Symbolism (arts)

La mort du fossoyeur («The death of the gravedigger») by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Schwabe» \o «Carlos Schwabe»
Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_%28personification%29» \o «Death
(personification)» Death and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angel» \o «Angel» angels , pristine
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow» \o «Snow» snow , and the
dramatic poses of the characters all express Symbolist longings for
transfiguration «anywhere, out of the world.»

Symbolism was a late HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_century» \o «Nineteenth
century» nineteenth century HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_movement» \o «Art movement» art
movement of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o
«France» French and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium»
\o «Belgium» Belgian origin in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolist_poetry» \o «Symbolist poetry»
poetry and other arts.

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Precursors_and_origins»
1 Precursors and origins

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Movement» 2 Movement

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «The_Symbolist_Manifesto»
2.1 The Symbolist Manifesto

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Techniques» 2.2
Techniques

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Paul_Verlaine_and_the_po.C3.A8tes_maudits» 2.3 Paul Verlaine and the
poetes maudits

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Philosophy» 2.4
Philosophy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Literary_world» 2.5
Literary world

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_other_media» 3 In
other media

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_the_visual_arts» 3.1
In the visual arts

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Music» 3.2 Music

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Prose_fiction» 3.3
Prose fiction

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Theatre» 3.4 Theatre

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Aftermath» 4 Aftermath

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Symbolists» 5
Symbolists

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Precursors» 5.1
Precursors

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Authors» 5.2 Authors

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Influence_in_English_literature» 5.3 Influence in English literature

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Symbolist_painters» 5.4
Symbolist painters

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 6
External links

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 7
References

Precursors and origins

French Symbolism was in large part a reaction against HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalism_%28literature%29» \o
«Naturalism (literature)» Naturalism and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realism_%28arts%29» \o «Realism (arts)»
Realism , movements which attempted to capture reality in its
particularity. These movements invited a reaction in favour of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirituality» \o «Spirituality»
spirituality , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imagination» \o «Imagination» imagination
, and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream» \o «Dream»
dreams ; the path to Symbolism begins with that reaction. Some writers,
such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joris-Karl_Huysmans»
\o «Joris-Karl Huysmans» Joris-Karl Huysmans , began as naturalists
before moving in the direction of Symbolism; for Huysmans, this change
reflected his awakening interest in religion and spirituality.

The Symbolist movement in literature has its roots in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Fleurs_du_mal» \o «Les Fleurs du mal»
Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil) by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Baudelaire» \o «Charles
Baudelaire» Charles Baudelaire . The esthetic was developed by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephane_Mallarm%C3%A9» \o
«Stephane Mallarme» Stephane Mallarme and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Verlaine» \o «Paul Verlaine» Paul
Verlaine during the 1860s and 70s. During the 1880s, the esthetic was
articulated through a series of manifestoes and attracted a generation
of writers. The works of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o «Edgar Allan Poe»
Edgar Allan Poe , which Baudelaire greatly admired and translated into
French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trope» \o «Trope» tropes and
images.

Distinct from the Symbolist movement in literature, Symbolism in art
represents an outgrowth of the more HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_novel» \o «Gothic novel» gothic
and darker sides of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism» \o «Romanticism» Romanticism
; but where Romanticism was impetuous and rebellious, Symbolist art was
static and hieratic.

Movement

The Symbolist Manifesto

Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths
which could only be accessed by indirect methods. Thus, they wrote in a
highly metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or
objects with symbolic meaning. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symbolist_manifesto&action=ed
it» \o «Symbolist manifesto» Symbolist manifesto (‘Le Symbolisme’, Le
Figaro, 18 Sept 1886) was published in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1886» \o «1886» 1886 by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Moreas» \o «Jean Moreas» Jean Moreas
. Moreas announced that Symbolism was hostile to «plain meanings,
declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description,» and
that its goal instead was to «clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form»
whose «goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the
Ideal»:

In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real
world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are
perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with
the primordial Ideals.

Techniques

The Symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in
order to allow greater room for «fluidity», and as such were aligned
with the movement towards HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_verse» \o «Free verse» free verse ,
a direction very much in evidence in the poems of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Kahn» \o «Gustave Kahn» Gustave
Kahn . Symbolist poems sought to evoke, rather than to describe;
symbolic imagery was used to signify the state of the poet’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul» \o «Soul» soul . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synesthesia» \o «Synesthesia» Synesthesia
was a prized experience; poets sought to identify and confound the
separate senses of scent, sound, and colour. In Baudelaire’s poem
Correspondences which also speaks tellingly of forets de symboles —
forests of symbols —

Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d’enfants,

Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies,

— Et d’autres, corrompus, riches et triomphants,

Ayant l’expansion des choses infinies,

Comme l’ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l’encens,

Qui chantent les transports de l’esprit et des sens.

(There are perfumes that are fresh like babies’ skins,

sweet like oboes, green like meadows

— And others, corrupt, rich, and triumphant,

having the expansiveness of infinite things,

like amber, musc, benjamin, and incense,

which sing of the raptures of the mind and senses.)

and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rimbaud» \o «Arthur
Rimbaud» Rimbaud ‘s poem Voyelles:

A noir, E blanc, I rouge, U vert, O bleu : voyelles. . .

(A black, E white, I red, U green, O blue: vowels. . .)

— both poets seek to identify one sense experience with another,
although it seems that neither of them actually experienced synesthesia
(see HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famous_synesthetes» \o
«Famous synesthetes» famous synesthetes ).

Paul Verlaine and the poetes maudits

But perhaps of the several attempts at defining the essence of
Symbolism, none was more influential than HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Verlaine» \o «Paul Verlaine» Paul
Verlaine ‘s HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1884» \o «1884»
1884 publication of a series of essays on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tristan_Corbiere» \o «Tristan Corbiere»
Tristan Corbiere , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rimbaud» \o «Arthur Rimbaud»
Arthur Rimbaud , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephane_Mallarme» \o «Stephane Mallarme»
Stephane Mallarme , each of whom Verl aine numbered among the poetes
maudits, «accursed poets.»

Verlaine argued that in their individual and very different ways, each
of these hitherto neglected poets found HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genius» \o «Genius» genius a curse; it
isolated them from their contemporaries, and as a result these poets
were not at all concerned to avoid HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeticism» \o «Hermeticism» hermeticism
and idiosyncratic writing styles. In this conception of genius and the
role of the poet, Verlaine referred obliquely to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetics
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schopenhauer» \o
«Arthur Schopenhauer» Arthur Schopenhauer , the philosopher of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_pessimism» \o
«Philosophical pessimism» pessimism , who held that the purpose of art
was to provide a temporary refuge from the world of blind strife of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_%28philosophy%29» \o «Will
(philosophy)» will .

Philosophy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schopenhauer%27s_aesthetics»
\o «Schopenhauer’s aesthetics» Schopenhauer’s aesthetics reflected
shared concerns with the Symbolist programme; they both tended to look
to Art as a contemplative refuge from the world of strife and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_%28philosophy%29» \o «Will
(philosophy)» Will . From this desire for an artistic refuge from the
world, the Symbolists took characteristic themes of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mysticism» \o «Mysticism» mysticism and
otherworldliness, a keen sense of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death» \o «Death» mortality , and a sense
of the malign power of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_sexuality» \o «Human sexuality»
sexuality . Mallarme’s poem Les fenetres ( HYPERLINK
«http://cage.ugent.be/~dc/Literature/Mallarme/Mal08.html» \o
«http://cage.ugent.be/~dc/Literature/Mallarme/Mal08.html» [1] )
expresses all of these themes clearly. A dying man in a hospital bed,
seeking escape from the pain and dreariness of his physical
surroundings, turns toward his window; turns away in disgust from:

. . . . l’homme a l’ame dure

Vautre dans le bonheur, ou ses seuls app&# xE9;tits

Mangent, et qui s’entete a chercher cette ordure

Pour l’offrir a la femme allaitant ses petits,

(«the hard-souled man, wallowing in happiness, where only his appetites
feed, and who insists on seeking out this filth to o ffer to the wife
suckling his children»)

and in contrast, he «turns his back on life» (tourne l’epaule a la vie)
and he exclaims:

Je me mire et me vois ange! Et je meurs, et j’aime

— Que la vitre soit l’art, soit la mysticite —

A renaitre, portant mon reve en diademe,

Au ciel anterieur ou fleurit la Beaute!

(«I marvel at myself, I seem an angel! and I die, and I love — whether
the glass might be art, or mysticism — to be reborn, bearing my dream
as a diadem, under that former sky where Beauty once flourished.»)

The Symbolist movement has frequently been confused with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decadent_movement» \o «Decadent movement»
Decadence . Several young writers were derisively referred to in the
press as «decadent» in the mid 1880s. Jean Moreas’ manifesto was largely
a response to this polemic. A few of these writers embraced the term
while most avoided it. Although the esthetics of Symbolism and Decadence
can be seen as overlapping in som e areas, the two remain distinct.

Literary world

A number of important literary publications were founded by Symbolists
or became associated with the movement; the first was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=La_Vogue&action=edit» \o «La
Vogue» La Vogue founded in April 1886. In October of that same year,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Mor%C3%A9as» \o «Jean
Moreas» Jean Moreas , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Kahn» \o «Gustave Kahn» Gustave
Kahn , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Adam» \o «Paul
Adam» Paul Adam began HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Le_Symboliste&action=edit» \o
«Le Symboliste» Le Symboliste . One of the most important Symbolist
journals was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Mercure_de_France» \o «Le Mercure de
France» Le Mercure de France , edited by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Vallette» \o «Alfred Vallette»
Alfred Vallette , which succeeded La Pleiade; founded in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1890» \o «1890» 1890 , this periodical
lasted until HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1965» \o «1965»
1965 . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Lou%C3%BFs» \o
«Pierre Louys» Pierre Louys founded HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=La_conque&action=edit» \o «La
conque» La conque , a periodical whose Symbolist leanings were alluded
to by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jorge_Luis_Borges» \o
«Jorge Luis Borges» Jorge Luis Borges in his story HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Menard_%28fictional_character%29»
\o «Pierre Menard (fictional character)» Pierre Menard, Author of the
Quixote . Other Symbolist literary magazines included HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=La_Revue_blanche&action=edit»
\o «La Revue blanche» La Revue blanche , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=La_Revue_wagn%C3%A9rienne&act
ion=edit» \o «La Revue wagnerienne» La Revue wagnerienne , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Plume» \o «La Plume» La Plume and
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=La_Wallonie&action=edit» \o
«La Wallonie» La Wallonie .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%A9my_de_Gourmont» \o
«Remy de Gourmont» Remy de Gourmont and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_F%C3%A9n%C3%A9on» \o «Felix
Feneon» Felix Feneon were HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_criticism» \o «Literary
criticism» literary crit ics associated with the Symbolist movement.
Drama by Symbolist authors formed an important part of the repertoire of
the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Th%C3%A9%C3%A2tre_de_l%27%C5%
92uvre&action=edit» \o «Theatre de l’?uvre» Theatre de l’?uvre and the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Th%C3%A9%C3%A2tre_des_Arts&ac
tion=edit» \o «Theatre des Arts» Theatre des Arts .

The Symbolist and Decadent literary movements were HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satire» \o «Satire» satirized in a book
of poetry called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Les_D%C3%A9liquescences_d%27A
dor%C3%A9_Floupette&action=edit» \o «Les Deliquescences d’Adore
Floupette» Les Deliquescences d’Adore Floupette , published in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1885» \o «1885» 1885 by
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henri_Beauclair&action=edit»
\o «Henri Beauclair» Henri Beauclair and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gabriel_Vicaire&action=edit»
\o «Gabriel Vicaire» Gabriel Vicaire . HYPERLINK
«http://www.bmlisieux.com/archives/deliqu01.htm» \o
«http://www.bmlisieux.com/archives/deliqu01.htm» [2]

In other media

In the visual arts

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernand_Khnopff» \o «Fernand
Khnopff» Fernand Khnopff ‘s The Caress

Symbolism in literature is distinct from Symbolism in art although the
two overlapped on a number of points. In painting, Symbolism was a
continuation of some mystical tendencies in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism» \o «Romanticism» Romantic
tradition , which included such artists as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich» \o «Caspar David
Friedrich» Caspar David Friedrich , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernand_Khnopff» \o «Fernand Khnopff»
Fernand Khnopff and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Fuseli» \o «John Henry Fuseli»
John Henry Fuseli and it was even more closely aligned with the
self-consciously dark and private movement of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decadence» \o «Decadence» Decadence .

There were several, rather dissimilar, groups of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolist_painters» \o «Symbolist
painters» Symbolist painters and visual artists, among whom
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Moreau» \o «Gustave
Moreau» Gustave Moreau , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odilon_Redon» \o «Odilon Redon» Odilon
Redon , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Puvis_de_Chavannes» \o «Pierre
Puvis de Chavannes» Pierre Puvis de Chavannes , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Fantin-Latour» \o «Henri
Fantin-Latour» Henri Fantin-Latour , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edvard_Munch» \o «Edvard Munch» Edvard
Munch , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9licien_Rops» \o
«Felicien Rops» Felicien Rops , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Toorop» \o «Jan Toorop» Jan Toorop
were numbered. Symbolism in painting had an even larger geographical
reach than Symbolism in poetry, reaching several HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia» \o «Russia» Russian artists, as
well as figures such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elihu_Vedder» \o «Elihu Vedder» Elihu
Vedder in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States»
\o «United States» United States . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Rodin» \o «Auguste Rodin» Auguste
Rodin is sometimes considered a Symbolist in sculpture.

The Symbolist painters mined mythology and dream imagery for a visual
language of the soul, seeking evocative paintings that brought to mind a
static world of silence. The symbols used in Symbolism are not the
familiar HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emblems» \o «Emblems»
emblems of mainstream HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iconography» \o «Iconography» iconography
but intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references. More
a philosophy than an actual style of art, the Symbolist painters
influenced the contemporary HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau» \o «Art Nouveau» Art Nouveau
movement and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Nabis» \o
«Les Nabis» Les Nabis . In their exploration of dreamlike subjects they
are also precursors of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism» \o «Surrealism» Surrealists ;
Bernard Delvaille has described HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Magritte» \o «Rene Magritte»
Rene Magritte ‘s surrealism as «Symbolism plus HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud» \o «Sigmund Freud» Freud
«.

Music

Symbolism had some influence in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music» \o «Music» music as well. Many
Symbolist writers and critics were early enthusiasts for the music of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner» \o «Richard
Wagner» Richard Wagner , a fellow student of Schopenhauer.

The Symbolist aesthetic had a deep impact on the works of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Debussy» \o «Claude Debussy»
Claude Debussy . His choices of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libretto» \o «Libretto» libretti , texts,
and themes come almost exclusively from the Symbolist canon: in
particular, compositions such as his settings of Cinq poemes de
Baudelaire, various HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lieder» \o
«Lieder» art songs on poems by Verlaine, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera» \o «Opera» opera HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pell%C3%A9as_et_M%C3%A9lisande» \o
«Pelleas et Melisande» Pelleas et Melisande with a libretto by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Maeterlinck» \o «Maurice
Maeterlinck» Maurice Maeterlinck , and his unfinished sketches that
illustrate two Poe stories, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Devil_in_the_Belfry» \o «The Devil in
the Belfry» The Devil in the Belfry and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fall_of_the_House_of_Usher» \o «The
Fall of the House of Usher» The Fall of the House of Usher , all
indicate that Debussy was profoundly influenced by Symbolist themes and
tastes. His best known work, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pr%C3%A9lude_%C3%A0_l%27apr%C3%A8s-midi_d%
27un_faune» \o «Prelude a l’apres-midi d’un faune» Prelude a
l’apres-midi d’un faune , was inspired by a poem by Mallarme,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afternoon_of_a_Faun_%28poem%29»
\o «Afternoon of a Faun (poem)» L’apres-midi d’un fau ne .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Scriabin» \o
«Alexander Scriabin» Aleksandr Scriabin ‘s compositions are also
influenced by the Symbolist aesthetic. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Schoenberg» \o «Arnold Schoenberg»
Arnold Schoenberg ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierrot_Lunaire» \o «Pierrot Lunaire»
Pierrot Lunaire takes its text from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language» \o «German language»
German translations of the Symbolist poems by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Giraud» \o «Albert Giraud» Albert
Giraud , showing a link between German expressionism and Symbolism.

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symbolism_%28arts%29&action=e
dit&section=11» \o «Edit section: Prose fiction» edit ]

Prose fiction

Je veux boire des poisons, me perdre

dans les vapeurs, dans les reves!

«I want to drink poisons, to lose myself

in mists, in dreams!»

Diana, in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Temptation_of_Saint_Anthony» \o «The
Temptation of Saint Anthony» The Temptation of Saint Anthony

by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Flaubert» \o
«Gustave Flaubert» Gustave Flaubert .

Symbolism’s cult of the static and hieratic adapted less well to
narrative fiction than it did to poetry. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joris-Karl_Huysmans» \o «Joris-Karl
Huysmans» Joris-Karl Huysmans ‘ 1884 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novel» \o «Novel» novel HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%80_rebours» \o «A rebours» A rebours
(English title: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Against_the_Grain» \o «Against the Grain»
Against the Grain ) contained many themes which became associated with
the Symbolist esthetic. This novel in which very little happens is a
catalogue of the tastes and inner life of Des Esseintes, an eccentric,
reclusive HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antihero» \o
«Antihero» antihero . The novel was imitated by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_Wilde» \o «Oscar Wilde» Oscar Wilde
in several passages of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Picture_of_Dorian_Gray» \o «The
Picture of Dorian Gray» The Picture of Dorian Gray .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Adam» \o «Paul Adam»
Paul Adam was the most prolific and most representative author of
Symbolist novels. Les Demoiselles Goubert co-written with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Mor%C3%A9as» \o «Jean Moreas» Jean
Moreas in 1886 is an important transitional work between Naturalism and
Symbolism. Few Symbolists used this form. One exception is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Kahn» \o «Gustave Kahn» Gustave
Kahn who published Le Roi fou in 1896. Other fiction that is sometimes
considered Symbolist is the cynical misanthropic (and especially,
misogynistic) tales of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Barbey_d%27Aurevilly» \o «Jules
Barbey d’Aurevilly» Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriele_d%27Annunzio» \o «Gabriele
d’Annunzio» Gabriele d’Annunzio wrote his first novels in the
Symbolist vein.

Theatre

The same emphasis on an internal life of dreams and fantasies have made
Symbolist theatre difficult to reconcile with more recent tastes and
trends. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Villiers_de_l%27Isle-Adam» \o
«Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam» Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam ‘s
drama HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axel» \o «Axel» Axel
(rev. ed. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1890» \o «1890»
1890 ) is a definitive Symbolist play; in it, two HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucianism» \o «Rosicrucianism»
Rosicrucian aristocrats fall in love while trying to kill each other,
only to agree to mutually commit suicide because nothing in life could
equal their fantasies. From this play, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Wilson» \o «Edmund Wilson» Edmund
Wilson took the title Axel’s Castle for his influential study of the
Symbolist aftermath in literature.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Maeterlinck» \o
«Maurice Maeterlinck» Maurice Maeterlinck was another Symbolist
playwright; his theatrical output includes both Pelleas and Melisande,
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%27Oiseau_Bleu» \o
«L’Oiseau Bleu» L’Oiseau Bleu («The Blue Bird»), another theatrical
fantasy. The later works of the Russian playwright HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Chekhov» \o «Anton Chekhov» Anton
Chekhov have been identified as being deeply influenced by Symbolist
pessimism. Under Symbolist influence, the Russian actor and director
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vsevolod_Meyerhold» \o «Vsevolod
Meyerhold» Vsevolod Meyerhold developed a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballet» \o «Ballet» balletic theory of
acting in contrast to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstantin_Stanislavski» \o «Konstantin
Stanislavski» Konstantin Stanislavski ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislavski_System» \o «Stanislavski
System» system , which focused on learning gestures and movements as a
way of expressing outward emotion. Meyerhold’s m ethod was influential
in early HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_picture» \o
«Motion picture» motion pictures , and especially on the works of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Eisenstein» \o «Sergei
Eisenstein» Sergei Eisenstein .

Aftermath

In the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language» \o
«English language» English speaking world, the closest counterpart to
Symbolism was HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aestheticism» \o
«Aestheticism» Aestheticism ; the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Raphaelite» \o «Pre-Raphaelite»
Pre-Raphaelites , also, were contemporaries of the earlier Symbolists,
and have much in common with them. Symbolism had a significant influence
on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernism» \o «Modernism»
Modernism and its traces can be seen in a number of modernist artists,
including HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._S._Eliot» \o «T.
S. Eliot» T. S. Eliot , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Stevens» \o «Wallace Stevens»
Wallace Stevens , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Aiken» \o «Conrad Aiken» Conrad
Aiken , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hart_Crane» \o «Hart
Crane» Hart Crane , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Butler_Yeats» \o «William Butler
Yeats» William Butler Yeats in the anglophone tradition and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rub%C3%A9n_Dar%C3%ADo» \o «Ruben
Dario» Ruben Dario in Hispanic letters. The early poems of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillaume_Apollinaire» \o «Guillaume
Apollinaire» Guillaume Apollinaire have strong affinities with
Symbolism.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Wilson» \o «Edmund
Wilson» Edmund Wilson ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1931» \o «1931» 1931 study Axel’s Castle
focuses on the continuity with Symbolism and a number of important
writers of the early twentieth century, with a particular focus on
Yeats, Eliot, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Val%C3%A9ry» \o «Paul Valery» Paul
Valery , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Proust» \o
«Marcel Proust» Marcel Proust , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Joyce» \o «James Joyce» James Joyce
, and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_Stein» \o
«Gertrude Stein» Gertrude Stein . Wilson concluded that the Symbolists
represented a dreaming retreat into:

. . .things that are dying—the whole HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belles-lettres» \o «Belles-lettres»
belle-lettristic tradition of Renaissance culture perhaps, compelled to
specialize more and more, more and mor e driven in on itself, as
industrialism and democratic education have come to press it closer and
closer.

Russian symbolist painters included HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Vrubel» \o «Mikhail Vrubel»
Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910).

As the movement was losing its forward movement in France, after the
turn of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twentieth_century»
\o «Twentieth century» twentieth century it became a major force in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_literature» \o «Russian
literature» Russian poetry . The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Symbolism» \o «Russian Symbolism»
Russian Symbolist movement , steeped in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy» \o «Eastern Orthodoxy»
Eastern Orthodoxy and the religious doctrines of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Solovyov_%28philosopher%29» \o
«Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)» Vladimir Solovyov , had little in
common with the French movement of the same name. It was the starting
point of the careers of several major poets such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Blok» \o «Alexander Blok»
Alexander Blok , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrei_Bely»
\o «Andrei Bely» Andrei Bely , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marina_Tsvetaeva» \o «Marina Tsvetaeva»
Marina Tsvetaeva . Bely’s novel Petersburg (1912) is considered the
greatest monument of Russian symbolist prose.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romania» \o «Romania»
Romania , Symbolists directly influenced by French poetry were first
influential in the 1880s, when HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandru_Macedonski» \o «Alexandru
Macedonski» Alexandru Macedonski reunited a group of young poets
around his magazine HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Literatorul&action=edit» \o
«Literatorul» Literatorul . Polemicizing with the established
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junimea» \o «Junimea» Junimea
and overshadowed by the influence of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihai_Eminescu» \o «Mihai Eminescu» Mihai
Eminescu , Symbolism was recovered as an inspiration in the 1910s, when
it was voiced in the works of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_Arghezi» \o «Tudor Arghezi» Tudor
Arghezi , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ion_Minulescu&action=edit» \o
«Ion Minulescu» Ion Minulescu , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Bacovia» \o «George Bacovia»
George Bacovia , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_Barbu» \o
«Ion Barbu» Ion Barbu , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_Vianu» \o «Tudor Vianu» Tudor Vianu
, and held in esteem by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernism» \o «Modernism» modernist
magazine HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sbur%C4%83torul» \o
«Sbur?torul» Sbur?torul .

The Symbolist painters were an important influence on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expressionism» \o «Expressionism»
expressionism and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism»
\o «Surrealism» surrealism in painting, two movements which descend
directly from Symbolism proper. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlequin» \o «Harlequin» harlequins ,
paupers, and clowns of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Picasso» \o «Pablo Picasso» Pablo
Picasso ‘s » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Period» \o
«Blue Period» Blue Period » show the influence of Symbolism, and
especially of Puvis de Chavannes. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium» \o «Belgium» Belgium , where
Symbolism had penetrated deeply, so much so that it came to be thou ght
of as a n ational style, the static strangeness of painters like
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Magritte» \o «Rene
Magritte» Rene Magritte can be seen as a direct continuation of
Symbolism. The work of some Symbolist visual artists directly impacted
the curvilinear forms of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_nouveau» \o «Art nouveau» art nouveau
.

Many early HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film» \o «Film»
motion pictures , also, contain a good deal of Symbolist visual imagery
and themes in their staging, set designs, and imagery. The films of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expressionism_%28film%29» \o
«Expressionism (film)» German Expressionism owe a great deal to
Symbolist imagery. The virginal «good girls» seen in the films of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D._W._Griffith» \o «D. W.
Griffith» D. W. Griffith , and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_movie» \o «Silent movie» silent
movie «bad girls» portrayed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theda_Bara» \o «Theda Bara» Theda Bara ,
both show the continuing influence of Symbolist imagery, as do the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon» \o «Babylon»
Babylonian scenes from Griffith’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intolerance_%28movie%29» \o «Intolerance
(movie)» Intolerance . Symbolist imagery lived on longest in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horror_film» \o «Horror film»
horror film ; as late as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1932»
\o «1932» 1932 , a horror film such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Theodor_Dreyer» \o «Carl Theodor
Dreyer» Carl Theodor Dreyer ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vampyr_%281932_film%29» \o «Vampyr (1932
film)» Vampyr shows the obvious influence of Symbolist imagery; parts
of the film resemble tableau vivant re-creations of the early paintings
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edvard_Munch» \o «Edvard
Munch» Edvard Munch .

Symbolists

Precursors

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Baudelaire» \o
«Charles Baudelaire» Charles Baudelaire (1821-67)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comte_de_Lautreamont» \o
«Comte de Lautreamont» Isidore Ducasse, comte de Lautreamont (1846-70)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A9rard_de_Nerval» \o
«Gerard de Nerval» Gerard de Nerval (1808-55)

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symbolism_%28arts%29&action=e
dit&section=16» \o «Edit section: Authors» edit ]

Authors

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Villiers_de_l%27Isle-Adam» \o
«Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam» Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam
(1838-89)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephane_Mallarme» \o
«Stephane Mallarme» Stephane Mallarme (1842-98)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Verlaine» \o «Paul
Verlaine» Paul Verlaine (1844-96)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rimbaud» \o «Arthur
Rimbaud» Arthur Rimbaud (1854-91)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Rodenbach» \o «Georges
Rodenbach» Georges Rodenbach (1855-98)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emile_Verhaeren» \o «Emile
Verhaeren» Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean_More_as&action=edit» \o
«Jean More as» Jean Moreas (1856-1910)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Samain» \o «Albert
Samain» Albert Samain (1858-1900)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remy_de_Gourmont» \o «Remy de
Gourmont» Remy de Gourmont (1858-1915)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Kahn» \o «Gustave
Kahn» Gustave Kahn (1859-1936)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Giraud» \o «Albert
Giraud» Albert Giraud (1860-1929)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Laforgue» \o «Jules
Laforgue» Jules Laforgue (1860-87)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Adam» \o «Paul Adam»
Paul Adam (1862-1920)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Maeterlinck» \o
«Maurice Maeterlinck» Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuart_Merrill» \o «Stuart
Merrill» Stuart Merrill (1863-1915)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adolphe_Rett%C3%A9&action=edi
t» \o «Adolphe Rette» Adolphe Rette (1863-1930)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Viel%C3%A9-Griffin» \o
«Francis Viele-Griffin» Francis Viele-Griffin (1863-1937)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_de_R%C3%A9gnier» \o
«Henri de Regnier» Henri de Regnier (1864-1936)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Aurier» \o «Albert
Aurier» Albert Aurier (1865-1892)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albert_Mockel&action=edit» \o
«Albert Mockel» Albert Mockel (1866-1945)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Valery» \o «Paul Valery»
Paul Valery (1871-1945)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renee_Vivien» \o «Renee
Vivien» Renee Vivien (1877-1909)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emile_Nelligan» \o «Emile
Nelligan» Emile Nelligan (1879-1941)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrei_Bely» \o «Andrei Bely»
Andrei Bely (1880-1934)

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symbolism_%28arts%29&action=e
dit&section=17» \o «Edit section: Influence in English literature» edit
]

Influence in English literature

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language» \o «English
language» English language authors that influenced, or were influenced
by Symbolism include:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o «Edgar
Allan Poe» Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Blake» \o «William
Blake» William Blake (1757-1827)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti» \o
«Dante Gabriel Rossetti» Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algernon_Charles_Swinburne» \o
«Algernon Charles Swinburne» Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_Wilde» \o «Oscar Wilde»
Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Symons» \o «Arthur
Symons» Arthur Symons (1865-1945)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gray_%28poet%29» \o «John
Gray (poet)» John Gra y (1866-1934)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Dowson» \o «Ernest
Dowson» Ernest Dowson (1867-1900)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Stenbock» \o «Eric
Stenbock» Eric Stenbock (1860-95)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._S._Eliot» \o «T. S. Eliot»
T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Butler_Yeats» \o
«William Butler Yeats» William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Stevens» \o «Wallace
Stevens» Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezra_Pound» \o «Ezra Pound»
Ezra Pound (1885-1972)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Sitwell» \o «Edith
Sitwell» Edith Sitwell (1887-1964)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Aiken» \o «Conrad
Aiken» Conrad Aiken (1889-1973)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark_Ashton_Smith» \o «Clark
Ashton Smith» Clark Ashton Smith (1893-1961)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hart_Crane» \o «Hart Crane»
Hart Crane (1899-1932)

See also: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolist_painters»
\o «Symbolist painters» Symbolist painters

Symbolist painters

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Blake» \o «William
Blake» William Blake — (1757-1827)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Frederic_Watts» \o
«George Frederic Watts» George Frederic Watts — (1817-1904)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_B%C3%B6cklin» \o
«Arnold Boecklin» Arnold Boecklin — (1827-1901)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Puvis_de_Chavannes» \o
«Pierre Puvis de Chavannes» Pierre Puvis de Chavannes — (1824-1898)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Fantin-Latour» \o «Henri
Fantin-Latour» Henri Fantin-Latour (1836 — 1904)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernand_Khnopff» \o «Fernand
Khnopff» Fernand Khnopff — (1858-1921)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt» \o «Gustav
Klimt» Gustav Klimt — (1862-1918)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Moreau» \o «Gustave
Moreau» Gustave Moreau — (1826-1898)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edvard_Munch» \o «Edvard
Munch» Edvard Munch — (1863-1944)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odilon_Redon» \o «Odilon
Redon» Odilon Redon — (1840-1916)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felicien_Rops» \o «Felicien
Rops» Felicien Rops — (1855-1898)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Toorop» \o «Jan Toorop»
Jan Toorop — (1858-1928)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Vrubel» \o «Mikhail
Vrubel» Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910)

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