I?i?noa?noai ina?oe ? iaoee Oe?a?ie

I?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao ?icaeoeo Ethaeeie «Oe?a?ia»

Oaia eiio?ieueii? ?iaioe:

«Ai?a?aoe?y oe?a?ioe?a o e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.»

Na?ie 2006

Ieai

1. I?e/eie oa oa?aeoa? ai?a?aoe??.

2. Iai?yi ai?a?aoe?? oa ?? iane?aeee.

3. Aeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aio?a.

1. I?e/eie ? oa?aeoa? ai?a?aoe??

A ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e i?inoaaeothoueny
/ioe?e oaee? ianiaiai ia?anaeainueeiai ?ooo c Oe?a?ie. Ia?oa oaeey
ai?a?aoe?? c Oe?a?ie, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee yei? ioiieththoue ia??iae c
inoaiiuei? /aa?o? O?O noie?ooy aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, aoea
coiiaeaia ia?aaaaeii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?e/eiaie. Ae?oaee ianiaee
a?aeo?e /anoeie ianaeaiiy ca iaae? nai?? aaouee?aueie i?eiaaea? ia
ia??iae i?ae aeaiia na?oiaeie a?eiaie ? aoa aeeeeeaiee ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie, oae ? iie?oe/ieie ianoaaeiaie. Ae?oaa na?oiaa
a?eia oa ?? iane?aeee aeeeeeaee o?aoth oaeeth ianiai? oe?a?inueei?
ai?a?aoe??, iaeaea aeiyoeiai iie?oe/io. *aoaa?oa oaeey i?a?aoe??
i?eiaaea? ia e?iaoeue OO no. ? ia?, ia?aaeon?i, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
oa?aeoa?. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a ai?a?aoe?eiee iio?e c Oe?a?ie aei
aeayeeo e?a?i (cie?aia, Eaiaaee, NOA) ci?ith?oueny ye?nii: aeaaeae?
c?inoa? /anoea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?ioae?aaioe?? (ye i?aaeei, oea oao?aoe?
a oaeeo aaeocyo ye nenoaiiee aiae?c, i?ia?aioaaiiy, a?ieia?y, iia?
iaoa??aee, eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y).

C ?iciaaeii N?N? ? ooai?aiiyi ia eiai i?inoi?ao iiaeo noaa?aiieo
aea?aeaa, oe?a?inuee? aoi?/i? iaioeie, ye? noi?ioaaeeny a oeeo e?a?iao a
?acoeueoao? ia?ai?uaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, ui i?aeoeeoaaeeny
oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii, ia?aeoee ia noaiiaeua caei?aeiiieo. Aeieeei, ii
noo?, iiaa nioe?aeueia yaeua – no?aeia oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a.

Oiane?aeie i?aeaea?aeaaieo oa?eoi??aeueieo iiae?e?a OO noie?ooy /anoeia
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino iieieeany ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie. Oey eaoaai??y
caei?aeiiieo oe?a?ioe?a iaeaaeeoue aei aaoiooiiieo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei
iecee e?a?i ?a?iie (Iieueua, Neiaa//eia, A?ei?onue, ?oioi?y,
I?eaei?no?ianueeee ?aa?ii Iieaeiae, i?eei?aeiii? iaeano? ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??).

Iei? /enei in?a oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ca iaaeaie
Oe?a?ie, ca i?eaeecieie i?ae?aooieaie, noaiiaeoue a?ae 16 aei 20
i?eueeii?a.

Iaea?eueoa caei?aeiiieo oe?a?ioe?a i?iaeeaa? a ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe??.
Ca ?acoeueoaoaie Ana?in?enueeiai ia?aieno 2002 ?ieo ?o /enaeuei?noue
neeaaea? 2 943 471 in?a — a?iiaaeyi ?O, ye? ?aeaioeo?eothoue naaa ye
aoi?/i? oe?a?ioe?. I?ioa ca?aeii c iaio?oe?eiith noaoenoeeith,
/enaeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? iaioeie a ?in?? nyaa? iiiaae 10 iei. in?a.
Oae, ua e?eueea ?ie?a oiio ?in?enuee? aeaiia?aoe ioae?/ii aeaeea?oaaee
oaeo i?iaeeaaiiy a e?a?i? aeecueei 8-10 iei. ?in?enueeeo a?iiaaeyi
oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Iiiaae 1 i?eueeii 27 oeny/ a?iiaaeyi oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
i?iaeeaa? a Eaiaae?, a?aeiia?aeii aei ia?aieno ianaeaiiy a oe?e e?a?i? o
2001 ?ioe?.

*enaeuei?noue in?a oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy a NOA, ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ia?aieno ianaeaiiy o 2002 ?., nyaa? aeecueei 900 oeny/. I?ioa aeaye?
aia?eeainuee? aeaiia?aoe aaaaeathoue, ui ?aaeueia /enei i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a NOA noaiiaeoue a?ae 1,5 aei 2 i?eueeii?a in?a.

Na?aae e?a?i i?iaeeaaiiy iaea?eueoeo oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaae ca?oa?aeaey –
Iieaeiaa (660 oeny/ in?a), Eacaonoai (550 oeny/), A?acee?y (500 oeny/),
A?aaioeia (300-350 oeny/), A?ei?onue (237 oeny/; ca oaa?aeaeaiiyie
ea??aiee?a oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaee a oe?e e?a?i?, eeoa a A?anonuee?e
iaeano? – eieeoiueiio aoiia?ao?/iiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie – Aa?anoaeueia
i?iaeeaa? aeecueei i?ai?eueeiia aoi?/ieo oe?a?ioe?a), Ocaaeenoai (iiiaae
100 oeny/).

*enaeuei? oe?a?inuee? a?iiaaee i?iaeeaathoue oaeiae o ?oioi?? (iiiaae 61
oeny/a), Eaoa?? (aeecueei 60 oeny/), Ee?aecnoai? (aei 46 oeny/), Iieueu?
(aeecueei 40 oeny/ ca io?oe?eiith noaoenoeeith, ca iaio?oe?eiith –
iiiaae 200 oeny/), Neiaa//ei? (aeecueei 35 oeny/), A?oc?? (aeecueei 35
oeny/), Aano?ae?? (iiiaae 34 oeny/?), Aaeee?e A?eoai??, (aeecueei 30
oeny/), O?aioe?? (aeecueei 30 oeny/), I?ia//ei? (30 oeny/),
Aca?aaeaeaeai? (29 oeny/), Anoii?? (28 oeny/), *ao?? (iiiaae 22 oen.),
Eeoa? (22 oeny/?), Na?a?? ? *i?iiai??? (iiiaae 20 oeny/), Oo?eiai?noai?
(17 oeny/), Oai?uei? (iiiaae 6 oeny/), Aini?? ? Aa?oeaaiaei? (aeecueei 5
oeny/), Oi?aao?? (4,3 oen.), Oaaeaeeeenoai? (4 oeny/?), Aano??? (3
oeny/?), A??iai?? (iiiaae 2 oeny/?), Aieaa??? (aeecueei 1,5 oeny/?).

Aiaeii/an aaeeea e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaeyi – i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? oei/aniai? o?oaeiai? i?a?aoe?? cina?aaeaeaia a oaeeo
e?a?iao ye ?niai?y (iiiaae 80 oeny/), Ii?ooaae?y (aeecueei 60 oeny/),
A?aoe?y (iiiaae 30 oeny/), a oaeiae ?ioeo aea?aeaaao. O?yae Oe?a?ie
aeieeaaea? coneeue aeey caaacia/aiiy caeiiieo i?aa e ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi
Oe?a?ie, ye? i?aoeththoue o e?a?iao ?a?iie. Aaaeeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaiaeaeaiith iaoai?ci?a eaaaeueiiai i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaeyi o oeeo e?a?iao, iineeaiith ?o nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, ?icoe?th?oueny a?aeiia?aeia aeainoi?iiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa
aaca.

Ii??aiyii c ?ioeie na?oiaeie ae?anii?aie, oe?a?inuee? a?iiaaee iathoue
iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ??cieo a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue (ca i?eaeecieie
i?ae?aooieaie – aeecueei 3 oeny/). Iaea?eueoa ?o o Eaiaae? – iaeaea
oeny/a ina?aaee?a – iie?oe/ieo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, i?ioan?eieo
(ia’?aeiaiiy e?ea??a, a/eoae?a, ?iaeaia??a, aaeaieao?a ? o.i.),
ae?ii/eo, iieiae?aeieo oiui.

I?aeia?iaeiith oe?a?inueeith i?aai?caoe??th ? Na?oiaee eiia?an
Oe?a?ioe?a (NEO), yeee ia’?aeio? aeecueei 50 aaeeeeo i?aai?caoe?e –
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaeaea c 30 aea?aeaa. Caaaeii on? ia’?aeiaiiy
ioiieththoue o eiaei?e c e?a?i i?iaeeaaiiy a?ae 20 aei 30 a?aenioe?a
on??? /enaeueiino? eiaeii? c oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaae.

A iecoe? aea?aeaa No?aeii? ? /anoeiai Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae a
e?a?iao Aaeo?? iie?oeei-i?aaiaee noaoon oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaee cae??ieaii
caeiiiaeaa/i ye iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie. Oea caaacia/o? nooo?ao
aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo coneeue i?noeaaeo oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaae uiaei
caa?aaeaiiy nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?, io?eiaiiy ina?oe oa
?ioi?iaoe?? ??aeiith iiaith oiui. A e?a?iao, aea oe?a?inueea a?iiaaea ia
ia? noaoono iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie, caaacia/aiiy ??
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa ? ni?aaith aaaeaiiy e i?aai?caoe?eieo
coneeue aoi?/ieo oe?a?ioe?a, ye? i?iaeeaathoue o oeeo e?a?iao.

Ieoaiiy caaeiaieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa oe?a?ioe?a ca
ei?aeiiii ? i?aaeiaoii aeainoi?iii?o i?aeaea?aeaaieo ia?aaiai??a ia an?o
??aiyo. Ca?eueoo?oueny /enei aeainoi?iii?o oaiae, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
?aae?caoe?th eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oa ?ioeo caieo?a oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e. Noai?ththoueny aeainoi?iii? ci?oai? i?aeo?yaeia? eii?n?? c
ieoaiue caaacia/aiiy i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea uiaei a?aeiinei ?c caei?aeiiiei oe?a?inoaii
aaco?oueny ia oaeeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeoao: Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie,
Oeac I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie „I?i Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio „Caei?aeiiia
oe?a?inoai” ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo” a?ae 24 aa?aniy 2001 ?ieo, Caeii
Oe?a?ie „I?i i?aaiaee noaoon caei?aeiiieo oe?a?ioe?a”, i?eeiyoee
Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie 4 aa?aciy 2004 ?ieo. E??i oiai, caaa?oo?oueny
?iaioa iaae i?iaeoaie caeii?a Oe?a?ie „I?i eiioeaioe?th iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee uiaei caei?aeiiiiai oe?a?inoaa” oa „I?i eiioeaioe?th
aea?aeaaii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee”.

2. Iai?yi ai?a?aoe?? oa ?? iane?aeee

Ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX – ii/aoie XX noie?ooy aoee a?aecia/ai? ianiaith
i?a?aoe??th oe?a?inueeeo naeyi, ye? ia?aaoaaee o neeaae? ?in?enueei?
?iia???. Iinaeyeenue aiie ia?aaaaeii ia ?? ieieeoeyo: ia Eaaeac?, a
Na?aaei?e Ac??, Iiai?in??, ia Aeaeaeiio Noiae? oa o Nea??o. Oae
iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. aeaeaei ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie c’yaeythoueny oe?a?inuee?
iacae iinaeaiue: Iieoaanueea, *a?i?a?anueea, Oe?a?inueea, Iiai-Ee?anueea
oa ?io?.

A?eueo?noue naeyi ciooaia aoea caeeoeoe ??aei? i?noey /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue caie? /e iaiao?aeieo cania?a aeey ?nioaaiiy. Oi/a aa?oi
cacia/eoe, ui na?aae ai?a?aio?a aoee e caiiaei?, aea ca na?ae/aiiyie
?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae oaeeo aoei aeoaea iaei.

?in?enueeee o?yae ca aeiiiiiaith ia?anaeaiiy iaiaaaany inai?oe oe?eeii?
caie? ieieeoeue ?iia??? ? ?acii c oei oi/ yeithnue i??ith ciaioeoe
“caiaeueiee aieiae”, ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy “caeaei” ?iai/ei ?oeai.
Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeiny ca?eueoaiith ? ci?oeiaiith ?in?enueeiai
ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai a e?euee?nii iacia/ieo i?noeaainoyo.

Ia aoea aeiyoeii a oeueiio ieai? ? Oe?a?ia. Naeyie, ye? iaee iai??
inaeeoeny a iaiaaeeoeo ieieeoeyo ?iia???, io?eioaaee iaai? i?eueae.
Aieiai? c ieo: ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiaeaoe?a, cie?aia o Nea??o ia 3 ?iee.
Ia oeae aea /an ca?eueiyeeny a?ae neoaeae a a?i?? iniae i?eciaiiai a?eo.
Ia?anaeaioeyi iaaeaaaany caiaeueiee iaae?e. Aiie ua iaee i?aai ia
i?eueaiaee ia?a?cae, e?aaeeoe, aea ia an? iio?aaoth/? iiaee ?o io?eiaoe.
Iai?eeeaae, o Oiinuee?e aoaa?i?? ca ia??iae c 1 aeiaoiy ii 1 n?/iy 1898
?ieo ?c 2115 i?ioaiue a?ae n?iae e?aaeeo aoa iaaeaiee 1064 n?i’yi.
Ia?anaeyeeny ia?aaeon?i o?, ooi iaa caiuaaeaeaiiy. “Aaaeaieie ?
ei?enieie aeey Nea??o” aoee o? n?i’?, ye? iaee aeinoaoiuei eioo?a ? ia
“iaoyaeai? aaeeeith e?euee?noth ae?oae /e ?iaee/aie iioeeiai a?eo”.

C ii/aoeo XX no. ai?a?aoe?y oe?a?inueeeo naeyi iaaoaa? a?eueoiai
?iciaoo. Ni?eyea oeueiio oaeiae io?oe?eia iie?oeea o?yaeo, cie?aia
caeiie 1904 ? 1906 ?ie?a, ye? oaeoe/ii noeioethaaee ia?anaeainueeee ?oo.
O oe?eiio a ?a?iiaenuee?e /anoei? oa?eoi??y eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a cia/ii ia?aaaaeaea oa?eoi???, aea eiiiaeoii i?iaeeaaee
?in?yie. Oea?nueeee o?yae ?icoi?th/e, ui ?iaioa a aaeoc? aeaiia?ao?/ii?
naeaeoe?? cia/ii “caiouaia”, i?eeia? aaci?aoeaaeaioio ca ?ici??aie
i?ia?aio ia?anaeaiiy. Ca oe??th i?ia?aiith, i?ioyaii 1896-1914 ??. c
aeaa’yoe oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e aei Nea??o ? ia Aeaeaeee No?ae
ia?anaeeeiny iiiaae 1 iei. 619 oen. oe?a?ioe?a.

Nea?? noaa ae?oaith “aaouee?aueiith” oe?a?ioe?a. Canaeaiiy Nea??o
oe?a?ioeyie, yea aeoeaii ?icii/aeiny c ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no., ??cei
?ioaineo?eoaaeiny i?ney nii?oaeaeaiiy O?ainnea??nueei? iaa?no?ae?
(1895-1905 ??.). C oiai /ano oe?a?ioe? naeeeeny iiaeeco oe???
cae?cieoe?, ia?aaaaeii a naeao, ? caeiaeeny caiea?ianoaii ?
oaa?eiieoeoaii. Oaea ia ii/aoeo XX no. Cao?aeiee Nea??, caeaa?eueoiai
canaeaia oe?a?ioeyie i?aaeaiia eiai /anoeia, noaa aaaeeeaei ?aeiiii
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa?iiai ca?ia, a caiaeii ? aenieiye?nii? iiei/ii-i’ynii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Ca aeaieie ia?aieno 1989?. a on?o ?anioae?eao eieeoiueiai N?N? iaoeaei
6,8 iei. oe?a?ioe?a. Ua aeiiaaeaaia oyaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
a?iiaaenueeino? i?i ?nioaaiiy iica Oe?a?iith ia aace?aei?o i?inoi?ao 1/6
/anoeie noo? i?eueeii?a ?aeeiie?iaieo a?ao?a noiyei ia ioeueia?e
iicia/oe?. Ciaiiy oaeoo ia?anaeaiiy ia no?ae oe?a?ioe?a eeoaeiny ia
ia?eoa??? na?aeiiino? noni?euenoaa.

N?N? noai?i iaa??aaa oa?iieoe? i?i nioi? oaai??a, ia?aiiaiaieo
aaci?aaieie a’yciyie, i?i aeaoeea? aieiaeiii?e, i?i aenaeaiiy ia /oaeeio
oe?eeo ia?iae?a. ? na?aae a’yci?a ? oeo, ooi ia?aaoaaa ia caneaii?,
oe?a?inueea a?iiaaea aoea /e ia iae/enaeuei?oith – aeecueei 40%.

O no?aei?e ae?anii?? oe?a?ioe? aeineoue oaeaeei anei?ethaaeeny, nii/aoeo
noaaaee oae caaiei “?onneiycu/iui ianaeaieai”, a caiaeii ia?aienoaaeeny
ia ?in?yi.

Oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? a ?anioae?eao eieeoiueiai N?N? aeiaea aeoaea
oyaeea aeiey. Ia ia? cae?enithaaany a?oaee aaoi?eoa?iee oene c aieo
ea??aieo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?, iaioaaea iie?oeea iianthaeii?
aeaoe?a?i?caoe??, ui iino?eii aaeany ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, oa
iaooeeueia ?oneo?eaoe?y.

Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? aoea iaeaea iiai?noth
oe?ai?ianueea. Caeeoath/enue o oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaeao oea?nueei? ?in??,
a i?ci?oa ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, oe?a?ioe? no?aeii? ae?anii?e ia aoee
ai?a?aioaie o o?aaeeoe?eiiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa. C e?ioey XIX no.
ia?anaeaiiy c Oe?a?ie nea?iaoaaeeny ia O?ae, a aeae? – aei Cao?aeiiai
Nea??o. Oe?a?inuee? iinaeaioe? ia noiae? ia noai?eee i?aai?ciaaiiai
aeaniiai aeeooy ia iia?e oa?eoi???. Ca’ycee Oe?a?ie c oeeie iinaeaiiyie
aoee iaiaaeaieie, aeanieo i?aai?caoe?e oai ia aoei. Oea?eci i?iaiaeea
a?aeaa?oo anei?eyoi?nueeo iie?oeeo.

Aeey ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oe?a?inueeee ??oio aoa /e ia
iaeni?eyoeea?oee. Aiia iaae?aea ca?aene ethaenuee? ?ano?ne, ??ciiiai?oio
ne?iaeio ? i?iaeiaieuenoai, oaeaioe oa ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ?ano?ne. Oei
/anii i?eueeiie iaoeo caieye?a caaeioee o a’ycieoeyo, eacaiaoao, ia
aaciaaeieo i?inoi?ao Nea??o ? E?aeiuei? I?aii/?. A 20-o ?ieao XX no.
cai?noue aeia?ia?eueiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ii/aeiny eieaeoeaia
“i?aai?ciaaia” ia?anaeaiiy c oe?ieei caeo/aiiyi aeaiia?e?ciaaieo
/a?aiiia?i?eoe?a. Ca 1924-1928 ??. c Oe?a?ie aoei aeneaii 142 oeny/?
/ieia?e, ye? iinaeeeeny iica ?? iaaeaie, ia?aaaaeii a no?aeieo ?aeiiao
eieeoiueiai N?N?. Oea noaiiaeei 24% a?ae on?o ai?a?aio?a ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco.

Aaeaoainuee? aeaii?oaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a aoei cae?eniaii o ?aaeyinuee?
eiioeoaai?e. 3 1920 ii 1923 ??. aei Nea??o aeneeaee oe?a?inueeeo
iianoaioe?a, aiye?a *a?aiii? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei? A?i??, iaoiiaoe?a,
?ieii i?ci?oa – nayuaiee?a OAIOe, iaoeth??aoe?a, ae?y/?a o/i?aoi?o
o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo?. Aeae? iaae?eoea /a?aa “iaiiai?a”, i?aei?e?ioe?a,
/eai?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, “eo?eoe?a”. O 1928-1934 ??.
oe?a?ioe?a i?eeiyee Nieiaee. ?o ianiai ieueee ia aoae?aieoeoa?
A?eiii?nueei-Aaeo?enueeiai eaiaeo. Aiie aeioee ia aoae?aieoeoa?
cae?cieoeue Eioean-Oooa oa Aaeeaei-Aio?nuee. Ia?aae a?eiith a AOEAAo
iae?/oaaeiny 10-12 iei. iia’ycaieo c Oe?a?iith a’yci?a.

Aeieeaaeia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i aeeooy ? aeieth oa’yciaieo oe?a?ioe?a o
Nea??o iaei aena?oeaia a e?oa?aoo??. Aea oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee XX no.
?aai Aaa?yiee, yeee ciooaiee aoa inoaii? ?iee naiai aeeooy iiiaa??yoeny
aeaeaei a?ae aaouee?aueie, a ai?a?aoe?? iaienaa ?iiai “Oea?ieiae” – /e
ia iaeia?oo ?iciia?aeue i?i noae?inuee? eiioeoaai?e. O oai??
cono??/a?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?e/eie iiyae oe?a?ioe?a o Nea??o:
“…i?ioani? ?noi???… aeeeaaeaa ?noi?e/io aeia?aeeo i?i ia?oeo
eaoi?aeiee?a Nea??o, i?i ia?oeo iie?oe/ieo caneaioe?a, ui neeaee ooo
nai? eino?, ? naia a oe?i Caaaeeaee?, a oeueiio iaenoai??oiio ?
iaeiiio??oiio caeooeo No?aeiiai Nea??o… ?o aoei aeai? oeo i?iia??a:
ia?oei aoa – aoioa? ? “?ci?ii?e” – “iaei?in?enueeee” aaoueiai Aeai’yi
Iiiaia??oiee. Iaa?aeaiee i?ioiiii Aaaaeoi… – oeae ?iceieueiee aoa
ae?oaei… Oea aiie aoee a?aee?eaaoaeyie ? ca/eiaoaeyie o??? aeaoeeai?
noi??iee… a aiiia? iaaeiiaieo ethaenueeeo no?aaeaeaiue ia oe?e
caie?…” Oaeiae ?iciia?aea?oueny i?i iauaaee?a N??ea a ?aaeyinueeiio
Nea??o: “I?e?oaee nthaee, yea no?aoia ? aeeea ioua aoea ooo! *oaea
/oaeeia… A aa/, iaaoeeny… ? aeeaenue – caaeeee ae ye iio?i! ? iou?
caeieaee, ? e?ae nei?eee, ua e caethaeieee. ? caeeee, iiethaeee. A iia?
ae?oe ia?iaeeeenue – oea aaea ?oiy aaouee?aueia… Oaia? oea i?noa/ei
Ee?aii caaoueny… O an?o iaoeo naeao oooaoi?o, oaoe a?eai? cieiea, ye
ia Oe?a?i?. C ian ca oea an? ooo ni?yeeny, ui, iiaeya, ne?eueee e?no, a
“oioee” oaoe c aeeie e?ieyoue oa a?eyoue. Ooo oaoe cian?i oae?, ye ia
Oe?a?i?, ia ?ac ? e?au?, ai ia aeiuai?i iiiino? ? e?eo? caeaa?eueoiai
oeeieiaith aeyoith. Eieenue, aei ?aaiethoe??, caei?iai aeeee ooo iao?
ethaee… Ooo e?ae i?aoeth ethaeoue oa e aeiaai?iaeaeo? ?? uaae?i. A
ia?iae iao ?iai/ee… O?oaeeeeny ue?i, oi e iaee: oe?a n?yee, i?iieoeyee
ca??eio, oiaeeee c oo?aie a Iaiue/aeo??th ? a Eeoae, eiiaee cieioi,
eiaeee ?eao, eiaeee ca??a aeeaoeai… Oea aoea iaoa ae?oaa Oe?a?ia, iiaa
Oe?a?ia, aea uaneea?oa. ? iacae iao? ethaee iiaeaaaee ooo nai?, noioth/e
?iiae? ca ??aeiei e?a?i: Ee?a, *a?i?a?aea, Oe?a?ia, Eaoa?eiineaaea,
Ia?ayneaaea oiui… Ethaee iao? in?ee iiiaae ??/eaie Onno?? ? Aio?, aea
iiaeia n?yoe oe?a… A iio?i i?oei ana oea?aaa?oue… I?eeoea nia?onueea
aeanoue ? ana ia?aaa?ioea. “Noa?ee Ii?ic ?icai?oaa no?ao?oeea?
ea?oeie… I?i eieiie aeniaaeaieo a?aooaio?a ia etho?i ii?ic?… I?i
i?e?a/aiee ia iia?eueio nia?oue ethae, a iaaeoi i?i neeo-neeaiio “nai?o
ethaeae” caieye?a c aeaeaei? o??? Oe?a?ie iauaneeai?… I?i
iaaeethaenueea oa?i?iiy ? o?oae eaoi?aeiee… /anieo o?oaea??a
iieoaanueeeo, eaoa?eiineaanueeeo, oa?niinueeeo “eo?eoe?a”, “aea?aeaaieo
ceiae??a”, noaeaeaieo “ca eieinee”, oa e anyeeo “ai?ia?a” – a/aieo,
a/eoae?a, naeyi, ?ia?oiee?a…”

Ca aeaieie ia?aieno 1897 ?. o Nea??o iaoeaei 223,3 oen. oe?a?ioe?a. O
1926 ?. oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a Nea??o iae?/oaaea 828 oen. /ie., oiaoi
9,5% a?ae on?o aeeoae?a aeaiiai ?aa?iio.

E?euee?noue oe?a?ioe?a ca?eueoo?oueny o Nea??o, iniaeeai i?ney
noae?inueeiai “aaeeeiai ia?aeiio”. Ia caaeaaeue ooaee ?o aeaiceee
nioiyie oeny/ – a?ae O?aeo ? aei Iaaaaeaio. Cia/io e?euee?noue
aeaii?oiaaii ?c Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, oae caaieo “aaiaea??aoe?a” i?ney 1944
?. Ia an? c ieo i?ney a?aeaoooy 25-??/ieo no?ie?a iiaa?ioeeny aeiaeiio:
caaaee oai n?i’?, i?e?inee. A ua iao? oeiioe? e ae?a/aoa ?oaee aoaeoaaoe
AAI, inaithaaoe ?iaeiaeua ei?enieo eiiaeei o Othiai?, sseoo??,
Ii?eeuenueeo.

O 1989 ?. o Nea??o aeeei iiiaae 860 oen. oe?a?ioe?a, a Cao?aeiiio Nea??o
– 583,8 oen. ? a No?aeiiio Nea??o – 279,4 oen. /ieia?e. *anoea
oe?a?ioe?a, ye? aaaaeaee ??aeiith iiaith oe?a?inueeo, noaiiaeea o 1989
?. o Cao?aeiiio Nea??o – 52%, o No?aeiiio – 48,5%. O i?noeyo, aea
oe?a?inuee? ia?anaeaioe? c’yaeeeny a?aeiinii iaaeaaii (Othiainueea iae.,
i?ai?/i? ?aeiie E?aniiy?nueeiai e?ath), oe? iieacieee ? cia/ii aeueie ?
noaiiaeyoue 54-68%.

Ia cia/i?e oa?eoi??? i?aaeaiii? /anoeie Cao?aeiiai Nea??o a?ae
i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai Ia?aaeo?aeey ia caoiae? ? aei ia?aaea??’y Aeoath ia
noiae? ?icoaoiaaiee iaeei ?c iaea?eueoeo o no?aei?e ae?anii?? ?aeii
?icnaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a, yeee iaea?aeaa iacao N??iai Eeeio. Aei eiai
neeaaeo aoiaeyoue Iinueea, Oiinueea ? Iiainea??nueea iaeano? oa
Aeoaenueeee e?ae ?in??. Ooo ia ieiu? 450 oen. ea. ei (aeai? 1989 ?.)
iaoeaei aeecueei 750 oen. oe?a?ioe?a. Ca aeaieie ia?aieno 1926 ?.
oe?a?ioe? noaiiaeee a?eueo?noue oeueiai ianaeaiiy. Oeae ?aeii o
i?ney?aaiethoe?eiee /an aeiaai caa??aaa oe?a?inuee? o?aaeeoe??.

Nioi? oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a iaoea? ia oa?eoi??? no/aniiai N??iai Eeeio.
Cie?aia, a Aeoaenueeiio e?a?, iaeno?aei?o?e /anoei? N??iai Eeeio, aea a
1989 ?. i?iaeeaaei 77 oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a (3% a?ae onueiai ianaeaiiy
e?ath).

Aea?? ca ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue ianaeaiiy Aeoath iiynith?oueny ieceith
i?e/ei. Aeoae, ii/eiath/e c 1865 ?ieo, eiee nthaee aoei aeicaieaii
ia?anaeaiiy naeyi c ?ioeo aoaa?i?e ? aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie,
aoa iaeiei ?c iniiaieo ?aa?ii?a Nea??o aeey iinaeaiiy
naeyi-ia?anaeaioe?a. Iaeneiaeueieo ?ici???a oe? ia?anaeaiiy aeinyaee a
?iee noieei?inueei? aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie.

Aei a?aei?ie o 1861 ?. e??iiniiai i?aaa Aeoae aoa iaea?eueo cia/iei
i?iieneiaei ?aeiiii Nea??o. Oea aecia/aei e iniaeeaino? neeaaeo
ianaeaiiy. A?eueoa /anoeia eiai oae /e ?iaeoa ianeoaiaoaaea iio?aae
eaa?iaonueeiai a??ie/icaaiaenueeiai eiiieaeno – i?ia?aeiiai oeaio?o c
ae?iaeaiiy n??aea e naeioeth. Aea i?ney 1861 ?. ii/aeany e?eca a??ie/i?
i?iieneiaino?, ui i?ecaaei aei nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a ia
?oaeieeao ? caaiaeao, a oaeiae ? aei ia?ai???ioaoe?? naeyi ia aa?a?i?
caiyooy. Aa?oi ca?aooaaoe e oaeeth naeyi-ia?anaeaioe?a. ?c i?iieneiaiai
?aeiio, yeei aoa Aeoae o XVIII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. a?i
aaiethoe?iioaaa o i?ney?aoi?iaiee /an a aa?a?iee.

*anoea iaoooaoi?o iaoeaioe?a ia Aeoa? aoea aeoaea aenieith. Iniiaia
/anoeia ia?anaeaioe?a ?c /enea oeo, ui eoee o Oiinueeo aoaa?i?th,
iai?aaeyeanue ooaee ye ?ac /a?ac Aeoae. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?a?aoe?ei?
iioiee eoee a Oiinueeo aoaa?i?th c /i?iicaiieo aoaa?i?e Oeaio?aeueii?
?in??, aeeth/ii ?c E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?anueea oa *a?i?a?anueea
aoaa?i??).

Aa?oi ?icaeyiooe e iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy. Ia Aeoa? a?eueo?noue
neeaaeaee no?aei? neia’yie, oiaoi ?in?yie, a oaeiae oe?a?ioe? ?
a?ei?one, ia’?aeiai? i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith a a?oi? “?in?yie”. Aiie
neeaaeaee 92% a?ae onueiai ianaeaiiy.

Aeoaea aaaeei aaeaeiny aeae?eeoe c? neeaaeo “?in?enueeeo” oe?a?ioe?a.
Aeoae, iniaeeai Aa?iaoeuenueeee ie?oa, aei e?ioey XIX no. noaa iaeiei ?c
iniiaieo ?aeii?a iinaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a o Nea??o. Ia 1897 ?. oe?a?inueea
ae?anii?a Nea??o ia?aoiaoaaea 223274 /ie., aai 4,8 % a?ae caaaeueiiai
/enea “?in?yi”. C ieo 50310 /ie. i?iaeeaaei a Aa?iaoeuenueeiio ie?oc?
(22,5% oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ? 8,6% ianaeaiiy oeueiai ie?oao), 19250
/ie. – o Ci??iiai?nueeiio ie?oc? (8,6% oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ? 7,9%
ianaeaiiy aeacaiiai ie?oao). Oiaoi a?eueoa 30% oe?a?ioe?a Nea??o
i?iaeeaaei a aeaio ie?oaao Aeoaenueeiai e?ath. I?ney ?in?yi oe?a?ioe? ia
Aeoa? ii /enaeueiino? caeiaee ae?oao iiceoe?th.

O 20-o ?ieao ia oa?eoi??? Eoeoiaeeinueeiai noaio ia?aaaaeaee oe?a?ioe?.
Ca aeaieie ia?aieno 1926 ?. o Neaaai?iaenueeiio ie?oc? Aeoaenueeiai
e?ath oe?a?ioe? noaiiaeee 203 oen. /ie. (50%), ? 3/4 c ieo aaaaeaee
nai?th ??aeiith iiaith oe?a?inueeo. O ?iaeeinueeiio ?aeii? o 20-o? ?iee
oe?a?ioe?a iae?/oaaeinue 65%.

O?eaaea ni?yioaaiiy nithcii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee aei “iiai?
?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino? ethaeae ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo” i?ecaaei aei oiai,
ui nea??nuee? oe?a?ioe?, iicaaaeai? oea?eae ? oeiee, anei?ethaaeeny:
na?aae 80 iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Aeoath 28% oe?a?ioe?a iacaaee ??aeiith iiao
nai?? iaoe?iiaeueiino?.

Aeine?aeieee noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a Aeoath caoaaaeothoue, ui a
Eoeoaeeinueeiio, Aeaaia?uainueeiio oa ?ioeo ?aeiiao /ooii oe?a?inueeo
iiao (eeoa o aea?aeaaieo onoaiiaao, oeieao ni?eeothoueny ?in?enueeith
iiaith). Aea i?ooi ia iaceaa? naaa oe?a?ioeai, a nai?th ??aeiith iiaith
– oe?a?inueeo.

Aeey a?eueoino? aeaeaiue c aoiia?ao??, ?noi???, e?a?ciaanoaa oa?aeoa?ii,
ui i?i oe?a?ioe?a ia ieoooue i?/iai. O “Nea??nuee?e ?aaeyinuee?e
Aioeeeeiiaae??”, ui iiaa/eea na?o 1929 ?., neacaii ei?ioei: “Ianaeaiiy
Aeoath iiae?ey?oueny ia ei??iia – oocaiia ? i?eeoea – ?in?enueea”. Oey
o?aaeeoe?y – aaaaeaoe oe?a?ioe?a ?in?yiaie – eaea a?ae aei?aaiethoe?eieo
/an?a, eiee oe?a?inuee? caie? iaceaaee “thaii ?innee”, a iinaeaioe? c
Iieoaanueei?, *a?i?a?anueei?, Oa?e?anueei? oa ?ioeo Iaei?in?enueeeo
aoaa?i?e ?iaioaaeeny a Nea??o “?annaeneeie”, oaeoe/ii neoaoth/e
?ioa?anai iie?oeee, a ye?e ?aeaieia?y ?iia?nueei? aaeeeiaea?aeaaiino?
aoea a?ae?aaeaaiaaia ia ?aeaieia?th “iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino?”.

Iaeaieiai?oei aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ciai?oi?e na?o o naeao Aeoath,
oa e aeey aaaaoueio i?nueeeo iaoeaioe?a, ? oaeaaa/aiiy. O 1991 ?. i?ano
c Oe?a?ie iaeaea i?ooi ia ia?aaeiea/oaaa, o?aa ui “Ia?aoeue”, “Iaeyoei”
oa “Aa?a?iie”. O n?euenueeeo a?ae?ioaeao aea-ia-aea aoea iaeia
oe?a?inueea eieaeea – “Eiaca?”, a oi e ?? ia aoei, aacao c Oe?a?ie –
aeiaeii?.

Iaaaaeei oyaeoe nia?, ui /aeaei oe?a?ioe?a no?aeii? ae?anii?e, yeae ia
aoa i?iaieioaiee “Aeo i?i iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie” aac iii?oieo
aioaaii?ci?a cieeiaiiy. Aaeaea caiia/oaaiiy ? ia?ae?o/aiiy oe?a?inueei?
?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e, oeiee, iiae iaae?aei aeaaeae? oaeaeoeo oaii?a.

Iniaeeai oe?a?i?ciaaiith ? Othiainueea iaeanoue. Ooo iino?eii iaoea?
iiiaae 600 oen. iaoeo caieye?a (ca io?oe?eiith noaoenoeeith 260 oen.),
ye? ae??oaeueiei /eiii aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie ?aa?iio. Aaeeea
e?euee?noue iaoeo aaooiaee?a e?oaea aei Cao?aeiiai Nea??o. O?eueee a
Iiaiio O?aiai? oa eiai ieieeoeyo i?iaeeaa? iiiaae 100 oen. oe?a?ioe?a.

Na?aae 100-oeny/iiai ianaeaiiy Iiya?nueea 35% iei? noaiiaeyoue
oe?a?ioe?. Iiaoaeoaaee i?noi oe?a?ioe?. ??oaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo
Noinueeee, E?aiai/ooeueeee oa Eoi’yinueeee aeeoeiaoae?ai? eiia?iaoe aoee
ia?aiaeaaeiaii? ia aeaioiaeaiiy aeeoae aeey oiia I?aii/?. Inai?iiy
Othiaiueie cae?enithaaee o?anoe Oe?othiaiueaeeoeaoae ?
Oe?othiaiueoeyoaoae.

? a Iiya?nueeo Ee?anueeee i?e?i?aeii, aoaeeiie eoeueoo?e “Aei?i?i”, eaoa
“Neaaooe/”. Iacaa iaaaceio “Aaee/”, nii?oaeaeaiiai aaee/aiaie, aeaeaeany
iaoe?iiae?noe/iith oiae?oi?i i?noeaaei /eiiaieeai ? ?? ciyee.

Iaaeia?niiae ia ?iaeiaeua Iiya?nueea oaae i?eaoa c Oe?a?ie ? aoa
noi?iiaaiee ia aac? 4-i? Oa?e?anueei? e?ea?i?. A ii?cae? aoae?aaeueiee?a
ia Othiaiueio c Oe?a?ie i?eaoea a?ae?ioaea.

Aac oe?a?inueeeo iaooiaee?a ? aaciaee?a aeaeiaooie iaeueiiai a Othiai?
nei?ioeany ae uiiaeiaioa oaeai?. Aieiaiei /eiii caaaeyee aeiiiiic? e
eiiiaoaioiino? nei?a Oe?a?ie, i?aaenoaaieee yei? ?ica’ycoaaee, cie?aia,
i?iaeaie aeeaieiai ao??iiy a neeaaeieo oiiaao. ?in?y iiaea ia?aea/oaaoe
iaeueia /a?ac iaoo oa?eoi??th ca aaethoo ia Cao?ae o oaeeo aaeeeeo
ianyaao. Naia oe?a?inuee? iaeno?e ae?noaeeny aei oeo ai?eciio?a, aea
iaooa ? aac caeyaathoue ia aeeaei? iiiaae 5000iao??a.

Aeey aaaaoueio oe?a?ioe?a, ye? ia?anaeeeeny ia Nea??nuee? i?inoi?e ?c
Aeiia//eie, Oiaeueie//eie, ?aaii-O?aie?aueie oa ?ioeo iaeanoae, iiaa
aeeooy ?icii/aeiny c oaeiai eenoa: “… Eiiniiieueneay iooaaea. Oiaa?eu
oaeie-oi, ioeeeeioaoenue ia i?ecua Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee e niaaoneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ecuyaee aeaeaiea i?eiyoue o/anoea a aaaeiie no?ieea
iyoeeaoee Othiaineie iaeanoe…”

Othiainueea iaeanoue o 70-o ?ieao OO no. aeey a?eueoino? oe?a?ioe?a
noaea ae?oaith aaouee?aueiith. Naia oiae? ?icii/aeanue aeoi??y
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ii inai?iith iaooiaaciaeo ?iaeiaeu Cao?aeiiai
Nea??o. Aaeeea e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo niaoe?ae?no?a ae?ooaea ia
aeaeae? caie? a iiooeao e?auiai ca?ia?oeo.

I?noi No?aoo ia ia?oee iiaeyae i?/ei ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oeiiaiai
iino?aaeyinueeiai i?noa. Aeae?ey?oueny c onueiai no?aoonueea ianaeaiiy.
Iiaa ?noi??y i?noa ii/eia?oueny c oeo /an?a, eiee nthaee ii/aee
i?eaoaaoe ia aeaeiaooie iaooe e aaco i?aoe?aieee c onueiai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco. Ca iaio?oe?eiith noaoenoeeith ia?oa i?noea ii /enaeueiino?
na?aae ieo caeiathoue naia oe?a?ioe?.

I?i iaoe?iiaeueiee i?aeeii oe?a?ioe?a o i?no? iai’yoathoue oaeoe/ii on?
oe?a?inuee? aeeoae? No?aooa. Noaeiny oea ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, eiee ia
noeaio i?noeaaiai eiioea?oiiai caeo aeeoee euea?anuee? a?oenoe o oi?i?
Oe?a?inueei? iianoainueei? a?i??. Aeyaea/? aeaoeoaaee: “Aaiaea?iaoeu
i?eaoaee! *oi nae/an aoaeao!” Cacao/aee i?ni?, i?i ye? niieiia?eo ? aei
oeueiai /ano a ?aaeyinueeeo e?ayo i?/iai ia ciaee. Ii cae?i/aiith
aenooio iaae aieiaaie no?aooyi ii/aa ?ica?thaaoeny aeiaoi-aeaeeoiee
i?aii?. Oiae? ae ? i?icao/aa caeeee ia’?aeiaoeny a i?aai?caoe?th. Oaeei
/eiii o 1991 ?ioe? a No?aoo? aoei noai?aii eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueea
oiaa?enoai “Oe?a?inueea ?iaeeia”. Aaea 10 ?ie?a o i?no? ae?? iaae?eueia
oeiea c aea/aiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae: aeecueei noa ae?oae aea/athoue
iniiae oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Ii i?noeaaiio oaeaaa/aiith No?aooa iieacothoue oe?a?inueeo oaeaa?c?eio
i?ia?aio “?iaeia?ae”, aaaeo/ith yei? ? Ieany Iooaeuenueea.

O i. Iiaee O?aiaie iaeaea iieiaeia ianaeaiiy – oe?a?ioe?. A oeueiio
i?no? ? aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Iiey?ia aaio?ce/ia aeniaaeeoe?y”.
A?eueo?noue i?aoe?aiee?a oeueiai oiaa?enoaa – oe?a?ioe?. Aiie
caeiathoueny aeine?aeaeaiiyi iiaeo aaciaeo iieeaae?a, a ii/aee
i?e?caeeoe nthaee ia ca?ia?oee ua c 80-o ?ie?a. Aaio?ce/ia aeniaaeeoe?y
– oaeoe/ii ni?aaaei? i?noi c? nai?th eooiath, eaciath, nai?i e?ea?ai.
I?aoe?aieee aeeaooue o iaaaeeeeo aaaii/eeao, iaa?oue oe?a iathoue
nia/aiee oooaoi?ie eooiaa?aie c Oe?a?ie.

Oea iaeia c oeo i?no, a yeiio iaiaeo /anoeio oe?a?ioe?a neeaaeathoue
iauaaeee ?ai?aniaaieo o ?aaeyinuee? /ane. A?aei?aaeyoe caiiaeieo naeyi,
nayuaiee?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioae?aaioe?? ia oe? caie? ii/aee a?ae?aco
i?ney 1917 ?ieo ia aoae?aieoeoai cae?cieoe? *oi-Naeaoa?ae-?aa?ea.
Cae?cieoeth oae ? ia aeiaoaeoaaee, i?ioa ia ?? aoae?aieoeoai
a?aei?aaeyee aeanyoee oeny/ ethaeae.

O 50-o ?ieao i?eionia? ?ai?an?? i?eieieeenue ? ii/aeiny, ?i?oe?eiaaia
?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith, cai?ioaiiy a?iiaaeyi ia inai?iiy Nea??o. Eiaeai
i’yoee aeeoaeue Iaaeeio a 45-oeny/iiio i?no? – oe?a?iaoeue. A?eueoa
aeaio oeny/ c ieo ooo i?aoeththoue aaooiaei iaoiaeii e aei iei?.

Oe?eaaei aeey aea/aiiy e aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaoo, ainiiaea?noai ?
eoeueoo?a oe?a?ioe?a Cao?aeiiai Nea??o. Oe?a?ioe?, ui ia?anaeyeeny aei
Nea??o a iniiaiiio c ?aeii?a, aea a?eaie aoei ?icaeiooa caiea?ianoai a
on?o eiai oi?iao, ?icn?thaaeeny a noiaeeo ii oeio i?noeaainoyo.
Oe?a?ioe?, iniaeeai c i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e, iaeiie/eee oe?iiee
aeina?ae ae?iuoaaiiy e ia?iaee ??ciiiai?oieo ni?o?a ioaieoe?. ?ioeie,
ie??i ioaieoe? ? aeeoa, ca?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie, ui a?ae?a?athoue cia/io
?ieue o aeeoo? oe?a?ioe?a-nea??ye?a, aoee y/i?iue, iaan, a?a/ea ? ai?io.
Aaeeea cia/aiiy a eoeueoo?? oe?a?inueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a iaee o?aaeeoe?ei?
aeey ieo oaoi?/i? eoeueoo?e – eueii ? eiiiie?, ui aeaaaee oaoi?/io ?
oa?/iao ie?th, aieieia. Ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoiee?a ? i?eaiooaaiiy c ieo ie??
ia iaaoei ianooaa?a, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey Oe?a?ie, i?ioa aiii aeicaieyei
caaacia/eoe iio?aae ?aa?iio a oeueiio i?iaeoeo?.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei i?iaeoeoii oa?/oaaiiy c e?ioey XIX no. noa? ea?oiiey.
Ae?iaieoeoai oe??? eoeueoo?e oe?a?ioeyie Nea??o a oeae ia??iae ia iaaoei
i?iieneiaiai cia/aiiy, aea ie??i oa?/iaiai aeei?enoaiiy ea?oiie?,
cia/iei caeiaooeii aoei ?? canoinoaaiiy ye iniiae naeia?noaa. Oa naia
noino?oueny oaoi?/iiai ao?yea. Oe?a?inueea naae?aieoeoai a aeaiee
ia??iae ia iaaoei cia/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Ae?oaith neeaaeiaith ainiiaea?noaa nea??nueeeo oe?a?ioe?a aoei
oaa?eiieoeoai. I?aeoe/ii eiaeia ainiiaea?noai oo?eioaaei aaeeeo ?iaaoo
ooaeiao ? naeiae, aeiiaoith ioeoeth. A i?noeyo iinaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a
?eaaeuenoai ? ieneeanoai ia ?icaeioeiny aei ??aiy cia/ieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo caiyoue. Aaee/aci? i?inoi?e, caeiyo? ea?oo/eie ceaeaie,
nai?i aeaeyaeii niiioeaee aei ?icaeoeo aaeae?eueieoeoaa. Oeae aeae
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iaa aeiiii?aeia cia/aiiy.

Iinaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a Cao?aeiiai Nea??o iaei, a iniiaiiio, aoee/io
caaoaeiao a?aeiinii noaeeo oi?i. Aoaeeiie (oaoa) – nii/aoeo
iaeiieaia?ia, iio?i aeaieaia?ia ? a?eueoa i?ei?uaiiy noaaeany acaeiaae
aoeeoe? c iaia’yceiaei ?icoaooaaiiyi naaeea ia?aae iei. Aeania aoaeeiie
iaa ea?eanio eiino?oeoe?th. Aeao – ?ieiee iie?eaaany nieiiith aai
i/a?aoii. No?ie, noaey ? i?/ – a?eeeeny, a i?/, no?ie a?ey aeaa?ae ?
a?eii iie?eaaeenue ?icienii. Aea?? iaa A-iiae?aio (?ieiee – I-iiae?aio)
oi?io, a?aee?eoo iicaaeo ia ai?iaee. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii iiaea??’y aoea
e?oiy eooiy, cacae/ae i?ae eaaeith iie??aeath.

Ianooiiei aeaiaioii eoeueoo?e oe?a?ioe?a ? iaeya. Oe?a?inueeee
o?aaeeoe?eiee einothi cae/aeii aoa ia?aianaiee ia Nea??nueeo caieth.
Iniiaiei acoooyi naeyi aoee oe??yi? iinoiee, a?eueo caiiaei? iineee
/iaioe ? iecueea oe??yia acoooy. Aa?oi?e naeyinueeee iaeya oe?a?ioe?
oeee ?c aeiiioeaiiai noeia. Aceieo iineee eiaeooe. Iaeya oeee c oeaiei
aeiiaoiueiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Eiiieaen iaeyao aeeth/aa ni?i/eo ? ooaie – o
/ieia?e?a, ni?aeieoeth ? ni?i/eo – o ae?iie. Ni?i/ea /e aa?oi?e iaeya
i?aeia??coaaeanue iiynaie, oeaieie ia niaoe?aeueieo noaieao. Aieiai?
oai?e /ieia?e?a – o?aaeeoe?ei? niooaa? oaiee oa iaiaoe. A na?aaeei? 60-o
?ie?a XX no. ia ci?io o?aaeeoe?eiei ae?ii/ei aieiaiei oai?ai i?eeoee
oonoee ? oae?. Iaeiaioa caciaea ci?i o?aaeeoe?eia oe?a?inueea eooiy.
Iniiaith oa?/iaiai ?aoe?iio oe?a?ioe?a o Nea??o aoee e?oie, a oaeiae
??ciiiai?oi? ai?ioiyi? no?aae. I?ia?aeio ?ieue o iueiio a?ae?a?aaaea ?
ea?oiiey. Aaeeea cia/aiiy oe?a?inuee? naeyie iaaeaaaee naeo. Eiai
nieeee, i?e/iio ?c aeiaeaaaiiyi aaeeei? e?eueeino? /anieeo. Nieiia naei
? niaeaoeue aeei?enoiaoaaee ye i?ei?aao aeey ai?u?a, eao, ea?oiie? oa
?ioeo no?aa. I’yni nieeee ??aeei, oiio ui nea??nueeee ee?iao aeicaieya
o?eaaeee /an caa??aaoe eiai caii?iaeaiei. I’yni ? eiaaane eiioeee, aea
eii/aiino? aoee aeeeth/ii nayoeiaei i?iaeoeoii. ?c iiei/ieo i?iaeoeo?a
ae?iaeyee ne? ? aa?oeiaa ianei. Caoo ianea, aenii?oiaaiiai ?c Nea??o a
?a?iiaenueeo ?in?th oa ca ei?aeii, aoa aea?aeiith ni?aaith. Na?aae
/eneaiieo iaii?a, ui aeaioiaeyeeny oe?a?ioeyie, iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe
een?eue, ??ciiiai?oi? eaane, ya?aeii-o?aa’yi? ianoi?, ocaa?e. ?c
oi?eueieo – ieai e iaaeiaooo.

Ni?aaaei?i eoeueoo?iei nayoii aeey No?aooa noaei a?aee?eooy
Oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?iiai oeaio?o. Caoeoie ?acii ?c oe?a?inueeith
naiiaooi?noth cono??/a? oaeoe/ii c ii?iao i?ei?uaiiy Oeaio?o, aea
noi?oue iai’yoiee oe?a?inueeiio aa?aieeo. I?e?iiith ianiiae?aaieith aeey
ainoae No?aooa noaia oe?a?inueea “Eaa’y?iy”. Ooo aan i?eainoeoue
nia/iith eaaith c ie??aeeaie ainiiaea?ea a oe?a?inueeiio aa?aii?. A
i?no? Iaaeei i?e i?noeaaiio Aoaeeieo eoeueoo?e i?aoeth? oe?a?inueeee
eeoa “Aeaea?aei”, aea ia nayoa cae?a?oueny i?anioi? iaoeo caieye?a. Aiie
i?aai?ciaothoue oai?/? aa/i?e, ni?aathoue ??aei? i?ni?, /eoathoue
oe?a?inueeo iiac?th.

A inoaii? ?iee, eiee iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ii/aea a?ae?iaeaeoaaoenue, a ?noi?e/ia iai’youe eiai
a?aeiiaeth?oueny, iii?oii c??n ?ioa?an o oe?ieiai caaaeo iaoi? aea?aeaae
aei aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a ca ei?aeiiii, ?oiuei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, caeiaooe?a o aaeoc? aeiiii?ee, iaoee, eoeueoo?e,
ienoaoeoaa, e?oa?aoo?e, ina?oe. Aiaeii/an cia/ii ?icoe?ththoueny aca?ii?
eoeueoo?i?, iaoeia?, ae?eia?, a oaeiae oo?enoe/i? eiioaeoe aeeoae?a
Oe?a?ie c ?? caei?aeiiieie neiaie ? aeiiueeaie. Ana a?eueoee aeoeaio
?iaeoueny ia i??i?eoao? o ca’yceao ?c ca?oa?aeieie oe?a?ioeyie, c
oe?a?inueeeie a?iiaaeyiaie ia oa?eoi??? eieeoiueiai N?N?. Ona na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui Oe?a?ia iiaa?ioeany iaee//yi aei nai?o ae?oae ca ei?aeiiii.
Iei?, ye i?eiee, oe?a?ioeyi a on?o eooi/eao caiii? eoe? iaiao?aeii
ci?oeithaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? ca’ycee. Aaeaea o?eueee ?acii iiaeeeai
iiaoaeoaaoe aaaaoo, ea?oo/o, ?icaeiaio aea?aeaao, yea iinyaea iaeaaeia
i?noea na?aae i?ia?aeieo e?a?i na?oo.

3. Aeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aio?a

Oaiiiai oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ye /anoeie na?oiaiai oe?a?inoaa ?
oi?eaeueiei yaeuai iaoi? eoeueoo?e, iaoi? ?noi???. Iania? ia?anaeaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a ca ei?aeii ii/eiathoueny o ae?oa?e iieiaei? — iai?ee?ioe? O?O
no. I?eeiyoi aeae?eyoe 4 oaee? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??.

Ia?oa oaeey ii/eia?oueny c inoaiiuei? /aa?o? O?O no. ? o?eaa? aei
ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. Ianiaa o?oaeiaa ai?a?aoe?y aei NOA
?icii/aeany o 1877 ?ioe?, aei A?acee?? — o 1880-? ?iee, o Eaiaaeo — c
1891 ?ieo, aei ?in?enueeiai Nea??o — i?ney ?aaiethoe?? 1905-1907 ??.
Ae?caeeee e aei A?aaioeie, Aano?ae??, Iiai? Caeaiae??, ia Aaaaenuee?
ino?iae. Oeth ai?a?aoe?th ni?e/eieee aa?a?ia ia?aianaeai?noue aeayeeo
oe?a?inueeeo oa?eoi??e, eauaoa aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo
ooene?a, iaoe?iiaeueiee ai?o c aieo aano?i-oai?nueei? ? ?in?enueei?
iiia?o??.

Ae?oaa oaeey ai?a?aoe?? oe?a?ioe?a ioiiethaaea ia??iae i?ae 1 ? 2
na?oiaeie a?eiaie o OO no. ? aoea aeeeeeaia ii?aeiaiiyi
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo i?e/ei. Ai?a?oaaee a iniiaiiio o?
oe?a?ioe?, ye? c? ca?i?th a ?oeao ai?ieeny i?ioe ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee,
i?aeo?eioaaee Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo, Aee?aeoi??th, Aaoueiaiao. Oea aoee
aaeee? ? na?aaei? caieaaeanieee, oi?aiaoe?, neoaeaiaoe?,
nayuaiiineoaeeoae?, ?ioae?aaioe?y, nieaeaoe ? eicaee oe?a?inueeeo
a?enueeiaeo c’?aeiaiue. Aiie ae?caeeee aei Iieueu?, *aoineiaa//eie,
Aano???, ?oioi??, Aieaa???, I?ia//eie, O?aioe??, NOA ? Eaiaaee.

O?aoy oaeey ai?a?aoe?? aeeeeeaia aieiaii iie?oe/ieie iioeaaie ?
?icii/aeany iai?ee?ioe? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. A?eueoith i??ith oea
?aiao??aioe c aiae?enueei?, aia?eeainueei?, o?aioeocueei? ieoiaoe?eieo
cii. Iae/eneaii?oeie na?aae ieo aoee eieeoi? a?enueeiaiiieiiai?, yeeo
noae?inueei-aa???anueeee ?aaeei aaaaeaa c?aaeieeaie. ?noioio /anoeio
ia?ai?uaieo in?a noaiiaeee ethaee, neeii?oeue caa?ai? ia ?iaioe aei
I?ia//eie. Aoee ooo oaeiae, cae/aeii, ? o?, ooi a?aeaa?oi niia?aeoaaa
aioe?aaeyinuee? iiaeyaee. A?eueo?noue ai?a?aio?a oe??? oaee? in?ea a
NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai??, Aano?ae??, A?acee??, A?aaioei?, O?aioe??.

*aoaa?oa oaeey — oae caaia «ca?ia?o/ainueea» — ?icii/aeany o 1990-o
?ieao. ?? aieiai? i?e/eie — aeiiii?/ia ne?ooa ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a
Oe?a?i?. Aeaye? aeine?aeieee iaaieioothoue ia oieniiio noai?aii?
aac?ia?ooy, aieiaii — o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ia
oei/aniao ?iaioo a e?a?ie ?a?iie, Aia?eee ? o ?in?th ae?oaei aeecueei
7-8 iei. ethaeae. *anoeia c ieo, iaiaaii, aaea ia iiaa?iaoueny a
Oe?a?io.

Inue oaea ei?ioea ?noi??y oi?ioaaiiy iaoiai caei?aeiiiiai oe?a?inoaa. Ca
ioe?ieith aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?anii?e (Ee?a) ?ai?y
Aeiie/aiea ia 2001 ?. ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie i?iaeeaaei 10-13 iei.
oe?a?ioe?a.

Aiane?aeie oiai, ui ca iaae? aeanii? e?a?ie aeiooaia aoea ae?caeeoe i?ae
oeneii aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ? ai?iieo ianoaaei aeoeaia /anoeia
iaoe??, a oaeiae aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? iiaiioe?iii? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae ia aoi?/ieo caieyo oe?a?ioe?a, o iiaeo e?a?iao iinaeaiiy ca
ei?aeiiii oe?a?inoai i?iaeiaaeoaaei ? ?icaeaaei iaoe?iiaeuei? aea?aeaai?
(OI?), iie?oe/i? (i?aeoe/ii aanue niaeo? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o ae?anii??),
a?iiaaenuee?, eoeueoo?i?, iaoeia?, aeooiai? ?inoeoooe??. Aeey
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e iaei??th c iaeaeueo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae
noaea iaoa a?aeiiaeaiiy iiaiioe?iii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a Aia?eee iaaecae/aeii neeueii ci?aai?ciaaia. C 1893
?. o NOA aeoiaeeoue iaeia c «iaenoa?oeo» aacao — «Naiaiaea» (iei? —
oeaeiaaee). Nueiaiaei? o NOA i?aoeththoue /eneaii? oe?a?inuee? CI?,
aeaeaaieoeoaa, ioca?, a?o?ae, oea?eae, oeiee oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

O 1915 ?. noai?aia Oaaea?aoe?y Oe?a?ioe?a Aia?eee, yea aaea o 1916 ?.
aoea i?eeiyoa a Eiia?an? ? i?aceaeaioii NOA. Ooo ae?? ?yae a?aeiieo
i?aai?caoe?e oe?a?ioe?a ca?oa?aeaey, cie?aia «Oe?a?inueeee Ia?iaeiee
Nithc», «Oe?a?inueeee Eii??aniaee Eii?oao Aia?eee», «Ceo/aiee
Oe?a?inueei-Aia?eeainueeee Aeiiiiiaiaee Eii?oao», «Iaoeiaa Oiaa?enoai
?i. Oaa/aiea a Aia?eoe?», «Oe?a?inueea A?eueia Aeaaeai?y Iaoe», ?
iieiae?aei?, aaoa?ainuee?, oaoia? (iai?., e?ea??a, ?iaeaia??a,
?noi?ee?a) i?aai?caoe??.

O 1964 ?. o noieeoe? NOA i. Aaoeiaoii a?aee?eoi iai’yoiee O. Oaa/aieo.
A?aee?ea iiioiaio i?aceaeaio Ae. Aecaiaaoa?. ?yae oi?aa?neoao?a a NOA
iathoue eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae, oe?a?iiciaanoaa: Aa?aa?aenueeee,
Iain?eueaainueeee, Eieoia?enueeee, Eae?oi?i?enueeee, ?ee?iienueeee
(O?aaia-Oaiiaei) oa 20 eieaaeae?a e?a?ie.

I?ioeane oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ye?
aeoeaii ii/aeeny o 1988-89 ??. a Oe?a?i?, noaee aeey ca?oa?aeiiai
oe?a?inoaa aeiaaii/?eoaaiei iiiaioii ?aae?caoe?? iaeaeueo i??e. O oeae
/an ii anueiio na?oo a e?a?iao ia?aaoaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a aeoea?cothoueny
aaea aeaaii ?nioth/? ? aeieeathoue iia? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, ye?
noaaeyoue ca iaoo i?aeo?eieo ? ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a ia
noa??e Aaouee?auei?-Oe?a?i?.

O NOA ae?? oe?a?inueea i?aai?caoe?y — Oiaa?enoai Oe?a?inueei? Iiae
*eea?i (OOI-*eea?i), 15 ?ie?a ae?yeueiino? yeiai ie a?aecia/eee o 2005
?ioe?.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaa I. I?ea?o a?ae oe?a?ioe?a Othiai? // O?yaeiaee eo?’??. – 2000. –
20 o?aaiy. – N. 6-7.

2. Coaae?e I., Eaiiaee A. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. – E., 1998. –
148 n.

3. Eiaaeue/oe I. “Ia?anaeaiiy naeyi oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e ?in?enueei?
?iia??? (ae?oaa iie. XIX – ii/. XX no.)” Ee?a–*eeaai. – 1992. – N.
30-32.

4. Iieeaae I. Eiioa?aioe?y oe?a?inueeeo caieye?a Nea??o // Ia?iaeia
oai?/?noue oa aoiia?ao?y. – 1992. – ? 4. – N. 82-83.

5. Naooe A. Oe?a?ioe? a Othiai?. Ia?inoee aa?aiai? a?eee // O?yaeiaee
eo?’?? – 2000 – 19 ethoiai. – N. 8-9.

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