Реферат:

на тему: Alcohol

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Chemistry» 1 Chemistry

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Alcoholic_content» 2
Alcoholic content

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Flavoring» 3 Flavoring

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «History» 4 History

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Fermented_beverages»
4.1 Fermented beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Distilled_beverages»
4.2 Distilled beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Uses» 5 Uses

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Legal_considerations» 6
Legal considerations

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Types_of_alcoholic_beverages» 7 Types of alcoholic beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Non-distilled_beverages»
7.1 Non-distilled beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Distilled_beverages_2»
7.2 Distilled beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 8 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 9
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_link» 10
External link

Bottles of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacha%C3%A7a» \o
«Cachaca» cachaca , a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil»
\o «Brazil» Brazilian alcoholic beverage.

Alcoholic beverages are HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drink»
\o «Drink» drinks containing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol» \o «Ethanol» ethanol .

Alcoholic beverages have been widely consumed since prehistoric times by
people around the world, seeing use as a component of the standard diet,
for hygienic or medical reasons, for their relaxant and euphoric
effects, for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreational_drug_use» \o «Recreational
drug use» recreational purposes , for artistic inspiration, as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphrodisiac» \o «Aphrodisiac»
aphrodisiacs , and for other reasons. Some have been invested with
symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of
alcohol, e.g., by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_religion» \o «Greek religion»
Greco-Roman religion in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecstasy_%28emotion%29» \o «Ecstasy
(emotion)» ecstatic rituals of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysus» \o «Dionysus» Dionysus (also
called HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacchus» \o «Bacchus»
Bacchus ), god of drink and revelry; in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity» \o «Christianity» Christian
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucharist» \o «Eucharist»
Eucharist ; and at the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew» \o
«Jew» Jewish HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passover» \o
«Passover» Passover .

Moderate consumption of alcohol, defined by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as no more than two
drinks for men and one drink for women per day, is consistently shown as
being beneficial for the heart and circulatory system (the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom» UK
equivalent is 3-4 units per day for men and 2-3 units for women).
Moderate consumers statistically have fewer heart attacks and strokes,
live longer, have lower blood pressure, and generally report better
overall health.

However, some people are prone to developing a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_dependency» \o «Chemical
dependency» chemical dependency to alcohol, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholism» \o «Alcoholism» alcoholism .
The results of alcoholism are considered a major health problem in many
nations.

Frequent excessive consumption can harmfully interfere with the user’s
well-being. The neurological effects of alcohol use are often a factor
in deadly motor vehicle accidents and fights. People under the influence
of alcohol sometimes find themselves in dangerous or compromising
situations where they would not be had they remained sober. Operating a
motor vehicle or heavy machinery under the influence of alcohol is a
serious crime in almost all developed nations.

Some religions—most notably HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam» \o «Islam» Islam , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latter-day_Saint» \o «Latter-day Saint»
Latter-day Saints , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikaya_Buddhism» \o «Nikaya Buddhism»
Nikaya and most HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayana» \o
«Mahayana» Mahayana schools of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism» \o «Buddhism» Buddhism and
some HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant» \o
«Protestant» Protestant sects of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamentalist_Christianity» \o
«Fundamentalist Christianity» Fundamentalist Christianity —forbid or
discourage the consumption of alcoholic beverages for these and other
reasons.

Most governments regulate or restrict the sale and use of alcohol.

Chemistry

The ethanol (CH3CH2OH) in alcoholic beverages is almost always produced
by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation» \o
«Fermentation» fermentation , which is the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolism» \o «Metabolism» metabolism
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate» \o
«Carbohydrate» carbohydrates (usually HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar» \o «Sugar» sugars ) by certain
species of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast» \o «Yeast»
yeast in the absence of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen» \o «Oxygen» oxygen . The process
of culturing yeast under conditions that produce alcohol is referred to
as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brewing» \o «Brewing»
brewing .

It should be noted that in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry» \o «Chemistry» chemistry ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol» \o «Alcohol» alcohol
is a general term for any HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compound» \o «Organic compound»
organic compound in which a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxyl» \o «Hydroxyl» hydroxyl
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_group» \o «Functional
group» group (- HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen» \o
«Oxygen» O HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen» \o
«Hydrogen» H ) is bound to a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon» \o «Carbon» carbon atom, which
in turn is bound to other HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen» \o «Hydrogen» hydrogen and/or
carbon atoms. Other alcohols such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propylene_glycol» \o «Propylene glycol»
propylene glycol and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar_alcohol» \o «Sugar alcohol» sugar
alcohols may appear in food or beverages regularly, but these alcohols
do not make them alcoholic.

It has been suggested that alcoholic impurities, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congener» \o «Congener» congeners , are
the cause of hangovers.

Alcoholic beverages with a concentration of about 50% ethanol or greater
(100 proof) are HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flammable» \o
«Flammable» flammable liquids and easily ignited.

Alcoholic content

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration» \o
«Concentration» concentration of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage may
be specified in percent HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_by_volume» \o «Alcohol by volume»
alcohol by volume (ABV), in percentage by weight (sometimes abbreviated
w/w for weight for weight), or in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_proof» \o «Alcoholic proof»
proof . The ‘proof’ measurement roughly corresponds in a 2:1 ratio to
percent alcoholic content by volume (e.g. 80 proof = 40% ABV). Common
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation» \o «Distillation»
distillation cannot exceed 192 proof because at that point ethanol is
an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azeotrope» \o «Azeotrope»
azeotrope with water. Alcohols of this purity are commonly referred to
as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grain_alcohol» \o «Grain
alcohol» grain alcohol and are not meant for human consumption, with
the notable exception of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutral_grain_spirit» \o «Neutral grain
spirit» neutral grain spirits .

Most yeasts cannot grow when the concentration of alcohol is higher than
about 18% by volume, so that is a practical limit for the strength of
fermented beverages such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine» \o «Wine» wine , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer» \o «Beer» beer , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sake» \o «Sake» sake . Strains of yeast
have been developed that can survive in solutions of up to 25% alcohol
by volume, but these were bred for ethanol fuel production, not beverage
production. Liquors are produced by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation» \o «Distillation»
distillation of a fermented product, concentrating the alcohol and
eliminating some of the by-products. Many wines are HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortified_wines» \o «Fortified wines»
fortified wines with additional grain alcohol to achieve higher ABV
than is easily reached using fermentation alone.

Flavoring

Ethanol is a moderately good solvent for many «fatty» substances and
essential «oils», and thus facilitates the inclusion of several
coloring, flavoring, and aromatic compounds to alcoholic beverages,
especially to distilled ones. These flavoring ingredients may be
naturally present in the starting material, or may be added before
fermentation, before distillation, or before bottling the distilled
product. Sometimes the flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to
stand for months or years in barrels made of special wood, or in bottles
where scented twigs or fruits — or even insects — have been inserted.

A well-stocked bar will include a selection of beers and wines, along
with the typical liquors of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka» \o «Vodka» vodka , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum» \o «Rum» rum , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin» \o «Gin» gin , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tequila» \o «Tequila» tequila , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whisky» \o «Whisky» whisky ;
each in varying qualities from «well» quality (off brand) to premium
quality (name brand) to «top shelf» (usually very expensive, ranging
from $50 to several hundred USD per 750 ml bottle). Alcoholic beverages
can be combined at the time of serving, sometimes with other
ingredients, to create HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocktail» \o «Cocktail» cocktails or
mixed drinks. Small servings of pure liquor (shots) are also common,
with whisky and tequila being traditionally popular selections.

History

Fermented beverages

Fermented alcoholic beverages have been known since pre-historical
times. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer» \o «Beer» Beer
was certainly known in Mesopotamia before HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4000_BC» \o «4000 BC» 4000 BC , as
attested to by recipes found on clay tablets and art that shows
individuals using straws to drink from large vats and pots.

Wine was consumed in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_Greece» \o «Classical Greece»
Classical Greece at breakfast or at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symposium» \o «Symposium» symposia , and
in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_century_BC» \o «1st
century BC» 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire» \o «Roman Empire» Roman
citizens. However, both Greeks and Romans generally consumed their wine
watered (from 1 parts of wine to 1 part of water, to 1 part of wine to 4
parts of water). The transformation of water into wine at a wedding
feast is one of the miracles attributed to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus» \o «Jesus» Jesus in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament» \o «New
Testament» New Testament , and his symbolic use of wine in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_Supper» \o «Last Supper»
Last Supper led to it becoming an essential part of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic» \o «Catholic» Catholic
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucharist» \o «Eucharist»
Eucharist rite.

In spite of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qur%27an» \o
«Qur’an» Qur’anic ban (which is somewhat ambiguous and open to
interpretation) on alcoholic beverages, wine (usually sold by Christian
tavern-keepers) remained fairly popular in Islamic lands over the
centuries, as revealed in the verses of Persian mathematician
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Khayy%C3%A1m» \o «Omar
Khayyam» Omar Khayyam (1040–1131):

«Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough,

A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse—and Thou

Beside me singing in the Wilderness—

And Wilderness is Paradise enow.» HYPERLINK
«http://www.armory.com/~thrace/ev/siir/Omar_Khayyam.html» \o
«http://www.armory.com/~thrace/ev/siir/Omar Khayyam.html» [1]

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o «Europe» Europe
during the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages» \o
«Middle Ages» Middle Ages , beer was consumed by the whole family,
thanks to a triple fermentation process — the men had the strongest,
then women, then children. A document of the times mentions HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nun» \o «Nun» nuns having an allowance
of six pints of ale a day. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider» \o «Cider» Cider and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomace_wine» \o «Pomace wine» pomace wine
were also widely available, while grape wine was the prerogative of the
higher classes. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, wine production
in Europe appears to have been sustained chiefly by monasteries.

By the time the Europeans reached the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americas» \o «Americas» Americas in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century» \o «15th century»
15th century , several HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas» \o
«Indigenous peoples of the Americas» native civilizations had
developed alcoholic beverages. According to a post-Conquest HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec» \o «Aztec» Aztec document,
consumption of the local «wine» ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulque» \o «Pulque» pulque ) was
generally restricted to religious ceremonies, but freely allowed to
those over 70 years old (possibly the all-time record for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_drinking_age» \o «Legal drinking
age» legal drinking age ). The natives of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America» \o «South America» South
America manufactured a beer-like product from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava» \o «Cassava» cassava or
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maize» \o «Maize» maize (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cauim» \o «Cauim» cauim ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicha» \o «Chicha» chicha ),
which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch» \o «Starch» starch
into sugars. (Curiously, the same technique was used in ancient
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan» \o «Japan» Japan to
make HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sake» \o «Sake» sake
from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice» \o «Rice» rice
and other starchy crops.)

The medicinal use of alcoholic beverages was mentioned in Sumerian and
Egyptian texts dated from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2100_BC» \o «2100 BC» 2100 BC or
earlier. The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Bible» \o
«Hebrew Bible» Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to
those who are dying or depressed, so that they can forget their misery.

Distilled beverages

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage» \o «Distilled
beverage» Distilled beverage

Beer and wine are typically limited to a maximum 15 percent alcohol,
although brewers have reached 25% alcohol. Beyond this limit yeast is
adversely affected and cannot ferment. Since the fourth millennium BC in
Babylonia, higher levels of alcohol have been obtained in a number of
ways. It was not until the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Still» \o «Still» still was invented by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam» \o «Islam» Islamic
alchemists in the 8th or 9th centuries that the history of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage» \o «Distilled
beverage» distilled beverages began. Distilled alcohol appeared first
in Europe in the mid 12th century and by the early HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/14th_century» \o «14th century» 14th
century it had spread throughout Europe. It also spread eastward,
mainly by the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol» \o
«Mongol» Mongols , and was practiced in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China» \o «China» China by the 14th
century. However, recent archeological evidence has supported the idea
that China has had wines and distilled beverages dating back to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5000_BC» \o «5000 BC» 5000 BC .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracelsus» \o «Paracelsus»
Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word
which means «finely divided», a reference to distillation.

Uses

In many countries, alcoholic beverages are commonly consumed at the
major daily meals (lunch and dinner). Most early beers were in fact
highly nutritional and served as a means of calorie distribution. Beer
can be stored longer than grain or bread without fear of pest
infestation or rotting, and drinking beer avoided the tooth-destroying
grit that was present in hand-ground or early mill-ground flours.

In places and eras with poor public sanitation, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages» \o «Middle Ages» Medieval
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o «Europe» Europe ,
consumption of alcoholic beverages (particularly weak or «small»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer» \o «Beer» beer ) was one
method of avoiding water-borne diseases such as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera» \o «Cholera» cholera . Though
strong alcohol kills bacteria, the low concentration in beer or even
wine will have only a limited effect. Probably the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiling» \o «Boiling» boiling of water,
which is required for the brewing of beer, and the growth of yeast,
which would tend to crowd out other micro-organisms, were more important
than the alcohol itself. In any case, the ethanol (and possibly other
ingredients) of alcoholic beverages allows them to be stored for months
or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling, which was
certainly a major factor in their popularity.

A recent study indicated that ethanol has been found to stimulate the
virulence of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acinetobacter» \o
«Acinetobacter» Acinetobacter baumannii . Tests on infected HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematode_worm» \o «Nematode worm»
nematode worms that were dosed with ethanol found that the worms laid
fewer eggs and their life spans were only 80% of worms infected with a
version of A. baumannii that didn’t respond to ethanol. This study
suggests that the common misconception that drinking alcohol kills
infections is false and drinking alcohol may actually help the infection
to grow. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «ref_abacter» \o
«» ^  

In colder climates, strong alcoholic beverages such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka» \o «Vodka» vodka are popularly
seen as a way to «warm up» the body, possibly because ethanol is a
quickly absorbed source of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy» \o «Food energy» food energy
and dilates peripheral blood vessels (Peripherovascular dilation). This
however is a dangerous myth, and people experiencing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia» \o «Hypothermia» hypothermia
should avoid alcohol. Although a drunk may feel warmer, the body loses
heat and body temperature decreases, which may cause hypothermia, and
eventually death. This is because of the dilation of blood vessels not
in the core of the body; because of this increased bloodflow, the body
loses its heat out of its less protected outer extremities.

In many cultures, both contemporary and historical, alcoholic beverages
— mostly because of their neurological effects — have also played an
important role in various kinds of social interaction, providing a form
of «liquid courage» (those who consume it «gain» confidence and lose
discretion) While other psychoactive drugs (such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium» \o «Opium» opium , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca» \o «Coca» coca , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khat» \o «Khat» khat , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_%28drug%29» \o «Cannabis (drug)»
cannabis , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kava-kava» \o
«Kava-kava» kava-kava , etc.) also have millennial traditions of social
use, only HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee» \o «Coffee»
coffee , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea» \o «Tea» tea
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco» \o «Tobacco»
tobacco have been as universally used and accepted as ethanol is today.

Legal considerations

Alcohol restriction in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_%28Australia%29» \o «Victoria
(Australia)» Victoria , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia» \o «Australia» Australia

Most countries have rules forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child» \o «Child» children .
For example, in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands» \o «Netherlands» Netherlands
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o «Germany»
Germany , one has to be 16 to buy beer or wine and 18 to buy distilled
alcoholic beverages. However, possession of alcoholic beverages is not
illegal for minors in Germany. Law there is directed at the potential
sellers of alcoholic beverages and not at the minors. German law puts
control concerning the consumption of alcoholic beverage into the hands
of custodial persons and persons with parental power. See HYPERLINK
«http://www.bmfsfj.de/RedaktionBMFSFJ/Abteilung5/Pdf-Anlagen/juSchGengli
sch,property=pdf.pdf» \o
«http://www.bmfsfj.de/RedaktionBMFSFJ/Abteilung5/Pdf-Anlagen/juSchGengli
sch,property=pdf.pdf» [2] .

In law, sometimes the term » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intoxication» \o «Intoxication»
intoxicating agent» is used for a category of substances, which
includes alcoholic beverages and some HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreational_drug_use» \o «Recreational
drug use» drugs . Giving any of these substances to a person to create
an abnormal condition of the mind (such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drunkenness» \o «Drunkenness» drunkenness
), in order to facilitate committing a crime, may be an additional
crime.

Some countries may forbid the commerce, consumption or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_advertising» \o «Alcohol
advertising» advertising of alcoholic beverages , or restrict them in
various ways. During the period known as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prohibition» \o «Prohibition» Prohibition
, from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919» \o «1919» 1919
to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1933» \o «1933» 1933 , it
was illegal to manufacture, transport, import, export, or sell alcoholic
beverages in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States» United
States . Many HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim» \o
«Muslim» Muslim countries, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Arabia» \o «Saudi Arabia» Saudi
Arabia , continue to prohibit alcohol for religious reasons. In the
United States there are still communities with a ban on alcohol sales.

Most countries have laws against HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drunk_driving» \o «Drunk driving» drunk
driving , driving with a certain concentration of ethanol in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood» \o «Blood» blood . The
legal threshold of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_alcohol_content» \o «Blood alcohol
content» blood alcohol content ranges from 0.0% to 0.05% or 0.08%,
according to local law.

Most countries also specify a legal drinking age, below which the
consumption of alcohol is prohibited. In the U.S., the legal age for
purchase or possession (but not necessarily consumption) in every state
has been HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-one» \o
«Twenty-one» 21 since the passage of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Minimum_Drinking_Age_Act» \o
«National Minimum Drinking Age Act» National Minimum Drinking Age Act
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1984» \o «1984» 1984 ,
which tied federal highway funds to states’ raising their minimum
drinking age to 21. Many states specifically permit consumption under
the age of 21 for religious or health reasons or with parental approval.

In many countries, production of alcoholic beverages requires a license,
and alcohol production is taxed. In the U.S., the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bureau_of_Alcohol%2C_Tobacco%2C_Firearms%2
C_and_Explosives» \o «Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and
Explosives» Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives and
the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_and_Tobacco_Tax_and_Trade_Bureau»
\o «Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau» Alcohol and Tobacco Tax
and Trade Bureau (formerly one organization known as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bureau_of_Alcohol%2C_Tobacco_and_Firearms»
\o «Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms» Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco
and Firearms ) enforce federal laws and regulations related to alcohol,
though most regulations regarding serving and selling alcoholic
beverages are made by the individual states. There also exist intrastate
regulatory differences, as between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_County%2C_Maryland» \o
«Montgomery County, Maryland» Montgomery County, Maryland and the rest
of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland» \o «Maryland»
state . In the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom» UK
the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customs_and_Excise_department» \o «Customs
and Excise department» Customs and Excise department issues distilling
licences.

Common state regulations in the United States are:

Many U.S. states require that distilled liquor be sold only in dedicated
liquor stores. For example: In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington» \o «Washington» Washington ,
liquor stores are run by the state. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oklahoma» \o «Oklahoma» Oklahoma , liquor
stores may not refrigerate any beverages. Often, liquor sales are
prohibited on Sunday by a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_law» \o «Blue law» Blue law . Other
laws, governing a variety of issues, vary regionally.

Most U.S. states do not allow open containers of alcohol inside of
moving vehicles.

Some U.S. states offer relaxed rules for beer at or below 3.2% alcohol.

Many cities and counties ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public;
that is, on the street or sidewalk.

Often bars serving distilled liquor are exempted from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoking_ban» \o «Smoking ban» Smoking
bans .

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand» \o «New
Zealand» New Zealand it is legal to produce alcohol for personal use.
This has made the sale and use of home distillation equipment popular.

Types of alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages include low-alcohol-content beverages produced by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation» \o «Fermentation»
fermentation of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar» \o
«Sugar» sugar — or HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch» \o
«Starch» starch -containing products, and high-alcohol-content
beverages produced by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation» \o «Distillation»
distillation of the low-alcohol-content beverages. Sometimes, the
alcohol content of low-alcohol-content beverages is increased by adding
distilled products, particularly in the case of wines. Such HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortified_wine» \o «Fortified wine»
fortified wines include HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_wine» \o «Port wine» Port wine and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherry» \o «Sherry» Sherry .

The process involved (as well as the resulting alcohol content) defines
the finished product. A «beer» involves a relatively short (incomplete)
fermentation process and an equally short aging process (a week or two)
resulting in an alcohol content generally between 3-8%, as well as
natural carbonation. A «wine» involves a longer (complete) fermentation
process, and a relatively long aging process (months or years —
sometimes decades) resulting in an alcohol content between 7-18%. (Note
that HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparkling_wine» \o
«Sparkling wine» sparkling wine is generally made by adding a small
amount of sugar before bottling). Distilled products are generally not
made from a «beer» that would normally be palatable as fermentation is
normally completed, but no aging is involved until after distillation.
Most distilled liquors are 40% alcohol by volume.

Standard drinks of alcoholic beverages in the United States all contain
equivalent amounts of alcohol, about 0.6 ounce each. A U.S. standard
drink is a 12 ounce can or bottle of beer, a five ounce glass of dinner
wine, or a 1.5 ounce drink of 80 proof distilled spirits (either
straight or in a mixed drink).

Non-distilled beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer» \o «Beer» Beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ale» \o «Ale» Ales

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barleywine» \o «Barleywine»
Barleywine

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitter_ale» \o «Bitter ale»
Bitter ale

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mild_ale» \o «Mild ale» Mild
ale

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pale_ale» \o «Pale ale» Pale
ale

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porter_%28beer%29» \o «Porter
(beer)» Porter

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stout_beer» \o «Stout beer»
Stout

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_ale» \o «Real ale» Real
ale

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_ale» \o «Stock ale»
Stock ale

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_Beer» \o «Fruit Beer»
Fruit Beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lager» \o «Lager» Lager beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bock» \o «Bock» Bock

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_beer» \o «Dry beer» Dry
beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A4rzen» \o «Maerzen»
Oktoberfest Maerzen

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilsener» \o «Pilsener»
Pilsener

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzbier» \o «Schwarzbier»
Schwarzbier

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_beer» \o «Small beer»
Small beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_beer» \o «Wheat beer»
Wheat beer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cauim» \o «Cauim» Cauim

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicha» \o «Chicha» Chicha

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider» \o «Cider» Cider

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumis» \o «Kumis» Kumis

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lappish_Hag%27s_Love_Potion»
\o «Lappish Hag’s Love Potion» Lappish Hag’s Love Potion

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mead» \o «Mead» Mead

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry» \o «Perry» Perry

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulque» \o «Pulque» Pulque

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sake» \o «Sake» Sake

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soju» \o «Soju» Soju

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine» \o «Wine» Wine

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spritzer» \o «Spritzer»
Spritzer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_wine» \o «Palm wine»
Palm wine

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_cooler» \o «Wine cooler»
Wine cooler

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_wine» \o «Fruit wine»
Fruit wine

Distilled beverages

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocktail» \o «Cocktail»
Cocktails

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liqueur» \o «Liqueur»
Liqueurs

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirits» \o «Spirits» Spirits

The names of some beverages are determined by the source of the material
fermented:

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barley» \o «Barley» barley
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer» \o «Beer» beer ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ale» \o «Ale» ale HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotch_whisky» \o «Scotch whisky» Scotch
whisky

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rye» \o «Rye» rye rye beer
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rye_whisky» \o «Rye whisky» Rye
whisky

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maize» \o «Maize» corn corn
beer HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bourbon_whiskey» \o
«Bourbon whiskey» Bourbon whiskey

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat» \o «Wheat» wheat
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_beer» \o «Wheat beer»
wheat beer Wheat HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whisky» \o
«Whisky» whisky

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice» \o «Rice» rice
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sake» \o «Sake» sake
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shochu» \o «Shochu» shochu
(Japan), HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soju» \o «Soju» soju
(Korea)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juice» \o «Juice» juice of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit» \o «Fruit» fruits ,
other than apples or pears HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine» \o «Wine» wine (most commonly from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape» \o «Grape» grapes )
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandy» \o «Brandy» brandy ,
Cognac (France), Branntwein (Germany), HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisco» \o «Pisco» Pisco (Peru/Chile)

juice of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_%28fruit%29» \o
«Apple (fruit)» apples («hard») HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider» \o «Cider» cider , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apfelwein» \o «Apfelwein» apfelwein
applejack (or apple brandy), HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvados_%28spirit%29» \o «Calvados
(spirit)» Calvados

juice of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pear» \o «Pear»
pears HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry» \o «Perry»
perry , or pear cider pear brandy

juice of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugarcane» \o
«Sugarcane» sugarcane , or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molasses» \o «Molasses» molasses basi,
betsa-betsa (regional) HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum» \o
«Rum» rum , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacha%C3%A7a» \o
«Cachaca» cachaca , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aguardiente» \o «Aguardiente» aguardiente
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guaro» \o «Guaro» guaro

juice of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agave» \o «Agave»
agave HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulque» \o «Pulque»
pulque HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tequila» \o «Tequila»
tequila , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mezcal» \o «Mezcal»
mezcal

juice of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plum» \o «Plum»
plums HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plum_wine&action=edit» \o
«Plum wine» plum wine HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slivovitz» \o «Slivovitz» slivovitz ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzuica» \o «Tzuica» tzuica ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palinca» \o «Palinca» palinca

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomace» \o «Pomace» pomace
pomace wine HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grappa» \o
«Grappa» grappa (Italy), HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trester&action=edit» \o
«Trester» Trester (Germany), HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_%28wine%29» \o «Marc (wine)» marc
(France)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honey» \o «Honey» honey
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mead» \o «Mead» mead distilled
mead («mead brandy» or «honey brandy»)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato» \o «Potato» potato
and/or HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cereal» \o «Cereal»
grain potato beer HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka» \o
«Vodka» vodka : potato mostly used in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine» \o «Ukraine» Ukraine , otherwise
grain

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk» \o «Milk» Milk
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumis» \o «Kumis» Kumis Araka

Note that in common speech, wine or brandy is made from grapes unless
the fruit is specified: «plum wine» or «cherry brandy» for example,
although in some cases grape-derived alcohol is added.

In the USA and Canada, cider often means unfermented apple juice (see
the article on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider» \o
«Cider» cider ), while fermented cider is called hard cider.
Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. Also, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applejack» \o «Applejack» applejack was
originally made by a freezing process described in the article on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider» \o «Cider» cider which
was equivalent to distillation but more easily done in the cold climate
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_England» \o «New
England» New England . In the UK, cider is always alcoholic, and in
Australia it can be either.

Beer is generally made from barley, but can sometimes contain a mix of
other grains. Whisky is sometimes made from a blend of different grains,
especially HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_whiskey» \o
«Irish whiskey» Irish whiskey which may contain several different
grains. The style of whisky (Scotch, Rye, Bourbon) generally determines
the primary grain used, with additional grains usually added to the
blend (most often barley, and sometimes HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oat» \o «Oat» oats ).

Two common distilled beverages are HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka» \o «Vodka» vodka and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin» \o «Gin» gin . Vodka can be
distilled from any source ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cereal» \o «Cereal» grain and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato» \o «Potato» potatoes
being the most common, also industrial cellulose for the cheapest!) but
the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled
as to exhibit none of the flavors derived from its source material. Gin
is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs
and other plant products, especially HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniper» \o «Juniper» juniper berries.
The name comes from the Dutch liquor genever, which in turn takes its
name from the Dutch word for juniper.

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