St. Pauls Cathedral (реферат)

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St. Pauls Cathedral

The Great West Door

Is the main entrance on state occasions into the Cathedral and provides
the central dramatic frontispiece of St Paul’s. The North Aisle

Located to the left of the Great West door entrance. Areas of interest
include a case containing the roll of honour of 33,000 members of the
Merchant Navy who lost their lives serving in the Second World War and
the monument to the Duke of Wellington by Alfred Stevens who worked on
it for 20 years and was still incomplete on his death in 1875.
Wellington is buried in the Crypt. The North Transept

Is where the font is located that dates from 1727. It is made from
Italian marble. The Dome

The area under the Dome is decorated in a compass design. When the Dome
was being built Wren was hauled up in a basket two or three times a week
to see how work was progressing. His son fixed the last stone in
position. The Dome is among the largest in the world. It’s main
structure is of Portland stone from Dorset. The Whispering Gallery

Is located above the arches in the dome. It is called the Whispering
Gallery because a whisper against the blank circular wall can be heard
on the opposite side, some 42 metres away. St Paul’s spectacular fresco
paintings are best seen from this gallery. The South Transept

Contains tributes to national figures including the explorer Captain
Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) who died on the return journey from the
South Pole. There is also an elaborate memorial to Admiral Horatio
Viscount Nelson (1758-1805). The chief glory in the South Transept is
the door case, originally part of the Choir Screen and organ gallery. In
one corner of the South Transept stands the first statue to be erected
in St Paul’s to the philanthropist and campaigner for prison reform,
John Howard (1726-90). The Quire

Forms the top of the Cathedral’s cross shape and is the most richly
decorated part of the interior. This is where Wren’s workmen started
building. Minor Canons’ Aisle.

The Organ

Wren called the original organ a ‘box of whistles’. The organ has been
divided and enlarged and improved to become the third largest organ in
the country. Although modifications have been made the quality of the
sound and the beauty of the decoration are one of the glories of the
cathedral. Such famous composers as Handel and Mendelssohn both enjoyed
playing at. The powerful trumpets, situated on the West Gallery, are
also played from the organ console. The High Altar

The design echoes the pencil sketch of a baldacchino Wren envisaged as
the focal point of his grand building. The altar is made of a slab of
Italian marble, weighing nearly four tons whilst the cross stands nearly
3 metres high and the candlesticks on either side, made of gilded and
lacquered bronze coins, stand 1.6 metres high. The American Memorial

Is located behind the High Altar and was created as a British tribute to
the 28,000 Americans based in Britain who lost their lives in the Second
World War. The Chapel was dedicated in 1958 in the presence of Her
Majesty the Queen and Richard Nixon, Vice-President of the United
States. Dean’s Aisle

The effigy of John Donne was the only figure to survive the Great Fire
of 1666 intact. As the old Cathedral burned, the statue fell into the
Crypt. Scorch marks can still be seen around its base. The Dean’s Aisle
also contains fragments from the Holy Land including a carved piece of
marble from Herod’s Temple. The South Aisle

The Light of the World by Holman Hunt is the most celebrated and famous
painting in the Cathedral. It shows Christ knocking at a humble door
which, significantly, can only be opened from within. The artist is
buried in the Crypt.

The Crypt

Is the largest and most impressive in Europe. Although burials no longer
take place here, some 200 memorials can be seen. Much in the Crypt
speaks of heroism and bravery, but overwhelmingly the tragedy of war is
illustrated by the monuments contained within. O.B.E. Chapel

The Chapel of the Order of the British Empire honours those who have
given distinguished service to their country at home or abroad. Also
known as St Faith’s Chapel. Christopher Wren’s Tomb

One of the simplest in the Cathedral. Wren himself wanted no memorial.
Nelson’s Tomb

Nelson died at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. His body was preserved
in a keg of naval brandy and placed within four coffins before burial in
the crypt. Wellington’s Tomb

Wellington’s tomb is made of Cornish porphyritic granite supported with
a block of Peterhead granite. The Treasury

Many of the Cathedral’s treasures are kept here. Over the centuries much
has been seized by the state or stolen in a major robbery in 1810. There
are over 200 items of liturgical plate lent by churches in the London
Diocese as well as the Jubilee Cope worn during the Queen’s Jubilee
celebrations in 1977.

The shop

St Paul’s Cathedral shop is situated in the crypt. It has a wide range
of merchandise including religious and theological books, children’s
books, CDs and tapes of the choir, greetings cards, postcards and gifts
such as stationery, china and glass, T-shirts and sweat shirts, all
inspired by Sir Christopher Wren’s great architectural masterpiece.

The shop can be accessed (free of charge) through the North West Crypt
Door, on the left hand side of the Cathedral as you face it. Opening
times are Monday to Saturday 9.00 to 17.00 and Sunday 10.30 to 17.00.

The Cafe

‘The Crypt Cafe’ is open every day serving hot and cold drinks, a
selection of delicious sandwiches, pastries, cakes and scones. The Cafe
is licensed and serves morning coffee, light lunches and afternoon teas
in the unique environment of the Cathedral Crypt.

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