?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

«Aea?aeaaiee ono??e oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie o OVIII
no. E?ea?aeaoe?y eicaoeueei? aea?aeaaiino?»

Aeeiiaea:

Einoaiei E.I.

IEAI:

1. Aaoueiaioaaiiy ?.Iacaie. I?ai?/ia a?eia ? Oe?a?ia.

2. Iie?oe/iee ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o
neeaae? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae.

3. E?ea?aeaoe?y aaoiiiiiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie. Aaeaeaiaoeueeee ?oo.
Eie??aueia.

4. Iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo I?aaiaa?aaeii? oa
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. Aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Caii??cueea N?/

1. Aaoueiaioaaiiy ?.Iacaie. I?ai?/ia a?eia ? Oe?a?ia

Ae??oaeueiei iiiaioii o noinoieao i?ae Oe?a?iith ? ?in??th noaei
aaoueiaioaaiiy ?aaia Iacaie. A?i ia?iaeeany o 1639 ?ioe? a n. Iacaieioe?
ia Ee?auei? ? iaeaaeaa aei aeaaiueiai ?iaeo oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii?
oeyooe. Io?eiaa aenieo ina?oo, iaa/ath/enue o Ee?anuee?e aeaaeai??, a
?co??nuee?e eieaa?? o Aa?oaa?, a iio?i ua e ca ei?aeiiii. Aoa iaaeai i?e
aeai?? iieuenueeiai ei?iey ssia Eacei??a, iena?ai a o?yae? Iao?a
Aei?ioaiea, aaia?aeueiei inaaoeii a o?yae? ?.Naiieeiae/a. O 1687 ?.,
eiee ci?noeee ?.Naiieeiae/a, eiai ianooiieeii ia?aee ?.Iacaio.

Ne?ae iaaieineoe, ui ?.Iacaia noaa aaoueiaiii o iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiee
aeey Oe?a?ie /an. Oe?a?inuee? caie? aoee ?ic/eaiiaaieie «Eieiiaoeuee?
noaoo?» 1687 ?. (aeiaia??i? noaoo? i?ae aaoueiaiii ? ?in?enueeei
o?yaeii) ua a?eueoa iaiaaeoaaee aaoiiiii? i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

Aea nai?th iie?oeeith ?.Iacaia ci?oeiea aeaaeo aaoueiaia, ni?eya
aeiiii?/iiio ? eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. Na?e aaoi?eoao aaoueiai
i?aei?n aeoeaiith iaoeaiaonueeith ae?yeuei?noth — ia eiai eiooe
caoaeiaaii 12 ? ?anoaa?iaaii 20 o?ai?a, Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea eieaa?y
caeiaoea noaoon aeaaeai??.

I?ioa nioe?aeueia iie?oeea aaoueiaia aeyaeeany ia aeineoue aio/eith.
Iniiaio noaaeo a?i c?iaea ia eicaoeueeo noa?oeio ? oeyooo, i?aaio/e
ia?aoai?eoe ?o o i?oeiee i?ea?eaeiaaiee eean. A?aeaoeiny iineeaiiy on?o
oi?i aenieoaoaoe?? naeyi, eicae?a ? i?uai, caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueieo
noia?a/iinoae a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?.

Aieiaiith iaoith ?.Iacaie aoei ia’?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie a iaeio iacaeaaeio
aea?aeaao. Aaeee? niiae?aaiiy aaoueiai iieeaaeaa ia iieiaeiai
?in?enueeiai oea?y Iao?a 7(1689-1725 ??.). I?ae ieie neeaeeny
iaaecae/aeii aeia??eea? noinoiee.

Oe?a?ia ? I?ai?/ia a?eia

O1700 ?. ?icii/aeany I?ai?/ia a?eia i?ae Oaaoe??th ? ?in??th; inoaiiy
i?aaioea io?eiaoe aeo?ae aei Aaeo?enueeiai ii?y. Oe?a?ia iaaeaaaea
aeoeaio aeiiiiiao ?in?? o oe?e a?ei?. Aea o 1708 ?. ?.Iacaia oeeaa
oa?iiee nithc c? oaaaenueeei ei?ieai Ea?eii XII, ni?yiiaaiee i?ioe Iao?a
?. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui Oe?a?ia iaaeanoue Oaaoe?? aeiiiiiao o a?ei? i?ioe
?in??, a Oaaoe?y caaacia/eoue iiaia ca?eueiaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae aeaaee
Iineae. Ca oeae a/eiie ?in?enuee?, a iio?i ? ?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee
iaceaaee Iacaio «c?aaeieeii», a neiai «iacaieiaoeue» noaei neiii?iii
neiaa «naia?aoeno». sse? ae i?e/eie cioneee aaoueiaia ooeaoe iiaeo
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a?

Iao?i ? aeyaeany i?ea?/ieeii iie?oeee aei?noeiai oeaio?ae?cio, i?aaioa
oe?eeii i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe Oe?a?io ?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa?, ui ia
ni?aiaaeaei c i?aaiaiiyi ?. Iacaie ?icoe?eoe naiino?ei?noue
Aaoueiaiueie. I?ae /an I?ai?/ii? a?eie Iao?i ? iauaaeii aenieoaooaaa
ethaenuee? ? iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne Oe?a?ie. E?ae aoa aeiiii?/ii
aeniaaeaiee, ianaeaiiy aeaiceee ia aoae?aieoeoai aei??a, eaiae?a, i?no.
Eicaoeueea a?enueei aeei?enoiaoaaee o a?ei? ye «aa?iaoia i’yni».
Iie?oeea Iao?a ? aeeeeeaea iao?aiiy a Oe?a?i?, eicaoeueea aa?o?aea
iaiieyaaea ia iiooeao iiaiai nithcieea.

O ?. Iacaie aoee i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui oea? iiaea iiaea?oaoaaoe
Oe?a?iith, aae caaacia/eoe ia?aiiao o a?ei? ? aeeoe ia aa?aae
Aaeo?enueeiai ii?y.

Ia?ao?ae ?.Iacaie ia a?e oaaaenueeiai ei?iey Ea?ea XII

O aeiaoi? 1708 ?. a?enueei Ea?ea XII anooieei ia Oe?a?io. Ia eiai a?e
ia?aeoia Iacaia c 15 oen. eicae?a, a oaeiae 8 oen. caii??cueeeo eicae?a
ia /ie? c eioiaei ioaiaiii Einoai Ai?ae??ieii. Iniiaia ae iana eicae?a,
noa?oeie, naeyinoaa ? i?uai a?aeiiaeeany i?aeo?eiaoe aaoueiaia. *iio ae
oae noaeiny?

Ii-ia?oa, aeaeany aciaee nioe?aeueia iie?oeea aaoueiaia. Iaaeoi aeaeaei
a?ae??aaany a?i a?ae aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ia?iaeo ? ia ei?enooaaany
iiioey?i?noth a ia?iaeieo ianao.

Ii-ae?oaa, aeey ia?iaeo oeae e?ie Iacaie aoa ianiiae?aaiei, a ni?aaaei?
eiai i?e/eie iaa?aeii?, aaeaea nithc c? Oaaoe??th aoa oa?iiei.

Ii-o?ao?, Iao?i ? aaeea oaeaee? ? ??oo/? ae?? i?ioe Iacaie,
i?aaenoaaeaoe eiai c?aaeieeii Oe?a?ie (ca iaeacii oea?y aaoueiaia
i?ieeeiaee o an?o oea?eaao) oa caeyeaaoe ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?ai?an?yie,
ni?yiiaaieie ia i?ea?/iee?a aaoueiaia.

Oea?nuee? a?enueea cieueee noieeoeth Iacaie — i?noi Aaoo?ei, ae??caaoe 6
oen. aeeoae?a c?oeioaaee Caii??cueeo N?/ O 1708 ?. oea? iaeacaa ia?aoe
iiaiai aaoueiaia, ? iei noaa ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee (1708-1722 ??.).
Eicaoeueeeo noa?oei, ye? ia i?eaoee ia aeai?e iiaiai aaoueiaia, oea?
iaieinea c?aaeieeaie Cae?enithth/e iie?oeeo oa?i?o, Iao?i ? i?aaioa
cieueoe na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy aoaeue-yeo iiiceoe?th.

Iieoaanueea aeoaa

27 /a?aiy 1709 ?. a?aeaoeany Iieoaanueea aeoaa — ae??oaeueia aeoaa
I?ai?/ii? a?eie, yea caaa?oeeanue ii?aceith Ea?ea XII oa ?. Iacaie.

?. Iacaia ?acii c? nai?ie i?ea?/ieeaie ciaeoia iie?oe/iee i?eooeie o
Iieaeaa?? Aiie noaee ia?oith oe?a?inueeith iie?oe/iith ai?a?aoe??th. 21
aa?aniy 1709 ?. aaoueiai iiia?. Oe?a?ia ca Aaoueiaia ?.Iacaie (1687-1709
??.) I?ney nia?o? ?. Iacaie oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y ia?aea aaoueiaiii
Ieeeia I?eeea, yeee oae ? caeeoeany aaoueiaiii o aeaiaii?. A?i neeaa
i?iaeo ia?oi? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, yea io?eiaea iacao «Iaeoe ?
Eiinoeoooe?y i?aa ? aieueiinoae Caii?icueeiai a?enueea». Ci?no ?? oaeee:

a) i?iaieiooaaeany iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie a?ae ?in?? oa ?a/? Iiniieeoi?;

a) ia??oioiao?oueny i?ioaeoe?y oaaaenueeiai ei?iey oa nithc c E?einueeei
oainoaii;

a) oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie aecia/a?oueny Cai??anueeei o?aeoaoii 1649?.;

a) caii?iaeoeyi iiaeii? aoee iiaa?iooe ?oi? aeaai? i?noa/ea O?aooaie??a,
Eiaeae, Eaeaaa?aeo, caie? iaae Ai?neeith; oi?oaoe?, iiaoaeiaai?
Iacaiith, e?ea?aeiaoaaeenue;

ae) i?e aaoueiaiia? ooai?th?oueny Aaia?aeueia ?aaea ?c caeiiiaeaa/ith
aeaaeith, yea neeaaea?oueny c aaia?aeueii? noa?oeie, iieeiaiee?a,
aeai?ieo aeaiooao?a a?ae eiaeiiai iieeo oa aeaeaaao?a a?ae caii?iaeoe?a.
?aaea cae?a?oueny o?e/? ia??e — ia ??caeai, Iie?iao oa Aaeeeaeaiue;

a) ni?aae i?i e?eaaeo aaoueiainueeo oa i?iaeie noa?oeie ?icaeyaea?
aaia?aeueiee noae, aei ae?yeueiino? yeiai aaoueiai ia ia? i?aaa
ao?o/aoeny;

?) aea?aeaaia nea?aieoey ? iaeii i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny aaia?aeueiiio
i?aenea?a?th, ia oo?eiaiiy aaoueiaia i?ecia/athoueny ie?ai? caie?;

ae) anoaiiaeth?oueny aeai?i?noue iieeiaiee?a, nioiee?a c ianooiiei ?o
caoaa?aeaeaiiyi aaoueiaiii;

c) niaoe?aeueia eii?n?y ia? cae?enieoe ?aa?c?th aea?aeaaieo caiaeue,
yeeie ei?enoo?oueny noa?oeia, a oaeiae: iiaeiiinoae ianaeaiiy;

e) neaniaothoueny i?aiaee oa iiaeaoee ia oo?eiaiiy aaoueiainueei?
aaa?ae??;

?) aaoueiai ia? caoeuaoe eicaoeoai ? ana ianaeaiiy a?ae iaaei??ieo
iiaeaoe?a ? iiaeiiinoae, aeiiiiaaaoe eicaoeueeei aaeiaai ? ne?ioai.

Eiinoeoooe?y iaea yne?aai ae?aaeai? aeaiie?aoe/i? oaiaeaioe??. I?i oea
na?ae/eoue anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio — Aaia?aeueii? ?aaee,
aeai?iino? iinaae, ni?iaa ?iciiae?eo iiaiiaaaeaiue aeeiiaa/i? ? noaeiai?
aeaae. ?acii c oei ia iiaeia ia caoaaaeeoe, ui Eiinoeoooe?y iaea ia iao?
caaeiaieueieoe ia?o ca ana ?ioa?ane oeo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ia ye?
iaiaaaany nie?aoeny I?eee aeey iiaa?iaiiy a Oe?a?io. I?iaieioaiiy
caoenoo ?ioa?an?a i?inoiai ia?iaeo iaei ooo oaeaeoa aeaeea?aoeaiee
oa?aeoa?. Caa?i?oue oaaao ia ioe?ieo Eiinoeoooe?? ?.E?ei’yeaae/ai: «An?
oe? iinoaiiae iaee aai?noe/ii eeaniaee /e a?oiiaee oa?aeoa?… Oai?oe?
Eiinoeoooe?? — noa?oeia ? caii?iaeoe? — ia aeyaeee oe?ieiai iie?oe/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo». Eiinoeoooe?y cia/ii iaiaaeoaaea aaoueiainueeo aeaaeo a
?ioa?anao noa?oeie. Ca aeneiaethaaiiyi ?noi?eea I.Iaeiaeeia, aiia aoea
«ae?oaith ii?aceith aaoueiaia Iacaie i?ney iieoaanueei? eaoano?ioe, yea
caaaeaea aaeeeiai oaea?o ii aaoueiainuee?e aeaae?».

Oi/ Eiinoeoooe?y ? ia aoea cai?iaaaeaeaia a aeeooy, aiia noaea
aeaeaoiith iai’yoeith oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a
ai?a?aoe??.

O?yae I?eeea iaiaaaany noai?eoe aioe?in?enueeo eiae?oe?th aea?aeaa. Aea
oe? iaiaaaiiy aeyaeeeny ia?ieie — ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae ia aaaeaee
aithaaoe ca Oe?a?io.

2. Iie?oe/iee ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o
neeaae? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae

Iai?ee?ioe? OVI? — o ia?o?e /aa?o? OVI?? noie?ooy o ?in?? a?aeaoaaany
ia?ao?ae a?ae noaiiai – i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aei aaniethoenonueei?
iiia?o??. Aaniethoenonueea iiia?o?/ia aeaaea iaiaaaeany ci?aaethaaoe
iniaeeaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii – oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith e aea?aeaaii –
i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaee ie?a?ii? ?aa?iie ?iia??? – Aeii
, ss?e, a oaeiae I?eaaeoeeo , Oe?a?io. Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii ?aoi?ie
i?aai?a aeaaee e oi?aae?iiy noaea e?ea?aeaoe?y a?ii?caeei? ? canoa??ei?
nenoaie i?eeac?a oa cai?ia ?o iiaeie onoaiiaaie – eieaa?yie (1717 ?.).
Cie?aia, cai?noue Iaei?in?enueeiai i?eeaco , yeee a?aeaa ni?aaaie
Oe?a?ie c 1662 ?., ooai?thaaeany Iaei?in?enueea eieaa?y (1722 ?.).

Aeey ci?oeiaiiy i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? oea?nueeee o?yae o 1708 – 1710
??. cae?eniea aoaa?inueeo ?aoi?io : e?a?ia aoea iiae?eaia ia a?n?i
aoaa?i?e , any iiaiioa aeaaee a yeeo iaeaaeaea aoaa?iaoi?a. Oa?e?anueeee
iiee a?ae?eoia aei Ee?anueei? aoaa?i??, a ?aooa Neiaiaeaiueie –aei
Acianueei?. Caiaeii , o 1719 ?. , any Neiaiaeaiueia aa?eoea aei neeaaeo
Ee?anueei? aoaa?i??, aea ia?aaoaaea aei 1722 ?.

A?ae 1706 ?ieo ia Neiaiaeaiuei? neaniao?oueny ai?aiaenueea oi?aae?iiy ?
cai?iaaaeaeo?oueny ?aeeiiia/aeueia aeaaea iieeiaiee?a, ca?aoiaaieo aei
eiiaiaeiiai neeaaeo ?in?enueei? a?i??. Oaeee cao?ae aoa coiiaeaiee
iaiao?aei?noth ioi?iie i?aaeaiieo ei?aeii?a a?ae oo?aoeueei –
oaoa?nueei? aa?an??. Iaiao?aei?noue a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie, iniiaia iaoa
yei? iieyaaea o noai?aii? ?aaoey?ii? a?i??, aoea coiiaeaia oaeiae
iio?aaaie I?ai?/ii? a?eie. O 1709 ?. oea?nueeee o?yae noi?ioaaa
Oe?a?inueeo aeea?c?th i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi aaia?aea ?in?enueei? a?i??,
aei yei? oa?eoee eicaoeuee? iieee E?aiaa?aaeii? oa Neia?aenueei?
Oe?a?ie.

Iinooiiai aeoea?coaaeany iie?oeea uiaei iaiaaeaiiy i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy eicaoeueei? noa?oeie. Oae, o 1719 ?. on? noaeia? oa
e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae ia Neiaiaeaiuei? aoee aeeo/ai? ?c eiiiaoaioe??
iieeiaiee?a ? ia?aaeai? o a?aeaiiy A?eai?iaenueei? i?ia?ioe?aeueii?
eaioeaey??? Ee?anueei? aoaa?i??. Ca eicaeaie caeeoaeiny i?aai
inea?aeoaaoe ??oaiiy iieeiai? noa?oeie a?eai?iaenueeiio ai?aiae?, a ae??
inoaiiueiai – o Eo?nueeee iaaea??iee noae. A?ae oiai /ano iieeiaiee?a oa
nioiee?a neia?aenueeeo eicaoeueeeo iiee?a caoaa?aeaeoaaee, a oi e i?inoi
i?ecia/aee oea?nuee? o?yaeiaoe?. 17 ethoiai 1723 ?ieo aoa iaieioaiee
oea?nueeee oeac i?i iaia’yceiaa i?ecia/aiiy iieeiaieeaie neia?aenueeeo
eicaoeueeeo iiee?a ?in?yi. Oeacii a?ae 23 a?oaeiy 1732 ?. neia?aenuee?
iieeiaieee oa noa?oeia aoee cia/ii iaiaaeai? o a?enueeiaiio ea??aieoeoa?
iieeaie. O i?ioean? ?aoi?ie neia?aenuee? iieeiaieee caeo/aeenue aei
ae?yeueiino? eii?n?? ia oae /anoi, iath/e aei oiai eeoa i?aai
aei?aae/iai aieino. Caciaea ci?i ? nenoaia i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy.
Iieeia? ?aooo?, ye? aeieeee iaeii/anii c ooai?aiiyi iiee?a, oeacaie a?ae
1733 ? 1734 ??. ia?aeiaiiaoaaeenue o eaioeaey???. Inoaii?i iaaeaaaeenue
i?aaa ? ooieoe?? eaioeaey??e i?ia?ioe?e ?in?enueeeo aoaa?i?e. On? ni?aae
iieeia? eaioeaey??? ae??ooaaee ia i?aenoaa? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo caeii?a
? oea?nueeeo oeac?a. Noaei/einoai a iieeao cae?enithaaeinue ia i?aenoaa?
?in?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

C na?aaeeie OVI?? no. iineeth?oueny i?aaiaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa
oi?o?eoaaoe nenoaio oi?aae?iiy a iai?yieo iioe?aiiy caaaeueii?iia?nueeeo
ii?yaee?a. Naiai caaa?oaiiy oey iie?oeea aeinyaea ca oea?thaaiiy
Eaoa?eie ??.

Iniiae iie?oeee uiaei Oe?a?ie Eaoa?eia ?? aeeeaea o oa?ii?e ?ino?oeoe??
aaia?ae – i?ieo?i?ia? Naiaoo (1764 ?.). Ia oa?eoi??? i’yoe Neia?aenueeeo
iiee?a aoei ooai?aii Neia?aenueei – Oe?a?inueeo aoaa?i?th. Aiia
iiae?eyeanue ia i’youe i?ia?ioe?e – ?cthinueeo, Iooe?nueeo, Ino?iaicueeo
? Oa?e?anueeo. Aoaa?inueeei oeaio?ii noaa Oa?e?a, a Iooe?ea, Noie ?cthi
? Ino?iaicuee – i?ia?ioe?aeueieie i?noaie. ?aooa i?no ? i?noa/ie
a?aeiineeany aei eaoa?ia?? a?enueeiaeo neia?ae. Aoaa?inueea eaioeaey??y
noaea aieiaiei i?aaiii oi?aae?iiy. Neia?aenuee? iieee ?icoi?iiaoaaeenue.
Cai?noue ieo noai?thaaeenue ?aaoey?i? Oa?e?anueeee oeainueeee, Noinueeee
, Ino?iaicueeee, Iooe?nueeee oa ?cthinueeee aona?nuee? iieee.

Iiaeo ci?i aaei?i?no?aoeaiee oa a?enueeiaee ono??e Neiaiaeaiueie caciaa
o 80-o ?ieao OVI?? no. O a?oaei? 1780 ?. Neia?aenueei — Oe?a?inueea
aoaa?i?y aoea e?ea?aeiaaia, a cai?noue ia? noai?aii Oa?e?anueea
iai?nieoeoai. Iiae?e ia i?ia?ioe?? neaniaoaaany. Iai?nieoeoai
neeaaeaeiny c 15 iia?o?a. I?noeaaa oi?aae?iiy ?ai?aai?ciaaia ia
i?aenoaa? caaaeueii?in?enueeiai “O/?aaeaeaiey aeey oi?aaeaiey
aoaa?ieyie” (1775 ?.) O aoaa?inueeeo i?noao noai?thaaeeny iai?nieoeuee?
i?aae?iiy, noaeia? iaeaoe c e?ei?iaeueieo ? oeea?eueieo ni?aa, aa?oi?e
cainueeee noae , ieaeiy ? aa?oiy ?ici?aae, aoaa?inueeee iaa?no?ao oiui.

Iai?ee?ioe? 1796 ?ieo Oa?e?anueea iai?nieoeoai ciiao ia?aoai?aii a
Neia?aenueei – Oe?a?inueeo aoaa?i?th. Aea ii noo? oea ?noioii ia ci?ieei
caaaeueio nenoaio oi?aae?iiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ia ii/aoeo O?O no. an? oa?eoi??aeueii – aaei?i?no?aoeai?
a?aei?iiino? i?ae Neiaiaeaiueiith ? ?in?enueeeie /anoeiaie ?iia???
cieeee. E?a?ie aoea iiae?eaia ia aoaa?i?? c iaeiioeiiith oi?aae?inueeith
no?oeoo?ith.

Oa?eoi??y Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie c aeaai?o /an?a aoea neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith no?aeii – neia’yinueeeo caiaeue, ye? caciaee nionoioaiiy i?ae
/an iiiaiei – oaoa?nueei? iaaaee.

O O?V – XV no. a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei?
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. Oeae i?ioean oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ai?ioueaith c
iiiaiei – oaoa?aie, ?ioeie ia?iaeaie ?a?iie e Ac??.

I?ioa, oe?a?inueeee ia?iae , oa?iey/e ai?o ?a/? Iiniieeoi? ? aaaeo/e
ai?ioueao c E?einueeei oainoaii ? Oo?a//eiith, ciooaiee ooeaoe
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeeooy a i?aaeaiieo noaiao Iineianueei? aea?aeaae.
Ia?anaeyth/enue o Aeeea Iiea , aeo?aeoe? c I?aaiaa?aaeii? ?
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeee ?icoi?iiy c aieo Iineianueeiai o?yaeo,
yeee, aoa caoe?eaaeaiee a inai?ii? oeeo oa?eoi??e . Ia a inoaiith /a?ao
oea aoei coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth ianaiiy a?enueeiai? , i?eei?aeiiii?
neoaeae.

Aaaeeeaa aea?aeaaia ooieoe?y , yeo aeeiioaaee ia?anaeaioe? ioi?iiyth/e
i?aaeaii? ?oaaae? Iineiaueie , ni?e/eieea ? iniaeeaee aea?aeaaii –
i?aaiaee noaoon ianaeaiiy. Oea?nueeee o?yae ia?aoai?ea Neia?aenueeo
Oe?a?io a iaeio c neeaaeiaeo /anoei ?iia???.

I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie OVII oa OVII? no. ia Oe?a?i? iiaeeaeth?oueny
niaoe?ae?caoe?y ie?aieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? , aeieeathoue iia?
naiino?ei? i?ioan??. Iaeii/anii c i?ioeanii niaoe?ae?caoe??, a
i?iieneiaino? niinoa??aaeany iiaeaeueoa oiaa?ecaoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa, eiee
aeaaeae? a?eueoa i?iaeoeoe?? ie?aieo ae?iaiee?a iaaeoiaeeei ia ?eiie.
Aeieeaee i?iieneia? naea ? i?noa/ea, ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy yeeo oe?eeii
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeinue aeiiaai ?eieo . O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a
Oe?a?i? o?eaaa i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oiaa?iiai iai?io . I?i oea na?ae/eei
iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy oaeeo ia??iaee/ieo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? aioo??oiuei?
oi?a?ae? ye y?ia?ee, oi?ae ? aaca?e, a oaeiae iino?eia oi?a?aey,
ci?oeiaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae oe?a?inueeeie caieyie, a oaeiae
?c ca?oa?aeaeyi. Oaeei /eiii, o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OVII oa i?ioyaii OVII?
noie?ooy ia oa?eoi??? Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i?
c?ooaiiy a aa?a?ieo a?aeiineiao, i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? , oi?a?ae?.
Aecia/aeueiei iane?aeeii nioe?aeueii – aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a cacia/aiiai
ia??iaeo aoei oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ni?eueiino? anueiai oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, /iio ia a ciic? aoee ia?aoeiaeeoe ai? aea?aeaai? ei?aeiie i?ae
Neia?aenueeith , E?aiaa?aaeiith ? I?aaiaa?aaeiith Oe?a?iith , ai?
a?aei?iiino? o aea?aeaaii – i?aaiaiio ono?i? oeeo ?aa?ii?a.

3. E?ea?aeaoe?y aaoiiiiiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie. Aaeaeaiaoeueeee ?oo.
Eie??aueia

Ia E?aiaa?aaei?e ? Neia?aenuee?e Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVIII no.
i?iaeiaaeoaaee iaioaaoe oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeuee? a?aeiineie. Iniiaio
?ieue a?ae?a?aaaei n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. Oni?oi?oa ?icaeaaeiny
caiea?ianoai ia ?iaeth/eo /i?iicaiieo ??oioao o i?aaeaii?e ? noaiia?e
/anoei? Oe?a?ie. Iiaeeaethaaeany niaoe?ae?caoe?y ie?aieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?aeii?a. O aeayeeo o?eueaa?eao ioaieoey
caeiaea 30% iceieo. Ia E?aiaa?aaeae? oa Neiaiaeaiuei? a?eueoa oaaae
i?eae?eyee ae?iuoaaiith aeeoa, ia i?aaei? — ioaieoe?, cie?aia a?iaooee,
iiieo ia yeo ca ei?aeiiii c?inoaa c eiaeiei ?ieii. Ii/aee ae?iuoaaoe
ea?oiieth, eoeo?oaeco.

C?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiceoeaii iicia/eeiny ia ?icaeoeo
oi?a?ae?, ui iiaeaaaeeany, aieiaiei /eiii, caaaeyee y?ia?eai o Ee?a?,
I?aeei?, Iieoaa?, *a?i?aia?, Oa?eia? oa ?i.

?icaeaaeeny i?noa ye oeaio?e aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oe/iiai e eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy, ui na?ae/eei i?i oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo. Iai?ee?ioe?
XVIII no. e?euee?noue iinaeaiue i?nueeiai oeio aeinyaea 200. Ana oea
na?ae/eei i?i oi?ioaaiiy ye?nii iiaeo a?aeiinei a aeiiii?/i?e
ni?eueiino? oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeiino?, i?i ?icaeoie o iaae?ao noa?i?
oaiaeaeueii? nenoaie eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei. I?iaiaey/e
eieii?caoi?nueeo iie?oeeo, oea?nueeee o?yae cae?enithaaa aeaeueo? e?iee
uiaei e?ea?aeaoe?? aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie. Ia ia?aoeiae? oe?e iie?oeoe? noiya
inoaii?e aaoueiai Oe?a?ie Ee?eei ?icoiianueeee (1750—1764 ??.), yeiio a
oeo oiiaao aaeaeiny i?iaanoe noaeiao ?aoi?io, ?icii/aoe oaeineiiaeaiiy
eicaoeueeiai a?enueea, iaiaaeeoe naaa?eey oea?nueeeo /eiiaiee?a.

Ca iaiieyaaiiyi Eaoa?eie II, (1762—1796 ??.) ?icoiianueeee aoa ciooaiee
c?aeoeny aaoueiainoaa a eenoiiaae? 1764 ?. iiao aoea aaaaeaia
Iaei?in?enueea eieaa?y ia /ie? c aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii I. ?oiyioeaaei.
Eieaa?y a 1765—1767 ??. i?iaaea ia?aien ianaeaiiy ? ainiiaea?noa aeey
ca?eueoaiiy cai??a aoei a?aei?iaia e??iinia i?aai.

Eie??aueia ni?eyea ?ooo ii?eoe?a ia I?eea?iaoo?.

Ia’?aeiaieie neeaie ?in?y oa Iieueua i?eaeooeee iianoaiiy, a oeny/?
iianoaioe?a ? nai Aiioa aoee no?a/ai? o Iieueu?. Cae?ciyea ? /eiaei eiai
ni?eueiee?a caneaee aei Nea??o. Iianoaiiy 1768 ?. caaaeaee ua iaeiiai
oaea?o ii i?iaieeiio ?aaeeio, yeee ?nioaaa o Iieueu? ia e?ia?, ?
a?ae?a?aei cia/io ?ieue a ooaa?aeaeaii? aaeaethaieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. .

Cia/iee aieea ia aecaieueio ai?ioueao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo iaea ?
naeyinueea a?eia 1773— 1775-??. i?ae i?iaiaeii I. Ioaa/iaa, a ye?e a?aei
o/anoue /eiaei aeo?aeoe?a c Oe?a?ie. Aeaye? iieee i/ieeee oe?a?inuee?
ioaiaie A. AEo?aa, N. *a?eaoei oa ?io?.

C 1789-ai ii 1793-e ??. o?eaaa aenooi naeyi a n. Oo?aayo, ui ?ai?oa
aoiaeeei aei Ie?ai?iaenueeiai iieeo ? aaaaeaeiny ??eueiei. Eiee naei
i?iaeaee iaiai Aaceeaanueeei, ye? cai?iaaaeeee iaiueio, naeyie iiaaeaaee
iai?a ? iianoaee. Oea?eci aei?noiei ?ici?aaeany c iianoaioeyie, iiiaae
100 naei aoei iiea?aii aaoiaaie ? aeneaii aei Nea??o.

Iiaeaeueoa eieii?caoi?nueea iie?oeea oea?ecio aeoea?coaaea ai?ioueao
ia?iaeieo .ian i?ioe iiiaaiethaa/?a. O 1754 a?aeaoeiny iianoaiiy a
?aeii? AEeoiie?a, a 1757 ?.— o Iaie?ia? e Oiai?, 1761 ?.— o Eenyioe?,
1764 ?.— o A?iieoe?.

O 1768 ?. iieuenueeee naei i?ae oeneii ?in?? i?eeiya i?i c??aiyiiy a
i?aaao eaoieee?a c i?ea?/ieeaie ?ioeo a??iniia?aeaiue ? caai?iio
nia?oii? ea?e aeey naeyi. Oea aeeeeeaei aenooi oeyooe, yea iaieineea a
i. Aa?? eiioaaea?aoe?th. Ca?ieia iianoaiiy i?ioe o?yaeo aoei i?eaeooaia
aeaaeith. Iaiaaaiiy oeyooe ia aeiionoeoe i?ia?aneaieo ?aoi?i, iineeeoe
iaioaaiiy eaoieeoeecio e oi?aonoaa i?eaaei aei iianoaiiy o 1768
ia?iaeieo ian, i?aai?caoi?aie yeiai aoee i?aaineaai? nayuaiieee ia /ie?
c ?aoiaiii Iio?iieinueeiai O?i?oeueeiai iiianoe?y I. Cia/ei-ssai?nueeei
? iineooieeii oeueiai ae iiianoe?y eicaeii Iaeneiii Cae?ciyeii. A
o?i/eu? Oieiaeiee ss? c?a?aeiny aaeeea a?enueei ? ii/aei a?eio c
iainoaii oa ?a?ayie-i?aiaea?yie.

Aaeaeaiaoeueeee ?oo, yeee oa?eoia a ?noi??th i?ae iacaith Eie??aueia
(a?ae neiaa «eie?e», ui icia/a? iianoaiaoeue),ioiiea Ee?aueio,
A?aoeeaaueio, /anoeio Iiae?eey oa Aieei?.

O /a?ai? iianoaioe?, aei yeeo i?e?aeiaany nioiee iaaea??iiai a?enueea
Iioioeueeeo ?aai Aiioa, ooo?iii acyee Oiaiue ? ?ici?aaeeeny ?c oeyooith.
Iianoaioe? i?iaieineee I. Cae?ciyea aaoueiaiii, a ?. Aiioo — iieeiaieeii
? eiycai oiainueeei. O /a?ai?-eeiie I?aaiaa?aaeae? ae?yei CI
iianoainueeeo caaii?a, ye? ia caoiieai?e oa?eoi??? noai?thaaee nai?
i?aaie oi?aae?iiy.

Eie??aueia ni?eyea ?ooo ii?eoe?a ia I?eea?iaoo?. Ia’?aeiaieie neeaie
?in?y oa Iieueua i?eaeooeee iianoaiiy, a oeny/? iianoaioe?a ? nai Aiioa
aoee no?a/ai? o Iieueu?. Cae?ciyea ? /eiaei eiai ni?eueiee?a caneaee aei
Nea??o.

Iianoaiiy 1768 ?. caaaeaee ua iaeiiai oaea?o ii i?iaieeiio ?aaeeio, yeee
?nioaaa o Iieueu? ia e?ia?, ? a?ae?a?aei cia/io ?ieue a ooaa?aeaeaii?
aaeaethaieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Cia/iee aieea ia aecaieueio ai?ioueao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo iaea ?
naeyinueea a?eia 1773— 1775-??. i?ae i?iaiaeii I. Ioaa/iaa, a ye?e a?aei
o/anoue /eiaei aeo?aeoe?a c Oe?a?ie. Aeaye? iieee i/ieeee oe?a?inuee?
ioaiaie A. AEo?aa, N. *a?eaoei oa ?io?.

Aecaieueia ai?ioueaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ae?oai? iieiaeie OOI? no.
?icoeoaea onoi? oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie ? ni?eyea
oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie.

Oa?eoi??y Neiaiaeaiueie noaea iaceaaoeny Neia?aenueei-Oe?a?inueeith
aoaa?i??th. E?aiaa?aaeia eicaoeoai ?ai?aai?coaaeiny 1783 ?. a ?aaoey?i?
eaaaea??enuee? iieee (1784 ?. ia?aeiaiiaai? ia ea?aa?ia?i?).
E?aiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia aoea iiae?eaia ia iai?nieoeoaa —Ee?anueea,
*a?i?a?anueea e Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueea. O 1784 ?. i?e aeai?ao eii?n?? aeey
oeeaaeaiiy «Iiaiai oeiaeaiiy» caeii?a Oe?a?ia aei?o/eea nai?i
i?aaenoaaieeai ianoithaaoe aaoiiii?th ia iniia? aeiaia??ieo noaoae A.
Oiaeueieoeueeiai. Iaeiae, ia iath/e iai??o i?iyoe naith
oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeo eieii?aeueio iie?oeeo uiaei Oe?a?ie ? nei?enoaaoenue
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeith a?eiith, oea?nueeee o?yae o 1768 ?. i?eieiea
ae?yeuei?noue eii?n??. I?ioean iiaeaeueoiai cae??ia/aiiy ia?iaeieo ian
caaa?oeany th?eaee/iei ioi?ieaiiyi e??iiniiai i?aaa 3 o?aaiy 1783 ia
E?aiaa?aaei?e ? Neia?aenuee?e Oe?a?i?. Ia?aoiaee naeyi inoaoi/ii
caai?iiai?. Cai?iaaaeaeoaaeany iaiueia, yea iiaeaeoaee aeinyaaea 4—5
aei?a ia oeaeaeaiue.

Iiaeaeueoa eieii?caoi?nueea iie?oeea oea?ecio aeoea?coaaea ai?ioueao
ia?iaeieo .ian i?ioe iiiaaiethaa/?a. O 1754 a?aeaoeiny iianoaiiy a
?aeii? AEeoiie?a, a 1757 ?.— o Iaie?ia? e Oiai?, 1761 ?.— o Eenyioe?,
1764 ?.— o A?iieoe?. O 1768 ?. iieuenueeee naei i?ae oeneii ?in??
i?eeiya i?i c??aiyiiy a i?aaao eaoieee?a c i?ea?/ieeaie ?ioeo
a??iniia?aeaiue ? caai?iio nia?oii? ea?e aeey naeyi. Oea aeeeeeaei
aenooi oeyooe, yea iaieineea a i. Aa?? eiioaaea?aoe?th. Ca?ieia
iianoaiiy i?ioe o?yaeo aoei i?eaeooaia aeaaeith. Iaiaaaiiy oeyooe ia
aeiionoeoe i?ia?aneaieo ?aoi?i, iineeeoe iaioaaiiy eaoieeoeecio e
oi?aonoaa i?eaaei aei iianoaiiy o 1768 ia?iaeieo ian, i?aai?caoi?aie
yeiai aoee i?aaineaai? nayuaiieee ia /ie? c ?aoiaiii Iio?iieinueeiai
O?i?oeueeiai iiianoe?y I. Cia/ei-ssai?nueeei ? iineooieeii oeueiai ae
iiianoe?y eicaeii Iaeneiii Cae?ciyeii. A o?i/eu? Oieiaeiee ss? c?a?aeiny
aaeeea a?enueei ? ii/aei a?eio c iainoaii oa ?a?ayie-i?aiaea?yie.

Aaeaeaiaoeueeee ?oo, yeee oa?eoia a ?noi??th i?ae iacaith Eie??aueia
(a?ae neiaa «eie?e», ui icia/a? iianoaiaoeue),ioiiea Ee?aueio,
A?aoeeaaueio, /anoeio Iiae?eey oa Aieei?.

4. Iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo I?aaiaa?aaeii? oa
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie

Aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Caii??cueea N?/

I?ney inoaoi/iiai ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?a/? Iiniieeoi? ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?
(I?oonueeee ie? 1711 ?.) i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioean ci?oeiaiiy
oaiaeaeueii? aeaniino?. ?nioaaee oae? oi?ie caieaaieiae?iiy:
ei?ie?anueea (aea?aeaaia), iaaiaonueea. oeyoaonueea,
oea?eiaii-iiianoe?nueea. I?iaeiaaeoaaa ae?yoe i?eioeei aaniethoii?
iaiiae?eueii? niaaeeiai? oeyoaonueei? aeaniino?. Caeiie ?a/? Iiniieeoi?
caai?iiyee ia oeyoaonueeo aeani?noue. I?aai aeaniino? ia caieth aeaaaei
i?aai ainiiaea?y ? aeaaee iaae i?aeaeaieie. Oeae ii?yaeie aoa
caoaa?aeaeaiee Eiinoeoooe??th 1768 ?ieo.

Aaeeeei caieaaeanieeii aoea iieuenueea ei?iia. A Ee?anueeiio ai?aiaenoa?
a 1683 ?. ?e iaeaaeaea o?aoeia an?o aeai??a ai?aiaenoaa. A Aaee/ei?
iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. ei?ie?auei? iaeaaeaei i?eaeecii 15% aeii?i?e
(neeaaeia ia’?aeiaiiy n?e, i?no, o?eueaa?e?a, i?aei?e?inoa, ?ic’?aeiaieo
oa?eoi??aeueii ? ca’ycaieo ?aei?noth aeaniino? oa aeaaee iaaiaoa).
Oaeoe/ii ei?ie?aueiith aieiae?ee iaaiaoe (ca oiiae nieaoe /aoaa?oi?
/anoeie i?eaooe?a — eaa?oe).

Iniiaiei caiaeueiei oiiaeii aieiae?ea oeyooa. Iaea?eueoo /anoeio oeyooe
(aeecueei 12 oen. n?iae) neeaaeaea caai?iaeiaa ? aaccaiaeueia oeyooa –
oeyooa-aieioa. Oea aoee iauaaeee noa?i?onueeeo aiy?, a?eueieo
iinaeaioe?a, aeeoae? oeyoaonueeeo n?e, ui caeiaoee iia?e?oaoe?th. Aiie a
iniiaiiio “neae?ee” ia iaaaee/eeo caiaeueieo iaae?eao aeeiioth/e /eioia?
iiaeiiino?, ae??ai? iineoae aeey aeanieea caie?.

Cia/ia /anoeia oeyooe io?eioaaea ia?oee ia oiiaao aanaeueii?
caeaaeiino?, i?aiaee, neoaeeea oi?aaeoaeyie, aeiiiiaie,
aaei?i?no?aoi?aie, o ai?iieo caaiiao iaaiao?a.

Aaeeeeie caieaaeanieeaie aoee aeooiai? oaiaeaee. A Aaee/ei? iiianoe??,
oea?eae iaee aaeee? oa?aeaey, aea a?eueoa /anoeia ?o iaeaaeaea
?einueei-eaoieeoeueeiio aeooiaainoao. A?aei-eaoieeoeuee? nayuaieee ca
iaoa??aeueiei noaiiaeuai iaeaea ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae naeyi ? aeeiioaaee
neoaeaia? iaia’ycee ye ??ciiaeae iaiueie.

O Caea?iaonuee? Oe?a?i? e I?ai?/i?e Aoeiaei? caiaeueia aeani?noue
iaeaaeaea oai?nueeei, i?iaoeueeei, iieaeaanueeei oaiaeaeai. O I?ai?/i?e
Aoeiaei? aaeeeeie caieaaeanieeaie aoee iiianoe??, aiy?e iieaeaanueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. Na?aaei?ie e ae??aieie caieaaeanieeaie aoee oe?a?ioe?.

O I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a XVIII no. neeaeeny o?e oeie ia?oe?a: ia?oee,
aea ia?aaaaeaee neiaiaee, a?ioiaee /eio ? i?iaeoeoiaa ?aioa; ae?oaee, a
eio?iio ii?yae c /eioai ?nioaaea a?ae?ia?oeiaa ?aioa; o?ao?e, a yeiio
iaioaaea o?eueee a?ae?ia?oeiaa ?aioa. Oaiaeaeueia aeani?noue
a?aeiiaethaaeany oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? neiaiae. I?ia?aeia ?ieue o
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? iaeaaeaea naeyiai. Iniiaieie a?oiaie naeyi ca
i?aeaeainoaii aoee aea?aeaai? ? i?eaaoi?, ui ia?aaoaaee o niaaeeia?e
aeaniino? caiaeueii? oeyooe. Naeyinuee? ainiiaea?noaa ??cieeeny iii?ae
niaith noaiiaeuai ? ooieoe?yie o o?eueaa?eiai-iaiueii?e nenoai?.
Caeaaeii a?ae caaacia/aiino? caieath ? ?iai/ith ooaeiaith eiaoe
(?ieueieee) iiae?eyeeny ia ia?iaeo, ii?aeieeiaeo, i?oeo. Caeaaeii a?ae
iaeiiaiai noaio naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa aecia/aeeny ?ici??e
oaiaeaeueii? ?aioe. A Aaee/ei? iai?ee?ioe? XVII no. iaiueia cae/aeia,
aea?iaa, oa?aa?eiaa o ei?ie?auei? aei??aithaaea a na?aaeiueiio 78 aei?a
ia ??e, o i?eaaoieo ia?oeao – 133 aei?.

Naeyie ei?ie?aueie iinoa/aee ?ae?oo?a ? ia?iaeyee ?o iiey. Naeyie
oea?eiaieo ia?oe?a oo?eioaaee a?enueeia? /anoeie. An? naeyie ieaoeee
aea?aeaai? iiaeaoee – iiaeeiia, oea?eiaio aeanyoeio.

Aeey ?icaeoeo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no.
aecia/aeueiei aoei aa?a?ia caeiiiaeaanoai aano??enueeeo iiia?o?a Ia???
Oa?ace oa Eineoa II. Ia?oei caeiiii (1773), ui ci?iea iicaiaeuei?
a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei?, oaea?aeaaethaaeany ei?ie?aueia. O 1774 ?. aoei
i?iaaaeaii naeoey?ecaoe?th iiianoe?nueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy. E?euee?noue
iiianoe??a ciaioeeanue ia 54. Nayuaieee a?aei-eaoieeoeueeeo ia?ao?e oa
?o ?iaeeie ca?eueiyeeny a?ae iaiueie, a?enueeiaeo iinoi?a, inei?a.

Caeii, ui ?aaoethaaa a?aeiineie i?ae oeyooith ? e??iinieie naeyiaie, aoa
aeaeaiee o /a?ai? 1775 ?. Iii?ueeai caai?iiyeiny i?eoyaaoe naeyi aei
a?aeaoaaiiy iiaeiiinoae caa?o caienaieo a ?iaaioa??, aei iaiueie a
iaae?eth ? o nayoa, i?eioniai? ?iaioe iaa?oue ca a?io?, iaeeaaeaoe
oo?aoe, ea?aoe aac niaoe?aeueiiai i?enoaeo.

Iaoaioii a?ae 5 ea?oiy 1782 ?ieo Eineo II neanoaaa iniaenoo caeaaei?noue
naeyi ? iaaeaa ?i aeaiaioa?i? a?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa: iae?oaeoaaoeny ia
na?e ?icnoae, iaa/aoeny ?aianeo, i?oe a?ae iaia oiui. Naeyie noaee
oe?na?nueeeie i?aeaeaieie. Aiie caeeoaeeny i?ee??ieaieie aei caie? e
i?iaeiaaeoaaee aeeiioaaoe iaiueio oa ?io? iiaeiiino?.

Aano??enueea aa?a?ia caeiiiaeaanoai caaaeii aoei i?ia?aneaia, ine?eueee
a?aeiia?aeaei, cie?aia, ?ioa?anai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Aaee/eie. Aea
caa?aaeaiiy i?aaa aeaniino? oaiaeaea ia an? caie? ia?oeo, aecia/aiiy
?onoe eaeueieo caiaeue ia iaeiii, a iiae?eii naeyi, a?aenooi?noue
a?eueieo caiaeue ia caaacia/oaaee ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aneaieo caeii?a.

Ioaea, aeey aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ae?oai? iieiaeie XVII – XVIII no. o
cao?aeieo ? i?aaiaa?aaeieo oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aoei oa?aeoa?iei
c?inoaiiy e ci?oeiaiiy oaiaeaeueii? aeaniino? ia caieth, ??
eiioeaio?aoe?y a ?oeao iaaiao?a. Ainiiaea?noai ?icaeaaeiny ia iniia?
o?eueaa?eiai-iaiueiii? nenoaie, ui ia e?iaoeue 60-o ?ie?a XVIII no.
iioe?eeany ii an?e oa?eoi???. A cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ? i?aaiaa?aaeieo,
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo caieyo i?iaeiaaeoaaea iaioaaoe a?ae?ia?oeiaa ?aioa. O
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aeiiao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aaiethoe?y eoea a?ae
iniaenoi? naiaiaee naeyi aei neiaiae, a?ioiai?, a?ae?ia?oeiai? ?aioe, ui
na?ae/eei i?i iiaoi?ia cae??ia/aiiy. Aieiaia ?ieue a i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ia?aeoea a?ae naeyinueeiai aei oaiaeaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

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