi?noe/iee ?aaeei
iio?aiea a nioao aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii? ? aoe/ii? e?ece, ui
caaeeaeth?oueny. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany i?aeia?iaeiith ?cieyoe??th
e?a?ie, a oaeiae ciai?oi?i ai?aii, yeee a 1990 aeinya 10 ie?ae. aeiee.
?aoi?ie, ii/ao? ?aaeyinueeei e?aea?ii I.N. Ai?aa/aaei, ia aoee
i?aeo?eiai? O. AE?aeiaei.

Aei 1991 ?. i?e aeaae? ia?aaoaaea Aieaa?nueea eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y. 10
eenoiiaaeo 1989 ?. ii/aeeny ci?ie, iai?aaeai? ia aeaiie?aoecaoe?th
e?a?ie. Aoee a?aeiiaeai? iie?oe/i? ia?o??; ocyoee eo?n ia noai?aiiy
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. A 1991 ?. aoea i?eeiyoa iiaa eiinoeoooe?y. Aoee
i?iaaaeai? no?oeoo?ia ? o?iainiaa ?aoi?ie, ?anoeoooe?y aeaniino?, ui
a?aeiyea a 1947 ?., i?eaaoecaoe?y i?iieneiaino?. Ciai?oiy iie?oeea
i???iooaaeany ia i?e?aeiaiiy aei ?a?iaoeaioe/ieo no?oeoo?.

A e?ioe? 1989 ?ieo — ii/aoeo 1990 ?. a e?a?i? a?aeaoeany ci?ia
iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio. Ocyoee eo?n ia aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, ia?ao?ae
aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i?enei?aio ?ioaa?aoe?th e?a?ie aei ?a?iiaenueeeo
? ?a?iaoeaioe/ieo no?oeoo?. C?iaeaia a na?aaeei? 90-o ?ie?a, eaa?iaoii
i?i?no??a ni?iaa cae?enieoe iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ia ii/aoeo 1997 ?ieo cae?i/eeany aino?ith iie?oe/iith e?ecith
? aeino?ieiaeie ia?eaiaionueeeie aeai?aie.

12 eeiiy 1991 aoea i?eeiyoa iiaa eiinoeoooe?y. I?ney ?yaeo a?aeno?i/aiue
13 aeiaoiy 1991 aoee i?iaaaeai? aeai?e a iiaee Ia?iaeiee ca?? Aieaa???.
I?eoeeueieee NAeN io?eiaee 110 c 240 i?noeue, ANI – 106, ?oo ca i?aaa ?
naiaiaee – 24 i?noey. O?e?i Ae?i?o?ia, yeee noaa aieiaith NAeN a a?oaei?
1990, aoa i?ecia/aiee i?ai’??-i?i?no?ii.

A 1991 ?. Aieaa??y noaea ia?eaiaionueeith ?anioae?eith. sse a a?eueoino?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa, a e?a?i? ae?? ?icae?eaiiy aeanoae ia noa?aiio,
caeiiiaeaa/o ? noaeiao. I?aceaeaio iae?a?oueny caaaeueiei ia?iaeiei
aieinoaaiiyi ia i’youe ?ie?a.

A n?/i? 1992 AEaeth AEaeueia ia?ai?a a ia?oeo i?yieo i?aceaeaionueeeo
aeai?ao, i?iaaaeaieo a?aeiia?aeii aei iiai? eiinoeoooe??.A aeiaoi? 1992
o?yae O. Ae?i?o?iaa ao?aoea aiooi aeia??’y a ia?eaiaio?.

I?ney ia??iaeo o?yaeiai? ianoaa?eueiino? (ca n?i ?ie?a, c 1991-ai ii
1997??., ci?ieeiny n?i o?yae?a) aei aeaaee i?eeoea i?aaa eiae?oe?y.
?ioaa?aoe?y Aieaa??? a aeaiie?aoe/ia ni?aoiaa?enoai aeyaeeinue a?eueo
o?eaaei?, i?ae aeey aeayeeo ?ioeo e?a?i Aa?oaanueeiai aeiaiai?o. O?eueee
a 1995 ?. Aieaa??y noaea anioe?eiaaiei /eaiii ?a?iiaenueeiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Ia ii/aoeo 1996 aeiiii?ea Aieaa??? ciaoiaeeeany a noai?
canoith. E?a?io ioiieea aaie?anueea e?eca, a?ae/oaaany a?ae ca?ia,
aanooaaee oaooa??. Ia oeueiio oii? aeeaii aeaeyaeaea eaiaeeaeaoo?a a
i?aceaeaioe iaeia?aeiiiai aaeaieaoa Iao?a Noiyiiaa. A oeae /an Aieaa??y
noa? ia oeyo iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue. I?ia?aia
i?eaaoecaoe?? ?aae?co?oueny a?eueo oaeaeeeie oaiiaie. E?a?ia i?aaia
?ioaa?aoe?? c e?a?iaie ?a?iie. Oeeaaeaiee ?yae oaiae c ?a?iiaenueeei
nithcii. Aieaa??y noa? /eaiii i?ia?aie IAOI «Ia?oia?noai a ?i’y na?oo».
A ia??iae iie?oe/ii? e?ece 1996-1997 ??. eiinainon aoa aeinyaiooee
caaaeyee Nithco aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ? ia?o?? oo?aoeueei? iaioeie. I?ney
aeai??a 1997 ?. Nithco aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee io?eiaa 50% i?noeue a
ia?eaiaio? (a?eueoa 60% ?acii c ia?o?yie-iaeiiaeoioeyie).

Aeai?e a Ia?iaeiee ca?? (IN) 38-ai neeeeaiiy i?ioiaeyoue 19 ea?oiy 1997
?ieo, a ieo acyei o/anoue 3,82 iei. aeai?oe?a, iaeaea 56% caaaeueii?
/enaeueiino? aeaeoi?aoo. Ooo a?eueo?noue aiein?a io?eiaa aeie
Ia’?aeiaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee (IAeN), a yeee aoiaeeee NAeN, ACIN ?
Aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y. Ca iueiai i?iaieinoaaee 52,5% aeai?oe?a (IAeN
io?eiaa a ia?eaiaio? 137 iaiaeao?a, NAeN – 69). Ae?oaee aeyaeeany ANI,
yeo i?aeo?eiaee 22,1% o/aniee?a aieinoaaiiy. Aeae? ne?aeoaaee:
Ia’?aeiaiiy ca iaoe?iiaeueiee ii?yooiie – 7,5%, ia?o?y «Aa?ieueia?oea» –
5,6% ? AAA – 5,3% aiein?a. ?aooo 30 iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, ui acyee
o/anoue o aeai?ao, ia ciiaee iiaeieaoe /ioe?ea?aenioeiaee aa?’?? ? ia
i?ieoee a IN. 21 o?aaiy IN caoaa?aeeei ?. Einoiaa, e?aea?a NAeN, ia iino
aeaae iiaiai o?yaeo. C iaoith noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee o?yae c?aco ae
oeeaa oaiaee c i?aeia?iaeieie o?iainiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie. A e?ioe?
a?oaeiy 1996 nioe?ae?noe aea?aee iiaiai ia?o?eiiai e?aea?a – 39-??/iiai
Aai?a?y Ie?aaiiaa.

21 aeiaoiy 1997 aoa i?eeiyoee caeii i?i ethno?aoe??, yeee oneeea e?i?th
ia «iiaio aeaeiioi?caoe?th e?a?ie», ?ai?oa i?iaieioaio i?aceaeaioii. A
oiae? eiai cae?eniaiiy a?ey 50 oen. eieeoi?o /eai?a AEI aoee iicaaaeaii
?iaioe ii iie?oe/ieo iioeaao. O ca’yceo c oeei aieiaa ANI Aai?a?e
Ie?aaiia i?ecaaa aei i?aai?caoe?? aioeaeaeiiioi?caoe?iiiiai ?ooo, yeee
i?aeo?eiaee ? ia?o?? ?ioeo i???ioaoe?e.

C 2000 ?. aaaeooueny aeoeai? ia?aaiai?e i?i anooi e?a?ie aei
?a?iiaenueeiai nithco. A ea?oi? 2005 ?. aoa i?aeienaiee aeiaia?? i?i
i?e?aeiaiiy aei ?N, yeee iaaoaea /eiiino? i?ney ?aoeo?eaoe?? (iai?/aia
ia 2007 ?.) /eaiaie Nithco. A oiio ae ?ioe? aoee a?aei?iai? a’?ci?
oo?enoe/i? a?ce a ?N aeey aieaa?. Einianuee?e e?eca, i?ae /an yei?
Aieaa??y c?a?aea aaaeeeao ?ieue, i?eeiath/e ? caaacia/oth/e o?aiceo aeey
a?enuee IAOI, c’yaeany naiai ?iaeo iiai?ioiei iiiaioii a iie?oe/ieo
a?aeiineiao ?c cao?aeieie nithcieeaie Aieaa???, oi/a i?icao?aeia
iiceoe?y aieaa?nueei? aeaaee aoea ioe?iaia aeeoaeyie e?a?ie
iaiaeiicia/ii. A ea?oi? 2004 ?ieo Aieaa??y noaea /eaiii IAOI, oae naii
ye Anoii?y, Eeoaa, Eaoa?y, ?oioi?y, Neiaai?y ? Neiaa//eia.

*eai III, a oaeiae aaaaoueio ?ioeo i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? onoaiia 5 o?aaiy 1992 ?ieo Aieaa??y i?eeiyoa a Nithc —
?a?iie, 29 aa?aciy 1993 ?ieo i?aeienaea oaiaeo i?i a?eueio oi?a?aeth c
AANO, a 17 eeiiy 1998 ?ieo — c OeAANO. C ea?oiy 2004 ?ieo — /eai IAOI. C
1995 ?ieo — anioe?eiaaiee /eai ?N. ?anioae?ea Aieaa??y ? /eaiii IAO ?
IA??, ?icaeaa? ni?ai?aoeth c ?A??, a a?oaei? 1996 ?. i?eeiyoa o AOI.

Aieaa??y i?aaia a?aoe aeoeaio ?ieue a i?ioeanao ni?ai?aoe? a
I?aaeaiii-no?aei?e ?a?ii?. Aiia c’yaeeany i?aai?caoi?ii ia?oi? Ia?aaee
i?i?no??a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Aaeeainueeeo e?a?i (eeiaiue 1996 ?.,
Nio?y), i?aeoeea i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo i?eaeaaea ?aaoey?iee oa?aeoa?.
?anioae?ea Aieaa??y iaaea? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ?icoe?aiith
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? aca?iiae?? c aea?aeaaaie — /eaiaie IAOI.

A aa?aci? 1941 ?. e?oii? i?iaoeuee? a?enueeia? c’?aeiaiiy, cina?aaeaeai?
ia oa?eoi??? ?oioi?? aeey iaiaaeo ia A?aoe?th (iia?aoe?y «Ia??oa»),
anooieee ia oa?eoi??th Aieaa???. Iia?aoe?y «Ia??oa» ?icaa?ioeany oaeiae
ia oa?eoi??? THaineaa?? ? A?aoe??. I?ney oiai, ye i?iaoeueea a?i?y
caaithaaea oe? e?a?ie a ea?oi? 1941, Aieaa??? a?aeiia?aeii aei
iiia?aaei?o oaiae aoei aeicaieaia aaanoe nai? a?enueea ?
aaei?i?no?aoe?th a a?aoeueeo Cao?aeio O?ae?th ? thaineaanueeo
Aa?aea?nueeoth Iaeaaeii?th. Aieaa?nueea i?iiaaaiaea i?aaenoaaeyea Ai?ena
oea?ai-ia’?aeioaa/ai, aea oa?eoi??aeuei? i?eaeaaiiy iaee aaaee?
iane?aeee. I?ney oaeaeeiai aeniiaeo ca?aeoe cia/iiai eiioeiaaioo
i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee aeey a?enueeiaeo iia?aoe?e i?ioe N?N? a THaineaa?? ?
A?aoe?? ?icaa?ioany iiaooi?e ?oo Iii?o, ? aieaa?nuee?e a?i?? aeiaaeiny
aanoe ai?ioueao c ia?oecaiaie.

I?ney iaiaaeo ia N?N? a /a?ai? 1941 A?oea? iaiaeii?aciai aeiaaaa a?ae
oea?y Ai?ena a?aei?aaee aieaa?nueeeo a?enuee ia No?aeiee o?iio. I?ioa,
iiaithth/enue c?inoaiiy i?i?in?enueeeo iano?i?a, oea? ooeeyany a?ae
aeeiiaiiy oe??? aeiiae, ? Aieaa??y oaeoe/ii ia a?aea o/anoue o a?ei?
I?ia//eie i?ioe N?N?. Eiee a a?oaei? 1941 ssiii?y ?ica’ycaea a?eio c
NOA, oea? Ai?en c a?ae/oooy nie?aea?iino? iinooieany i?iaoeueeei
aeiiaai, ? 13 a?oaeiy 1941 Aieaa??y iaieineea a?eio NOA ?
Aaeeeia?eoai??. Oea? Ai?en iaaeaa a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy i?ioe?a aeiiii?/i?
?ano?ne e?a?ie ? aa?a aeene?ei?iaoe?ei? caoiaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei
ia/eneaiiiai ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy Aieaa???, aeeth/ath/e aenaeaiiy
?a?a?a c aaeeeeo i?no. I?ioa a?i ii?aooaaany c a?iiaaenueeith aeoieith,
iaaoaeiaaiith i?ioe aeaea/? ?a?a?a i?ioeyi, ? aeiaeai aieaa?nueeee ?a?ae
ia aoa aeaii?oiaaiee.

Eiee I?ia//eia noaea oa?i?oe a?enueeia? ii?acee, oea? Ai?en ni?iaoaaa
ia?a?aaoe nithc c I?ia//eiith, aea 28 na?iiy 1943 i?ney a?aea?aeei
ooaa-eaa?oe?e A?oea?a, ?aioiai iiia?. ?aaaionueea ii?aaea, ui
neeaaeaeany c a?aoa Ai?ena i?eioea Ee?eea, i?ai’??-i?i?no?a O?eiaa ?
aaia?aea I?eiee I?oiaa, c noaaeaiiy i?ioe?a ocya ia naaa eiio?ieue a
e?a?i?, i?aaey/e a?ae ?iai? neia Ai?ena — N?iaiia, yeiio oiae?
aeiiaieeiny 6 ?ie?a. O?eia ? iiaee i?ai’??-i?i?no? Aeia?? Aiae?eia noae?
/?oei aooe ne?ae i?ii?iaoeueeiio eo?no, i?iaiaey/e ca anyeo oe?io
iie?oeeo «eiyeueiino?» ii a?aeiioaiith aei I?ia//eie.

?aaeyinuee? caeeeee i?i aeiiiiiao i?eioneee aieaa?nueeeo eiioi?no?a
ii/aoe naaioaae ? ia?oecainueeo ai?ioueao a i?iaoeueeiio oeeo, ?
iinooiiai a Aieaa??? ia?inoaa ?oo Iii?o. Aiii i/iethaaeiny eiioi?noaie,
aea aeeth/aei oaeiae i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo ia?o?e — e?aiai e?eea
aa?a???a, nioe?ae?no?a, «Eaiee», Nithco io?oea??a ? ?ioeo noi?ioeaiee?a
nithco c I?ia//eiith. A 1942 oe? iie?oe/i? oa?oioaaiiy ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
aieaa?nueeiai eiioi?noe/iiai e?aea?a Aai?a?y Ae?i?o?iaa ooai?eee
eiae?oe?th A?o/eciyiee o?iio. Ia?aiiaa *a?aiii? A?i?? i?ae Noae?ia?aaeii
? ?? ianoaiiy ia cao?ae a cia/i?e i??? ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ?ooo Iii?o a
Aieaa???. A 1943 Aieaa?nueea ?iai/a ia?o?y (A?I) noai?eea c’?aeiaio
Ia?iaeii-aecaieueio iianoainueeo a?i?th. O aa?ani? 1944, eiee *a?aiia
A?i?y aeeoea aei iaae Aieaa???, a ?on? Iii?e a?aei o/anoue aeecueei 30
oen. ia?oecai.

A?enueeiaa iieiaeaiiy ? aiiaa?aeoaaiiy Nio??, ui iia??oeeiny,
nithcieeaie aeioneee Aiae?eiaa i?oe o a?aenoaaeo, ? 1 /a?aiy 1944 aoa
noi?iiaaiee eaa?iao ia /ie? c i?aaenoaaieeii i?aaiai e?eea aa?a???a
?aaiii Aaa?yiiaei. Iiaee o?yae ni?iaoaaa ooeoiie?eoe N?N? ? aioo??oith
iiiceoe?th, a oaeiae aeinyaoe ia?aie?’y c NOA ? Aaeeeia?eoai??th. 26
na?iiy aiii iaieineei i?i iiaiee iaeo?ae?oao Aieaa??? ? caaeaaeaei
aeniiaie i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee c e?a?ie. Cono??aoe iaaeia?ice/eeaa
a?aeiioaiiy c aieo N?N?, ? ia aeiaeaoeny iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia
ia?aaiai?ao i?i ia?aie?’y, o?yae Aaa?yiiaa i?oia o a?aenoaaeo. Iiaee
o?yae, ui neeaaeaany c aa?a???a, aeaiie?ao?a ? i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
ia?o?e ? ui i/iethaaeiny aa?a???i Einoyioeiii Io?aa??aei, i?eeoei aei
aeaaee 2 aa?aniy. I?aaio/e io?eiaoe iiaiee eiio?ieue iaae Aieaa???th,
?aaeyinueeee o?yae 5 aa?aniy iaieinea ?e a?eio. *a?aiia a?i?y
ieoiiaoaaea e?a?io, 8-9 aa?aniy eiioi?noe ? ni?a/oaath/? ?i a/eieee
aea?aeaaiee ia?aai?io ? noi?ioaaee o?yae A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo ia /ie? c
Eeiiiii Aai?aeaaei, a 28 aeiaoiy 1944 a Iinea? aoei i?aeienaii
ia?aie?’y.

5 aa?aniy 1944 ?ieo, eiee ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea ciaoiaeeeeny ia
aieaa?nueei-?oioinuee?e iaae?, N?N? iaieinea a?eio Aieaa???.
Ceaaiaeaeaieie ae?yie c ica?i?iei iii?ii ? aeayeeie /anoeiaie
aieaa?nueei? a?i??. *a?aiia A?i?y oa?eoea aei e?a?ie. A i?/ ia 9
aa?anaiue iiia?o?/ia aeaaea aoea iiaaeaia ? ?? cai?iea o?yae
A?o/eciyiiai o?iioo ia /ie? c Eeiiiii Aai?aeaaei, e?aea?ii iacaeaaeii?
ia?o?? «Eaiea».

Aeniiaie ia?aie?’y c N?N?, NOA ? Aiae??th a?aeaoany a Iinea? 28 aeiaoiy
1944 ?ieo. Aieaa?nueea a?i?y ?acii c ?aaeyinueeeie a?enueeaie acyea
o/anoue a ca?eueiaii? THaineaa??, Oai?ueie ? Aano???. ?? aeoeaia o/anoue
a aieiaeo ae?yo aeiiiiiaee aieaa?nueeei i?aaenoaaieeai ia ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae? aeiaeoeny iaaeioi?eaiiino? aea?aeaaieo iaae. Oeae
aeiaia?? aeciaa I?aaeaiio Aeia?oaeaeo aieaa?nueeith oa?eoi???th.

?aoa?aiaeoi 8 aa?aniy 1946 ?ieo iaieinea e?a?io ?anioae?eith. ?? ia?oei
ea??aieeii noaa Aai?a?e Ae?i?o?ia. 4 aa?aniy 1947 ?ieo iaaoea /eiiino?
iiaa eiinoeoooe?y. I?ney nia?o? Ae?i?o?iaa a 1949 ?ioe?, aea?aeaao
i/iethaaa Aanee Eiea?ia, a a ia??iae c 1950 ii 1956 ??. — Aeeei
*a?aaieia. I?ae /an ai?ioueae i?ioe eoeueoo Noae?ia yeeenue /an
aea?aeaaiei ea??aieeii aoa Aioii I?aaei?a. C 1962 ?ieo Oiaei? AE?aeia
noaa aieiaith ?aaee i?i?no??a, a i?ci?oa ye aieiaa Aea?aeaaii? ?aaee
aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y OeE AEI oi?aaeya e?a?iith aae aei 10 eenoiiaaeo
1989 ?ieo. I?ney oe??? aeaoe a e?a?i? ii/aeeny e?oii? ci?ie a
iie?oe/iiio ? noni?eueiiio aeeoo?. E?a?ia noaea ia aeaiie?aoe/iee oeyo ?
ia?aoiaeo a?ae ieaiiai? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

A 1988-1989 a Aieaa??? ?icaa?ioeany oe?iea iie?oe/ia aeeneon?y. Na?aae
ia?oeo aeeneaeaionueeeo ia’?aeiaiue iaeiii?oi?oeie aoee Eii?oao ?c
aeieia?/iiai caoenoo «?ona», Iacaeaaeia noni?euenoai ii caoenoo i?aa
ethaeeie, eeoa a i?aeo?eieo aeaniino? ? ia?aaoaeiae «Aeiaeaniinoue» ?
i?ioni?eea «I?aee?aio». Aeoeaii aenooiaee i?ioe aeanoae ? aoi?/i? oo?ee.
I?ney ianiaeo aeaiiino?aoe?e a oo?aoeueeeo ?aeiiao aaniith 1989 o?yae
a?aee?ea iaaeo c Oo?a//eiith, ? i?ioyaii aeaio i?nyoe?a aeecueei 300
oen. oo?ie iieeioee Aieaa??th, i?e/iio aeaye? c ieo — i?ioe nai?? aie?.

Noni?eueia iacaaeiaieai?noue ?icaea?eeany aei iaae? i?ney a?aooo 20
/eai?a «Aeiaeaniino?» a aeiaoi? 1989, a oaeiae i?ney aeaiiino?aoe??,
i?iaaaeaii? ca ?i?oe?aoeaith oe??? i?aai?caoe?? ia?aae aoae?aeath
Ia?iaeiiai cai?o ia ii/aoeo eenoiiaaeo. C oe??th aeoe??th aenooieee 4
oen. ethaeeia, ye? aeiaaaee caa?iooe oaaao ia noai iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua. Ia?o?ei? ooieoe?iia?e, a?ae/oaoe caa?ico aeey ?nioth/iai
?aaeeio, 10 eenoiiaaeo 1989 ci?noeee AE?aeiaa c iino?a aaia?aeueiiai
nae?aoa?y OeE AEI ? aieiae aea?aeaaii? ii?aaee.

I?ney a?aenoaaee AE?aeiaa iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue ianaeaiiy ??cei c?inea.
I?ai’??-i?i?no? eiioi?noe/iiai o?yaeo Aiae??e Eoeaiia ? aieiaa
aea?ae?aaee Iao?i Ieaaeaiia, ui cai?iea ia oe?e iinaae? AE?aeiaa,
c?iaeee ?yae e?ie?a, iai?aaeaieo ia aeaiie?aoecaoe?th iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie na?aae ieo aoee aeciaiiy iiaeeeaino? io?oe?eii?
?a?no?aoe?? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? i?aai?caoe?e c yaieie aioeeiioi?noe/ieie
ieaooi?iaie; e?ea?aeaoe?y ia?aeiieo i?aai?caoe?e AEI ia i?aei?e?inoaao;
caeo/aiiy aei noaeiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? AE?aeiaa ? aeayeeo aeaeieo
ooieoe?iia??a AEI; ia?o? e?iee ii aeaiie?oecoaaiith a?i?? ? nee aaciaee;
aeeeth/aiiy c eiinoeoooe?? noaoo? 1, aa?aiooaaea AEI i?ia?aeia
iieiaeaiiy a noni?euenoa? ? aea?aeaa?. Aoi?/iei iaioeiai aoei aeicaieaia
a?aeiiaeoe /a?ac noae nai? ionoeueiainuee? i??caeua.

A ea?oi? 1990 AEI aoea ia?aeiaiiaaia a Aieaa?nueeo nioe?ae?noe/io
ia?o?th (ANI). 10 ? 17 /a?aiy 1990 a?aeaoeeny ia?o? aeai?e o Aaeeeee
ia?iaeiee ca??, yeee iiaeiai aoa aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? ia?eaiaioo ?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai cai?o. ANI io?eiaea 211 c 400 i?noeue, a Nithc
aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee (NAeN) — 144 i?noey. ?aooo i?noeue a ia?eaiaio?
caeiyee i?aaenoaaieee ACIN (eieeoiuei? ia??iiaoee AEI) ? ?ooo ca i?aaa ?
naiaiaee (AeIN), yea i?aaenoaaeyei ?ioa?ane oo?aoeueei? iaioeie. Aaeeeee
ia?iaeiee ca?? aoa oiiaiiaaaeaiee i?eeiyoe iiao eiinoeoooe?th. Aiii
ii/aei naith ?iaioo 10 eeiiy 1990, /a?ac /ioe?e aei? i?ney a?aenoaaee
aieiae aea?ae?aaee Ieaaeaiiaa, yea i?e AE?aeiaa caeiaea iino i?i?no?a
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa. 1 na?iiy 1990 i?aceaeaioii Aieaa??? aoa aea?aiee
AEaeth AEaeueia, e?aea? NAeN. A eenoiiaae? o a?aeiia?aeue ia iania?
aeaiiino?aoe?? ? /ioe?eaeaiiee caaaeueiee no?aee o?yae Eoeaiiaa i?oia o
a?aenoaaeo. Iacaeaaeiee eaiaeeaeao Ae?i?o? Iii?a ianeeo noi?ioaaa c
/eai?a ANI ? NAeN eiae?oe?eiee o?yae.

I?e o?yae? O.Ae?i?o?iaa eiae?oe?y ia?o?e, ui aoiaeeee a NAeN, noaea
?iciaaeaoeny. Oi/a an? ia?o?? aenooiaee i?ioe eiioi?cio, aiie iaee ??ci?
iiaeyaee ia oaiie ? e?ioeaao iaoo iie?oe/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai ia?aoiaeo.
A?aeiineie i?ae i?aceaeaioii ? o?yaeii caeeoaeeny iai?oaeaieie. A
aeiaoi? 1992 o?yae O.Ae?i?o?iaa ao?aoea aiooi aeia??’y a ia?eaiaio?. ANI
aaeaeiny io?eiaoe iie?oe/io i?aeo?eieo c aieo aaaaoueio aieaa?, ye?
aei?iaiaoaaee aeiiii?/iee ? ineoieia?/iee aeeneiioi?o. Oi/a aaaaoi
aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai nai?ie ei?aiyie eoee aei oeo /an?a, eiee ia /ie?
aea?aeaae noiyea eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y, ANI ciiaea ia?aeiiaoe aaeeeo
/anoeio aeaeoi?aoo a oiio, ui ca ana ianoui? i?iaeaie iana
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue NAeN.

30 a?oaeiy 1992 Ia?iaeiee ca?? Aieaa??? caoaa?aeea o?yae ia /ie? c
Ethaaiii Aa?iaei, i?ioan?eiei aeiiii?noii, yeee ia?oeya i?iaeiaaeeoe
i?ioean aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i. I?ioa o?yae c?oeioany c
iano?oeoe??th c aieo ia?eaiaioo ? aioo??ia?o?eieie ?ica?aeiinoyie.
Aieaa??y no?aaeaeaea /a?ac a?aenooi?noue i?aaiaeo ii?i, iaeiiiaoaioiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith ? c?inoaiiy i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?. Aaaaoi
eieeoi?o ia?o?eieo ea??aiee?a caa?aaee eiio?ieue iaae aaaeeeaeie
aaeocyie i?iieneiaino?.

?anioae?ea Aieaa??y i?aeo?eio? i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie c a?eueoa 130
e?a?iaie na?oo, a 2007 ?ioe? aiia iiaeiia noaoe iiaiii?aaiei /eaiii
?a?iiaenueei? Ni?ai?aoe? (ca?ac aiia ? anioe?eiaaiei /eaiii ?N). Aea?aia
iino?eiei /eaiii ?aaee Aaciaee III.

Aieaa??y ? /eaiii ??cieo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e:

I?aai?caoe?? c’?aeiaieo iaoe?e (III, c 1955 ?.)

I?aai?caoe?y ii aaciaoe? ? ni?ai?aoe? a ?a?ii? (IAN?),

?a?iiaenueeee nithc c ieoaiue ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ? aaciaee

Anana?oiy i?aai?caoe?y ioi?iie (A?C)caei?ia’y,

Iaeo ca noaa?euei?noue a I?aaeaiii-no?aei?e ?a?ii?,

THIANEI,

OI?OeAO,

OeAOOA (1999a.),

ATH?I,

?NIA

? aace?/ ?ioeo, ye iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii?, eoeueoo?ii? ni?yiiaaiino?,
oae ? aeooiaiiai caeeaeaiiy ethaeae ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. Anueiai
a?eueoa 300 i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? onoaiia.

5 o?aaiy 1992 ?. Aieaa??y i?eeiyoa a ?aaeo ?a?iie, 29 aa?aciy 1993 ?.
i?aeienaea oaiaeo i?i a?eueio oi?a?aeth c AANO. A o?aai? 1994 ?.
Aieaa??? iaaeaiee noaoon anioe?eiaaiiai ia?oia?a CAN. C 1 ethoiai 1995
?. aiia noaea anioe?eiaaiei /eaiii ?N; a aa?aci? 2000 ?. ii/aeeny
?aaeuei? ia?aaiai?e i?i i?e?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? aei ?a?inithco C 1 /a?aiy
1996 ?. ?A — iiaiii?aaiee /eai Oe??, a c 1 n?/iy 1999 ?. — OeAANO. 17
ethoiai 1997 ?. aieaa?nueeee o?yae iiaeaa «io?oe?eio cayaeo» ia anooi
e?a?ie a IAOI. Aieaa??y — aeoeaiee o/aniee *i?iiii?nueeiai aeiiii?/iiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ? /eaiii IAO, IA??, AOI.

A 1996 ?. ca ?i?oe?aoeaith Nio?? a aieaa?nuee?e noieeoe? i?iaaaeaia
cono??/ aaeeainueeeo aea?aeaa, ui iieeaea ii/aoie i?ioeano i?ae
aaeeainueei? ni?ai?aoe? (o.c. «nioeeneee i?ioean»). C aeiaoiy 1997 ?.,
eiee a Nio?? ca ?i?oe?aoeaith ?A a?aeaoeany ia?oa ia?aaea i?i?no??a
iai?iie aea?aeaa ?aa?iio, ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyoueny cono??/? ?icae?e?a
iai?iiieo a?aeiinoa aaeeainueeeo e?a?i. Nio?y aeoeaii i?inoaaea ?aeath
noai?aiiy Aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee ie?o THAA (Aeaai?y, Aieaa??y,
A?aoe?y, ?oae?y, Iaeaaeii?y, ?oioi?y, Oo?a//eia) ? aeiaeeany ?ici?uaiiy
?o ooaao a ?. Ieiaae?aa ia ia?o? /ioe?e ?iee (a?aee?eoee o aa?ani? 1999
?.).

A einianeiio eiioe?eo? Aieaa??y, ne?aeoth/e «?a?iaoeaioe/i?e
nie?aea?iino?», i?aeo?eiaea neeiao aeoe?th IAOI i?ioe N?TH ? iaaeaea
na?e iia?o?yiee i?ino?? aeey a?enueeiai? aa?aoe?? IAOI.

I?ney o?aaaae?? 11 aa?aniy 2001 ?. Nio?y cayaeea i?i aaccanoa?aaeio
i?aeo?eieo ui i?iaiaeeoueny NOA aioeoa?i?enoe/ii? eaiiai??.

Aieaa??y i?iaiaeeoue aeoeaio ?aa?iiaeueio iie?oeeo, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeaa?oei iaoioeaio?eciii ? i?aeeaae?noth
i??i?eoaoiei caaea/aie iaeoaeaeoiai anooio aei cao?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo ?
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?.

18 aa?aciy 2004 ?ieo Aieaa?nueeee ia?eaiaio ?aoeo?eoaaa aeiaia?? i?i
anooi ?anioae?ee Aieaa??? a IAOI. Ca?ac iaiao?aeia ?aoeo?eaoe?y
Aeiaiai?o ?aooith o/aniee?a Iaeoo.

Aieaa??y o ca’yceo c i?e?aeiaiiyi aei ?N iino?eii iie?auo? nai?
a?aeiineie c ?ioeie e?a?iaie. Aiia i?iaeiaaeo? e?aa?ae?ciaoaaoe naith
oi?aiao iie?oeeo, cieaeoth/e ieoi? oa?eoe ? e?ea?aeiaoth/e iinooiiai
e?oeaic?? ? aenii?oi? eaioe. Na?aaeiy ieoia oa?eoo (oaena) — 8.2% a?ae
1999 ?. ? i?iaeiaaeo? aooe aeuei ca oa?eoe ?N.

Aieaa??y i?iaeiaaeo? aeeiioaaoe nai? iaia’ycee ye /eai i?aai?caoe?? NOI.
A ?aieao NOI Aieaa??y aa?a o/anoue a aeiaiai?? ii o?iainiaeo iineoaao
(GATS) ? ii I?iaeoeoao ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae aacieoia
ianeoaiaoaaiiy oiaa??a c e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny. Aieaa??y aa?a o/anoue
a ?a?iiaenueeie nenoai? eoioeyoe?? iioiaeaeaiiy oiaa??a (c n?/iy 1999
?.).

C aaaaoueia e?a?iaie oeeaaeai? aeiaiai?e ii ieoiiio ianeoaiaoaaiith ye
e?a?ie «iaeaeaai?iaei?oeo iaoe?e» o aca?ii?e oi?a?aey. Oea Ia?iei,
?c?a?eue, E?i? ? Iaeueoa, Oo?a//eia, na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? e?a?ie ? ?i. C
a?eueo?noth c ieo ae?thoue aeiiiaeaiino? a iaeano? ia o?eueee oi?a?ae?,
aea ? o?iain?a, o?ainii?oo, iaoeiai? ? oaoiieia?/ii? ni?ai?aoe?. E?a?ia
oaeiae aa?a o/anoue a ?i?oe?aoeaao i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e ii
aeiiiiic? e?a?iai, ui ?icaeaathoueny.

Aieaa??y, ?oioi?y, Neiaai?y, Neiaa//eia, Eeoaa, Eaoa?y ? Anoii?y
21.11.2002 a a I?ac? aoee io?oe?eii cai?ioai? aeey anooio a IAOI, i?ioa
n?i e?a?i ciiaeooue noaoe /eaiaie IAOI ia ?ai?oa ia?oi? iieiaeie 2004 ?.
i?ney cae?i/aiiy ia?aaiai??a ii i?e?aeiaiith ? i?ney ?aoeo?eaoe??
?acoeueoao?a ia?aaiai??a. 18 aa?aciy 2004 ?ieo Aieaa?nueeee ia?eaiaio
?aoeo?eoaaa aeiaia?? i?i anooi ?anioae?ee Aieaa??? a IAOI. Ca?ac
iaiao?aeia ?aoeo?eaoe?y Aeiaiai?o ?aooith o/aniee?a Iaeoo.

Aei 1998 ?ieo Aieaa??y /eai Aa?oaanueeiai aeiaiai?o. A 1997 ?. aei
Iaae?eaea IAOI cai?ineea a nai? /eaie ia?o? e?a?ie a?ae eieeoiueiai
?aaeyinueeiai aeieo. A 1989 ?. o Aaoeiaoii? aeiaiai?eee ia?o?
«aeeieiiaoe/i? a?aeiineie» i?ae Aieaa???th ? IAOI. A 1999 ?. Aieaa??y
aeicaieeea aeei?enoiaoaaiiy naiai iia?o?yiiai i?inoi?o aeey i?ieueioo
e?oae?a IAOI i?ae /an a?enueeiaeo ae?e a THaineaa??. A 2001 ?. aia?oa a
Aieaa??? a Ao?aana aoea noai?aia oei/aniaa aia?eeainueea aaca aeey
cai?aaee Iao?anueeeo e?oae?a i?ae /an a?eie a ??aeo. A aoaai?noai? o
neeaae? oei/aniaiai eiioeiaaioo IAOI ?aeeii Aieaa??y (c e?a?i,
eaiaeeaeao?a a IAOI) ca?ac ia? na?e i?ae?icae?e, ui a?aeiia?aea? ca
i?ioeo?i?/iee caoeno eiioeiaaioo.

I?ney io?oe?eiiai iaieioaiiy cai?ioaiiy a IAOI iei?oi?e o?yae IAeNA
aeniei ioe?iea ae?? an?o i’yoe iiia?aaei?o o?yae?a o iai?yi? iaeaaeee
a?aeiinei c IAOI ca oie, ui i?ieoia 13-??/iee ia??iae.

O?yae IAeNA iiaeiia iini?oeoe ? aei ii/aoeo a?oaeiy i?aeaiooaaoe no?oieo
eiioeaioe?th i?i oa, ye Aieaa??y aa/eoue naiy i?enooi?noue a IAOI.
Aoeaaeueii ca aeae?eueea oeaei?a ia?eaiaio iiaeiai ?icaeyiooe caeii i?i
iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo, yeee, ia?aoo?, ?aaeaiaioo? ae?yeuei?noue
niaoeneoaea, a oaeiae ? caeii i?i eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ioi?iaoe??. Oea aea?
iaeano?, a yeeo Aieaa??y iaa?aea a?eueo anueiai /i?ieo e?aiie, ia ye?
iaa?oa? Iaioaaii. A ianooiiee i?nyoeue i?eaoaea aeaeaaaoe?y c A?thnnaey
aeey ii/aoeo ia?aaiai??a, ye? aei e?ioey aa?aciy iiaeii? i?eaanoe aei
i?aeienaiiy i?ioieie?a i?i i?e?aeiaiiy aei IAOI. sseui Nio?y ia
iaaeanoue ynio eiioeaioe?th i?i oa, c yeeie ica?i?ieie neeaie aa?eaea a
IAOI, yeo ?io?ano?oeoo?o iaaeanoue iaeoo ?, ye aoaea ?? i?aeo?eioaaoe,
oi ana oea aoaea aeacaii naiei aeueyinii.

Nia?oo I?i?noa?noai iai?iie aoaea i?eiooaii ia?ainieneeoe iniiao naii?
?aea?, ye iiaeiia aeaeyaeaoe a?i?y ? ye aeei?enoiao?oueny.

No?aoaa?/ia eiioeaioe?y iaeoo aaiethoe?iioaaea i?ney 11 aa?aniy 2001 ?.
? a?enueeiaa eiioeaioe?y i?ioe oa?i?ecio noaea ia ii?yaeeo aeaiiee. A
oe?e a?ei? oaieia? aeea?c?? ia iathoue i?noey. No/aniee nieaeao iiaeiai
aooe i?ioan?iiaeii, a ia iiaia?aioeai, a?aei?iii iaeaaeiaiee ? oi?th/ei
ei?enooaaoeny nii?yaeaeaiiyi, ? caeaoiei aeeiioaaoe oaeaeoa
iie?oeaenuee?, i?ae a?enueeia? i?n??. Oey iiaa eiioeaioe?y ei?enia ?
Aieaa???, oiio ui iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea, ye /anoeia IAOI, aoaea
aa?aioiaaia ia a?eueo aenieiio ??ai?. Ie??i oeueiai i?aeo?eiea
iia?eueii? a?i?? cia/ii aeaoaaoa, ci?no i?oioii? aeea?c??.

I?iaeaia a oiio, ui i?ioan?ei? nieaeaoe io?oe?eiiai caeeeeo a
aieaa?nuee?e a?i?? ca?ac aeeiiothoue a iniiaiiio aaei?i?no?aoeai?
caaea/?. Oae aeoiaeeoue ia?aaeien, ui ?aeei? aieaa?nuee? neee oaeaeeiai
?aaaoaaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia a?i?enueeee, a iie?oeaenueeee Niaoe?ae?ciaaiee
caa?i aeey ai?ioueae c oa?i?eciii (NIAO), yeee iieyaa? a?ae iaioa 200
aeoo?. Iaeaiuee?, aeia?a iaa/ai? a?enueeia? /anoeie oaeoe/iiai ??aiy —
?aeeia, ui Aieaa??y iiaea a cai?iiiioaaoe NATO aeey o/ano? a iaeaooi?o
iia?aoe?yo. Ca?ac a aieaa?nuee?e a?i?? i?ioan?ei? nieaeao?a, iaeeieoe?.
sseui noaeeoe ii ca?oo A?enueeiaiai a?aeiinoaa: «A?ae caieaiiaaieo aeey
caeeeeo a 2001 ?. 158 aeoo? aoee iaa?aii o?eueee 98 aeoo?, ui neeaaea?
75% a?ae ieaio ? iiynith?oueny aenieeie e?eoa??yie aeey a?aeai?o
iniaiaiai neeaaeo», ieoaoueny a aeieoiaio? II. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai,
io?oea?nueeee ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiee neeaae caeeoa?oueny caiaaeoi aenieee.
«I?eiee Aieaa??y ia iaea no?eueee aenieiai a?aenioea io?oea?nueeiai
neeaaeo, ye caeeaaeaiee a aeooae?ciaaiiio Ieai? 2004», iaaieioo?oueny a
aeieeaae? Aoeaioe/iiai eeoao ? noni?euenoaa «Aeaei?aeae Ia?oae».

Ea??aieoeoai aieaa?nueeeo a?enuee, eiia??ii, iiaeiia aoaea ia?aaeyiooe
?nioth/o i?aeoeeo ?icieeaiino? a?ioae c a?i?enueeiai athaeaeaoo ia
aei?ia? iaaa i?iaeoe, ei?enoue a?ae yeeo noii?aia. I?eeeaae oeueiai
neaiaeaeuei? i?iaeoe ii noai?aiith eiioi?eaoe?eii-?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie
aeey iio?aa nee oaeaeeiai ?aaaoaaiiy, yea ca 3 ?iee oae ? ia
oi?iaaaeaeaia, aai i?iaeo ii iiaea?i?caoe?? aeieuoaa/?a I?a-29. Aeey
iueiai iio??ai? aeecueei 64 i?eueeiia eaaa, a an? caniae o a?enueeiaiio
athaeaeao? ia eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe aeecueei 40 i?eueeiia. Oe? e?oaee
iaa?yae /e aoaeooue aeeth/ai? a eiae?oe?ei? iia?aoe??. Iaa?oue
I?ia//eia, yea ia? aneaae?eeueth Ieoue-29, oniaaeeiaaio a?ae oiai, ui
aoa AAe? ? aaeaioiaai? ca noaiaea?oaie iaeoo, aeei?enoiaothoue oe?
e?oaee o?eueee aeey o?aioaaiue ? ?i?oaoe?? iia?o?yiiai aith c iiae?aiei
noi?ioeaieeii. Ei?iooa eaaeo/e, ?iaanooaaiiy a oaeee i?iaeo athaeaeaoieo
cania?a ia iniaeeai aeia?a ?aeay.

?ioa na?eicia i?iaeaia, ui aieaa?nuee? a?enueea i?iaeiaaeothoue a?aoe
o/anoue a ainiiaea?nuee?e ae?yeueiino? a?i?enueeiai a?aeiinoaa ?
oi?a?ae? c aieiaith oaoi?eith, yea ciyoa c ica?i?iiy. ?iaioa
a?enueeiaiai a?aeiinoaa i?aeo?eioaaoe ica?i?i? neee, a ia caeiaoeny
ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth. Iniaeeai, ui oey ae?yeuei?noue /anoi
i?iaiaeeoueny ia a?no?y caeiio, a ?iiae? ? ciai? caeiio, i?i ui o i?an?
ia??iaee/ii cono??/athoueny iia?aeiieaiiy i?i eiio?aaaiaeiee aenii?o
oiaa??a c iiaea?eiei canoinoaaiiyi.

«O?eueee ia?oaee cia?, oe?io aaciaee, aea ia iiaea neacaoe!» Oeae
aoi?eci /anoi aeei?enoiao?oueny cao?aeieie aiae?caoi?aie, eiee
aeiaaa?oueny iiynieoe, ne?eueeio eiooo? i?eeii a IAOI iiaeo /eai?a. A
Aieaa??? oaae oea ieoaiiy iaei aeeneooo?oueny, ine?eueee iie?oeee
aiyoueny, ui ?aaeuei? oeeo?e iiaeooue oaeoe ?a?iaoeaioe/iee aiooc?aci.

I?eaaaeo aeaye? aeai? ii aiae?co oeueiai ieoaiiy:

Ia?oee aiae?c: athaeaeaoia eii?n?y aia?eeainueeiai eiia?ano a aa?aci?
1996 ?. ia/eneeea, ui ?icoe?aiiy IAOI eioooaaoeia i?ae 61 ? 125
i?euey?aea aeiea?a ca ia??iae a?ae 13 ?ie?a. I?nyoeue i?ci?oa
ei?ii?aoe?y ?AIAe aecia/eea iaae? i?ae 10 ? 110 i?euey?aea aeiea?a, a
aenia?oe i?eeiyee ca a??ia?aeio noio a 42 i?euey?aee aeiea?a. Aacith
aeey oeeo i?iaiic?a aoei oa, ui no?aoaa?/iith eiioeaioe??th iaeoo a?ae
1991 ?. aoei, ui N?N? naiee na?eicia caa?ica aeey e?a?i /eai?a. Oe? noie
aoee cia/ii ciaioai? a a?oaei? 1997 ?., eiee ii/aeeny na?eicia
iaaiai?aiiy a A?thnnae? ?icoe?aiiy IAOI. Oiae? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui
i?eeii iiaeo /eai?a eioooaaoeia 5 i?euey?aea aeiea?a ca 10 e?oi?e
ia??iae.

Iaeaeaoaeuei?oee aiae?c aeo?ao ii ?icoe?aiith i?ai?/iiaoeaioe/iiai iaeoo
aoa c?iaeaiee a na?aaeei? 1998 ?. athaeaeaoiith eii?n??th
aia?eeainueeiai eiia?ano (www.cbo.gov). A?i eiinoaooaaa, ui ?icoe?aiiy
cia/ii ciaioeoue aeo?aoe NOA ia a?enueeiao iaoo, ia ooi/ithth/e
aeaoaeae. Oae aia?eeainueeei Naiaoii i?aeoe/ii aoee ?aoeo?eiaai?
aeiaiai?e ii i?e?aeiaiith Iieueu?, *ao?? ? Oai?ueie a 1998 ?. aac yniiai
o?iainiaiai aaeaino. Aea oae aoee ni?inoiaai? ia/oaai? i?iaiice i?i
oe?io ?icoe?aiiy IAOI.

I?yi? aeo?aoe ia IAOI, ye? ?iaeoa a ia aoee c?iaeai?, yeae Aieaa??y
caeeoeeany iaeo?aeueiith ? ia i?e?aeiaeany a aei yeiai-iaaoaeue nithco.

Ii aeniiaeo oao?aoe?a oeea?euei? aeo?aoe iaooo? iaeaiueea. Ae?oaee aeae
aeo?ao ia iai?iiio iaoo ? neeaaeooue aeecueei 10 iei.$ (ui aei??aith? ia
aeecueei 0.65% a?ae caaaeueiiai athaeaeaoo IAOI ca iai?iiio iaoo). O?aoy
a?oia aeo?ao ia ia/enethaaeeny, ine?eueee, ia aoaeo/e /eaiii IAOI,
aoaeue-yea e?a?ia ?iaeoue ?o. *aoaa?oa a?oia o?iaino?oueny ?c
caaaeueiiai athaeaeaoo i?ai?/iiaoeaioe/iiai iaeoo ? i?aeoe/ii icia/a?,
ui, a ?noa?, aiie iiaeii? aooe ia?aianaiee a a?aoo ei?eno?. Aai,
caaaeii, aeo?aoe Aieaa??? iiaeooue neeanoe aeecueei 200 iei. $ ca 10
?ie?a ii ia?aiaeaaeiaiith ca iao?anueeeie noaiaea?oaie. sseui
ii??aithaaoe c ?ioeie e?a?iaie (Iieueua, Oai?ueia ? *ao?y), oi ?o
aeo?aoe iieieeeny a ?aeii? 4-15 iei. $ a ??e.

Aianee e?a?i /eai?a aei caaaeueiiai athaeaeaoo IAOI aecia/a?oueny ii
neeaaei?e oi?ioe?, aea i?eaeecii, ye aaca aeey /eneaiue aa?ooue AAI ia
aieiao ianaeaiiy. Ia iniia? oeeo ia/eneaiue aieaa?nuee? aenia?oe
anoaiiaeee, ui aianie e?a?ie aei caaaeueiiai athaeaeaoo IAOI neeaaea
aeecueei 2 i?eueeiia aeiea?a, aea aei ieo iaiao?aeii aeiaeaoe iieaoo
ia?niiaeo ? i?aeo?eieo ?io?ano?oeoo?e, c ieie noia, eiia??ii,
ca?eueoeoueny aei aeecueei 9 i?eueeiia aeiea?a a ??e.

Ca?ac ?aeeiei aeieoiaioii, a yeiio io?oe?eii ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy
?ic?aooieo oe?ie i?eeiio Aieaa??? a IAOI, ? Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia ii
i?aeaioiaoe? ? i?e?aeiaiith Aieaa??? aei IAOI. Ca 2002 ?. a i?ia?ai?
caieaiiaaii 72 i?eueeiie eaaa (36 iei. $), aea c oe??? noie
o?iaino?oueny o/anoue aieaa?nueeiai eiioeiaaioo a aoaai?noai? ? i?n?y
Aieaa??? a IAOI. Oea i?aeoe/ii oae caai? IAOI aeo?aoe ? aiie iiaeooue
c?inoe a ianooii? ?iee. A na?aaeiueiio a ianooii? ?iee ca i?ia?aiith
caeeaaeai? noie a 20-40 iei.ea., aea niiae?aathoueny ia aaeee?
aeeaaeaiiy c aieo IAOI a aieaa?nueeo ?io?ano?oeoo?o.

Aei i?yieo aeo?ao aoaea iaiao?aeiee aeiaeaoe ia o?eueee caniae a?ae
I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie, aea ? a?ae i?i?noa?noa caei?aeiiieo ? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa, i?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee ? ?io? aae aei i?i?noa?noa aeieia?? ?
ina?oe. Oae aeo?aoe eieeaathoueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao, aea eiina?aaoeaia
ioe?iea aeecueei 10 i?eueeiia aeiea?a, oiae? ye aa?oiy iaaea iiaea
aeinyaoe aei 50 i?eueeiia aeiea?a. Cia/ii neeaaei?oa ?ic?aooaaoe ia
i?yi? aeo?aoe, ye? iia’ycai? c iiaea?i?caoe??th ica?i?iiy, noai?aiiyi
a?aeiia?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, i?aeo?eiea aeniei? iino?eii? aioiaiino? a
ie?aieo a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao. Oea o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeaoeia ia
aeiaiai?e, yeee neeaaeooue, a?aoo?-?aoo, Aieaa??y ? IAOI.

I?e aeia?a iai?/ai?e iao? ? yni?e no?aoaa?? ii noai?aiith ica?i?ieo nee,
Aieaa??y iiaea io?eiaoe ? ica?i?iiy ia i?eioeei? eaneaaeo, oiaoi caeaa
no/ania ica?i?iiy iaeia e?a?ia /eai iiaea aaca?aeieaoii ia?aaeaaaoe
?ioee, ui cia/ii ciaioeoue aeo?aoe ia iiaea?i?caoe?th. (Ca a?oaeie
ioe?ieaie a ??e Oo?a//eia iaea?aeo? oae aeiiiiiao aeecueei i?euey?aea
aeiea?a, a iieuenuee? AIN io?eiaee aeaa aia?eeainuee? o?aaaoa, 4
ii?aacuee? i?aeaiaei? /iaie ? o.i.).

I?eeeaae c o?ainoa?o ca?i? iieaco?, ui yeui /eainoai a IAOI
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?ei, oi iiaeia io?eiaoe ia o?eueee ca?eueoaiiy
aaciaee. Ca aeaieie noi?niiai aeine?aeaeaiiy Nithco i?aoeaaeaaoe?a ?
Oeaio?o ii e?aa?aeueieo no?aoaa?yo Aieaa??? a?ae aeiaoiy 2001 ?.
aeiiii?/ia ei?enoue a?ae /eainoaa Aieaa??? a IAOI ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia
iai?iio ia 0.1% a?ae AAI iiaea i?eaanoe ca?eueoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy ia 0.2%.

Aei oeueiai iaiao?aeii aeiaeaoe iie?ioaiiy na?aaeiaeua aeey a?ciano,
iia’ycaiiai c iai?iiith, yeee iiaea i?eaa?iooe ciai?oi? ?iaanoeoe?? ?
?icoe?eoe ?eiee aeey aieaa?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. Aieaa??y iiaeiia aoaea
a?eueoa a?aeae?eyoe cania?a aeey iie?ioaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a,
/anoeia c yeeo aoaea niea/aia c A?thnnaey. Ooaaeaiiy Aieaa??? a IAOI
?ice?e? ? iia? iiaeeeaino? a ina?oiueiio ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio
naeoi?ao, ine?eueee aoaeooue iio??aii iia? ciaiiy ? oi?iiy. Ca
iiia?aaei?ie aeaieie, ana oea iiaea i?eaanoe aei ca?eueoaiiy AAI i?ae
0.3% ? 0.4%.

Cia/ii aaaeeea?oa iai?yia ei?enoue a?ae aeeth/aiiy Aieaa??? a IAOI.

A aeiaaino?ieiaiio ieai? i?e?aeiaiiy aei iaeoo iie?ioeoue ?inoeoooe?eio
?aieo aieaa?nueei? aeiiii?ee. Ii iaene?iii?oeo ?ic?aooieao iane?aee?a,
Aieaa??y ciiaea aeiaeaoe aei 1% aei ??/iiai aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.
Ca?ac aaaeei i?iaiicoaaoe, aea aaea a eeii? 2002 ?. aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a
aia?eeainueeeo eiiiai?e aeneiaeee aaaeaiiy a?aee?eoe io?ne a Nio?? ?
/aeathoue o?eueee io?oe?eiiai cai?ioaiiy Aieaa??? a IAOI.

Aea/aiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee i?i «ethaia» aei ?a?iiaenueeiai nithco a
??cieo e?a?iao ioi?ieee ia?aaeien, ui, /ei aeae? e?a?ia a?ae nithco, oei
a?eueoa i?aeo?eiea oai niinoa??aa?oueny. Aea coieieiiny o?eueee ia
Aieaa???. Ia?o? iaoyee ia iiaeeeaa i?e?aeiaiiy aei iaeoo c’yaeeeny a
1990 ?. ? cono??ee iaaaoeaii, aai oaeaeoa aeoceeai.

Iaeaea aei e?ath ia 1996 ?., eiee /eainoai a i?ai?/iiaoeaioe/iiio
aeueyin? noaea /anoeiith i?aceaeaionueei? eaiiai??, noaaeaiiy eieeaaeiny
aeecueei 20 a?aenioe?a. A?ae oiai /an aeia??’y aei iaeoo ?inei c
aeeeth/aiiyi ia??iaeo einianei? e?ece, eiee i?aeo?eiea aiaea aei
aeecueei 45%.

Ca?ac aea? o?aoeie aieaa? ca /eainoai a IAOI, oiae? ye, o?eueee aeecueei
30%, aenooiathoue i?ioe. Oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caa??aa?oueny iaeaea aac
ci?ie a?ae ii/aoeo 2001 ?., a i?ioenoiyiiy iaeoo ia? i?aeoe/ii ioeueiao
i?aeo?eieo a noni?euenoa?.

Ii nioe?ieia?/ieo aieaoao aea? iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee, c yeeie aieaa?e
iia’ycothoue c IAOI, c iiceoeaiei iai?yiii — «aeueyin ? caoeno» — 37%, ?
«ooeoiie?thth/ee nithc» — 30%. 24% — ?icaeeaeththoueny IAOI, ye
«aa?aneaiee a?enueeiaee aeie». Iaaaoea?ci aei IAOI ca’ycaiee, a
iniiaiiio, a?ae ne??ieaiiy aeueyino o?eueee ?c caoenoii ?aeeii nai?o
?ioa?an?a aaeeeeo nee. O?eueee 26% aieaa? aaaaea?, ui iaeo caoeua? ?
?ioa?ane oe?ei? i?aeia?iaeii? ni?eueiino?. Aaciina?aaei?e aeniiaie c
oeeo aeaieo iieaco?, ui a?eueo?noue aieaa? ?icaeyaea? iaoe?iiaeueio
aaciaeo, ye ooieoe?th a?ae ?ioa?an?a aaeeeeo nee, ine?eueee aaaaoi
aieaa? aecia? iacia/io ?ieue, yeo Aieaa??y iiaea a?aoe ia i?aeia?iaei?e
noeai?.

Ia?aaaaeath/a iiceoeaii a?eueo?noue caeeoa?oueny ? i?e a?aeiia?ae? ia
ieoaiiy: «*eainoai a IAOI /e i?aeaeueoue aa?aio?? aeey iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Aieaa???». A ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 57%: 38% aeii?iothoue iiceoeai?
a?aeiia?ae?.

Ca?ac, i?ney io?eiaiiy cai?ioaiiy a IAOI, a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo, ca
aeaieie aieaa?nueeeo CI?, iiaa?oa?oueny o a?e a?eueoiai aeia??’y aei
IAOI. sseui, i?ioa, aieaa?e ia ona?aeiieththoue, ui /eainoai a eeoa?
?icaeiooeo cao?aeieo aeaiie?ao?e caaeaaea? a?ae ieo ? iaaii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aoaeo aeey Aieaa??? a oe?eiio aoaea iaeaiueeei. ?
ia Aieaa??th i?iaeiaaeaoue aeeaeoeny, ia ye ia /anoeio a?ae eeoao
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, a o?eueee ye ia e?a?io, aeiiouaio aei noieo
aaeeeeo aeaiie?ao?e.

I?ney ii/aoeo aieiaeo ae?e Aia?eee a ??aeo, Aieaa??y aenooieea iaei?e c
ia?oeo e?a?i, ui i?aeo?eiaee aoi?aiaiiy aei ??aeo, iaaeaaoe na?e
iia?o?yiee i?ino?? aeey ia?aeueioo a?enuee I?ai?/iiaoeaioe/iiai
Aeueyino. C inai? 2003 ?ieo a ??aeo ciaoiaeeoueny iino?eiee aieaa?nueeee
eiioeiaaio a e?eueeino? aeecueei 200 /ieia?e.

18 aa?aciy 2004 ?ieo Aieaa?nueeee ia?eaiaio ?aoeo?eoaaa aeiaia?? i?i
anooi ?anioae?ee Aieaa??? a IAOI. Ca?ac iaiao?aeia ?aoeo?eaoe?y
Aeiaiai?o ?aooith o/aniee?a Iaeoo.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

1. Aieaa?ey.Ru

2. http://aboutbulgaria.biz

3. Ana no?aiu ie?a. — I.: Aa/a, 2001.

4. sseiaeaa. «Niauoey 1944-1971 aa. — acaeyae n iieoaaeiaie
aeenoaioeee». «I?aaaea». 1989, N 230.

5. “Anana?oiy ?noi??y” ?aai E?ei’yeaae/ E., Eea?aeue , 1995? o.1

6. “?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i” E., 1995?

7. “O?anoiiao?y ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i” E., 1995?.,
“Aaioo??”

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