IAeANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a ?noi??? oa aoiia?ao?? Oe?a?ie

Eiio?ieueia ?iaioa ?1

ia oaio:

«Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa – aaaeeeaee aoai oe?a?inueei? ?noi???»

Aeeiiaea nooaeaioea

ia?oiai eo?no

a?oie C?N – 061

Oaaeioiaa C.I.

Ia?aa??ea:

Iaeana – 2007

Oaia ?10. Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa – aaaeeeaee aoai oe?a?inueei?
?noi???.

Ieai.

1. Ia?aaeoiiae ooai?aiiy oa i?aeianaiiy Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai
eiyc?anoaa.

2. Aeaeaoi? iie?oe/i? ae?y/? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? caie?. Iniiai?
iai?yiee ciai?oiuei? oa aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee.

3. ?ieue Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?.

1. Ia?aaeoiiae ooai?aiiy oa i?aeianaiiy Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai
eiyc?anoaa.

Ee?anueea ?onue caeeoaeanue ia’?aeiaiith aea?aeaaith i?eaeecii aei
1132 ?. I?ci?oa eiyc?anoaa ii/eiathoue i?iaiaeeoe naith aioo??oith ?
ciai?oith iie?oeeo ii??aiyii naiino?eii. Iaeiiaooi?oeie ia oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo aoee Ee?anueea, *a?i?a?anueea, N?aa?nueea, Ia?ayneaanueea,
Aieeinueea, Aaeeoeueea eiyc?anoaa. Iaeno?ee?oeie aeyaeeeny o?
eiyc?anoaa, a sseeo ooaa?aeeeeny nai? ie?ai? aeeiano?? – a?aeaaeoaeaiiy
?iaeo ?th?eeiae/?a. Oae, o *a?i?a?anuee?e ? N?aa?nueeee caieyo i?aaeee
eiyc? c ?iaeo Ieueaiae/?a, o Aaeeoeueeiio eiyc?anoa? – ?inoeneaae/?,
i?ci?oa ia’?aeiaia Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai cae??ieee ca niaith
?iiaiiae/?.

Iai?ee?ioe? 5-o ia?o?e iieiaei? 6-o no.. aaei?i?no?aoeaiei
ina?aaeeii caiaeue Aieei? ? I?aeea?iaooy aoa Aieiaeeie? – i?noi, ui eiai
canioaaa ? iacaaa nai?i ?i’yi eiycue Aieiaeeie? Nayoineaaiae/. A?i
ia?aaeaa oi?aae?iiy oeei e?a?i Anaaieiaeia? – nai?io neiia? a?ae
iieioeueei? eiyc?aie ?iai?aee ?iaaieiae?aie. I?noi Aieiaeeie? noaei
ina?aaeeii ?ieneiinoaa ?, ioaea, aaaeeeaei oeaio?ii ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e.

I?ney nia?o? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai aeaaea ia Aieei? /anoi
ci?ithaaeanue. Ie?aio eiyc?anueeo aeeiano?th ooo caii/aoeoaaa uieii aioe
Aieiaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa ?cyneaa Inoeneaaiae/, yeee eiycthaaa o Aieiaeeie??
i?ioyaii 1136 – 1142 ? 1146 – 1154 ??. A?i, a caiaeii ? eiai nei
Inoeneaa ?cyneaaiae/ nie?aeeny ia nai? aieeinuee? aieiae?iiy o ai?iouea?
ca ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia ee?anueeiio i?anoie?. Ai?ioueaa ca ci?oeiaiiy
Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa aoea iaeaaeith, ? aiii a ie?ai? ia??iaee nai??
?noi??? ia?aoai?thaaeiny o nai???aeio oaaea?aoe?th ae??ai?oeo oae?eueieo
eiyc?anoa. Naiino?eio iie?oeeo iaiaaaeeny aanoe eiyc?, ui aieiae?ee
Eooeueeii, Ia?aneiieoeath, Aei?iae /eiii, a a ie?ai? ia??iaee – oaeiae
aieiaea?? Aocueea, *a?aaia oa ?ioeo i?no. I?ney nia?o? 1170 ?. Inoeneaaa
?cyneaaiae/a Aieeiue aoea iiae?eaia i?ae eiai neiaie: ?iiai noaa
eiycthaaoe o Aieiaeeie??, Aieiaeeie? o Aa?ano?, Nayoineaa o *a?aai?,
Anaaieiae o Aaec?. Eeoa iaiieaaeeaa ia’?aeiaa/a iie?oeea ?iiaia
Inoeneaaiae/a caaacia/eea a?aoo?-?aoo ?aei?noue Aieeinueei? caie?.

O?ioe ii-?ioiio neeaeany aeiey I?aeea?iaooy. Ooo oaea 1084?.
ooai?eeeny o?e eiyc?anoaa, a yeeo iaioaaee a?aoe ?inoeneaae/?, i?aaioee
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. Iaenoa?oee a?ao ?th?ee ?inoeneaae/ aieiaea?thaaa o
Ia?aieoeuenueeiio eiyc?anoa?, aei yeiai aoiaeeee caie? iaae Nyiii ?
Aa?oi?i Aei?no?ii, i?eaeecii aei ?. No?ee. Aaneeueeia? ?inoeneaae/o
iaeaaeaei Oa?aaiaaeuenueea eiyc?anoai, ui aeeth/aei Iiae?eey, Aoeiaeio,
no?aeio /anoeio Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao. Ia i?ai?/ a?ae Oa?aaiaaeuenueeiai
eiyc?anoaa eaaeaei Caaieai?iaenueea. Aiii i?eiaei o?aoueiio a?aoia?,
Aieiaea?aa?, yeee i?ney nia?o? ?th?eea noaa eiycai ? a Ia?aieoe?. A 1099
?. a?i ni?eueii c Aaneeueeii oa?aaiaaeuenueeei ia?ai?a a?enueei
oai?nueeiai ei?iey a aeoa? i?ae Ia?aieoeai ? oea ia aeayeee /an no?eiaei
iaiaaee Oai?nueeiai ei?ie?anoaa ia I?aeea?iaooy.

Nei Aieiaea?y Aieiaeeie? (yeiai e?oiien iaceaa? Aieiaeeie?ii)
ia’?aeiaa Ia?aieoeuenueeo, Oa?aaiaaeuenueeo, Caaieai?iaenueeo caie? a
iaeiiio eiyc?anoa?. A 1144 ?. a?i c?iaea nai?i noiee/iei i?noii Aaee/
iaae Aei?i?ii. Eeoa o Caaieai?iaenueeiio eiyc?anoa? aeayeee /an i?aaea
eiai ieai?iiee ?aai ?inoeneaae/. O 1145 ?. a?aeaoeiny iianoaiiy i?noee?a
Aaee/a, ye? «aaaee o i?noi» caaieai?iaenueeiai eiycy.(1) I?ioa
aiane?aeie e?iaii?ieeoii? ai?ioueae Aieiaeeie?eia? aaeaeiny ia o?eueee
aeo?nieoe ?aaia ?inoeneaae/a c Aaee/a, a e i?e?aeiaoe aei nai?o
aieiae?iue Caaieai?iae. Iaea?eueoi? iiaooiino? Aaeeoeueea eiyc?anoai
aeinyaei ca i?aae?iiy Aieiaeeie?eiaiai neia ss?ineaaa Iniiienea. Eiai
aieiae?iiy i?inoyaaeeny acaeiaae Aei?no?a aeineoue aeaeaei ia i?aaeaiue;
iaa?oue caie? a ieaei?e oa/?? I?ooo e Aeoiath iio?aieee o iaaio
caeaaei?noue a?ae Aaee/a. C?inoaei cia/aiiy Aei?no?a o i?aeia?iaei?e
oi?a?ae?, a oea, nai?th /a?aith, ni?eyei ?icaeoeia? i?no eiyc?anoaa.

Aaeeoeueeee eiycue ei?enooaaany aaoi?eoaoii ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?,
i?aeo?eioaaa aeeieiiaoe/i? noinoiee ia eeoa c non?aeaie, a e c
A?caio??th, Nayuaiiith ?einueeith ?iia???th. Ainoai eiai aoa
a?caio?enueeee oe?na?aae/ Aiae?iiee Eiiiei, yeee i?ci?oa noaa
?iia?aoi?ii. Iieaciai, ui «Aaeeeiiieuenueea o?ii?ea» 13 no. aea?aeaao
ss?ineaaa Iniiienea iaceaa? ei?ie?anoaii.

Iacaaaeath/e ia i?aeoniai? a?eie i?ae ie?aieie eiycyie, i?ae
Aieeinueeith ? Aaeeoeueeith caieyie aoee iaeaaiaeaeai? o?ni? aeiiii?/i?
oa eoeueoo?i? aca?ieie. Oe? aca?ieie noaee ia?aaeoiiaith ia’?aeiaiiy
Aieei? ? Aaee/eie a iaeiiio eiyc?anoa?. Iacaaa?ii i?ney nia?o? ss?ineaaa
Iniiienea aieeinueeee eiycue ?iiai Inoeneaaiae/ ia cai?ioaiiy
aaeeoeueeeo aiy? caeiya Aaee/, aea aeiaai eiai ia ao?eiaa. Eeoa 1199 ?.
, i?ney nia?o? Aieiaeeie?a ss?ineaae/a, inoaiiueiai i?aaenoaaieea
aeeiano?? ?inoeneaae/?a, ?iiaiia? Inoeneaae/o aaeaeiny aeiiiaoeny
ia’?aeiaiiy i?ae nai?th aeaaeith Aieei? ? Aaee/eie a iaeia
eiyc?anoai(2). Iacaaeiaai aei nia?o? ?iiaia Ooaa?aeeany ? a
cieioiaa?oiio Ee?a?. Eeyie ioi/a ia?aeoee ia a?e ?iiaia ? a?ae/eieee
eiio Iiae?euenuee? ai?ioa i?noa.

Ooai?aiiy ia’?aeiaii? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae aoei iiae??th
aaeeei? ?noi?e/ii? aaae.

Iaieiae?aoe cia/iith /anoeiith ee?anueei? niaaeueie,
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai ia ?oaaae? 12-13 no. ca ?ici??aie nai?o
aieiae?iue ia iinooiaeiny Nayuaii?e ?einuee?e ?iia???. Eiai ci?oeiaiiy
ia oe? i?ia?anoth/iai caiaiaaeo eiyc?anoa Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y
na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui oeaio? iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy iinooiiai
ia?anoaa?oueny o cao?aeiiio iai?yieo. Oeaio?ii nai?? aea?aeaae ?iiai
ia?aa ia i???ioiaaiee ia A?caio?th Ee?a, a aeecueeee aei ei?aeii?a
cao?aeieo aea?aeaa Aaee/. Iiooaeia oi?aiaaeueia a?oa??y Aoa-Aei?noa?
aeo?niya caiaiaaeath/ee oeyo «?c aa?ya?a – o a?aee».

_______________________________________________

1. A?aei. ?aae. TH.Neeaea. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie –Euea?a, 2003.-N.84

2. Oai naii.-N.85.

C /anii ?iiai noa? iii?oiith o?ao?ith ia ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi?e/i?e
noeai?. Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeee eiycue cai?iiiioaaa iiaeaeue i?aeo?eiee
«aeia?iai ii?yaeeo» ia ?on?. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai i?iaeoo
ieaioaaeiny i?eieiaiiy eiyc?anueeeo i?aeoniaeoeue, eiinie?aeaoe?y nee
aeey a?aeii?o ciai?oi?i ai?iaai, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaei?aoo (ia?aaea/?
eiyc?anueeiai noieo e on?o caiaeue noa?oiio neio, ui iiaei coieieoe, ia
aeoieo ?iiaia, i?ioean ?icae??aeaiiino?) oa aeai?e ee?anueeiai eiycy (o
?ac? nia?o?) o?noueia iaea?eueoeie ia ?on? eiycyie.

I?ioa aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiio eiycth ia aaeaeiny ia’?aeiaoe ?onue. O
1205 ?. a?i o?aa?/ii caaeioa iiaeeco iieuenueeiai i?noa/ea Caaeoinoa
i?ae /an nooe/ee c aieyeaie e?ae?anueeiai eiycy Eaoea A?eiai(3).

C? nia?oth ?iiaia ?icii/eia?oueny iaeaea 30-??/iee ia??iae ai?ioueae
ca aaeeoeueeee no?e. Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy o oeae /an
aoee:i?ia?anoth/a naaa?eey aiy?, ye? ae?eoee aei aaci?aoeaaeaioiiai
ii?ooaiiy ii?i oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaa – iaieioaiiy eiycai aiy?eia
Aieiaeeneaaa Ei?ieeue/e/a (1213 – 1214 ??.);

— aacia?a?aia ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae cao?aeii?onueeeo caiaeue
non?ae?a aea?aeaa – Oai?ueie oa Iieueu?, iane?aeeii oa i?iyaii yeiai
aoei i?iaieioaiiy «ei?ieai Aaee/eie oa Aieiaeeie???» i’yoe??/iiai
oai?nueeiai ei?ieaae/a Eaeiaia, iae?oaeaiiai c aeai??/iith iieuenueeith
eiyaeiith Naeiia?th (?icii/aoa i?ney oeueiai ai?iia ieoiaoe?y o?eaaea
a?ae 1214 ?. aei 1219 ?.);

— ia?inoath/a iiiaieuenueea caa?ica, ui aia?oa cayaeea i?i naaa 1223
?. ia aa?ac? ?. Eaeee;

— aia?a?eia ai?ioueaa ca a?aeiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? ?aeiino? Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai, yea oni?oii cae?i/eeanue 1238 ?.)(4)

A?aeiiaeaoe ?aei?noue, Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai iaae?a? neee
oa a?aeaieiao? ao?a/ai? iiceoe??. Iaaani? 1238 ?. Aeaieei ?ica?iiea
oaaoiinueeeo eeoea??a Aeiaaeeinueeiai i?aeaio i?ae Aei?iai/eiii.
Iacaaa?ii a?i ciiao iioe?th? na?e aieea ia Ee?a, o yeiio caeeoa?
oi?aaeyoe naiai ai?aiaeo Aeieo?a.

Aeaieei iaa ciiao neiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao ia iineeaii? ai?caeaoiino?,
aioo??oiueiio ci?oeiaii? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? eiyc?anoaa. Aeoeaii
oe??ieyeeny noa?? i?noa oa caiaeeeeny oi?oaoe? iiaiai oeio, ?icoaoiaai?
ia ai?aao ? c eai’yieie no?iaie; a?aeaoeany ?ai?aai?caoe?y a?enueea:
aoei noi?iiaaii i?oioo, ia?aica?i?ii e?iiioo ( iniaeeao oaaao
cina?aaeaeaii ia aaaeei ica?i?i?e e?iiio?, oaea??a yei?, ye i?aaeei, ia
aeo?eioaaee oaoa?e).

I?ney nia?o? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai eiyc?anoai ciiao ao?a/a? naith
?aei?noue: eiai caie? aoei iiae?eaii i?ae o?ueiia iauaaeeaie eiycy –
Eaaii, Inoeneaaii ? Oaa?ii. I?aaio/e noaa?eueiino?, Oaa?ii oeeaaea?
nithc Aaeeoeueeiai eiyc?anoaa c Eeoaith, aea oea ia’?aeiaiiy ia aoei
o?eaaeei. Iaeiine?aeiai?oa i?iaeiaaeoaaa aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo naiai
aaoueea Eaa Aeaieeiae/ (1264 – 1301)(5).

__________________________________________________

3. I.Ae.Aieei. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, iin?aiee. — Ee?a, 1999. N.77.

4. Oai naii. – N. 76-77.

5. Oai naii. – N. 79.

Oeae eiycue i?e?aeiaa aei nai?o aieiae?iue Caea?iaooy oa
Ethae?inueeo caieth. Caaaeyee oeueiio oa?eoi??y Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei?
aea?aeaae noaea iaea?eueoith ca anth naith ?noi??th.

Ia ?oaaae? 13-14 no. a?aeiiaeeany ?aei?noue Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei?
aea?aeaae i?ae aeaaeith ianooiieea Eaaa – eiycy TH??y I (1301- 1315
??.). Ca ia??iae i?aae?iiy TH??e I noaa?e?coaaany noni?eueiee ?icaeoie,
?icea?oee i?noa, i?aeianeany oi?a?aey, c??n aeiiii?/iee aeia?iaoo. Ca
neiaaie iieuenueeiai na?aaeiueia?/iiai ?noi?eea ssia Aeeoaioa, TH??e I
aoa «ethaeeiith ni?eoiith ? oeyoaoiith, uaae?ith aei aeooiaieo in?a.
I?ae /an eiai i?aae?iiy ?onue ei?enooaaeany aeaaaie ie?o ? aaee/aciiai
aeia?iaooo.»(6)

Ianooiieeaie TH??y I noaee eiai neie – Aiae??e oa Eaa II (1315 –
1323 ??.). Aiie iiae?eeee oa?eoi??th eiyc?anoaa ia noa?e aieeao, aea
i?aaeee ni?eueii, aeooia??aoii, ? oiio ?iciaaeo ?aeeii? aea?aeaae ia
a?aeaoeiny. ?iiaiiae/? i?iaiaeeee aeoeaio ciai?oith iie?oeeo:
iaeaaiaeeee nithcieoeuee? a?aeiineie c Iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith oa
Oaaoiinueeei i?aeaiii. Oe? nithce iaee aioeeeoianueeo oa aioei?aeeinueeo
ni?yiiaai?noue.

Aeieeiaiith oa i?aeianaiith Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae ni?eyei:

1. Aaeaea aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy (a?aeaeaeai?noue a?ae Ee?aa
iineaaethaaea aieea oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee, i?e?iaei? oiiae ?iaeee oe?
caie? aaaeeiaeinooiieie aeey noaiiaeo ei/?aiee?a, e??i oiai, eiyc?anoai
?icoaoiaoaaeiny ia ia?ao?ano? no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaeo oi?aiaeo oeyo?a).

2. Iaiao?aei?noue ni?eueii? ai?ioueae aeaio eiyc?anoa i?ioe aa?an??
c aieo Iieueu? oa Oai?ueie, a caiaeii i?ioe iiiaieuenueeiai iaoanoy oa
?aa.

3. Aia?a?eia ia’?aeiaa/a iie?oeea eiyc?a ?iiaia Inoeneaae/a (1199 –
1205 ??.) oa Aeaieea ?iiaiiae/a Aaeeoeueeiai (1238 – 1264 ??.).

4. ?nioaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? eiyc?anoaa aaaaoeo ?iaeiaeu nie?, ui
ni?eyei aeiiii?/iiio c?inoaiith oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oi?a?ae?.

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6. I.Ae. Aieei. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1999?. – N.79.

2. Aeaeaoi? iie?oe/i? ae?y/? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? caie?. Iniiai?
iai?yiee ciai?oiuei? oa aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee.

A Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiio eiyc?anoa? aea?aeaaia aeaaea iaeaaeaea
aaeeeiio eiycth, yeee nie?aany ia aiy? caieaaeaniee?a oa i?nueeee
iao?eoe?ao. ? eiycue, ? oaiaeaeueia aa?o?aea aoee iia’ycai? ni?eueieie
eeaniaeie ?ioa?anaie, ui cao?oiaoaaee ?o i?ioe naeyi, ae??aieo aiy? oa
ieae/eo aa?noa ai?iaeyi. ?acii c oei i?ae eiycai ? aiy?noaii oi/eeany
iino?eia ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo. Eiycue iaiaaaany cina?aaeeoe a nai?o ?oeao
on? aea?aeaai? ooieoe?? e noaoe «naiiaea?aeoeai», aiy?e – iaiaaeeoe eiai
aeaaeo oa c?iaeoe aeeiiaaoeai nai?? aie?.

Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinuee? aieiaea?? ?icaeyaeaee eiyc?anoai ye naith
«io/eio», a naaa ye «o?iaeaeaieo eiyc?a». Ia??aeei aiie oeooeoaaeeny
«aaeeeeie eiycyie». I?ney ei?iioaaiiy Aeaieea a 1253 ?. e?oiienaoeue
iino?eii e iine?aeiaii iaceaa? eiai ei?ieai; oeooeii «ei?iey ?on?»
ei?enooaaany TH??e Eueaiae/. C ii/aoeo 14 no. Aaeeoeueei – Aieeinuee?
eiyc? ii/eiathoue oeooeoaaoeny aieiaea?yie caie? «aiaeith iee?noth».
Oae, Aiae??e ? Eaa TH??eiae/? iaceaathoue naaa «aiaeith iee?noth eiyc?
an??? caie? ?on?».

Eiycue cae?enithaaa on? ooieoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee – caeiiiaeaa/o,
aeeiiaa/o, noaeiao, oiio e?oiienaoeue iaceaaa eiai «naiiaea?aeoeai».

Nie?ath/enue ia na?aaei? ? ae??aia aiy?noai oa i?uai, aieeinueeee
eiycue ?iiai o 1199?. i?eaeooo? ii?? aaeeeeo aiy? ? ia’?aeio? Aaee/eio ?
Aieeiue. Ni?eeaee ai?i, oaeaiiaeoee iie?oee, aei?noieee, a ?ieiee
iaa?oue aei?noieee aieiaea?, eiycue aaaea aeoeaio ciai?oith iie?oeeo.
Ia?aiiaei? iioiaee i?ioe Eeoae oa Iieueu? iii?oii i?aeiyee eiai
aaoi?eoao oa iineeeee aieea ia ?on?.

Iaaea?ia e?oiienaoeue iacaaa ?iiaia aaeeeei eiycai, «oea?ai ia
?on?», «naiiaea?aeoeai anay ?on?», i?e/iio neiai «naiiaea?aeaoeue»
aia?oa a e?oiien? aaeeoi noiniaii iueiai. Oeae oeooe, ia?aeeaaeaiee c
a?aoeueeiai oeooeo a?caio?enueeeo ?iia?aoi??a – aaoie?aoii, cana?ae/ea
ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?? aaeeeiai eiycy, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi iei iaiie??ieo
aiy?nueeeo oa?oiiaaiue. Naia o ?iiaia Inoeneaae/a ooeaa i?eooeeo
?iia?aoi? A?caio?? Ieaen?e III Aiaae i?ney caaithaaiiy Eiinoaioeiiiiey
o?anoiiinoeyie.

C /anii ?iiai noa? iii?oiith o?ao?ith ia ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi?e/i?e
noeai?, i?i ui na?ae/eoue i?iiiceoe?y Iaie ?einueeiai 1204 ?. a iai?i ia
i?eeiyooy eiycai eaoieeoeecio ei?iioaaoe eiai.(7) Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeee
eiycue aoyao?oueny o aei?noieo ai?ioueao i?ae Aiaaiooaooaiaie ?
Aaeueoaie, yea caaino?eeany o oiae?oi?e eaoieeoeuee?e ?a?ii?. I?ioa ia
o?eueee ia/ai caeiaoaaa nia? neaao ?iiai. A inoaii? ?iee aeeooy a?i
iiaeaeue i?aeo?eiee «aeia?iai ii?yaeeo» ia ?on?. A?aeiia?aeii aei
oeueiai i?iaeoo ieaioaaeiny i?eieiaiiy eiyc?anueeeo i?aeoniaeoeue,
eiinie?aeaoe?y nee aeey a?aeii?o ciai?oi?i ai?iaai, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaei?aoo oa aeai?e ee?anueeiai eiycy o?noueia iaea?eueoeie

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7. Eo?n eaeoe?e. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1991 ?. – N.69.

ia ?on? eiycyie.

Aaoi? e?oiieno ieoa i?i oa, ui aaeeeee eiycue ?iiai («iaeie?a on?
iiaainuee? ia?iaee, ioae??noth ?icoio aeiaea?aeoth/e caiia?aeae Aiaeeo.
A?i-ai eeioany ia iiaaieo, ye oie eaa, na?aeeoee aea aoa, ye ?enue…
ia?aoiaeea caieth ?o, ye oie i?ae, a oi?ia?ee aoa, ye oo?, ai a?i ?aaii
iane?aeoaaa naiai i?aaeea Iiiiiaoa…»)(8)

?iiai caeiaoa nia? neaao ni?eeaeie e oni?oieie iioiaeaie ia
iieiaoe?a oa eeoianueeeo eiyc?a. Caiaeii a?i ao?ooeany a ai?ioueao i?ae
aaeueoaie oa a?aae?iaie, aenooieaoe ia aioe? O?e?ia Oaaanueeiai
Aiaaiooaooaia, yeee ai?iany ca aeaaeo a ?iia??? c Iooii IV Naeniinueeei,
nithcieeii iai. Ia oeyoo aei Naenii?? ?iiai Inoeneaae/ caaeioa o
aeiaaeeia?e nooe/oe? c a?enueeii e?ae?anueeiai eiycy Eaoea A?eiai i?ae
Caaeoionii ia A?ne? (1205).

Nia?oth ?iiaia nei?enoaeeny aaeeoeuee? aiy?nuee? oa?oiiaaiiy, ye? ia
aeiionoeee aei aeaaee ?iiaiiai? aaeiae oa eiai iaeie?oi?o nei?a Aeaieea
? Aaneeueea. sse o?eueee eiyaee/? i?ae?inee, aiie ?icii/aee c aiy?noaii
o?eaaeo ? caiaeeo ai?ioueao ca i?anoie Aieei?, a i?ci?oa ? Aaee/eie.
Ine?eueee iie?oe/ii aaci?eioeeii? aiy?nuee? oa?oiiaaiiy eoee ia oaiae ?c
oai?nueeeie ei?ieyie, ai?ioueaa Aeaieea ? Aaneeueea ?iiaiiae/?a i?ioe
aiy?, ca ia’?aeiaiiy aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeeo caiaeue iaaoaaea oa?aeoa?o
aecaieueii? a?eie ca aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue. ?iiaiiae/? nie?aeeny ia
oe?ie? eiea ianaeaiiy ? ia oo /anoeio aiy?, yea ?ic?aoiaoaaea ia
iie?iaeoaeuenoai eiyc?a. ?o i?aeo?eiaee i?noe/? – i?nuee? eoioe? ?
?ai?nieee, a oiio /ene? ?iicaii? iinaeaioe? o aeayeeo iaea?eueoeo
i?noao: aiie aoee i?eoeeueieeaie ia aiy?nueeiai naaa?eey, a i?oeii?
eiyc?anueei? aeaaee. Aeey ia?aiiae ?iiaiiae/?a ?noioia cia/aiiy iaea
iiceoe?y naeyi – iaueiiee?a, ye? aoiaeeee aei eiyaeiai i?oiai a?enueea.
Eiycue iaiaaaany noai?eoe oeaio?aeueiee aia?ao oi?aae?iiy c a??ieo nia?
aiy?. A iueiio iaeiii?oi?oith o?ao?ith, nai???aeiei canooiieeii eiycy o
a?enueeiaeo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ? noaeiaeo ni?aaao noaa «aea??nueeee».
Oey iinaaea a?aeiia?aeaea cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio iaeaoeiia?.
Aaeineiiaethth/e aea?aeaaiee aia?ao, i?yioth/e aei niaoe?ae?caoe?? eiai
eaiie, eiyc? nie?aeeny ? ia aeina?ae ?ioeo e?a?i. Oae aeaye? iinaaee i?e
aeai?? Aeaieea ?iiaiiae/a aoee cai?iaaaeaeai? ca aiaeia??th aei A?caio??
? cao?aeieo non?ae?a.

Aiane?aeie o?eaaei? ai?ioueae Aeaieeia? Aaeeoeueeiio aaeaeiny
iiaeieaoe o? oa?oiiaaiiy aaeeoeueeeo ? ia?aieoeuenueeeo aiy?, ye?
i???iooaaeeny ia i?aeo?eieo Oai?nueeiai ei?ie?anoaa. (O 1237 – 1238 ??.
Aeaieei inoaoi/ii oe??ieany a Aaee/?. Aieeiue a?i caeeoea iieiaeoiio
a?aoia? Aaneeueeia?, yeee o an?o aaaeeeaeo ni?aaao ae?ya ni?eueii c
Aeaieeii.)(9) Aeaieei ?ica?iiea oaaoiinueeeo ?eoea??a Aeiaaeeinueeiai
i?aeaio, ui caoiieee i?noi Aei?iai/ei iaae Aoaii, ? acya o iieii
iaa?no?a i?aeaio A?oia. Ca e?oiienii, Aeaieei ia?aae ai?i i?iaieinea:
«Ia ee/eoue aea?aeaoe iaoo aaouee?aueio e?eaeaaieeai (o?anoiiinoeyi)».
Iacaaeiaai aei c?oeioaaiiy Ee?aa Aaoe?i Aeaieei oe??ieany a Ee?a? ?
aei?o/ea oi?aae?iiy oenyoeueeiio Aeieo?ia?, aeina?ae/aiiio ? oi?ia?iio
ai?aiae?, yeiio ? aeiaaeiny ea?oaaoe iai?iiith i?noa.

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8. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. A?ae.?aae. TH.Neeaea. — Euea?a, 2003 ?. – N.85.

Noieeoeath eiyc?anoaa Aeaieei ?iiaiiae/ ia?aa naith iiao
?aceaeaioe?th Oiei, aea iiaoaeoaaa iai?iii? nii?oaee, oea?eae, caeeaa
aa?iee ia?e. E?oiienaoeue aena?oeth? ieaiii??iee, oe?eani?yiiaaiee
oa?aeoa? i?noiaoae?aaeueii? ae?yeueiino? Aeaieea oa eiai a?aoa Aaneeueea
?iiaiiae/a. Ca ?o iaeacii aoee nii?oaeaeai? i?noa-caiee Aeaiee?a,
E?aiaiaoeue, Oa?iaanuee oa ?i.

Oi?oeo?eaoe?y ? aoae?aaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ?iiaiiae/?a aoea aeoaea
nai?/aniith. O ia??iae iiiaieuenueeiai iaoanoy Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai ia
aoei a eiyc?anoa?: a?i ia?aaoaaa a Oai?uei? oa Iieueu?, aea iaiaaaany
noeeeoe oaiaeaeueio aa?o?aeo oeeo aea?aeaa aei ooai?aiiy aioe
iiiaieuenueeiai ai?iiiai nithco.

Eiee iie/eua Aaoey ?ooeee a Oai?ueio, Aeaieei iiaa?ioany ia ??aei?
caie?. Ooo eiai /aeaee ia o?eueee cia/i? aeaiia?ao?/i? ao?aoe, ?o?ie oa
caa?eua, a e /a?aiaa c?oeiaiiy c? naaa?eeyi aaeeoeueeeo aiy?, ye?
cai?ineee ia i?anoie ia??iiaoeiaiai /a?i?a?anueeiai eiyaee/a ?inoeneaaa.
( Iaea?aeaaoe 1245 ?. o aeoa? i?ae aaeeoeueeei i?noii ss?ineaaii
ia?aiiao iaae a?enueeaie ?inoeneaaa, Aeaieei ciiao a?aeiiaeth? ?aei?noue
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa.)(9) A oiio ae 1245 ?. eiycue
ciooaiee ?oaoe aei Cieioi? I?aee, uia iaea?aeaoe y?eee ia oi?aae?iiy
caieyie. Oi?iaeueii aecia/eaoe caeaaei?noue a?ae oaia, Aeaieei iaiaaaany
oei naiei aea?aoe /an aeey cae?aiiy nee oa i?aeaioiaee ae??oaeueiiai
oaea?o ii cieioi i?aeeioeyo. Aaia?ao?/ia a?aeaeaeai?noue a?ae I?aee
noai?thaaea aeey oeueiai ni?eyoeea? oiiae: nthaee iaeaea ia
iaa?aeoaaeeny oainuee? aaneaee, ooo ia i?iaiaeeeeny oioaeuei? ia?aiene
ianaeaiiy c iaoith iaeeaaeaiiy aeaieiith; aieiaiee iaia’ycie eiycy
iieyaaa eeoa o iaaeaii? oaio aeiiii?aeieo ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue i?ae /an
eiai iioiae?a ia Iieueuo oa Eeoao. Ca oeeo ianoaaei Aeaieei iaa ciiao
neiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao ia iineeaii? ai?caeaoiino?, aioo??oiueiio
ci?oeiaii? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? eiyc?anoaa.

Aiaeii/an c iie?oeeith aioo??oiueiai ci?oeiaiiy eiyc?anoaa Aeaieei
Aaeeoeueeee o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e noa?? iaiaaa?oueny ?aae?coaaoe nai?
ieaie uiaei noai?aiiy aioe i?aeeinueei? eiae?oe??. Eiycue ia o?eueee
i?eie?th?oueny, a e iaeaaiaeaeo? nithcieoeuee? a?aeiineie c? nai?ie
eieeoi?ie ai?iaaie – Iieueuath, Oai?ueiith oa Eeoaith. Oetha aei/ee
Aeaieea oa aieiaeeie?i-nocaeaeuenueeiai eiycy Aiae??y ss?ineaae/a,
iieiaeoiai a?aoa Ieaenaiae?a Iaanueeiai, ne??iea ai?iiee nithc aeaio
iaeaieeaia?oeo ?onueeeo eiyc?a.

Ia aeaeue, oe? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? e?iee aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiai eiycy
ia i?eaaee aei ooai?aiiy aioe i?aeeinueei? eiae?oe??.

Ii-ia?oa, iniiai? ?ioa?ane cao?aeieo non?ae?a Aeaieea aoee cina?aaeaeai?
ia Caoiae? , a ia ia Noiae?.

Ii-ae?oaa, 1252 ?. Cieioa I?aea caaaeaea nionoioeeaiai i?aaaioeaiiai
oaea?o ii Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueeiio eiyc?anoao, aiane?aeie yeiai
eiycue Aiae??e ao?aoea na?e no?e ? ao?e aei Oaaoe??. (Nei?enoaaoenue
ne?ooiei noaiiaeuai Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai, ?einueeee Iaia ?iieaio?e IV
iiia?oeya aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiio eiycth ?aaeueio aeiiiiiao a ai?iouea?
c cieioi i?aeeioeyie oa ei?ie?anueeo ei?iio ca oiiae oeeaaeaiiy oi??
?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae c eaoieeoeueeith i?ae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii
Iaie.)(10)

________________________________________________________________________
________________

9. I.Ae.Aieei. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, iin?aiee. – Ee?a, 1999 ?. – N. 77.

10. Oai naii. N.78.

Iaiaaath/enue aeei?enoaoe an? neee aeey ai?ioueae i?ioe ?aa, Aeaieei
iiaiaeaeo?oueny ia oe? oiiae, ? 1253 ?. o i?no? Aei?iai/ei?
a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai ei?iiaoe?y. O oeueiio ae ?ioe? Iaia ?einueeee
iaieioo? O?anoiaee iio?ae i?ioe oaoa?, aei o/ano? a yeiio caeeeeaa
Iieueuo, *ao?th, Iiia?ai?th oa Na?a?th. I?ioa /a?ac ieceo i?e/ei ieaie
ua iaeiiai o?anoiaiai iioiaeo oae ? caeeoeeeny iacae?eniaieie. Ia
a?ae/oaoe ?aaeueii? aeiiiiiae c aieo iainueei? eo???, Aeaieei ?ic?eaa?
oaiaeo c Aaoeeaiii ? anooia? o a?aee?eoo ca?ieio ai?ioueao ?c Cieioith
I?aeith.

Iai?ee?ioe? 1254 ?. Aeaieei Aaeeoeueeee ia?aeoia o ianooi i?ioe
a?enuee Eo?aine, yeee iaiaaaany ieoioaaoe aaeeoeueea Iiieccy. Aiane?aeie
aaeaeeo oa ??oo/eo ae?e eiycth aaeaeiny a?aeaithaaoe o ei/?aiee?a caie?
acaeiaae I?aaeaiiiai Aoao, Neo/? oa Oaoa?aaa. Aei eiai ieai?a aoiaeeei
aecaieaiiy Ee?aa, aea naia o oeae /an eeoianueeee eiycue I?iaeiaa
?ic?eaa? oeeaaeaiee 1254 ?. a?enueeiaee nithc, yeee aoei ne??ieaii
ca?o/aiiyi neia Aeaieea – Oaa?ii oa aei/ee I?i aeiaaa. Oea ??cei ci?ith?
neooaoe?th – i?ioyaii 1255- 1256 ??. aacia?a?aii o?eaa? i?ioenoiyiiy c
Eeoaith.

Ci?ieaoe neaaeiai Eo?aino ia aeina?ae/aiiai Ao?oiaeay, yeiai
e?oiienaoeue iaceaa? «aacaiaeiei, eeoei, ieayiiei», I?aea ?icii/eia?
1258 ?. iiaee ianiaaiee ianooi. Ia iath/e nee aeey i?ioeae??, Aeaieei
Aaeeoeueeee i?ae oeneii aeiia Ao?oiaeay aoa ciooaiee a?aeaeaoe iaeac i?i
cieuaiiy oe??ieaiue Aieiaeeie?a, Eooeueea, Eueaiaa, E?aiaioey, Aeaieeiaa
oa ?ioeo i?no. Caa?aaeeny eeoa iai?ioi? nii?oaee iai?enooiiiai Oieio.
Naia o oeueiio i?no? i?ney na?eicii? oai?iae 1264 ?. iiie?a? eiycue
Aeaieei.(11)

I?ney nia?o? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai ia?aeoei aei
?oe eiai a?aoa Aaneeueea, eio?iai ?aooa eiyc?a oaioaaea ye « iooey ?
ainiiaeeia». A Aaee/ei? eiyaeeee neie Aeaieea: Eaa – o Aaee/ei? e
Ia?aieoe?, Inoeneaa – o Oa?aaiae?, Oaa?ii – o Aaec? oa Oiei?.
Iai?ee?ioe? 13 no. ia Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeo caieth ciiao iaoenioea
Cieioa I?aea: oaie aeiaaaee o/ano? eiyc?a o nai?o iioiaeao oa nieaoe
aeaieie. Ia?aoiaey/e /a?ac Aieeiue oa Aaee/eio, i?aeeioe? a?aaoaaee
i?noa ? naea. Iniaeeai nionoioeeaei aoa ia?ao?ae /a?ac oe? caie? o 1288
?. i?aee oaia Oaeaaoae, yeee ?oia o iio?ae ia Iieueuo. I?ae
Aieiaeeie?ii-Aieeinueeei ? Eueaiaii, ienaa e?oiienaoeue, oaoa?e «/eieee
aaeeea ianeeuenoai», ethaeae «iaeieo iiaaeaaee, ?ioeo a?aaoaaee ? eiiae
a?aeae?aee». Eaa Aeaieeiae/ oa Aaneeueei aoee ia a ciic? aeaoe a?aen?/
I?ae?. Aei oiai ae o oeeo ne?ooieo oiiaao i?ae Eaaii Aeaieeiae/ai oa
?ioeie eiycyie ii/aeeny noia?a/ee, iniaeeai i?ae Eaaii ? Oaa?ii – ca
a?ei?onuee? caie?, /anoeiith yeeo aieiae?a Oaa?ii. Ao?o/aany Eaa ? a
iieuenuee? ni?aae: aeei?enoiaoth/e a nai?o iioiaeao ia Iieueuo caaiie
nithciee?a-oaoa?, ia aeayeee /an (aei 1302 ?.) caoiiea Ethae?iueio. Eaa
oiaeea ? ia Oai?ueio e i?e?aeiaa aei nai?o aieiae?iue /anoeio
Caea?iaooy. 1270 ?ieo Aaneeueei iiia?, ia?aaeaaoe ia?aae nia?oth Aieeiue
nai?io neiia? Aieiaeeie?ia?(12).

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11. Eo?n eaeoe?e. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1991 ?. – N. 75.

12. I.Ae.Aieei. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, iin?aiee. – Ee?a, 199?. – N. 79.

Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueeiae/ iaei caeiaany ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieie ni?aaaie
? caeeoea ii nia? iai’youe ye iie?iaeoaeue ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e. «A?i ai?a
ynii aiai?eoe i?i eieaei? ni?aae, aoa eieaeiee ? aaeeeee o?einio, yeiai
ia aoei ia?aae iei o oe?e?e caie?…», — ienaa i?i iueiai e?oiienaoeue.
Eeoa a na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a Aieiaeeie? cae?eniea iio?ae ia yoaya?a. O
1289 ?. a?i iiia?, a iacaaa?ii iiia?ee Eaa (1301 ?.) ? Inoeneaa
Aeaieeiae/?. Aaeeoeueea oa Aieeinueea caie? ciiao ia’?aeiaeeny a ?oeao
TH??y Eueaiae/a, eio?ee oeooeoaaany «ei?ieai ?on? e eiycai
Aieiaeeie???». sse ? Aeaieei, TH??e a?a ia?aaiai?e c iaiith i?i oi?th,
aea iaiaaaiiy Aaoeeaio cai?iaaaeeoe oi?th ia ?on? oni?oo ia iaee. C
iaoith ci?oeiaiiy naiai noaiiaeua TH??e o 1303 ?. aeiaeany ooai?aiiy
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueei? ieo?iiie??.

Ei?ioei/ania i?aae?iiy ei?iey TH??y Eueaiae/a a?aeaoaaeiny ca
neeaaeieo i?aeia?iaeieo ianoaaei. A?i a?aeiiaeany a?ae ai?ioueae ca
oai?nueeo niaaeueio, i?aeo?eioth/e iaeiiai c i?aoaiaeaio?a –
aaaa?nueeiai aa?oeiaa Iooi. Iieueu? aoei iiaa?iaii Ethae?inueeo caieth
(1302). Oe? caoiaee, a oaeiae nithc c Oaaoiinueeei i?aeaiii, aeiiiiiaee
eiio caa?aaoe niie?e ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao ? eiioeaio?oaaoe an? neee
i?ioe i?aeeioe?a.

Aeecueeee ni?aoiee ei?iey TH??y ?aoiai iaeiiai c iiianoe??a Iao?i
?ioainueeee, iineaiee ii nia?o? ieo?iiieeoa ee?anueeiai, aea caiaeii
ia?a?oaa aei Iineae I?ci?oa ae?yeuei?noue ieo?iiieeoa Iao?a (1308 –
1326), eaiii?ciaaiiai i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith, ni?eyea i?aeianaiith
Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa.

Aeaoa nia?o? ei?iey TH??y caeeoa?oueny aeeneon?eiith. Aeaye?
aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui a?i iiia? 1315 ?(13). Oeae i?aaeoaeue aoa
a?aeiei iauaaeeii ?iiaia, Aeaieea oa Eaaa. I?e iueiio
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa ia?aaeeea inoaii?e ia??iae nai??
iiaooiino?.

Ae?yeuei?noue iaio inoaii?o eiyc?a c aeeiano?? ?iiaiiae/?a – Aiae??y
oa Eaaa TH??eiae/?a – iiaia caaaaeie. Iaa?oue noiniaii noieeoeue oeeo
eiyc?a o?eaa? aeeneon?y. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiith ? aa?n?y, ui noa?oee
Aiae??e o?eiaa Aaeeoeueea ei?ie?anoai ? Aieiaeeie?nueea eiyc?anoai, a
iieiaeoee Eaa – Eooeueea eiyc?anoai.

Aiae??e oa Eaa TH??eiae/? ia?aaoaaee a o?niiio nithc? c Oaaoiinueeei
i?aeaiii, iiaeeeai, oaeiae ? c aeiaianueeeie eiycyie o N?eac??. C
aeiiiiiaith oeeo nithc?a aiie no?eioaaee aeoeai?noue Iieueu?. Aieiaiei
?o i?ioeaieeii caeeoaeany Cieioa I?aea, yea ia oio?ea ie?eoeny c
ao?aoith oaeiai aanaea, ye Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa. Naia /a?ac
oa, ui ?oi? neee aoee caae?yi? o ai?iouea? i?ioe i?aeeioe?a, eiyc? ia
ciiaee ao?o/aoeny o ai?ioueao ca oai?nueeo niaaeueio ? ia i?aeo?eiaee
iianoaiiy caea?iaonueeeo oaiaeae?a 1315 -1321 ??., aiane?aeie /iai aoee
ao?a/ai? aieiae?iiy o Caea?iaoo?.

Noaiiaeua oneeaaeieeiny oaeiae eiio?iioaoe??th c Eeoaith, i?i yeo
caeeoeeeny caieooai? a?aeiiino? a aeaea?aeao. ?? aaeaeiny caaneoe ie?ii,
ne??ieaiei oethaii Ethaa?oa Aaaeei?iiae/a c aei/eith Eueaa TH??eiae/a
(1322). Iaeaeaa eiyc?, eiia??ii, caaeioee ia ii/aoeo 1323 ?. o ai?iouea?
c i?aeeioeyie.

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13. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. A?aei. ?aae. TH.Neeaea. – Euea?a, 2003 ?. – N. 96.

?iiaiiae/? aoee nii??aeiai? c on?ia non?aei?ie aeeiano?yie.
Niaaeei?ioeyie aaaaeaee naaa oai?nueeee oa iieuenueeee ei?ie?, iecea
iieuenueeeo eiyc?a, iaa?oue aeaeae? eiyc? Aeiaianuee?. A?eueoa i?aa iaa
cyoue inoaii?o ?iiaiiae/?a Ethaa?o-

Aeieo?i Aaaeei?iiae/, aea a?i aoa iaaeoi thiei. Eeoaa ua ia aoea
aioiaith aei ai?ioueae, oiio iini?oeea aeiiiaeoeny c oaiii Cieioi? I?aee
Ocaaeii. Neee inoaiiueiai aoee caae?yi? ia Noiae? ? a?i oaae ia aoa
aioiaee ao?ooeoeny o ai?ioueao ca niaaeueio ?iiaiiae/?a. Aea
aeiiiaeai?noue Eeoae c I?aeith a?ae?a?aea naith ?ieue. Aiane?aeie
eiii?ii?no aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeei eiycai noaa Aieaneaa O?ieaeaiiae/,
ieai?iiee Aiae??y oa Eueaa TH??eiae/?a, nei oae?eueiiai iaciaaoeueeiai
eiycy O?ieaeaia ? aei/ee ei?iey TH??y Eueaiae/a Ia???.

Aieaneaa O?ieaeaiiae/ ia?aeoia o i?aaineaa’y ? iin?a i?anoie i?ae
?iaiai TH??y. Oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui TH??e II ia aoa iieuenueeith
ia??iiaoeith, a i?iaaaeea aeanio iie?oeeo. Ii?icoi?iiy c Eeoaith aoei
cae??ieaia 1331 ?. eiai oethaii c Ioeith-?aoei??th Aaaeei?i?aiith.
Ethaa?o io?eiaa oae?e o No?aei?e Aieei? c oeaio?ii o Ethaa??. TH??e II
i?aeo?eioaaa o?aaeeoe?eiee nithc c i?ioeaieeii Iieueu? Oaaoiinueeei
I?aeaiii, noa?aany aeiiiaeoeny c i?aeeioeyie. O 1337 ?. TH??e c
i?aeeinueeith aeiiiiiaith iaiaa ia Ethae?inueeo caieth ? o?eiaa Ethae?i
A iaeic? aeaaiaaeoeyoue aei?a.

Ianiiae?aaia nia?oue TH??y II 1340 ?. iaea?eueoa aoea aea?aeia
iieuenueeiio ei?ieaa?. Eaceie? III iaaaeii aoi?any o
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeo aea?aeaao ? ae?eoia aae aei Eueaiaa. Aa?n?y i?i
io?o?iiy eiycy aiy?aie ca eiai i?eoeeuei?noue aei ?iicaioe?a ia
aeaeyaea? ia?aeiieeai. ?iicaioe? noaiiaeee cia/io /anoeio ianaeaiiy
aaeeeeo i?no, aei oeueiai ia oie /an aaea an? caeeee. I?ney caaeaae?
TH??y II ?icii/aany ia??iae aeeaiei? e?ece Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei?
aea?aeaae ? ai?ioueae ca ?? caa?aaeaiiy oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Aaeeoeueei-aieeinuee? eiyc? iaee oae? iciaee (ao?eaooe) aeaaee:
«a?iaoeue» (ei?iio), aa?a aea?aeaaio ia/aoeo, i?aii?. I?ae aieeaii
ca’yce?a ?c cao?aeieie aea?aeaaaie oe? iciaee aeaaee iaaoee a
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiio eiyc?anoa? iniaeeaiai ?icaeoeo. C ii/aoeo 14 no.
aa?aii Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae ooaa?aeaeo?oueny cia?aaeaiiy
cieioiai eaaa ia neiueiio u?o?. Oaea cia?aaeaiiy aia?oa ciaoiaeeii ia
ia/ao? TH??y Eueaiae/a, a oaeiae ia ia/aooe?, i?ee??ieai?e aei a?aiioe
eiyc?a Aiae??y ? Eaaa, aeaoiaaii? 1316 ?. Eaa ye aea?aeaaiee aa?a ? e ia
ia/aooe? Ethaa?oa – i?aaeoaey Aieei?, yeee aaaaeaa naaa niaaeei?ioeai
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa. I?aii?ii-ei?iaaith eiyc?anoaa aoei
nei? iieioieua ?c cia?aaeaiiyi eaaa.

Any eiyc?anueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y oo?eioaaeany ca ?aooiie eiyaeeo
caiaeueieo iiaea?oaaiue.

Aaee/eia ? Aieeiue iiae?eyeeny ia ?yae eiyc?anoa – caiaeue, a
inoaii? – ia aieino?, oeaio?aie yeeo aoee i?noa-ai?iaee. Oi?aaeoaeue
aieinoae i?ecia/aa eiycue ?c /enea aaeeeeo aiy?.

I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie 13 – ia?oi? o?aoeie 14 no.
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa aeinyaea aenieiai ??aiy iie?oe/ii? oa
a?enueeiai? iiaooiino?.

3. ?ieue Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?.

Ee?anueea ?onue caeeoaeanue ia’?aeiaiith aea?aeaaith i?eaeecii aei
1132 ?. I?ci?oa eiyc?anoaa ii/eiathoue i?iaiaeeoe naith aioo??oith ?
ciai?oith iie?oeeo ii??aiyii naiino?eii.

?ieiee ci?oeiaiiy eiyc?anoa iaceaathoue «?iciaaeii» Ee?anueei? ?on?.
Oea ia oi/ii ia?aaea? nooue ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e o??? aeiae: aecia/aeueiei
aoa ia ?iciaae, a iaaiaee, a?eueo no?eea, coiiaeaia aeiiii?/iei ?
iie?oe/iei ?icaeoeii canaeaieo nii??aeiaiei ianaeaiiyi oa?ai?a,
aoiaeaeaiiy yeeo aei Ee?anueei? ?on? ?ai?oa ia iaei aeinoaoiuei o?eaei?
iniiae.

Iniiaiith oa?eoi???th Aaeeoeueeiai eiyc?anoaa aoee oa?aie
oi?aaonueeeo ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei? ie?a?ie caie? oeaa?oe?a. O?eaaei
caii/aoeiaaia ?ai?oa aca?iia caeeaeaiiy i?ioeoe?a?inueeeo ieai?iieo
a?oi, cie?aia iieyi, n?aa?yi, aeoe?a?a, oi?aao?a, oee/?a, oeaa?oe?a.
Oeueiio ni?eyee nii??aeiai?noue iiae ? iiaooo, aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy,
aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i? oa eoeueoo?i? ca’ycee.

13 noi??//y aoei ia?aeiiiei a ?noi??? aaaaoueio e?a?i ? ia?iae?a. O
oiai/ani?e Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ia?aeaeueii c? ci?oeiaiiyi ei?ie?anueei?
aeaaee a?aeaoeiny oi?ioaaiiy noaiiai? iiia?o??, yea caaacia/oaaea
th?eaee/ia i?aeaea?aeaiiy i?aa ? ?ie? o aea?aeaa? aaeeeeo
caieaaeaniee?a-oaiaeae?a ?, iaaiith i??ith, i?uai. Ia i?eeeaae?
caa?aaeaieo aeaea?ae, ui noinothoueny Ee?aueie ? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai
eiyc?anoaa, aeaeii, yeee ?noioiee aieea ia aea?aeaai? ni?aae iaee
aiy?nuee? ?iaee, a iiaeaeoaee e /anoeia i?noee?a – caiiaeii? aa?o?aee
i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy, ianaiia?aae eoioe?a. Ia noi??iee e?oiieno
iio?aieyee ianaiia?aae a?aeiiino? i?i caiaeeo ai?ioueao eiyc?a c
aiy?nueeeie oa?oioaaiiyie, ui ?iaeee noaaeo ia ??cieo eiyc?a. Oni?oe /e
ii?acea ie?aieo eiyc?a o i?aeoniai?e ai?iouea? cia/iith i??ith
aecia/aeeny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi nee ?aa?iiaeueieo eiyc?anueei-aiy?nueeeo
eiae?oe?e. C?icoi?ei, ui iica ia??iaeaie eiioe?eo?a eiyc?anueea aeaaea
oaeiae aoea ciooaia ?aooaaoeny c ?ioa?anaie oeo aiy?, c yeeo oi?ioaaeany
aea?aeaaia aaei?i?no?aoe?y oa a?enueeiaa eiiaiaeoaaiiy. A?eueoa oiai
eiioe?eo c iaei??th a?oiith aiy? cioooaaa eiyc? eoe ia iaai?, a?eueo? /e
iaio?, iinooiee ?ioei. ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui eiycy, uiiaeiaioa c 13
no. aeieoiaioaeueii cae??ieyee ca aaeeeeie caieaaeanieeaie ?oi?
aieiae?iiy. A?aeii? e aeiaaeee cae??ieaiiy iaeiiaeo i?aa ca i?noe/aie, a
th?eaee/ieo – ? ca ie?aieie i?nueeeie a?iiaaeaie. Iaeiae iaa?yae /e
aa?oi aiai?eoe i?i /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?aa aeaniino? ? iie?oe/ii?
aeaaee; caaaeuei? i?aaia? aeoe, ui aecia/aee a noaoon ? caaaeuei?
noaiia? i?aaa aiy?noaa /e i?noee?a, ia a?aeii?. I?ioa c’yaeeeny aaea
a?aiioe, ye? ?aaoethaaee i?aaa ? iiaeiiino? ie?aieo i?no. Oe?eeii
iiaeeeai, ui i?ia?an th?eaee/iiai ioi?ieaiiy noaiiai? iiia?o??
?icai?ioany a ? o Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinuee?e aea?aeaa? oa ?ioeo eiyc?anoaao,
yeae ?oi?e ?icaeoie ia aoei ia?a?aaii iiiaieuenueeith iaaaeith.

Aioo??oiy eiinie?aeaoe?y eiyc?anoaa noaea ia?aaeoiiaith eiai
aeoeaii? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. Aaaeeeaei ao?eaooii aea?aeaaiino?
eiyc?anoa, neeaaeiaith iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e aoea aeeieiiao?y, yea
ea?oaaeany iaaieie th?eaee/ieie ii?iaie, i?aaeeaie aoeeaoo. I/iethaaa
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io ae?yeuei?noue eiycue, yeee i?e ae??oaii? aaaeeeaeo
ieoaiue a?aoiaoaaa aeoieo aiy?nueei? ?aaee. Ia?aaiai?e aaeeny /a?ac
iine?a aai i?e iniaenoeo cono??/ao eiyc?a-?th?eeiae/?a. Iaaiai?thaaeeny
oa?eoi??aeuei? nii?e, ia??aeei oeeaaeaeeny oni? aai ienueiia? oaiaee.

Ci?oeiaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aaoi?eoaoo Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai
eiyc?anoaa aieeioei ? ia ?icaeoie iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. Aei iiiaieuenueei?
iaaaee /a?i?a?anuee? ? aieeinuee? eiyc? ciaaaeeny i?ae niaith ca oa, ooi
i/ieeoue eiinie?aeaoe?th eiyc?anoa ? caiaeue. Iaoii?noue o i?ney
iiiaieuenueeo aeiao ca i?aae?iiy Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai ? eiai
niaaeei?ioe?a ia ?ieue i?iaeiaaeoaa/a o?aaeeoe?e aeaaiueiai Ee?aa iiaea
i?aoaiaeoaaoe aaea o?eueee Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea-Oieinueea aea?aeaaa.
Naia oeei coiiaeth?oueny ?? ?ieue a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

Caeiaooee ?onueei? eoeueoo?e ae?oai? iieiaeie 13 – 14 no. a?ae?a?aee
aaaeeeao ?ieue o ianooiiee ia??iae, o /ane oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo – a oiiaao iaioaaiiy ia Oe?a?i? iieuenueeeo ?
eeoianueeeo oaiaeae?a. Eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe?? Aeaaiuei? ?on? aeiiiiaaaee
oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia? caa??aaoe oa ?icaeaaoe naith iaoe?iiaeueio
eoeueoo?o.

Ioaea, aoaeo/e aaciina?aaei?i niaaeei?ioeai Ee?anueei? ?on?,
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai a?ae?a?aei iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao ?ieue
a ?noi???:

— caa?aaei a?ae caaithaaiiy oa anei?eyoe?? i?aaeaiio oa cao?aeio
a?eee no?aeiiai neia’yinoaa, ni?eyei ?oi?e eiinie?aeaoe?? oa
ona?aeiieaiith aeanii? naiiaooiino?;

— noaei iiaei i?ney caiaiaaeo Ee?aa oeaio?ii iie?oe/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy;

— iiaea?i?coaaei aeaaiuei?onueeo aea?aeaaio i?aai?caoe?th;

— ?icoe?eei noa?o ae?? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, ni?eyei
iinooiiaiio iiaeieaiith iaeiia?/iino? a?caio?enueeiai aieeao;

— i?iaeiaaeeei neaai? aeeieiiaoe/i? o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on?, ui
100 ?ie?a i?ney noaiiaeaiiy cieioii?aeeinueeiai ?aa c /anoth
i?aaenoaaeyei no?aeiineaayinueeo aea?aeaai?noue ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

Aeniiaie.

Ia??iae oaiaeaeueii? ?icae?iaeaiino? aoa caeiiii??iei aoaiii
?icaeoeo Aeaaiuei? ?on? 12 – 14 no. I?ioa ia ae?oaiio aoai? oeueiai
ia??iaeo – a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 13- 14 no. – ia iniia? aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee noni?euenoaa (c?inoaiiy i?no) ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
aaeeei? oaiaeaeueii? aeaniino? ?icaeaathoueny neee oeaio?ae?caoe??,
iin?yie yeeo aoee na?aaei? e ae??ai? oaiaeaee (ae??ai? aiy?e,
«ieeinoieee») oa ai?iaeyie. Oea i?eaiaeeei aei ooai?aiiy ?aeeieo
aea?aeaa. Cacia/ai? i?ioeane a?aeaoaaeeny ? ia I?aaeaiii-Cao?aei?e ?on?.
Aiie aeyaeeeny o i?aeianaii? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae oa
ci?oeiaii? aeaaee aaeeeeo eiyc?a (Aeaieea ?iiaiiae/a, TH??y Eueaiae/a).
Aeaaea aaeeeiai eiycy iineethaaeany a iino?ei?e ai?iouea? i?ioe
aieeaiaiai aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiai aiy?noaa.

Caaaeii i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie 13 no. – ia?oi? o?aoeie 14 no.
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai aeinyaei cia/iiai ??aiy iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo, eiai caeaaei?noue a?ae I?aee aoea neaaoith, i?ae eiyc?anoa
I?ai?/ii-No?aeii? ?on?. Iaeiae a?aeiinia neaae?noue nee oeaio?ae?caoe??,
i?eieiaiiy eiyaei? aeeiano??, a??ieiiia iie?oeea I?aee – ana oea
ni?e/eieeiny aei oiai, ui eiyc?anoai noaei ia’?eoii aa?an?? c aieo
non?aei?o aea?aeaa – Iieueu?, Oai?ueie oa Eeoae, ye? ia?aoai?eeeny a
oeae /an ia neeuei?, oeaio?ae?ciaai? iaoe?iiaeuei? aea?aeaae. C?aooith,
o 40 – 60-o ?ieao 14 no. iie?oe/ii ?ic’?aeiai? caie? I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii?
?on? i?aeiaaeaee i?ae aeaaeo Iieuenueeiai ei?ie?anoaa ? Aaeeeiai
eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai. Iaeiae ? a iaaeao Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae
aaoiiii?y Aieei? oa Ee?anueeiai eiyc?anoaa caa??aaeany.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a.

1. Aieei. I.Ae. – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, iin?aiee. – Ee?a, 1999 ?.

2. A?aei. ?aae. TH.Neeaea. – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Euea?a, 2003.

3. Eo?n eaeoe?e. – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1991 ?.

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