Sport and Tourism in Australia (реферат)

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Sport and Tourism in Australia



Main Body:

Sports and Recreation


Australian Rules Football


Other Sport



The list of the used literature

I. Introduction:

Tourism is the world’s largest and fastest growing industry. In recent
years there have been increases in international tourism for the purpose
of experiencing another culture. There is a wide-spread opinion that the
economic impact of tourism is always positive while the social and
environmental impact is always negative. Indeed, increasing incomes to
regions due to tourists are easy to see as well as numerous host-tourist
conflicts and destruction of the environment and local cultures.
However, tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for
residents in communities when sharing and preserving their culture and
nature could be seen as conflicting goals. (Besculides, Lee, McCormick,
2002:303) In this paper I will consider impacts of tourism with
reference to the Australia. The area is unique because of its nature and
variety of sea activities, e.g. fishing, boat trips, sailing etc.Today
those resources which used to be source of living for the local
community have become very attractive for tourists. It is a challenge to
get most profits of the situation and avoid possible conflicts.

II. Sports and Recreation

Often referred to as the national identity, Australians take sport very
seriously. You can’t walk into a bar without a sports event from
somewhere in Oz on TV. In winter, Western Australia, South Australia,
and Victoria catch footy fever for Australian Rules Football, while New
South Wales and Queensland traditionally follow rugby. In summer,
cricket is the spectator sport of choice across the nation. Star Aussie
Rules football players and top cricketers enjoy hero status. Tune in to
H. G. Nelson and Roy Slaven’s Sunday afternoon Triple-J radio show This
Sporting Life for a taste of Aussie sport culture, or check out the
ridiculously popular Footy Show, on television’s Channel 9.


The uninitiated may have trouble making sense of a sport where people
can “bowl a maiden over of five flippers and a googly,” but visitors
won’t be able to avoid the enthusiasm. Two teams of 11 players face off
in a contest that can last anywhere from an afternoon to five days. Each
summer, international cricket overshadows the national competition. Not
just a scrimmage, a “test match” is the most lengthy and serious form of
international cricket. In 1877, Australia’s cricket team headed to
England for its first international test against the mother country,
emerging victorious. The Australians, as a shocked English reporter
wrote, had “taken off with the ashes” of English cricket. Ever since
then, British and Australian Test teams have been in noble contest for
“the Ashes” (the trophy is a small, symbolic urn) with other former
British colonial countries such as India, Pakistan, and South Africa
joining in the competition. In December and January, international teams
arrive for a full tour, consisting of five test matches, one each in
Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane. The five-day tests,
accompanied by smaller one-day matches, are over by February, just in
time for the country to turn its attention to national cricket and the
Sheffield Shield finals in March.

Australian Rules Football

In Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, the Australian
Football League (AFL) teams fill the winter void that the end of the
cricket season leaves. Played on cricket ovals, the game was originally
designed to keep cricket players in shape in the off-season. The AFL
grand final, in early September, is a marvelous spectacle at the home of
Australian sport, the MCG. For more information on footy, see Footy 101,
p. 22.


According to legend, rugby was born one glorious day in 1823 when one
inspired (or perhaps frustrated) student in Rugby, England, picked up a
soccer ball and ran it into the goal. Since then, rugby has evolved (or
devolved) into an intricately punishing game with two variants: rugby
union involving 15-man teams, and rugby league with 13-man teams.
Despite the international reputation of the national union team, the
Wallabies, rugby union sometimes carries a muted following. Since they
defeated France to win the World Cup in 1999, though, rugby union has
grown in popularity. Matches such as the Super 12 tournament and
Tri-nation series (Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand) often pack
stadiums and pubs. Part of the Tri-nation series, the Bledisloe Cup
(first played in 1931) perpetuates a healthy animosity with Australia’s
down-under cousin, New Zealand.

Rugby league attracts a much larger following, especially in New South
Wales and Queensland. The national league competition culminates in the
National Rugby League (NRL) final in September. The only match that
comes close to the intensity or popularity of the NRL final is the State
of Origin series in June, when Queensland takes on New South Wales. Both
games promise a mix of blood, mud, and plenty of drinking. For more
info, check out HYPERLINK “http://www.rugbyworld.com”
www.rugbyworld.com .

Other Sport

While the Australian team hasn’t entered the World Cup since 1974,
soccer is widely played, and Australia’s National Soccer League has a
fierce fanbase. Melbourne hosts one of tennis’ Grand Slam events, the
Australian Open, each January. Grassy tennis courts, bowling greens, and
golf courses pepper the cities coast-to-coast. Most towns also have a
horse racing track, and on the first Tuesday in November, the entire
country stops to watch jockeys jockey for the prestigious Melbourne Cup,
where fashionable and outlandish attire sometimes appears more important
than the race. On Boxing Day, even as the Melbourne Cricket Test gets
underway, half of Australia’s amateur sailing community fills Sydney
Harbour with billowing white sails to begin the Sydney-to-Hobart yacht
race, the highlight in a full calendar of water sports. Australia is
famous for its surfing, which for some is a competitive sport in
addition to a great way to spend a summer morning.


Tourism has grown rapidly in the late 20th century, and it now
represents one of the most dynamic sectors in the Australian economy,
accounting for 500,000 jobs in the early 1990s. Australia had about 2.8
million visitors annually in the early 1990s, whose spending exceeded
$3.1 billion.

The strong growth in domestic tourism has tapped the expanding range of
attractions in each state and territory—amusement and theme parks, zoos,
art galleries and museums, certain mines and factories, national parks,
historic sites, and wineries. Some of the most popular attractions are
Queensland’s spectacular Great Barrier Reef, the Northern Territory’s
Kakadu National Park, and the famous beach resorts in the Brisbane,
Cairns, and Sydney regions.


We have shown that the impact of tourism on local communities can be
both positive and negative, whether it comes to economic, social or
environmental effects. All depends on to which extent tourism is
developed in a particular region. Every region has its bearing capacity,
that is to say the limit of the outcoming influence that does not harm
the host community. If we overcome that limit negative impacts of
tourism will follow. We can see it is a great challenge to make
profitable business running tourism in an area without affecting
negatively the local communities. It is possible for tourism industry to
co-operate with other industries and bring benefits to both the tourism
organisations and local businesses. The first step to achieve it is to
understand needs and desires of both the host community and the

IV. The list of the used literature:








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