The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on
the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands,
Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Their
total area is over 244 000 square kilometres. The United Kingdom is one
of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million.
About 80 percent of the population is urban. The United Kingdom is made
up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively.
Great Britain consists of England , Scotland and Wales and does not
include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech Great Britain is used
in the meaning of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. The capital of the UK. is London. The British Isles are
separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the British Channel.
The *western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and
the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland
is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, which has
beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and
west of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south-
eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.
Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lot
of rivers iri Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is
the longest rive?, while the Thames is the deepest and the most
important oae. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of
the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild
the whole year round. The UK. is a highly developed industrial
country. It produces and exports machinery, electronics, textile. One
of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. * The UK is a
constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the Queen as Head of
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