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HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Canada” \o “Flag of
Canada” Flag

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_coat_of_arms_of_Canada”
\o “Royal coat of arms of Canada” Royal coat of arms

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motto” \o “Motto” Motto : 
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Mari_Usque_Ad_Mare” \o “A Mari
Usque Ad Mare” A Mari Usque Ad Mare   ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin” \o “Latin” Latin )

” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/From_Sea_to_Sea” \o “From Sea
to Sea” From Sea to Sea ”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_anthem” \o “National
anthem” Anthem : ” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O_Canada”
\o “O Canada” O Canada ”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_(political)” \o
“Capital (political)” Capital HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottawa” \o “Ottawa” Ottawa

=45_24_N_75_40_W_type:country(9,984,670)” \o
=45_24_N_75_40_W_type:country(9,984,670)” 45°24?N 75°40?W / 45.4°N
75.667°W / 45.4; -75.667

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Canada” \o
“Demographics of Canada” Largest city HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto” \o “Toronto” Toronto

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Official_language” \o
“Official language” Official languages HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_English” \o “Canadian English”
English and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_French”
\o “Canadian French” French

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_language” \o
“Regional language” Recognised regional languages HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuktitut” \o “Inuktitut” Inuktitut ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuinnaqtun” \o “Inuinnaqtun”
Inuinnaqtun , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree_language”
\o “Cree language” Cree , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dene_Suline_language” \o “Dene Suline
language” Dene S??ine , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gwich%E2%80%99in_language” \o “Gwich’in
language” Gwich’in , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuvialuktun” \o “Inuvialuktun”
Inuvialuktun , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavey_language” \o “Slavey language”
Slavey and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogrib_language”
\o “Dogrib language” T??ch? Yatii HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-0” \o “” [1]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_group” \o “Ethnic
group” Ethnic groups   80.0% White/ HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe” \o “Europe” European (
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Canadians” \o “English
Canadians” English , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Canadian” \o “French Canadian”
French , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Canadians”
\o “Scottish Canadians” Scottish , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Canadians” \o “Irish Canadians”
Irish , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Canadians” \o
“German Canadians” German , others) HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-1” \o “” [2]

4.0% HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Canadian” \o
“Indo-Canadian” South Asian

3.9% HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Canadian” \o
“Chinese Canadian” Chinese

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_peoples_in_Canada” \o
“Aboriginal peoples in Canada” Aboriginal

3.3% HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_Canadian” \o “Asian
Canadian” Other Asian

2.5% HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Canadians” \o
“Black Canadians” Black

2.5% Others HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-2” \o “” [3]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonym” \o “Demonym” Demonym
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Canada” \o
“Demographics of Canada” Canadian

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government” \o “Government”
Government HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism” \o
“Federalism” Federal HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system” \o “Parliamentary
system” parliamentary democracy and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy” \o
“Constitutional monarchy” constitutional monarchy

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Canada” \o
“Monarchy of Canada” Monarch HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_II_of_the_United_Kingdom” \o
“Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom” HM Queen Elizabeth II

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governor_General_of_Canada” \o “Governor
General of Canada” Governor General HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micha%C3%ABlle_Jean” \o “Michaelle Jean”
Michaelle Jean

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Canada”
\o “Prime Minister of Canada” Prime Minister HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Harper” \o “Stephen Harper”
Stephen Harper

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislature” \o “Legislature”
Legislature HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_Canada” \o “Parliament of
Canada” Parliament

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_House” \o “Upper
House” Upper House HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senate_of_Canada” \o “Senate of Canada”

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_House” \o “Lower
House” Lower House HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_House_of_Commons” \o “Canadian
House of Commons” House of Commons

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation” \o
“Canadian Confederation” Establishment

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_North_America_Acts” \o “British
North America Acts” British North America Acts July 1, 1867 

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931” \o “Statute
of Westminster 1931” Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_Act_1982” \o
“Canada Act 1982” Canada Act April 17, 1982 

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area” \o “Area” Area

 –  Total HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_E12_m%C2%B2” \o “1
E12 m?” 9,984,670 km2  ( HYPERLINK
_by_area” \o “List of countries and outlying territories by area” 2nd )

3,854,085  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Square_mile” \o
“Square mile” sq mi  

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water” \o “Water” Water
 ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent” \o “Percent” % )
8.92 (891,163 km?/344,080 mi?)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population” \o “Population”

 –  2009 estimate 33,574,000 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-3” \o “” [4]  (
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population”
\o “List of countries by population” 36th )

 –  2006 census 31,612,897 

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_density” \o
“Population density” Density 3.2/km2 ( HYPERLINK
\o “List of countries by population density” 219th )

8.3/sq mi

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product” \o
“Gross domestic product” GDP  ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purchasing_power_parity” \o “Purchasing
power parity” PPP ) 2007 estimate

 –  Total $1.269 trillion HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-imf2-4” \o “” [5]
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP)” \o “List
of countries by GDP (PPP)” 13th )

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Per_capita” \o “Per
capita” Per capita $38,613 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-imf2-4” \o “” [5]
\o “List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita” 12th )

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product” \o
“Gross domestic product” GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate

 –  Total $1.436 trillion HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-imf2-4” \o “” [5]
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)” \o
“List of countries by GDP (nominal)” 9th )

 –  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Per_capita” \o “Per
capita” Per capita $43,674 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-imf2-4” \o “” [5]
ita” \o “List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita” 14th )

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gini_coefficient” \o “Gini
coefficient” Gini   32.1 (2005) HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-cia_factbook-5” \o
“” [6]  

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index” \o
“Human Development Index” HDI  (2006) ? 0.967 (high) ( HYPERLINK
ex” \o “List of countries by Human Development Index” 3rd )

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency” \o “Currency”
Currency HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_dollar” \o
“Canadian dollar” Dollar ($) ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_4217” \o “ISO 4217” CAD )

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone” \o “Time zone”
Time zone ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time” \o
“Coordinated Universal Time” UTC ?3.5 to ?8)

 –  Summer ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daylight_saving_time” \o “Daylight saving
time” DST )  ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time” \o
“Coordinated Universal Time” UTC ?2.5 to ?7)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calendar_date” \o “Calendar
date” Date formats dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, and yyyy-mm-dd ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Era” \o “Common Era” CE )

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right-_and_left-hand_traffic”
\o “Right- and left-hand traffic” Drives on the Right

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_code_top-level_domain”
\o “Country code top-level domain” Internet TLD HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.ca” \o “.ca” .ca

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_calling_codes”
\o “List of country calling codes” Calling code 1

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Canada” \o
“Portal:Canada” Canada portal

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English” \o
“Wikipedia:IPA for English” /?kaen?d?/ ) is a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country” \o “Country” country occupying
most of northern HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_America” \o “North America” North
America , extending from the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Ocean” \o “Atlantic Ocean”
Atlantic Ocean in the east to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean” \o “Pacific Ocean” Pacific
Ocean in the west and northward into the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Ocean” \o “Arctic Ocean” Arctic
Ocean . It is the world’s second HYPERLINK
_by_total_area” \o “List of countries and outlying territories by total
area” largest country by total area , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-cia_factbook-5” \o
“” [6] and shares HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada%E2%80%93United_States_border” \o
“Canada–United States border” land borders with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United States” United
States to the south and northwest.

The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various
groups of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_peoples_in_Canada” \o
“Aboriginal peoples in Canada” aboriginal people . Beginning in the
late 15th century, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_colonization_of_the_Americas” \o
“British colonization of the Americas” British and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_colonization_of_the_Americas” \o
“French colonization of the Americas” French expeditions explored, and
later settled along, the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_France” \o “New France” its
colonies in North America in 1763 after the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War” \o “Seven Years’ War”
Seven Years’ War . In 1867, with the union of three HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_North_America” \o “British North
America” British North American colonies through HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation” \o “Canadian
Confederation” Confederation , Canada was formed as a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism” \o “Federalism” federal
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion” \o “Dominion”
dominion of four provinces. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-6” \o “” [7]
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-7” \o “”
[8] HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-8”
\o “” [9] This began an HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_Canada” \o
“Territorial evolution of Canada” accretion of additional provinces and
territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United
Kingdom, highlighted by the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931” \o “Statute
of Westminster 1931” Statute of Westminster in 1931 , and culminating
in the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_Act_1982” \o
“Canada Act 1982” Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of
legal dependence on the British parliament.

A HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation” \o “Federation”
federation comprising HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_and_territories_of_Canada” \o
“Provinces and territories of Canada” ten provinces and three
territories , Canada is a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system” \o “Parliamentary
system” parliamentary democracy and a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy” \o
“Constitutional monarchy” constitutional monarchy , with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_II_of_the_United_Kingdom” \o
“Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom” Queen Elizabeth II as its
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_of_state” \o “Head of
state” head of state . It is a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Official_bilingualism_in_Canada” \o
“Official bilingualism in Canada” bilingual and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiculturalism” \o “Multiculturalism”
multicultural country, with both HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_English” \o “Canadian English”
English and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_French”
\o “Canadian French” French as official languages both at the federal
level and in the province of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Brunswick” \o “New Brunswick” New
Brunswick . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developed_country”
\o “Developed country” Technologically advanced and industrialized ,
Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its
abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United
States, with which Canada has had a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada%E2%80%93United_States_relations” \o
“Canada–United States relations” long and complex relationship . It is
a member of the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G8” \o “G8”
G8 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO” \o “NATO” NATO ,
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations”
\o “Commonwealth of Nations” Commonwealth of Nations , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francophonie” \o “Francophonie”
Francophonie , and the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations” \o “United Nations”
United Nations .



Main article: HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_of_Canada”
\o “Name of Canada” Name of Canada

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Cartier” \o “Jacques
Cartier” Jacques Cartier

The name Canada comes from a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Lawrence_Iroquoians” \o “St. Lawrence
Iroquoians” St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, kanata, meaning “village” or
“settlement”. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_City” \o “Quebec City”
Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Cartier” \o “Jacques Cartier”
Jacques Cartier towards the village of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stadacona” \o “Stadacona” Stadacona .
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-9” \o “”
[10] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that
particular village, but also the entire area subject to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnacona” \o “Donnacona” Donnacona (the
chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun
referring to this region as Canada. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-10” \o “” [11]

From the early 17th century onwards, that part of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_France” \o “New France” New France
that lay along the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Lawrence_River” \o “Saint Lawrence
River” Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Lakes” \o “Great Lakes” Great Lakes
was named Canada, an area that was later split into two British
colonies, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Canada” \o
“Upper Canada” Upper Canada and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Canada” \o “Lower Canada” Lower
Canada , until their re-unification as the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Canada” \o “Province of
Canada” Province of Canada in 1841. Upon HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation” \o “Canadian
Confederation” Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted as
the legal name for the new country, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-Martin-11” \o “”
[12] and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion” \o
“Dominion” Dominion was conferred as the country’s title; HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-12” \o “” [13]
combined, the term Dominion of Canada was in common usage until the
1950s. Thereafter, as Canada asserted its political autonomy from
Britain, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state
documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the renaming of
the national holiday from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion_Day” \o “Dominion Day” Dominion
Day to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_Day” \o “Canada
Day” Canada Day in 1982. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-13” \o “” [14]


Main articles: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canada” \o “History of Canada”
History of Canada , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Canadian_history” \o “Timeline
of Canadian history” Timeline of Canadian history , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_Canada” \o
“Territorial evolution of Canada” Territorial evolution of Canada

The HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur_trade” \o “Fur trade”
fur trade was Canada’s most important industry until the 19th century

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations” \o “First
Nations” First Nation and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit” \o “Inuit” Inuit traditions
maintain that indigenous people have resided on their lands since the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creation_myth” \l
“North_America” \o “Creation myth” beginning of time , while
archaeological studies support a human presence in the northern
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukon” \o “Yukon” Yukon from
26,500 years ago, and in southern HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontario” \o “Ontario” Ontario from 9,500
years ago. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-14” \o “” [15] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-15” \o “” [16]
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_colonization_of_the_Americas” \o
“European colonization of the Americas” Europeans first arrived when
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking” \o “Viking”
Vikings settled briefly at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%27Anse_aux_Meadows” \o “L’Anse aux
Meadows” L’Anse aux Meadows around AD 1000; following the failure of
that colony, there was no further attempt at North American exploration
until 1497, when HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cabot”
\o “John Cabot” John Cabot explored Canada’s Atlantic coast for
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England” \o “England” England ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-16” \o “”
[17] followed by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Cartier” \o “Jacques Cartier”
Jacques Cartier in 1534 for HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France” \o “France” France . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-17” \o “” [18]

French explorer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_de_Champlain” \o “Samuel de
Champlain” Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the
first permanent European settlements at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Royal,_Nova_Scotia” \o “Port Royal,
Nova Scotia” Port Royal in 1605 and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_City” \o “Quebec City” Quebec City
in 1608. These would become respectively the capitals of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acadia” \o “Acadia” Acadia and Canada.
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_colonization_of_the_Americas” \o
“French colonization of the Americas” French colonists of New France,
Canadiens extensively settled the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Lawrence_River” \o “Saint Lawrence
River” Saint Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritimes” \o “Maritimes”
Maritimes , while HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coureur_des_bois” \o “Coureur des bois”
French fur traders and HYPERLINK
le” \o “Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle” Catholic missionaries
explored the Great Lakes, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_Bay” \o “Hudson Bay” Hudson Bay
and the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_River” \l
“Watershed” \o “Mississippi River” Mississippi watershed to
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_(New_France)” \o
“Louisiana (New France)” Louisiana . The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Iroquois_Wars” \o “French and
Iroquois Wars” French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur_trade” \o “Fur trade” fur
trade .

The English established fishing outposts in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_(island)” \o “Newfoundland
(island)” Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Colonies” \o “Thirteen Colonies”
Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_Wars” \o “French and
Indian Wars” Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763.
Mainland HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nova_Scotia” \o “Nova
Scotia” Nova Scotia came under British rule with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Utrecht” \o “Treaty of Utrecht”
Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1763)” \o “Treaty of
Paris (1763)” Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New
France to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire” \o
“British Empire” Britain following the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_War” \o “French and
Indian War” Seven Years’ War .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Death_of_General_Wolfe” \o
“The Death of General Wolfe” The Death of General Wolfe on the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Plains_of_Abraham”
\o “Battle of the Plains of Abraham” Plains of Abraham at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_City” \o “Quebec City” Quebec in
1759, part of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_War” \o “French and
Indian War” Seven Years’ War .

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Proclamation_of_1763” \o “Royal
Proclamation of 1763” Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Quebec_(1763%E2%80%931791)” \o
“Province of Quebec (1763–1791)” Province of Quebec out of New France
and annexed HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Breton_Island” \o “Cape Breton
Island” Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. It also restricted the
language and religious rights of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Canadian” \o “French Canadian”
French Canadians . In 1769, St. John’s Island (now HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Edward_Island” \o “Prince Edward
Island” Prince Edward Island ) became a separate colony. To avert
conflict in Quebec, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_Act” \o “Quebec Act” Quebec Act
of 1774 expanded Quebec’s territory to the Great Lakes and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_River” \o “Ohio River” Ohio Valley
and re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil
law in Quebec; it angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies,
helping to fuel the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolution” \o “American
Revolution” American Revolution . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-18” \o “” [19] The
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1783)” \o
“Treaty of Paris (1783)” Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American
independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the
United States. Approximately 50,000 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Empire_Loyalist” \o “United Empire
Loyalist” United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-moore-19”
\o “” [20] HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Brunswick” \o
“New Brunswick” New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a
reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritimes” \o “Maritimes” Maritimes . To
accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Quebec_(1763%E2%80%931791)” \o
“Province of Quebec (1763–1791)” Quebec , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_Act_of_1791” \o
“Constitutional Act of 1791” Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the
province into French-speaking HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Canada” \o “Lower Canada” Lower
Canada and English-speaking HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Canada” \o “Upper Canada” Upper
Canada , granting each their own elected Legislative Assembly.

Canada (Upper and Lower) was the main front in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_1812” \o “War of 1812” War of 1812
between the United States and the British Empire. The defence of Canada
contributed to a sense of unity among British North Americans.
Large-scale immigration to Canada began in 1815 from Britain and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland” \o “Ireland” Ireland .
The HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logging” \o “Logging”
timber industry surpassed the fur trade in importance in the early
nineteenth century.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation” \l
“Fathers_of_Confederation” \o “Canadian Confederation” Fathers of
Confederation by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Harris_(painter)” \o “Robert Harris
(painter)” Robert Harris , an amalgamation of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlottetown_Conference” \o
“Charlottetown Conference” Charlottetown and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_Conference,_1864” \o “Quebec
Conference, 1864” Quebec conference scenes

The desire for HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_government” \o “Responsible
government” responsible government resulted in the aborted HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebellions_of_1837” \o “Rebellions of
1837” Rebellions of 1837 . HYPERLINK
rica” \o “Report on the Affairs of British North America” The Durham
Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the
assimilation of French Canadians into British culture. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-ce_durhamreport-20”
\o “” [21] The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Union_1840” \o “Act of Union 1840”
Act of Union 1840 merged HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canadas” \o “The Canadas” The Canadas
into a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Canada” \o
“Province of Canada” United Province of Canada . French and English
Canadians worked together in the Assembly to reinstate French rights.
Responsible government was established for all British North American
provinces by 1849. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-21” \o “” [22] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-22” \o “” [23]

The signing of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Treaty” \o “Oregon Treaty” Oregon
Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_boundary_dispute” \o “Oregon
boundary dispute” Oregon boundary dispute , extending the border
westward along the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/49th_parallel_north” \o “49th parallel
north” 49th parallel and paving the way for British colonies on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_Vancouver_Island” \o
“Colony of Vancouver Island” Vancouver Island (1849) and in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_British_Columbia” \o
“Colony of British Columbia” British Columbia (1858) . Canada launched
a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert%27s_Land” \o “Rupert’s Land”
Rupert’s Land and the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic”
\o “Arctic” Arctic region. The Canadian population grew rapidly
because of high birth rates; British immigration was offset by
emigration to the United States, especially by French Canadians’ moving
to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_England” \o “New
England” New England .

An animated map, exhibiting HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_Canada” \o
“Territorial evolution of Canada” the growth and change of Canada’s
provinces and territories since Confederation

Following several constitutional conferences, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_Act,_1867” \o “Constitution
Act, 1867” Constitution Act, 1867 brought about Confederation creating
“one Dominion under the name of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_of_Canada” \l “Adoption_of_Dominion”
\o “Name of Canada” Canada ” on July 1, 1867, with four provinces:
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontario” \o “Ontario” Ontario ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec” \o “Quebec” Quebec ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nova_Scotia” \o “Nova Scotia”
Nova Scotia , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Brunswick” \o “New Brunswick” New
Brunswick . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-23” \o “” [24] Canada assumed control of Rupert’s Land and
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-Western_Territory”
\o “North-Western Territory” North-Western Territory to form the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Territories” \o
“Northwest Territories” Northwest Territories , where HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9tis_people_(Canada)” \o “Metis
people (Canada)” Metis’ grievances ignited the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_River_Rebellion” \o “Red River
Rebellion” Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manitoba” \o “Manitoba”
Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had
itish_Columbia” \o “United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British
Columbia” united in 1866 ) and the colony of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Edward_Island” \o “Prince Edward
Island” Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1871 and 1873,

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Canada” \o
“Prime Minister of Canada” Prime Minister HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_A._Macdonald” \o “John A. Macdonald”
John A. Macdonald’s HYPERLINK
\o “Conservative Party of Canada (historical)” Conservative government
established a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_policy”
\o “National policy” national policy of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tariff” \o “Tariff” tariffs to protect
nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the
government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways
(most notably the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Pacific_Railway” \o “Canadian
Pacific Railway” Canadian Pacific Railway ), opened the prairies to
settlement with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion_Lands_Act” \o “Dominion Lands
Act” Dominion Lands Act , and established the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mounted_Police” \o “Royal
Canadian Mounted Police” North-West Mounted Police to assert its
authority over this territory. In 1898, after the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush” \o “Klondike Gold
Rush” Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian
government created the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukon”
\o “Yukon” Yukon territory. Under HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Party_of_Canada” \o “Liberal Party
of Canada” Liberal HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Canada” \o “Prime
Minister of Canada” Prime Minister HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfrid_Laurier” \o “Wilfrid Laurier”
Wilfrid Laurier , continental European immigrants settled the prairies,
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberta” \o “Alberta”
Alberta and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan” \o
“Saskatchewan” Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.

Canadian soldiers won the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vimy_Ridge” \o “Battle of Vimy
Ridge” Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.

Canada automatically entered HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I” \o “World War I” World War I
in 1914 with Britain’s declaration of war, sending volunteers to the
Western Front who later became part of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Corps” \o “Canadian Corps”
Canadian Corps . The Corps played a substantial role in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vimy_Ridge” \o “Battle of Vimy
Ridge” Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major battles of the war. The
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917” \o
“Conscription Crisis of 1917” Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when
\o “Conservative Party of Canada (historical)” conservative Prime
Minister HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Borden” \o
“Robert Borden” Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service
over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations” \o
“League of Nations” League of Nations independently of Britain; in
1931 the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931” \o “Statute
of Westminster 1931” Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada’s

naught%27s_Own)_(RCAC)” \o “The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of
Connaught’s Own) (RCAC)” BC Regiment, DCO , marching in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Westminster” \o “New Westminster” New
Westminster , 1940. 1.1 million Canadians served in WWII. Canadian
servicemen played a major part in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-Day” \o “D-Day” D-Day landings of 6
June, 1944.

The HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression” \o
“Great Depression” Great Depression brought economic hardship to all
of Canada. In response, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co-operative_Commonwealth_Federation” \o
“Co-operative Commonwealth Federation” Co-operative Commonwealth
Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan enacted many measures of a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welfare_state” \o “Welfare
state” welfare state as pioneered by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Douglas” \o “Tommy Douglas” Tommy
Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada HYPERLINK
nd_World_War” \o “Military history of Canada during the Second World
War” declared war on Germany independently during HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II” \o “World War II” World War
II under Liberal Prime Minister HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Lyon_Mackenzie_King” \o “William
Lyon Mackenzie King” William Lyon Mackenzie King , three days after
Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December
1939. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-stacey-24” \o “” [25] Canadian troops played important
roles in the HYPERLINK
” \o “Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945)” Battle of the Atlantic , the
failed 1942 HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dieppe_Raid” \o
“Dieppe Raid” Dieppe Raid in France, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_invasion_of_Italy” \o “Allied
invasion of Italy” Allied invasion of Italy , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-Day” \o “D-Day” D-Day landings, the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normandy_Campaign” \o “Normandy
Campaign” Battle of Normandy and the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Scheldt” \o “Battle of the
Scheldt” Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada is credited by the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands” \o “Netherlands”
Netherlands for having provided asylum and protection for its
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy” \o “Monarchy”
monarchy during the war after the country was occupied and the
Netherlands credits Canada for its leadership and major contribution to
the liberation of Netherlands from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany” \o “Nazi Germany” Nazi
Germany . The Canadian economy boomed as industry manufactured military
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materiel” \o “Materiel”
materiel for Canada, Britain, China and the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union” \o “Soviet Union” Soviet
Union . Despite another HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1944” \o
“Conscription Crisis of 1944” Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada
finished the war with one of the largest armed forces in the world.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l “cite_note-stacey-24”
\o “” [25] In 1945, during the war, Canada became one of the founding
members of the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations”
\o “United Nations” United Nations .























gdgegigkg?gµg?g?g»g1/4g7h8hOhPhZh[h?h™h h!hµh¶h



p pp






” Accord” attempts at constitutional amendment were attempted and
failed in 1989. A HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_referendum,_1995” \o “Quebec
referendum, 1995” second referendum followed in 1995, in which
sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-dickinson-27” \o “” [28] In 1997, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_Canada” \o “Supreme Court
of Canada” Supreme Court ruled that HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reference_re_Secession_of_Quebec” \o
“Reference re Secession of Quebec” unilateral secession by a province
would be unconstitutional, and the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarity_Act” \o “Clarity Act” Clarity Act
was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure
from Confederation. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada” \l
“cite_note-dickinson-27” \o “” [28]

After various HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacekeeping” \o
“Peacekeeping” peacekeeping missions between the 1950s and 1990s,
Canada engaged in the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO” \o
\o “War in Afghanistan (2001–present)” Afghan War in 2001, though
subsequently refusing to participate in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003_invasion_of_Iraq” \o “2003 invasion
of Iraq” 2003 invasion of Iraq . At home, following various legal
battles, as well as some violent confrontations at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oka_Crisis” \o “Oka Crisis” Oka ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipperwash_Crisis” \o “Ipperwash
Crisis” Ipperwash , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustafsen_Lake_Standoff” \o “Gustafsen
Lake Standoff” Gustafsen Lake , in 1999 Canada recognized HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit” \o “Inuit” Inuit self-government
with the creation of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nunavut”
\o “Nunavut” Nunavut , settled HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nisga%27a_Final_Agreement” \o “Nisga’a
Final Agreement” Nisga’a claims in British Columbia, and, in 2008, the
Prime Minister apologised for the creation of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_residential_school_system” \o
“Canadian residential school system” residential schools by previous

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