Реферат з англійської мови

Glasgow (Глазго)

Glasgow (pronounced HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English» \o
«Wikipedia:IPA for English» /??laez?o?/ (Glazgo) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots_language» \o «Scots language» Scots
: Glesga HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Gaelic_language» \o «Scottish
Gaelic language» Scottish Gaelic : Glaschu) is the largest city in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland» \o «Scotland»
Scotland and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_United_Kingdom_settlements
_by_population» \o «List of largest United Kingdom settlements by
population» third most populous in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom»
United Kingdom . The city is situated on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Clyde» \o «River Clyde» River Clyde
in the country’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Lowlands» \o «Scottish Lowlands»
west central lowlands . A person from Glasgow is known as a Glaswegian,
which is also the name of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_patter» \o «Glasgow patter» local
dialect .

Glasgow grew from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval» \o «Medieval» medieval
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbishop_of_Glasgow» \o
«Archbishop of Glasgow» Bishopric of Glasgow and the later
establishment of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Glasgow» \o «University of
Glasgow» University of Glasgow , which became a major centre of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Enlightenment» \o
«Scottish Enlightenment» Scottish Enlightenment . From the 18th century
the city grew as one of Europe’s main hubs of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic» \o «Transatlantic»
transatlantic HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade» \o
«Trade» trade with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americas» \o «Americas» Americas . With
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution» \o
«Industrial Revolution» Industrial Revolution , the city and
surrounding region shifted to become one of the world’s pre-eminent
centres of engineering and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shipbuilding» \o «Shipbuilding»
shipbuilding , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-3″ [4] constructing many innovative and famous vessels.
Glasgow was known as the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_second_cities» \o «List of second
cities» Second City of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire» \o «British Empire»
British Empire » for much of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era» \o «Victorian era»
Victorian era and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwardian_era» \o «Edwardian era»
Edwardian period . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-4» [5] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-5» [6] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-6» [7] Today it is one of Europe’s top twenty financial
centres and is home to many of Scotland’s leading businesses. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-7» [8]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew to a population
of over one million, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow»
\l «cite_note-8» [9] and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London» London ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris» \o «Paris» Paris and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin» \o «Berlin» Berlin .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-9» [10]
In the 1960s, large-scale relocation to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_town» \o «New town» new towns and
peripheral HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suburb» \o «Suburb»
suburbs , followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the
current population of the City of Glasgow unitary authority area to
580,690, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-autogenerated3-1» [2] with 1,199,629 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-GRO-10» [11]
people living in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Glasgow» \o «Greater Glasgow»
Greater Glasgow HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_area»
\o «Urban area» urban area . The entire region surrounding the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conurbation» \o «Conurbation»
conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland’s
population. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-spt-11» [12]

History

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Glasgow» \o «History of
Glasgow» History of Glasgow

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seal_(emblem)» \o «Seal
(emblem)» seal or signet of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jocelin_(Bishop_of_Glasgow)» \o «Jocelin
(Bishop of Glasgow)» Jocelin , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bishop_of_Glasgow» \o «Bishop of Glasgow»
Bishop of Glasgow , founder of the burgh of Glasgow

The present site of Glasgow has been used since prehistoric times for
settlement due to it being the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_(crossing)» \o «Ford (crossing)»
forded point of the River Clyde furthest downstream, which also
provided a natural area for salmon fishing. The origins of Glasgow as an
established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as
Scotland’s second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance
during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric,
reorganised by King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_I_of_Scotland» \o «David I of
Scotland» David I of Scotland and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Capellanus» \o «John Capellanus»
John, Bishop of Glasgow . There had been an earlier religious site
established by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Mungo» \o
«Saint Mungo» Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one
of the largest and wealthiest in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Scotland» \o «Kingdom of
Scotland» Kingdom of Scotland , bringing wealth and status to the town.
Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened even further when
Bishop HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jocelin_(Bishop_of_Glasgow)» \o «Jocelin
(Bishop of Glasgow)» Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the
status of burgh from King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_I_of_Scotland» \o «William I of
Scotland» William I of Scotland , allowing the settlement to expand
with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees.
Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual
fair, which survives to this day as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Fair» \o «Glasgow Fair» Glasgow
Fair .

Glasgow grew over the following centuries, and the founding of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Glasgow» \o
«University of Glasgow» University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocese» \o «Diocese»
bishopric to an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbishop»
\o «Archbishop» archbishopric in 1492 increased the town’s religious
and educational status.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Defoe» \o «Daniel
Defoe» Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and
famously opined in his book HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_tour_thro%27_the_Whole_Island_of_Great_B
ritain» \o «A tour thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain» A tour
thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain , that Glasgow was «the cleanest
and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, London excepted.»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-12» [13]
At that time, the city’s population numbered approximately 12,000, and
was yet to undergo the massive changes to the city’s economy and urban
fabric, brought about by the influences of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Enlightenment» \o «Scottish
Enlightenment» Scottish Enlightenment and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution» \o «Industrial
Revolution» Industrial Revolution .

After the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Union_1707»
\o «Acts of Union 1707» Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained trading
access to the vast markets of the British Empire and Glasgow became
prominent in international commerce as a hub of trade to the Americas,
especially in the movement of tobacco, cotton and sugar into the deep
water port that had been created by city merchants at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Glasgow» \o «Port Glasgow» Port
Glasgow on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firth_of_Clyde» \o «Firth of Clyde» Firth
of Clyde , due to the shallowness of the River within the city itself at
that time. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-13» [14] By the late 18th century more than half of the
British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow’s River Clyde, with
over 47 million lbs. weight of tobacco being imported at its peak.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-14» [15]

Shipping on the Clyde, Grimshaw 1881

In its subsequent industrial era, Glasgow produced textiles, engineered
goods and steel, which were exported. The opening of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkland_Canal» \o «Monkland Canal»
Monkland Canal and basin at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Dundas» \o «Port Dundas» Port Dundas
in 1795, facilitated access to the iron-ore and coal mines in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanarkshire» \o «Lanarkshire»
Lanarkshire . After extensive HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_engineering» \o «River engineering»
River engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far
as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches
of the river, building many famous ships (although many were actually
built in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clydebank» \o
«Clydebank» Clydebank ). The River Clyde then became an important
source of inspiration for artists, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Atkinson_Grimshaw» \o «John Atkinson
Grimshaw» John Atkinson Grimshaw , willing to depict the new industrial
era and the moden world. Glasgow’s population had surpassed that of
Edinburgh by 1821. By the end of the 19th century the city was known as
the » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_second_cities» \o
«List of second cities» Second City of the Empire» and by 1870 was
producing more than half Britain’s tonnage of shipping HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-15» [16] and a
quarter of all locomotives in the world. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-16» [17] During
this period, the construction of many of the city’s greatest
architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering
projects, such as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milngavie_water_treatment_works» \o
«Milngavie water treatment works» Loch Katrine aqueduct , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Subway» \o «Glasgow Subway»
Subway , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Corporation_Tramways» \o «Glasgow
Corporation Tramways» Tramway system , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_City_Chambers» \o «Glasgow City
Chambers» City Chambers , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitchell_Library» \o «Mitchell Library»
Mitchell Library and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvingrove_Art_Gallery_and_Museum» \o
«Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum» Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_world%27s_fairs» \o
«List of world’s fairs» International Exhibitions at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvingrove_Park» \o «Kelvingrove Park»
Kelvingrove Park , in 1888, 1901 and 1911, with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_Exhibition,_Scotland_1938» \o
«Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938» Empire Exhibition subsequently held
in 1938.

The regeneration of Glasgow has focused on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Clyde» \o «River Clyde» River Clyde
and has created iconic structures such as the Armadillo.

The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After
World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-World_War_I_recession» \o «Post-World
War I recession» Post-World War I recession and from the later
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«Great Depression in the United Kingdom» Great Depression , this also
led to a rise of radical socialism and the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Clydeside» \o «Red Clydeside» Red
Clydeside » movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War II»
World War II and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the
1950s. However by the 1960s, a lack of investment and innovation led to
growing overseas competition in countries like Japan and Germany which
weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city’s industries.
As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative
economic decline and rapid deindustrialisation, leading to high
unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and
poor health for the city’s inhabitants. There were active attempts at
regeneration of the city, when the Glasgow Corporation published its
controversial HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Report» \o
«Bruce Report» Bruce Report , which set out a comprehensive series of
initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. There are
also accusations that the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Office» \o «Scottish Office»
Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow’s
economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting
inward investment in new industries to other regions during the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_Glen» \o «Silicon Glen»
Silicon Glen boom and creating the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_towns» \l «United_Kingdom» \o «New
towns» new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and
East Kilbride, dispersed across the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Lowlands» \o «Scottish Lowlands»
Scottish Lowlands , in order to halve the city’s population base.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-17» [18]

However, by the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in
Glasgow’s economic fortunes. The ‘ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow%27s_miles_better» \o «Glasgow’s
miles better» Glasgow’s miles better ‘ campaign, launched in 1983, and
opening of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burrell_Collection» \o «Burrell
Collection» Burrell Collection in 1983 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Exhibition_and_Conference_Centre»
\o «Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre» Scottish Exhibition and
Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow’s new role as a European
centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in
tourism and inward investment. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-18» [19] The
latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Garden_Festival» \o «Glasgow
Garden Festival» Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, its status as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_City_of_Culture» \o
«European City of Culture» European City of Culture in 1990, and
concerted attempts to diversify the city’s economy. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-19» [20] This
economic revival has persisted and the ongoing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_renewal» \o «Urban renewal»
regeneration of inner-city areas, including the largescale HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clyde_Waterfront_Regeneration» \o «Clyde
Waterfront Regeneration» Clyde Waterfront Regeneration , has led to
more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow,
fuelling allegations of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification» \o «Gentrification»
gentrification . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l
«cite_note-20» [21] The city now resides in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercer_(consulting_firm)» \o «Mercer
(consulting firm)» Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-21» [22]
and is considered by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonely_Planet» \o «Lonely Planet» Lonely
Planet to be one of the world’s top 10 tourist cities. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-22» [23] Despite
Glasgow’s economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the
focus of severe social deprivation. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-breakthrough-23»
[24] A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the
gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-audit-24»
[25] In 2006, 47% of Glasgow’s population lived in the most deprived
15% of areas in Scotland, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-audit-24» [25]
while the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centre_for_Social_Justice» \o «Centre for
Social Justice» Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city’s
working-age residents to be «economically inactive». HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-breakthrough-23»
[24] Although marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a
higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-audit-24»
[25]

A panoramic view of Glasgow City Centre from the top of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lighthouse_(Glasgow)» \o «The
Lighthouse (Glasgow)» The Lighthouse

Toponymy

It is common to derive the name Glasgow from the older HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumbric_language» \o «Cumbric language»
Cumbric glas cau or a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Irish» \o «Middle Irish» Middle
Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green hollow. The settlement
probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears
for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as Glasgu. However, it
is also recorded that the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Strathclyde» \o «Kingdom of
Strathclyde» King of Strathclyde , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhydderch_Hael» \o «Rhydderch Hael»
Rhydderch Hael , welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Mungo» \o «Saint Mungo» Saint Mungo
), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen
years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molendinar_Burn» \o «Molendinar
Burn» Molendinar Burn , and making many converts. A large community
developed around him and became known as Glasgu (often glossed as «the
dear Green» or «dear green place»).

Heraldry

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow as granted in 1866.

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow was granted to the royal burgh
by the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Lyon_King_of_Arms»
\o «Lord Lyon King of Arms» Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-25» [26] It
incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of
Glasgow’s patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals
prior to that date. The emblems represent HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Mungo» \l «Miracles» \o «Saint
Mungo» miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are
listed in the traditional rhyme:

Here’s the bird that never flew

Here’s the tree that never grew

Here’s the bell that never rang

Here’s the fish that never swam

St Mungo’s Bell

St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words
Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising
of thy name. This was abbreviated to «Let Glasgow Flourish» and adopted
as the city’s motto. The motto was more recently commemorated in a song
called «Mother Glasgow», which was written by Dundonian
singer/songwriter HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Marra» \o «Michael Marra» Michael
Marra , but popularised by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hue_and_Cry» \o «Hue and Cry» Hue and Cry
.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1450» \o «1450» 1450 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stewart» \o «John Stewart»
John Stewart , the first HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Provost» \o «Lord Provost» Lord
Provost of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a «St Mungo’s Bell» could
be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray
for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and
that bell is still on display in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Palace» \o «People’s Palace»
People’s Palace Museum, near HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Green» \o «Glasgow Green» Glasgow
Green .

The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half
length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop’s mitre and liturgical
vestments and has his hand raised in «the act of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benediction» \o «Benediction» benediction
«. The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was
removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mural_crown» \o «Mural crown»
mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet,
resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils
with city status.

The arms were rematriculated by the City of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_District_Council» \o «Glasgow
District Council» Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975, and by
the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each
occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-26» [27]
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow» \l «cite_note-27» [28]

Governance

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_City_Chambers» \o
«Glasgow City Chambers» Glasgow City Chambers is the headquarters of
Glasgow City Council and the seat of Local Government in the city

See also: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Glasgow»
\o «Politics of Glasgow» Politics of Glasgow

Since the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representation_of_the_People_Act_1918» \o
«Representation of the People Act 1918» Representation of the People
Act 1918 , Glasgow has increasingly supported HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Left-wing_politics» \o «Left-wing
politics» Left-wing ideas and politics. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Glasgow» \o «Politics of
Glasgow» city council has been controlled by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labour_Party_(UK)» \o «Labour Party (UK)»
Labour Party for 30 years, since the decline of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Party_(UK)» \o «Progressive
Party (UK)» Progressives . The left-wing support emanates from the
city’s legacy as an industrial powerhouse, and the relative poverty of
many Glaswegian HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_constituencies» \o «United
Kingdom constituencies» constituencies and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wards_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o «Wards of
the United Kingdom» wards . In the aftermath of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution_of_1917» \o «Russian
Revolution of 1917» Russian Revolution of 1917 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Revolution_of_1918%E2%80%9319» \o
«German Revolution of 1918–19» German Revolution , the city’s frequent
strikes and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militant» \o
«Militant» Militant organisations caused serious alarm at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Her_Majesty%27s_Government» \o «Her
Majesty’s Government» Westminster , with one HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_George_Square» \o «Battle of
George Square» uprising in January 1919 prompting the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister» \o «Prime Minister» Prime
Minister , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Lloyd_George»
\o «David Lloyd George» David Lloyd George to deploy 10,000 troops and
tanks onto the city’s streets. A huge demonstration in the city’s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Square» \o «George
Square» George Square on 31 January ended in violence after the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riot_Act» \o «Riot Act» Riot
Act was read.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_action» \o
«Industrial action» Industrial action at the shipyards gave rise to
the » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Clydeside» \o «Red
Clydeside» Red Clydeside » epithet. During the 1930s, Glasgow was the
main base of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_Labour_Party» \o «Independent
Labour Party» Independent Labour Party . Towards the end of the 20th
century it became a centre of the struggle against the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_Charge» \o «Community Charge»
poll tax , and then the main base of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Socialist_Party» \o «Scottish
Socialist Party» Scottish Socialist Party , a left unity party in
Scotland. The city has not had a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_Party_(UK)» \o «Conservative
Party (UK)» Conservative MP since the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Hillhead_by-election,_1982» \o
«Glasgow Hillhead by-election, 1982» 1982 Hillhead by-election , when
the SDP took the seat, in Glasgow’s wealthiest area: admittedly, the
constituency boundaries make it difficult to elect one as the West End
is split between two constituencies where its votes are cancelled out by
large council estates.

Scottish Parliament region

See also: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Scottish_Parliament_region» \o
«Glasgow Scottish Parliament region» Glasgow Scottish Parliament region

The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_(Scottish_Parliament_electoral_reg
ion)» \o «Glasgow (Scottish Parliament electoral region)» Glasgow
electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the Glasgow City
council area, the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherglen»
\o «Rutherglen» Rutherglen area of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Lanarkshire» \o «South Lanarkshire»
South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renfrewshire» \o «Renfrewshire»
Renfrewshire . It elects ten of the parliament’s 73 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_past_the_post» \o «First past the
post» first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixed_member_proportional_representation»
\o «Mixed member proportional representation» additional members . Both
kinds of member are known as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_of_the_Scottish_Parliament» \o
«Member of the Scottish Parliament» Members of the Scottish Parliament
(MSPs) . The system of election is designed to produce a form of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_representation» \o
«Proportional representation» proportional representation .

The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and
boundaries of then existing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Westminster» \o «Palace of
Westminster» Westminster ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Commons_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«House of Commons of the United Kingdom» House of Commons )
constituencies. In 2005, however, the number of Westminster HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_of_Parliament» \o «Member of
Parliament» Members of Parliament (MPs) representing Scotland was cut
to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number
of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_of_the_Scottish_Parliament» \o
«Member of the Scottish Parliament» MSPs was retained at Holyrood.

The ten Scottish Parliament constituencies in the Glasgow electoral
region are:-

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Anniesland_(Scottish_Parliament_co
nstituency)» \o «Glasgow Anniesland (Scottish Parliament constituency)»
Glasgow Anniesland

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Baillieston_(Scottish_Parliament_c
onstituency)» \o «Glasgow Baillieston (Scottish Parliament
constituency)» Glasgow Baillieston

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Cathcart_(Scottish_Parliament_cons
tituency)» \o «Glasgow Cathcart (Scottish Parliament constituency)»
Glasgow Cathcart

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Govan_(Scottish_Parliament_constit
uency)» \o «Glasgow Govan (Scottish Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
Govan

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Kelvin_(Scottish_Parliament_consti
tuency)» \o «Glasgow Kelvin (Scottish Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
Kelvin

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Maryhill_(Scottish_Parliament_cons
tituency)» \o «Glasgow Maryhill (Scottish Parliament constituency)»
Glasgow Maryhill

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Pollok_(Scottish_Parliament_consti
tuency)» \o «Glasgow Pollok (Scottish Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
Pollok

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Rutherglen_(Scottish_Parliament_co
nstituency)» \o «Glasgow Rutherglen (Scottish Parliament constituency)»
Glasgow Rutherglen

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Shettleston_(Scottish_Parliament_c
onstituency)» \o «Glasgow Shettleston (Scottish Parliament
constituency)» Glasgow Shettleston

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Springburn_(Scottish_Parliament_co
nstituency)» \o «Glasgow Springburn (Scottish Parliament constituency)»
Glasgow Springburn

United Kingdom Parliament constituencies

See also: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_constituencies» \o «United
Kingdom constituencies» United Kingdom constituencies

Following reform of constituencies of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Commons_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«House of Commons of the United Kingdom» House of Commons of the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«Parliament of the United Kingdom» Parliament of the United Kingdom (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Westminster» \o
«Palace of Westminster» Westminster ) in 2005, which reduced the number
of Scottish HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_of_Parliament» \o «Member of
Parliament» Members of Parliament (MPs) , the current Westminster
constituencies representing Glasgow are:-

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Central_(UK_Parliament_constituenc
y)» \o «Glasgow Central (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow Central

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_East_(UK_Parliament_constituency)»
\o «Glasgow East (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow East

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_North_(UK_Parliament_constituency)
» \o «Glasgow North (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow North

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_North_East_(UK_Parliament_constitu
ency)» \o «Glasgow North East (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
North East

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_North_West_(UK_Parliament_constitu
ency)» \o «Glasgow North West (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
North West

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) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_South_(UK_Parliament_constituency)
» \o «Glasgow South (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow South

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_South_West_(UK_Parliament_constitu
ency)» \o «Glasgow South West (UK Parliament constituency)» Glasgow
South West

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