Oiaa?enoai “Aca?iia iii?/ oe?a?inueeeo a/eoae?a” ? ai?ioueaa iaaeaaia?a
Aoeiaeie ca iie?auaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua (1905-1914??.)

Ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy oe?eueia ieoaiiy noaei iaeaieiai?oei na?aae on?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?aa oe?a?ioe?a. Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi a ina?oi?e ni?aa?
aoea iaoe?iiae?caoe?y oeiee ? i?enoinoaaiiy ?? aei iio?aa oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, eiai caaaeaiue, aeeooy ? ianoaaei. Oea aeeiiaoe aoei
iaiiaeeeai ia ae??oeaoe iaeaaaeeea?o? i?iaeaie oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a:
i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoi?, iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe?, ci?ie
aeenoeeie?ia?iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iinooiiai aeieeea aeoiea i?i iio?aao
canioaaiiy ie?aii? a/eoaeuenueei? i?ioan?eii? i?aai?caoe??, yea a
ia’?aeioaaea coneeey iaaeaaia?a Aoeiaeie ? Aaee/eie.

Aeey oe??? ni?aae iio??aii aoei i?aeaiooaaoe a?aeiia?aeiee a?oio. Oea
caaaeaiiy acyea ia naaa aacaoa “I?ii?iue”, ui aeoiaeeea ia Aoeiaei? ?
noaea io?oe?eiith o?eaoiith aoeiaeinueeiai ia?iaeiiai a/eoaeuenoaa.
Iai?i aeoiie i?ae na?aeiieie a/eoaeyie uiaei iaoe ? oi?ie a/eoaeuenueei?
i?aai?caoe?? oa ?aaeaeoe?ei? noaoo?, ui i?aeaiaeeee neacaia aei
ni?eueiiai ciaiaiieea, aeoaea /anoi iiaeia aoei cono??oe ia noi??ieao
“I?iiaiy”, aea aeiienoaa/? caeeeeaee nai?o eieaa aeia?ia?eueii
niea/oaaoe iacia/io noio ? oei naiei noai?eoe aeiiii?/ia i?aea?oioy aeey
i?ioan?eii? a/eoaeuenueei? i?aai?caoe??.

Aeeiiaa/ee eii?oao ia?oiai a/eoaeuenueeiai a?/a (a?aeaoeiny o Eueaia? 18
eeiiy 1904 ?ieo) c?a?aany ia nai? can?aeaiiy 1 eenoiiaaea 1904?. A?i
i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui i?ioan?eia i?aai?caoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeiiai a/eoaeuenoaa iineoeia iacao “Aca?iia iii?/ aaeeoeueeeo ?
aoeiaeinueeeo a/eoae?a ? o/eoaeueie”. A 1922 ?. ?? aoei ia?aeiaiiaaii ia
“Aca?iio iii?/ oe?a?inueeiai a/eoaeuenoaa” (AIOA). Noaooo oiaa?enoaa
caoaa?aeeei oe?na?nueei-ei?ie?anueea (oe. e.). I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o
ni?aa o A?aei? 13 eeiiy 1905 ?. Ca?aeii iueiai iaoith oiaa?enoaa aoei
cao?ooaaoe o/eoaeuenoai Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie aeey caaacia/aiiy nia? ?
nai?i n?i’yi ii?aeueii? oa iaoa??aeueii? aeiiiiiae. Aeey oeueiai
noaoooii ia?aaeaa/aeeny ??ciiiai?oi? caoiaee: ye eeiiioaiiy aei aeaaee o
ni?aa? iie?auaiiy noaiiaeua a/eoae?a, oae ? ni?iae aeanieie neeaie
ae??ooaaoe nai? iaecaaaeuei?o? i?iaeaie. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii oe?eo nenoaio
caoiae?a, uia noai?eoe aeiiii?/io iniiao aeey cae?eniaiiy nai?o ieai?a.
Iaeaaeia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue i?ina?oieoeueei-aeoiai?e ?iaio?, eio?o iaei
i?iaiaeeoe iiainoai?aia oiaa?enoai.

Ia?o? Caaaeuei? Cai?e oiaa?enoaa a?aeaoeeny 28 na?iiy 1905 ?. Oeth aeaoo
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ii/aoeii a?aee?eo o ?iaio? i?ioan?eii? a/eoaeuenueei?
i?aai?caoe??. Any ae?yeuei?noue i?iaiaeeeanue i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
Aee?aeoe?? oiaa?enoaa, a ye?e iino?eii i?aoethaaee Aiae??e Aeenueeaae/
(oaeoe/iee caniiaiee ? aieiaa oiaa?enoaa c 1905 ii 1909 ?.?.), ?aai
No?iinueeee oa Aaneeue ?aaethe. Iaeei c iaeaeoeai?oeo ia??iae?a
ae?yeueiino? AIOA o?eaaa ?c /ano canioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aei ii/aoeo
Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

I?e 17 o?e?yo oiaa?enoaa aaeaeiny canioaaoe eane, ui iaaeaaaee
iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao a/eoaeyi. I?i ??ciiiai?oi?noue oaei? aeiiiiiae oa
?aoaeueiee iae?e o?iain?a na?ae/eoue iiae?e aeioiae?a “Aca?iii? iiii/?”
ia oae? oiiaee: iniiaiee (neeaaeaany ?c /eainueeeo aiane?a),
aeiiii?aeiee (eiai iaiiaithaaee aeia?ia?euei? iiaea?oaoaaiiy oa ?io?
aeioiaee oiaa?enoaa), iain?eiee, iioi?iiiee, iinaaiaee (iaaeaaaa
iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao a/eoaeyi, ui ciaoiaeeeeny a ne?ooiiio noaiiaeu?),
aeeniiceoe?eiee (eiooe, c yeiai aeae?eyeeny ia i?aaiao aeiiiiiao,
aeieaoe noeiaiae?e, a?aee?eooy a?ae?ioae, oe?e, ?ioa?iao?a),
aaei?i?no?aoeaiee (i?ecia/aiee aeey aaaeaiiy ae?eiaiaenoaa) oiui. *?oei
?aaeaiaiooaaeiny iaiiaiaiiy o?iainaie ni?eueii? eane oa aeaeaoee
oiaa?enoaa. Oa /e ia iaea?eueoith iiioey?i?noth na?aae a/eoae?a
ei?enooaaeeny e?aaeeoe, ye? “Aca?iia iii?/” iaiaaaeany iaaeaaaoe yeiiiaa
a?eueo?e e?eueeino? aaaeath/eo.

Nii/aoeo ia?iaeia a/eoaeuenoai ?c aaeeeei caoiieaiiyi ni?eeiyei
noai?aiiy iiaiai oiaa?enoaa. Iiaeia aoei ii/ooe c ono ia iaeiiai
a/eoaey, ui ie noai?eee nia? oaeo i?aai?caoe?th, yea ?iaeoue iano?aoieie
aeey ian iani?aaaaeeea? aeenoeeie?ia?i? iiea?aiiy oa ??ci? iaoa??aeuei?
e?eaaee. ? eiee a iaaeaaiae c oaeei aiooc?aciii noaaeeeny ? iaaeae? aei
naiai oiaa?enoaa, eiee a a/anii niea/oaaee aianee, aac yeeo
ae?yeuei?noue eiai i?inoi aoea a ia?aaeueia, oi iaae??, iieeaaeai? ia
“Aca?iio iii?/ oe?a?inueeeo a/eoae?a”, yeui ia iiai?noth, oi /anoeiai
aoee a aei?aaaeai?. E?iaoeue 1907?. iieacaa, ui caaae o/eoaeuenoaa ia
caee ua aei oyaeeiai y?ia i?aai?caoe?eieo iaia’yce?a. Ca /an aeai??/iiai
?nioaaiiy “Aca?iii? iiii/?” aei ia? iaeaaeaei 1363 /eai?a. Oea aiai?eei
i?i oa, ui ca aeaa ?iee ?nioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ia aaeaeiny cao?ooaaoe
iaa?oue 50% oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai a/eoaeuenoaa.

I?ioa Aee?aeoe?y oiaa?enoaa i?aoethaaea ia iieeaaeath/e ?oe ? oea aeaei
nai? ?acoeueoaoe. Iiaeeeai naia oiio, ii/eiath/e c 1911 ?. a ?iaio?
oiaa?enoaa niinoa??aa?oueny cia/iee iinooi. E?euee?noue /eai?a AIOA
noaiiaeea 1060 /ieia?e, a oeo, ooi ia ieaoea /eainueeeo aiane?a aoei
aeoaea iaei. ?icii/eia?oueny caaaeueia iiaeaaaeaiiy i?ioan?eiiai
a/eoaeuenueeiai ?ooo. I?i oea na?ae/eoue canioaaiiy oae caaiiai
«iinia?oiiai oiiaeo» aeey aeiiiiiae ne?ioai oa aaeiaai iiia?eeo
ia?iaeieo a/eoae?a, «O/eoaeuenueeiai i?aai?caoe?eii-aeai?/iai eii?oaoo»
a 1911 ?., i?iaaaeaiiy C’?caeo oe?a?inueeiai a/eoaeuenoaa 22 aa?aniy
1912 ?., noai?aiiy «Iaaeaaia?/ii-iaoeiai? eii?n??» c iaoith
iiioey?ecaoe?? oiae?oi?o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaeaiue, oi?ioaaiiy
iia?oiuei? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee. A 1914 ? aeiy
i?iaaaeaiiy ianiaeo iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e aoei noai?aii «E?aeiaee eii?oao
iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai a/eoaeuenoaa», ?c
iaaiaee 100-e?ooy c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy O.Oaa/aiea i?iaaaeaii ia?oee
anaoe?a?inueeee c’?cae ia?iaeiiai a/eoaeuenoaa.

I?ioa, yeui a aeeoo? aaeeoeueeiai a/eoaeuenoaa aeaia oiaa?enoai
a?ae?a?aaaei aaaeeeao ?ieue, oi i?i aoeiaeinueeeo a/eoae?a oea neacaoe
aoei aaaeei. Ia Aoeiaei? aaeaeiny i?aai?coaaoe o?eueee 4 Ie?oaei?
A?aeae?ee. Oiio ia Caaaeueieo Cai?ao aoeiaeinueeeo /eai?a «Aca?iii?
iiii/?», ui i?iaiaeeeany a *a?i?aoeyo 23 a?oaeiy 1906 ?.
Aee?aeoe?y Euea?anueei? Oeaio?ae? iiaiaeeeany ia canioaaiiy aaoiiiiii?
Aeniiceoo?e (Naeoe??) «Aca?iii? iiii/?» aeey Aoeiaeie c oeaio?ii o
*a?i?aoeyo. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii iieiaeaiiy i?i ?? ae?yeuei?noue.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oe?ieo aaoiiii?th aoeiaeinueei? Aeniiceoo?e, oeth
i?aai?caoe?th c?iaeoe iiioey?iith na?aae a/eoaeuenoaa ia aaeaeiny.
Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iaaeaaia?a Aoeiaeie o?eiaeany inoi?iiue ia?.
Aaeaea ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa “Aca?iia iii?/ aaeeoeueeeo ?
aoeiaeinueeeo o/eoae?a” aoea a?eueo aeecueeith naia aeey aaeeoeueeeo
a/eoae?a, iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua yeeo aoei ae?ae iiaaia. Ia Aoeiaei?
aoee noai?ai? ?io? oiaa?enoaa, ye? caeiaeeny caoenoii oaoiaeo ?ioa?an?a
iaaeaaia?a.

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