Benvenuto Cellini

Gold HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_cellar» \o «Salt
cellar» Salt cellar by Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_3»
\o «November 3» November 3 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1500» \o «1500» 1500 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_13» \o «February 13» February 13
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1571» \o «1571» 1571 ) was
an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy» \o «Italy» Italian
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldsmith» \o «Goldsmith»
goldsmith , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painter» \o
«Painter» painter , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sculpture» \o «Sculpture» sculptor ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soldier» \o «Soldier» soldier
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musician» \o «Musician»
musician of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance»
\o «Renaissance» Renaissance .

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Life» 1 Life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Works» 2 Works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Cellini_in_Literature»
3 Cellini in Literature

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 4
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Further_reading» 5
Further reading

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 6 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 7
External links

Life

Benvenuto Cellini was born in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence%2C_Italy» \o «Florence, Italy»
Florence, Italy , where his family had been landowners in the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Val_d%27Ambra&action=edit» \o
«Val d’Ambra» Val d’Ambra for three generations. His father, Giovanni
Cellini, built and played HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_instrument» \o «Musical
instrument» musical instruments ; he married Maria Lisabetta Granacci,
and eighteen years elapsed before they had children. Benvenuto was the
second child.

The father wished Benvenuto to join him in instrument making, and
endeavoured to thwart his inclination for metalwork. When he was
fifteen, his father reluctantly agreed to apprentice him to a goldsmith,
Antonio di Sandro, nicknamed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcone&action=edit» \o
«Marcone» Marcone . Benvenuto had already attracted attention in his
native town, after a fray with youthful companions, he was banished for
six months to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siena» \o
«Siena» Siena , where he worked for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francesco_Castoro&action=edit
» \o «Francesco Castoro» Francesco Castoro ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fracastoro» \o «Fracastoro» Fracastoro ),
a goldsmith; from there he moved to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bologna» \o «Bologna» Bologna , where he
became a more accomplished HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flute» \o «Flute» flute -player and made
progress in the goldsmith’s art. After visiting HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisa» \o «Pisa» Pisa , and after twice
resettling in Florence (where he was visited by the sculptor HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torrigiano&action=edit» \o
«Torrigiano» Torrigiano , he decamped to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o «Rome» Rome , age nineteen.

His first attempt at his craft here was a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver» \o «Silver» silver casket,
followed by some silver HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlestick» \o «Candlestick»
candlesticks , and later by a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vase» \o «Vase» vase for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bishop» \o «Bishop» bishop of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamanca» \o «Salamanca»
Salamanca , which introduced him to the favourable notice of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_VII» \o «Pope Clement VII»
Pope Clement VII ; likewise at a later date one of his celebrated works,
the gold medallion of » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leda_and_the_Swan» \o «Leda and the Swan»
Leda and the Swan » — the head and torso of Leda cut in hard stone —
executed for the Gonfaloniere Gabbriello Cesarino, which is now in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna» \o «Vienna» Vienna
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum» \o «Museum» museum ; he
also reverted to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music» \o
«Music» music , practised flute-playing, and was appointed one of the
pope’s court-musicians. In the attack upon Rome by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_III%2C_Duke_of_Bourbon» \o
«Charles III, Duke of Bourbon» Constable de Bourbon , which occurred
immediately after, the bravery and address of Cellini proved of signal
service to the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontiff» \o
«Pontiff» pontiff ; if we may believe his own accounts, his was the
very hand which shot the Bourbon dead, and he afterwards killed
Philibert, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_of_Orange»
\o «Prince of Orange» Prince of Orange .

Bust of Benvenuto Cellini on the Ponte Vecchio, Florence

His exploits paved the way for a reconciliation with the Florentine
magistrates, and he returned shortly to his native place. Here he
assiduously devoted himself to the execution of medals, the most famous
of which (executed a short while later) are » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hercules» \o «Hercules» Hercules and the
Nemean Lion», in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold» \o
«Gold» gold repousse work, and » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_%28mythology%29» \o «Atlas
(mythology)» Atlas supporting the Sphere», in chased gold, the latter
eventually falling into the possession of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France» \o «Francis I of
France» Francis I .

From Florence he went to the court of the duke of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantua» \o «Mantua» Mantua , and then
again to Florence and to Rome, where he was employed not only in the
working of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewelry» \o
«Jewelry» jewelry , but also in the execution of dies for private
medals and for the papal mint. Here in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1529» \o «1529» 1529 he killed his
brother’s murderer; and soon had to flee to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naples» \o «Naples» Naples to shelter
himself from the consequences of an affray with a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notary» \o «Notary» notary , Ser
Benedetto, whom he wounded. Through the influence of several of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_%28Catholicism%29» \o
«Cardinal (Catholicism)» cardinals he obtained a pardon; and on the
elevation of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Paul_III» \o
«Pope Paul III» Pope Paul III to the pontifical throne he was
reinstated in his former position of favour, notwithstanding a fresh
homicide of a goldsmith which he had committed more by accident than of
malice prepense in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interregnum» \o «Interregnum» interregnum
.

Once more the plots of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierluigi_Farnese» \o «Pierluigi Farnese»
Pierluigi Farnese , a natural son of Paul III, led to his retreat from
Rome to Florence and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice»
\o «Venice» Venice , and once more he was restored with greater honour
than before. On returning from a visit to the court of Francis I, being
now aged thirty-seven, he was imprisoned on a charge (apparently false)
of having embezzled during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War» \o «War» war the gems of the
pontifical HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiara» \o «Tiara»
tiara ; he remained some while confined in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castel_Sant%27Angelo» \o «Castel
Sant’Angelo» Castel Sant’Angelo , escaped, was recaptured, and treated
with great severity, and was in daily expectation of death on the
scaffold.

At last, however, he was released at the intercession of Pierluigi’s
wife, and more especially of the Cardinal d’Este of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrara» \o «Ferrara» Ferrara , to whom
he presented a splendid cup. For a while, he worked at the court of
Francis I, at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontainebleau»
\o «Fontainebleau» Fontainebleau and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris» \o «Paris» Paris ; but he
considered the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Pisseleu_d%27Heilly» \o «Anne de
Pisseleu d’Heilly» duchesse d’Etampes to be set against him, and the
intrigues of the king’s favourites, whom he would not stoop to
conciliate and could not venture to silence by the sword, as he had
silenced his enemies in Rome, led him, after about five years of
laborious and sumptuous work, and of continually-recurring jealousies
and violences, to retire in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1545» \o «1545» 1545 in disgust to
Florence, where he employed his time in works of art, and exasperated
his temper in rivalries with the uneasy-natured sculptor HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baccio_Bandinelli» \o «Baccio Bandinelli»
Baccio Bandinelli .

The first collision between the two had occurred several years before
when Pope Clement VII commissioned Cellini to mint his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coin» \o «Coin» coinage . Now, in an
altercation before Duke Cosimo, Bandinelli insultingly stigmatized
Benvenuto as guilty of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexuality» \l «History» \o
«Homosexuality» gross immorality, calling out to him Sta cheto,
soddomitaccio! (Shut up, you filthy sodomite!); in his autobiography
Cellini recalls repelling rather than denying the charge, claiming to be
unworthy of such a divine and royal diversion. Certainly his art, often
celebratory of the young male form, is a testimonial to his appreciation
of that beauty. HYPERLINK
«http://www.androphile.org/preview/Museum/Europe/rogue.htm» \o
«http://www.androphile.org/preview/Museum/Europe/rogue.htm» Some of
Cellini’s homoerotic classical references

His biography omits the four charges against him of sodomy:

At the age of 23 with a boy named Domenico di ser Giuliano da Ripa, an
accusation was settled with a small fine (perhaps thanks to his youth at
the time).

An accusation in Paris, involving a female lover, which he braved out in
court.

In Florence in 1548, Cellini was accused by a women named Margherita,
for having certain familiarities with her son, Vincenzo. Perhaps this
was a private quarrel, one from which he simply fled, and undeserving of
attention.

Finally, in 1556, his apprentice Fernando, after being fired for an
altercation, accused his mentor of: (as the indictment read) Cinque anni
ha tenuto per suo ragazzo Fernando di Giovanni di Montepulciano,
giovanetto con el quale ha usato carnalmente moltissime volte col
nefando vitio della soddomia, tenendolo in letto come sua moglie (For
five years he kept as his boy Fernando di Giovanni di Montepulciano, a
youth whom he used carnally in the abject vice of sodomy numerous
instances, keeping him in his bed as a wife.) This time the penalty was
a hefty fifty golden scudi fine, and four years of prison, remitted to
four years of house arrest thanks to the intercession of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici» \o «Medici» Medicis .

He is also known to have taken some of his female models as mistresses,
having an illegitimate daughter with one of them while living in France.
After briefly attempting a clerical career, in 1562, he married a
servant, with whom he had five children, of which only a son and two
daughters survived him.

It is notable that his references to his boy models (and possibly
lovers) are more tender and affectionate than his references to women,
including his wife. In his sculpture, the male is always more
convincingly modelled than the female — his Venus of Fontainebleau,
while notable, is unconvincing as a representation of the realistic
female body.

During the war with Siena, Cellini was appointed to strengthen the
defences of his native city, and, though rather shabbily treated by his
ducal patrons, he continued to gain the admiration of his
fellow-citizens by the magnificent works which he produced. He died in
Florence in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1571» \o «1571»
1571 and was buried with great pomp in the church of the Annunziata. He
had supported in Florence a widowed sister and her six daughters.

Works

Perseus with the Head of Medusa in the Loggia dei Lanzi gallery on the
edge of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piazza_della_Signoria» \o «Piazza della
Signoria» Piazza della Signoria in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o «Florence» Florence ;
picture taken after the statue’s cleaning and restoration

Besides the works in gold and silver which have been adverted to,
Cellini executed several pieces of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sculpture» \o «Sculpture» sculpture on a
grander scale. The most distinguished of these is the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze» \o «Bronze» bronze group of »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perseus» \o «Perseus» Perseus
holding the head of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medusa» \o
«Medusa» Medusa «, a work (first suggested by Duke HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosimo_I_de_Medici» \o «Cosimo I de
Medici» Cosimo I de Medici ) now in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggia_dei_Lanzi» \o «Loggia dei Lanzi»
Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, full of the fire of genius and the
grandeur of a terrible beauty, one of the most typical and unforgettable
monuments of the Italian Renaissance. The casting of this great work
gave Cellini the utmost trouble and anxiety; and its completion was
hailed with rapturous homage from all parts of Italy. The original
relief from the foot of the pedestal — Perseus and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_%28mythology%29» \o «Andromeda
(mythology)» Andromeda — is in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bargello» \o «Bargello» Bargello , and
replaced by a cast.

By HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996» \o «1996» 1996
centuries of exposure to the elements had left the statue streaked and
banded with dirt and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution» \o «Pollution» pollution . In
December of that year it was removed from the Loggia to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uffizi» \o «Uffizi» Uffizi for cleaning
and restoration. This was a slow and painstaking process, and it was not
until June HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000» \o «2000»
2000 that the restored statue was returned to its original home.

Among his works of art not already mentioned, many of which have
perished, were a colossal HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_%28god%29» \o «Mars (god)» Mars for
a fountain at Fontainebleau and the bronzes of the doorway, coins for
the Papal and Florentine states, a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter_%28god%29» \o «Jupiter (god)»
Jupiter in silver of life size, and a bronze bust of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bindo_Altoviti&action=edit»
\o «Bindo Altoviti» Bindo Altoviti . The works of decorative art are,
speaking broadly, rather florid than chastened in style.

In addition to the bronze statue of Perseus and the medallions already
referred to, the works of art in existence today executed by him are a
medallion of Clement VII in commemoration of the peace between the
Christian princes, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1530» \o
«1530» 1530 , with a bust of the pope on the reverse and a figure of
Peace setting fire to a heap of arms in front of the temple of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janus_%28mythology%29» \o «Janus
(mythology)» Janus , signed with the artist’s name; a medal of Francis
I with his portrait, also signed;a medal of Cardinal HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pietro_Bembo» \o «Pietro Bembo» Pietro
Bembo ; and the celebrated gold, enamel and ivory salt-cellar (known as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saliera» \o «Saliera» Saliera
) made for Francis I at Vienna. This object, of a value conservatively
estimated at US$ 58,000,000, was stolen from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunsthistorisches_Museum» \o
«Kunsthistorisches Museum» Kunsthistorisches Museum on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_11» \o «May 11» May 11 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003» \o «2003» 2003 . This intricate
16-centimeter-high sculpture was commissioned by Francis I. Crafted with
amazingly rich detail and skill, its principal figures are a naked sea
god and a woman who sit opposite each other, with legs entwined — a
symbolic representation of the planet earth. The thief climbed
scaffolding and smashed windows to enter the museum. The thief set off
the alarms, but these were ignored as false, and the theft remained
undiscovered until 8:20 AM. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_21» \o «January 21» January 21 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006» \o «2006» 2006 the
Saliera was recovered by the Austrian police and is supposed to be
returned to the Kunsthistorisches Museum the coming days.

One of the most important works by Cellini from late in his career was a
life-size nude crucifix carved from marble. Although originally intended
to be placed over his tomb, this crucifix was sold to the Medici family
who gave it to Spain. Today the crucifix is in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escorial» \o «Escorial» Escorial
Monastery near Madrid, where it has usually been displayed in an altered
form—the monastery added a loincloth and a crown of thorns. For
detailed information about this work, see the text by Juan Lopez Gajate
in the Further Reading section of this article.

Cellini, while employed at the papal mint at Rome during the papacy of
Clement VII and later of Paul III, executed the dies of several coins
and medals, some of which still survive at this now defunct mint. He was
also in the service of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_de_Medici» \o «Alessandro de
Medici» Alessandro de Medici , first duke of Florence, for whom he
executed in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1535» \o «1535»
1535 a forty-soldi piece with a bust of the duke on one side and
standing figures of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint»
\o «Saint» saints Cosma and Damian on the other. Some connoisseurs
attribute to his hand several plaques, «Jupiter crushing the Giants»,
«Fight between Perseus and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phinaeus&action=edit» \o
«Phinaeus» Phinaeus «, a Dog, etc.

The important works which have perished include the uncompleted
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalice» \o «Chalice» chalice
intended for Clement VII; a gold cover for a prayer-book as a gift from
Pope Paul III to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_V%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor» \o
«Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor» Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor — both
described at length in his autobiography; large silver statues of
Jupiter, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulcan_%28mythology%29» \o «Vulcan
(mythology)» Vulcan and Mars, wrought for Francis I during his sojourn
in Paris; a bust of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar» \o «Julius Caesar» Julius
Caesar ; and a silver cup for the cardinal of Ferrara. The magnificent
gold «button», or morse, made by Cellini for the cape of Clement VII,
the competition for which is so graphically described in his
autobiography, appears to have been sacrificed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_VI» \o «Pope Pius VI» Pope Pius
VI , with many other priceless specimens of the goldsmith’s art, in
furnishing the indemnity of 30,000,000 francs demanded by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon» \o «Napoleon» Napoleon at the
conclusion of the campaign against the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_of_the_Church» \o «States of the
Church» States of the Church in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1797» \o «1797» 1797 . According to the
terms of the treaty, the pope was permitted to pay a third of that sum
in plate and jewels. Fortunately there are in the print room of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Museum» \o «British
Museum» British Museum three HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watercolour» \o «Watercolour» watercolour
drawings of this splendid morse by F. Bertoli, done at the instance of
an Englishman named Talman in the first half of the 18th century. The
obverse and reverse, as well as the rim, are drawn full size, and
moreover the morse with the precious stones set therein, including a
diamond then considered the second largest in the world, is fully
described.

Cellini in Literature

Not less characteristic of its splendidly gifted and barbarically
untameable author are the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobiography» \o «Autobiography»
autobiographical memoirs which he composed, beginning them in Florence
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1558» \o «1558» 1558 — a
production of the utmost energy, directness and racy animation, setting
forth one of the most singular careers in all the annals of fine art.
His amours and hatreds, his passions and delights, his love of the
sumptuous and the exquisite in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o «Art» art , his self-applause and
self-assertion, running now and again into extravagances which it is
impossible to credit, and difficult to set down as strictly conscious
falsehoods, make this one of the most singular and fascinating books in
existence. Here we read, not only of the strange and varied adventures
of which we have presented a hasty sketch, but of the devout complacency
with which Cellini could contemplate a satisfactorily achieved homicide;
of the legion of devils which he and a conjuror evoked in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colosseum» \o «Colosseum»
Colosseum , after one of his not innumerous mistresses had been spirited
away from him by her mother; of the marvellous halo of light which he
found surrounding his head at dawn and twilight after his Roman
imprisonment, and his supernatural visions and angelic protection during
that adversity; and of his being poisoned on two separate occasions. If
he is unmeasured in abusing some people, he is also unlimited in
praising others. The autobiography has been translated into English by
Thomas Roscoe, by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Addington_Symonds» \o «John Addington
Symonds» John Addington Symonds , and by A. Macdonald. It has been
considered and published as a classic, and commonly regarded as one of
the most colourful autobiographies (certainly the most important
autobiography from the Renaissance). Cellini also wrote treatises on the
goldsmith’s art, on sculpture, and on design (translated by C. R.
Ashbee, 1899).

The life of Cellini also inspired the popular French author HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas» \o «Alexandre Dumas»
Alexandre Dumas . Dumas, an author of numerous HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_novel» \o «Historical novel»
historical novels wrote HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ascanio&action=edit» \o
«Ascanio» Ascanio , which was based on Cellini’s life. The novel
focuses on several years during Cellini’s stay in France, working for
Francis. The book is also centred around Ascanio, an apprentice of
Cellini. The famous scheming, plot twists and intrigue that made Dumas
famous feature in the novel, in this case involving, Cellini, the
duchesse d’Etampes and other members of the court. Cellini is portrayed
as a passionate and troubled man, plagued by the inconsistencies of life
under the «patronage» of a false and somewhat cynical court.

In addition to the opera by Berlioz, Cellini was also the subject of a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadway_theatre» \o «Broadway
theatre» Broadway HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Musica_theatre&action=edit»
\o «Musica theatre» musicall , The Firebrand of Florence, by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Gershwin» \o «Ira Gershwin»
Ira Gershwin and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Weill»
\o «Kurt Weill» Kurt Weill , which featured HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotte_Lenya» \o «Lotte Lenya» Lotte Lenya
(Mrs. Weill) as one of the sculptor’s royal conquests. The show,
unfortunately, was not a hit, and only ran for a month on Broadway,
although some of its songs are periodically revived. It marked the last
major collaboration between Weill and Gershwin, whose collaboration was
best known for the classic Lady in the Dark (1941). HYPERLINK
«http://www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=1687» \o
«http://www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=1687» [1]

References

This article incorporates text from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edit
ion» \o «Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition» Encyclopaedia
Britannica Eleventh Edition , a publication now in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain» \o «Public domain» public
domain .

Further reading

Lopez Gajate, Juan. El Cristo Blanco de Cellini. San Lorenzo del
Escorial: Escurialenses, 1995.

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