AI?IOUeAA OeA?ECIO I?IOE OE?A?IIO?EUeNOAA O Ae?OA?E IIEIAEI? O?O NO.

I??y ????iy ?????? ??? ? ?????? ???e ?????a ?????iy ??????i ??? ????i
????th??ny ? ????o ???? ?????i ?y?, y?e ??ey?a O??? ye ?ith ???th, ???y?
?????o ???? ??????.

???? ???e ?? ???? ??e ???????? ??ey??ny o ??yo A.A????a, I.E?????,
I.Ae?????, I.A?????i, Ae.Ae????, I.????i.1 I??, ?? ? ?? ?i? ?????ny c
???? ?????e, y? ??e ???? o ?? ????iy N?N? oa a ???? ???. ????e ?aey???
ae?e ???? ??? ??e ? ?????a i????iy O???.2 I??? ???y ???? ??? ?c
????????i ??ey??ny o ?aoeyo ???? ???iy?o ????a.3 I?ith ??? ??? ? ?????iy
????a ???? ?c ????????i, ????i y?? ?? ??a ???ey?y ?????? ??? o ???
?????? ?????.

A?????th? ??????ue ????? ??e?iy O???, ???e ??? ????? ?????? ?????a,
?????ue o ????? c ?o ????y ? ????y ?????? ???e (?? ??? ??a ??y? ?????
?y???), ??? ????i ???th?a ?y ?? ??y??? ??e ?y ??????? ???ey?e n????th
?????a, ????y??? ???y? ?????th ???e ????? ?????y, ??, ??e, ??e.

I????? E??i A?? E?ue, ??ath?? ????a ?????a ? ??yi, ????, ui ???a ?????a
? ??yi, ???o ??e??a, ?? ?? ??ea, ? ?? ??a ???e ????th. A???a ?y ??yi
eth?a ? ??y ?? ???i ??th ?y ?????a, y? ???e ???a, ?a ???e ?? ??o ??th, ?
?o ?????a ?? ? ??? ?thc ?c I????ith, ?a ?n?y? ???? ?????a.4 Oea ????iy o
??o ??o ?????y ????i ????o ?o??a O???. O?????th? ?????a, ????e ????? ? ?
??? ??? ????????? ??, ??aey?, ???i, c ????o ?a?a, ?????o ???e, ?????
?i’th??? ??. A??i e ??, ? ? ae n?? eth??? y??? ?????ny ?-???o. A? ???i
?????y, ? ????? – ??o ??? e ???, ?ae ??? ??? ?????e ????, ????, ???????
oa ?????, ?a o ??? ?? ????. O? ?? ??i’y? eth?y? ?ith ???? ? ??aeath?
?i’y? ???a.5 C ?i?? ?? ? ?????? ??yo o ???e ???? O?O ?. ?? ???i ????i, ?
??i ??? ?? ???? ? ????i (?????), ? ??y??i. I?????e ???ae ??i ?? – ? ????
????, ??e y?? ??? ???iy ye ??e ?????i ??y??a ? ??, ????y a, ???eth??ny ?
??????ny. A?e e ?????? ????????, y? ??e ?i ?y?i. I?????i ?a ????? I??a
A?i?, ?????, y?e ????ny ??? ????ith ??th. Oe? ? ??? ?????a, y? ???, ? ?
?????a ???a ?ae ??’y??yi ? I????? ? ? ???? a ???, a ????? ???th?
???????.6 A ?? ???? ??????i ??????i ?? ?y? ?? ?????e ???e ? ????, ? ?o
???? ??? ??, ?? eth? ??i ?y ?? ????, ?i ?? ? ????? – ?????, ??y? /e
?ey?. A ??? ???o ??th??ny ?i???????y ??e ye ??a ???o ??e. O?o ? ??i, ?
I. Ae????a ??a? ????o ?????? ???????a ????yie ???.7 I????????e ????
???ue ?????? ??????, ?a’y??? ?c ?????ith ???th, ??i E?ye-?????e ?????a,
? ????? ?????iy, y? ?????y ? ?????? ??yo o O?O ?., ????a? ??ae ? ???y?y
?????? ???ia??, ?????? ???? ????y? ???????a. I???? ae ???? ???? ?ey?? a
??, ?a ????e ?y???ue ???????? ?e. A???n ?yae ?????? ? ?n ???o ?????????
??y?, u? ??i ??i ????e ?o ?ae ????iy” oa ???? ???e o ??? ???y??? ??????.
Oey ???? ?? ???? ???ith, ? ??y? ?e ????iy ???? ?????? ??? ??y??y ?
?ny???y.8 I?????i-????? ?? ? ?????a ?a ????? ???i, ? ?a ?????? O?O no.
?????e ???e, ???? E.Ae?y?? ?a ????a, ? a ???? ??? ??ae, ???e ?????e, ??
? a ??? ???? ????y ?? o O???? ? a ???? ??? ?????e ??ue ?ae I????”.9 O??
????o ?a ?ny??? ?y?i ?????? ???? ?c ?????iyi ??????i ??y?, ????y ??e
???iy ?????? ?? ? ?????y ??? ?n????, a ??ae ?c ?????iyi ???a ????
??????, y? ? ?e ?n ? ??? ???? ??, ye ???a ????a ??? o ??????. Aao????i o
???? ??????? o ??o ??o ????? ????y ????? ???, y?e ? ?????? ?????? ????”
? ????iy? ????? ???a. Aeey ???eth ?ae ?????e ????iy? ? ?????th ????y
???? 28 ???y 1827 ?. ?a ????e ???e E??n ????a. 1 ??y 1836 ?. ??? I???iy
?i ??? ????a, o ??????? ? y?? ?? ???? ??, ye ? ???y, ???th?? ????a,
????a, ??????? ??????a, a ??ae e???th?? ???, ? ????eeny ? ???. I??? E??n
????a ?a ???????th ???ith ???e ?????i ???o. Aei ???e ???a ?????i ???o
???e: ??????y ? ??????th, ???i, ?????? ???e, ???oy ???? ?a???, ???? ?
?y???th ??a??i ???o ?c ?y??iyi ????????? ?????a ??o ???a, ??????y ?
?i??oey?, ??????y ??o ???? ??a o ?????, ??????y ? ????iyi ??.10 C ???o
????y E??? ????a ???ae ??? a ??o ?a ????i ??e?. Aeey ??? ? E??? ?ae ????
??’y??i ????ny ???????ue ???i ???: ????iy ??? ? th????? ???a ? ???o
??y?, ?????ue ???a oa ?????y ? ????e ?????e ??? ? ??a ??o ??a. I??, y?
?????? ?i ???i, ???a ?? ??e?? ????? ???e ?e ??? E??? ae????a ?y ????y ?
??????? ???, ? ?? ??i, o ??y?o ??e, ????? ??? ?ny?? ??e o I????? ? ????e
????e ???. A???? ?????a ?a ????? ???i, a a?ath?o ?e ???, ? ?c ?????
??a?? ? ?????? ??e ?? ????i ????i. I??? ?????? ???? ????? ? ???? ?? ??
???e ???? ????? ???e.11Ca ???e, y? ????ny ????oe ??? ???e ?eyi ?c ??????
???e ?????? ???a, ????th??y ???? ??yae. Aei y?o ?ae ??a ??e ?y???ue
????a ????ue ????e ae??o O.A.O???a ??y ???? E??i-I?????ue?? ?????, ?? ??
??? ???ee ???, ? ??? ?????? ????yi ??e ???????”.12 I??y 1861 ?. ????
??yae ?? ?????i ? A.A?????. I??? ??? i’y? ??a ?e ??yae ???ith??y ???
????. O ??o ???? A.A???? ????, ? ?? ?????? ????e ? ?????? o ?’y?o ?c 12
?????e ????.13 N? A.A????, ??th? ???? o E????o ???????, ??e???, ? ????,
y? ?? ???? O??? ? ?? ?????? ????e ? ???th a ??o ??y?i ???o ????, ???a ??
????? ????? ????.14 A?i ????th?a, ? ?i ??a ?? ??ae, ?i ??? o ??i
c’y?y??ny ???y ????? ?? ??y y??? ??a.15

I? ???th ? ?????iy ????? ??y? ? ????? ?????i ? I???iy ?i ???? ??????
??yae ?ae 12 ???y 1882 ?.16 ????i ??? ????a ????? ??y?, ??i c y?o ?????
?a ???e ? ???e ???. I???? ??yae ?a ?? ?????? ? ???e ??a??y? eth?e, ????i
?ae ??, ?????, ???a?y, ???????. I???i ???? ??yae ????th??y ? ????? c
??th ?y?? ??ae ?o ????????. Aei ??? ????? ?????? ????a, y? ?ae????e
??eth??? ? ?????? ??, ?????e ?o ?y?i ??? ??? ???ethaa?ny ??e ???????. A?
c 1866 ?. ?????? ????ny ??i ????e ??th ??ith ??e ????o ????a, e??a,
???e, ?? y?o ?????e a ?c??, ??y?o ? ????i ???.17

I???a ????y ????i?i ?yae ? ????y ???? ?c ????????i. C ?? 1862 ?. c
?????e ?????i ???? ???? ???? ???i ????????y ?y???ue ??????a. O ??? 1863
?. ?o ????a Ae????a ?????? E????o ???e-?????o A???? ??e ???a ?y ??e??y
?y???? E???? ???e. I?? ????? ??e ??????a ? ??, ?? A???a ????? Ae?????
?????? a ??? ????th ? ??? ??????a c ?i, ?a ?i?i ?????e ?o ???e ??e ?o ?.
I??i ??, A???a ??? ?i???a ???e a ???????? ????? n?? ???.18

*?? ??o ???a ??oe??? ???? ???? ????? ?????. O??y?ny ???e, ?? ??i ??i
?????? ?????y ??? ????e c ????a ?i ????th O???, ? ?? ????th??ny c ?????
?y ???o o?? ??. I?????? ?????? ???????? ???e o ?? ???e, ?? ?? ?c? ??th??
?c ?ey?? o ??, ???? ??i ??? ?i ??? ??e ?????eo ??????a ? ???a.19 O ???o
???o o y??? ??????y ?????y, i????, ? ?, ? ???? ???e ?eyi ????ny ? ?o ?
???, a ???”.20 I?ney ???? ???o ???????? ??? ???????a ????y, ???a, a ???
? ??? ??e ?????y ??. Ca ???e Ae???? Ae?????o ???? N.I.A????? ??, ? ??
??? o ?????e i?? ? ? ?????o, ? ? ?????? ????? ??? ?c ??? ????? i??ue, ?a
?????ny, ??????y, ???ny, ????ny o ??y? ??ny???a ????i-?o?a??.21O 1898 ?.
?? ???? ????e ?i ????? ???e, y?e ?? ??????th ???ith ?????? ????. E???ue
? ?????e ???y? ????y, ???? ?c ???nth??iyi ????? ?y ???o ??i???? ?? ???
?c ?? ???? ???ue.O???th ??y? ? ????iy ??a??????” ????? a ??????e ????? ?
???? ????e. I???? ???? ??i?eth??y ? ??? ?????? ????? ? ????ie ???e.
I???o ??o ???eya ????? ??? ????? ???eo a ?????, ?? ????????”. O?o ?i ???
????? ?i ?????, ???? y??? ? ???a ??y ?????a. ss?i ????e ?a??? ???? ?o
????????e, ? ?????y ? ??? ? ?????y ? ???a?ny. E?i ??, ??????y ???a ??
??a’y?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?i ??iy?y, ?????y ? ????iiy ????o ??a. O
???o ?y??iy ?a??????? ?i ?a ???? ?? ? o?? ??c ???????. C?aey? ????e ????
?????? ?????? ????????, y? a ???? ???th?? ?????? ?????? ????y ? ?????o
??? o ???? ????? ?????y ?? ???? ??e ??? ? ? ?a ? ?? ??a??. O? ??i ???
????y ?????e ??? ???o c ?? ?ny?? ? ?? o ???? ???? ????? ??e. A?a ???e
??e ???e, y? o??eth?a ???, ???ny ??? ???. C ???i ??, a ???? ?? ?? ???a
?? ? ?? ???? ???nth??iy. A?a ?? ???th ???th, ? ???a ?? ?? ???ia? ?y ??o
????a, ? ????e ? ????i ??i. A?a ?? ????ny o ???? ??o ? aeey ????o ?????o
????o ????a. A? ???????a ???a ???????y ??e? ??i ? ?? ?? ???y??? ?????.
A?e ??? ???? ??e? – ? N???, o ????? ????? ? o ??????? ??a. A???i, y? ?
?? ???o ???a ? ????iy, ????ny ???a ???? ? ??y. O ??yo ???e ???th??ny ???
????, y? ??i n??? ????e ????? ??eth??? ???.22 I?? ?? ??eth??? ?’???iy
?a???ny ??? ??? ?ae ?????o ???a ?????? ????? ? ? ??e ???? ???? ? ????
??eth???i ? ??????i ??. C ???i ??, a ?o ???i ???i ? ???i ?????y ????
??eth???e.

Aeey ????y ???? ?y ??e ?????a ? ??y?a ? ????th ??????i ???, ???
????????y ?y???ue ????a. N?a ?? ????a ???a ???e?y ????y? ??eth??ith
??y?a ???? ????? ?????? ????e?a ? o????o ????th. O?, ????e E?????, ye
?????????, ????i ?????y o ?? ??. I???o ???????ue ???e ????e ? ????e, y?
??? ??????? ?????y ????? ?????i-?????i ?? ??????i ???. I???? o ??o ??? ?
??e ???ae. O 1879 ?. o ????? ? ???iy ????a ???? N???” ?????? ?i ????? ?c
O????” E????a ???? ?? ????e, ? ?ee a ?? ???y???, a ??ae ?? n???. Oe???
???ea ?ae ??? ????e ?? ? ????e, ? ????th?? ???????e ??? c O???? o ??iae
????iy E??i-I???????i ?????. Ua ???? ????y ?????y ??? ?? ??? E?????
????????. I????e ? ????? ???, a y?e ??? ???? ??o, ? ???e ??? ?-???????o
? ????e a ????o ??? ?-???n????o ? ???? ????y ???? ????? ?? ??yae c ???th
???, a ??? ??y?? ??”. O?? ??e ? ???e ?? ??o ???a, i???a i???y y?? ????i
????iy E?????, ? ???yae ? a ??e ?n ??? c?????e ??e ??, ? ??o ?? ???o
???? ? ?????? ????? ?????i ?y ??, ?a ????e ????????e ??, ???? ?y ??i
??ae ????? a ???o ?????? ???”.23

A ????? ??????? c ?? ??e ?????? ????y ?????a ?? ????? ????? ???i, ? ?
??? OO ?. a O??? ?y???ue ?????? ?????? ???????? ????y ? ???ue ???a?y c
???o ???e ????? ????o ???a ? ???? ia ??ue O.A.O???a, ?.I.E?ey????i ?
??eo ???o ?????o ? ????? ?????eo ?y?a. I???y, ????? ???e ? ????? ????
??e ??????? ?????? ?? ??e?? ????o ?y?? ??? O???, E??, ???????y I???,
E??????, A????, *????, E??.24

C??? ?y???ue ???a ?????i ???o ? ??y? a ??????e ????? ?ea ??? ???ith. A?e
???? ?n ??i??e ?????? ?????? ?o o ??o, ??iy?? ?y ???o. C???a ????y a
O??? ?? ??y??? ? ???o ???ey?th ??????i ????y ????th ???i ? ???? ?????iy
?????? ????? ??? ? ??th a ???? ???, ????th ????th c ?????? ?????? ??i
??c ?????iy ?? o ??????. I???a ???? ???th?? ??ae ?????? ??i ?????? ????,
y? ????? ?? ????, ?a ?e ? ? ??? ????.

I????i ???iy ???oth? ???y ?????? ?????? ??? ????? o ????? ??????a, a
??ae ????i ??????i ?????iy ??a a ??e ?y???ue ????a ? ????th ?????? ?????
o ??????a ??????i ??????i ?? ? ??a ???? ?y???? ? ?ai ????.

AeAEA?AEA OA E?OA?AOO?A

1. Ae?.: E????a I???. I ?????? ? th?i???i y?? // E???a ????a.-1992.-?
3.-N. 53-57; Ae????a I.I. A??? c ????? ?????e??a (1863-1872): A???.-E.,
1991.-N. 204-233; Ae????a I.I. O?? ?o???a e ???a: A???.-E., 1991.-N.
234-253; Ae????a I.I. O???i, ?????? ? ?????: A???.-E., 1991.-N. 327-429;
Ae????a I.I. *? ??a ???????i?: A???.-E., 1991.-N. 430-455; Ae????a I.I.
I?? o????? ??? ?i ????? ??? (1764-1880): A???.-E., 1991.-N. 456-460;
Ae????a I.I. *???? ??e ?i ?????o ?????o ???: A???.-E., 1991.-N. 461-558;
A????? I.N. ????y O???-??e.-E., 1916.-O 7.-*. 2.-N. 434, 444; A????? I.
sse ?a ?????? ??ae.-E., 1992.-N. 106-107; Ae???? Ae. I?? ?????
O???.-E??a, 1991; Ae???? Ae. O????i a ????. I??? ??.-A???, 1916; A???i
A.ss. E??ey ?????i ???.-E., 1990;

2. Ae?.: I????i I.I. ????e ?????e?? ??????? ? ?????y ??????o ? O??? a
??? O?O ? ? ???o OO ?.-E., 1952;

3. Ae?.: E?uey?a A. O????a ???????y ? ??? O?O-OO ?.: ????i-????ee
???o.-E., 1993; E??i A.I., I????? A.I., Neth???i A.A. ??i?y O???.-E.,
2002.-N. 352-355; A??the A.O., A???ue A.I., O??? I.I. O??? ? ???y a
?????e ???????.-O 3-o ??o.-O. 1. O????? ???e a ??????e ?????.-E.,
2004.-N. 351-371;

4. N????? A. *??? ?i O???.-E., 1992.-N. 195;

5. ????y O???: E?n ???e: O 2 ?. Ei.. 1 – A?ae ?????o /??a ? ??y O?O
????y / I??? E.A., A??e I.?., Ae???i I.A. ? ?i.-E., 1991.-N. 350-351;

6. I??? I. O????a ?????a ?????y. I?a ?????a ????a // O?. ??. ??.-1991.-?
3.-N. 102;

7. Ae????a I.I. E?????y I??a e ??????y ????ey.-E., 1917.-N. 88;

8. E?ye-?????e ?. I?ae ?????th ? ????th: N??? ? ????? ? ???e ??????
?????-????? ?i?.-Ith??, 1973.-N. 31;

9. N????? A. *??? ?i O???.-E., 1992.-N. 220.

10. I????i A. E??ey e ??u ????? e ??????i ??a.-E., 1994.-N. 67.

11. *??a A., A????? Ae. I?????e ?? a ???e ???e: ?ae??e ??? ?y????e ????a
// A ?? ????a.-2004.-? 4.-N. 15-16;

12. I????i A. E??ey e ??u ????? e ??????i ??a.-E., 1994.-N. 113;

13. Eeyi I.?. AE???e ? ???e ?yo A.A.A????a // O?. ???. ??.-1991.-?
2.-N.67;

14. A???? A. I?? ?e?y a E????o ??????? // E???a ????a.-1992.-? 3.-N.
65-67;

15. A???? A. A??? e??y ? ??o ????? // E???a ????a.-1992.-? 3.-N. 67;

16. Oe????? ????e ?????e ??a O??? (?? — OeAe?A O???).- O. 1335.- Ii. 1.-
N?. 20.- *. ?.- A?. 22;

17. OeAe?A O???.- O. 442.- Ii. 192.- N?. 141.- A?.. 11;

18. A??the A.O., A???ue A.I., O??? I.I. O??? ? ???y a ?????e ???????.-O
3-o ??o.-O. 1. O????? i??? a ??????e ?????.-E., 2004.-N. 357;

19. OeAe?A O???. — O. 442.- Ii. 810.- N?. 132.- A?.. 211 (? ????);

20. OeAe?A O???. -O. 442.- Ii. 810.- N?. 132.- A?.. 7-8 (? ????);

21. *??a A., A????? Ae. I?????e ?? a ???e ???e: ?ae??e ??? ?y????e ????a
// A ?? ????a.-2004.-? 4.-N. 16;

22. I????i A. E??ey e ??u ????? e ??????i ??a.-E., 1994.-N. 268;

23. Eeyi I.?. N???????i I.?.E????? a ?????o ???? ??????? ???? // O?.
???. ??.-1990.-? 4.-N. 68.

24. ????y O??? / A.I.E?????, A.A.E???, A.I.N???i ? ?i.–E., 1994.-N. 7.

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