30 тем по англійській мові
About my favourite English writer
Charles Dickens was an English novelist and one of the most popular
writers in the history of literature. In his enormous body of works,
Dickens combined masterly storytelling, humour, pathos, and irony with
sharp social criticism and acute observation of people and places, both
real and imagined.
Dickens was born February 7, 1812, in Portsmouth and spent most of his
childhood in London and Kent, both of which appear frequently in his
novels. He started school at the age of nine, but his education was
interrupted when his father was imprisoned for debt in 1824. The boy was
then forced to support himself by working in a shoe-polish factory. From
1824 to 1826, Dickens again attended school. For the most part, however,
he was self-educated. Among his favourite books were those by such great
18th-century novelists as Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett, and their
influence can be discerned in Dickens’s own novels. In 1827 Dickens took
a job as a legal clerk.
In December 1833 Dickens published the first of a series of original
descriptive sketches of daily life in London, using the pseudonym Boz.
The success of this first novel The Pickwick Papers made Dickens famous.
Dickens subsequently maintained his fame with a constant stream of
novels. A man of enormous energy and wide talents, he also engaged in
many other activities. He edited the weekly periodicals Household Words
(1850-1859) and All the Year Round (1859-1870), composed the travel
books American Notes (1842) and Pictures from Italy (1846), administered
charitable organisations, and pressed for many social reforms. In 1843
he published A Christmas Carol, an ever-popular children’s story.
Incompatibility and Dickens’s relations with a young actress, Ellen
Ternan, led to his separation from his wife in 1858, after the marriage
had produced ten children. He suffered a fatal stroke on June 9, 1870,
and was buried in Westminster Abbey five days later.
He made a valuable contribution to world literature, he wrote “The
Pickwick Papers”, “Bleak House”, “Oliver Twist”, “Dombey and Son” and
other novels and stories.
*About myself and my family
First of all, let me introduce myself. My name is Sergey. My full name
is Kashpirovsky Sergey Vasilevish. I’m 17 years old. I was born in the
family of an economist and an engineer.
My family is small. There are only three of us. I always delighted to
have somebody to share my ideas with, to discuss things and the like,
but it happens that sometimes I crave for loneliness to think about my
problems, my mistakes and to look though my life.
I should like to begin with the oldest in the family – my farther. He is
the head of it. He is a very hard-working person. And there’s a very
good feature of his: if he starts doing something he is sure to do it up
to the end. His favorite occupation is reading and watching TV. He is
true father who devotes much time of his to bringing us up properly. He
is always ready to come to our rescue. We highly appreciate this.
My mother is a nice looking woman of about 40. She isn’t tall, rather
slim. The thing that catches your eye when you look at her is her
charming smile. She is very easy to deal with. No wonder that she has
got many friends. She is on good terms with our neighbours. When my
mother is at home it seems the house is full of sunshine, jokes and
laughter. She doesn’t like to lecture on people. That’s something I like
very much about her. Thanks to our mother our family is very friendly,
she does her best to make every member of the family feel happy and is
always happy herself.
And mow I want to speak some sentences about myself. When I was 7, I
went to school. I’m doing well at school. I’m especially good at history
but I also cope with the rest of the subjects. And now I am a student of
Donetsk Lyceum and in few days I’ll leave lyceum.
Last year I often wondered what I would be in future, what sphere of
life I should choose. After a number of heated discussions with my
parents and friends I decided to dwell my choice on history. I decided
to take my entrance exams to the History department of Donetsk State
University because I want to know History perfectly well. I think
knowledge of history and foreign languages are necessary for my future
job. I’m very sociable and it would be a pleasure for me to mix with
many interesting people, to find out many new things, to become
acquainted with different cultures of other nations of the world.
*Critique on the ‘Webworld’ article by Yevgen Groza
The Internet is becoming more and more popular. Its positive and
negative aspects have been actively discussed among network users as
well as in the mass media. The ‘Webworld’ essay by Kirsten Archer gives
a brief and thorough overview of the latest achievements of the modern
technology. The essay was written to be presented at a university
challenge which was aimed to encourage critical thinking about new
technologies. The fact that this article received a distinction should
be a good recommendation to anyone interested in the issue. ‘Webworld’
is worth to read by either experienced web-user or a person who has
never seen a computer.
At the beginning the author takes a look at the history of the Internet
and elementary principles of its functioning. The main idea, which will
also reappear later, is that the Internet is decentralised and thus the
society only is responsible for anything that happens in the virtual
world. A lot of attention is paid to such conveniences of the network as
e-mail or newsgroups. The understanding of the nature of World Wide Web
is very helpful, especially for an inexperienced reader.
Along with benefits of the net the author also states some negative
points. Wide distribution of pornography via the network is known to
every user. However, it is impossible to censor the Web. Thus, everybody
has to be responsible for the content of Internet pages. Copyright
problem is another negative point of the Internet expansion. As the
author stresses, any text or image published on the Web can be
reproduced many times without statement of intellectual property. Though
this problem still does not have a global solution, the author suggests
that everybody is responsible for proper use of the network since the
Internet cannot be centrally regulated.
One of the best points of the essay is that it is written in an easily
readable manner, almost without specific terminology. An inexperienced
person or a beginner user of World Wide Web will find here a description
of all of the benefits of the Internet – the electronic mailing system,
on-line libraries, chat and newsgroups. Another interesting point of the
text is the discussion of the new subculture – the ‘web-world’, which,
according to the author, has no prejudices between racial groups and
different sexes. However, being very optimistic about the Internet the
author sometimes uses doubtful argumentation. For instance, she is
stating as a fact that many people found their true love using the
network. Probably, a sentence like this needs some statistics to be
There is also another suggestion that in the near time it will be
possible to remove the language barrier between the American Internet
and the rest of the world. At present, translating software is not
effective enough to produce a readable text. These programs can be used
only for word-to-word translations. Another question is whether the
language barrier needs to be removed. Probably after the barrier no
longer exists the American culture could easily invade the rest of the
world. We can already see the example of such an invasion on TV outside
the United States.
Though there are certain drawbacks in the argumentation of the article,
the author is critical in general and presents both positive and
negative aspects of the Internet. Either for good or for bad, the
Internet is progressing and expanding. In modern society it is
impossible to avoid using modern technologies like World Wide Web. The
text is worth to be read by anyone who is interested in the latest
Donetsk is one of the biggest regional centers of Ukraine. Its area is
381 square kilometers. The population of Donetsk is more than one
million but at the end of the 19th century less than 30 thousand people
lived and worked in a small settlement called Yusovka. The city was
founded in 1869 in the place of kazak’s settlements. The beginning to
the city was given by coal mines and metallurgical plant of
And now Donetsk is one of the largest industrial centers of Ukraine with
such highly developed branches of industry as coal, metallurgy and
machine building. Coal industry is the leading branch of industry in the
city. There are 150 industrial enterprises and unions in Donetsk. One
sixth of all the production of the Donetsk region is produced in the
Donetsk is the city of parks and gardens; it is also famous for its
roses, which bloom from early summer till late autumn gladdening the eye
of dwellers and guests of the city. It consists of 9 districts, linked
with each other by tram, trolley and bus communications. Also it has
developed air- and railway communications.
Nowadays the city is an important scientific and cultural center of
Donetsk coal basin. There are 3 theatres, the Concert Hall, the circus,
cinemas, Palaces of Culture and clubs, museums, a Picture Gallery and
Planetarium. Besides, there are architectural monuments of local
importance, of sculpture and history, and memorial places. Thanks to its
remarkable architecture we have many places of interest in the city:
Artyoma street, Lenin Square, the Recreation parks etc.
The inhabitants of Donetsk have places for rest after hard day. At their
service there are Central Park of Culture and Rest, and branches of it –
Lenin’s Komsomol Park and Sherbakov Park. In the outskirts of city there
are Donetsk Botanical Gardens
Though Donetsk looks gloomy and gray in winter, as does every large
industrial center, a lot of greenery, beautiful buildings, the Kalmius
and numerous lakes make the city wonderful in spring and in summer.
*Life of youth in Great Britain
The home is the central focus of most people’s lives in Britain,
particularly for those who are still attending school. The majority
relies upon their home environment as a place of security and upon their
parents as the main providers of food, money and other necessary
amenities for life, as well as general advice. Young people spend a lot
of their leisure time in the home with other members of their family or
After the home, school is the main social environment where children not
only receive their formal education but also develop their identities
within peer groups. All schoolchildren in Great Britain are encouraged
to take up activities, which complement their academic and vocational
education and help to identify their individual talents, such as sports,
drama, music and creative pursuits. Many of these form part of school
The Youth Service in Britain also promotes the personal development and
informal social education of young people aged 11-25. A recent survey
estimated that nearly 6 million young people in this age group are
either current or past participants in the Service.
Youth clubs and centres are the most common types of Youth Service
provision. They encourage their members to participate in sport,
cultural and creative activities, and community service.
Many foundations and trusts provide finance for activities, which
develop the latent talents of Britain’s youth. The Prince’s Trust and
the Royal Jubilee Trust, for example, help individuals and organisations
active in youth-oriented projects related to urban deprivation,
unemployment and young offending.
The topic I am going to speak about is London. From the geography
lessons you know that East meets West in the Greenwich meridian. It is
London, one of the world’s biggest cities, situated on the river Thames,
is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, the residence of British sovereign. London is a great
industrial and cultural center with the population of more than seven
London consists of four main districts, which differ from each other.
These are the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.
The City is small in area but it is the business center of London. Many
banks and offices are situated there. The heart of City is the Stock
Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It is the
administrative center. The Houses of Parliament are there. It is a
beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben.
Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It is a very
beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great
statesmen, scientists are in the Abbey. There is Trafalgar Square where
the famous Nelson Column stands as the memory about Nelson’s great
victory. It is interesting to know that the column is situated in the
geographical center of the city. This square is always open for public
meetings and demonstrations.
To the west of Westminster is the West End. Here we can find most of the
big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, and concert halls. Piccadilli
Circus is the heart of London’s West End. In the West End there are wide
streets with beautiful houses and many parks, gardens and squares.
To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of
the capital. There are no parks or gardens in East End and you can’t see
many fine houses there. Most of the plants and factories are situated
Speaking about London, you must keep in mind that it is the city of
*My attitude towards studying a foreign language
A person who has a good command of a foreign language fells at ease not
only in his native country but abroad, too, if he finds himself there. I
know this on my first hand. Here is a familiar quotation of Johnson’s:
“Language is the dress of thought”, and the knowledge of two or more
languages will help us to “dress” our thoughts better still.
Learning foreign languages is especially important nowadays. Some people
learn foreign languages because they need them in their work others
travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby.
Every year thousands of people from our country go to different
countries as tourists or to work. They can not go without knowing the
language of the country they are going to.
English is one of the world languages. It is the language of progressive
science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and
business. It is the universal language of international aviation,
shipping and sports. It is also the major language of diplomacy.
Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in
English, most of the world’s mail and telephone calls are in English.
Half of the world’s scientific literature is written in English. English
is spoken by more than 350 million people. It is the official language
of the UK, the USA, of Australia and New Zealand, it is used as one of
the official languages in Canada, the South Africa. Millions of people
study and use English as a foreign language. In our country English is
very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges and universities.
Learning English is not an easy thing. It is a long process and takes a
lot of time and patience. But to know English today is absolutely
necessary for every educated person. I want to know English because it’s
interesting for me to know foreign countries, their cultures and
tradition. English will be of great use in my future profession
connected with computers.
I should like to begin my talk with a familiar quotation. It is a pity I
don’t know whom it belongs to. It runs as follows: “friendship is the
wine of life”. So to have a true devoted friend is a great luck.
I have a lot of friends. Some of them are my schoolmates, some are my
neighbours and I have some whom I met a few years ago. But my close
friend is Oksana. She is 16. Oksana is tall and pretty-looking girl.
Her peaches and cream complexion suits her dark brown eyes. She has a
nice nose that together with her wonderful hair-do and charming smile
makes her face beautiful. She is a very fashionable girl. Oksana has a
queenly carriage and the clothes she wears always look great and
beautiful. But she is an attractive girl not only by her appearance,
but also by her character and her inner world, because she is well bred,
jolly and kind. She does well at school.
It is very interesting to speak with her, especially when she has fallen
into the habit of reading a lot. She has read a lot of books and it
doesn’t matter for her what kind of book it is. She enjoys them all and
the only thing that matters for her is that book shouldn’t be dull but
interesting. She says that the books are of great help at any time and
they always must be at hand. Her idea is that it’s more convenient to
have a library of her own comprising lots of books than to try keeping
everything in her head.
I don’t like people who are bored at everything and who never make the
slightest effort to be pleasant. That’s why my friend is Oksana, the
most amusing and cheerful person in the world. She is a sunny soul by
nature and always takes the slightest excuse to be amused and to raise
the spirits of the other people around her.
Oksana and I are good friends. I enjoy her company immensely. I highly
appreciate our friendship. I think there are not many people, whom I’m
so attached to. We are always ready to help and support each other and
try not to quarrel. But when sometimes it comes to quarrelling we try to
make it up at once. I think that our friendship is very firm and I’ve
got a friend for all my life.
*My Future Profession
The right choice of profession is very important for the future of any
young man. Sooner or later everyone has to make this choice.
My favourite subjects at school were English, Literature and History. I
think my teachers were quite happy with my work that’s why they invited
me to participate in contests in different subjects. I’m considered to
be best at Literatures, Ukrainian, English, History, Computer Studies
though I specialised in history, since history was not only my passion
but also a serious interest in life because I wanted to connect my
knowledge of history and English with my future profession. I like to
spend much time on history. I enjoy researching some historical topics.
So as far as I’m concerned I had no dilemma in choosing my occupation. I
decided to take my entrance exams to the History department of Donetsk
State University because I want to know history perfectly well. I think
knowledge of history and foreign languages are necessary for my future
profession. I have to admit that I’m very sociable by nature and it
would be a pleasure for me to mix with many interesting people, to find
out many new things, to become acquainted with different cultures of
other nations of the world. Now I am a student of first course of
historical department. It is pity but I don’t know about my future
profession. May be I’ll come in politic or business, may be I will write
books or do something else. I want to be useful for our country and make
a valuable contribution to its development.
I have some free time not only on Sundays and on my holidays, but also
on weekdays. And as soon as I have a spare minute, I devote it to my
hobbies. Tastes differ. Different people like different things,
different people have different hobbies. I have four hobbies, so to
speak. They are reading, listening to music, computer and going in for
As for reading, I enjoy it very much. And it doesn’t matter what kind of
book it is. It can be a collection of short stories, an interesting
novel or a book of poems. I equally enjoy them all. But there’s one
thing that matters. When I choose a book for reading, it shouldn’t be
dull but interesting. But I highly appreciate only those books that can
teach me something or can make me think about the problem, raised in the
Speaking about music I can’t help saying that music is an essential part
of my daily life. I live with music. I’m reading, doing homework,
morning exercises, and work about the house to music. I’m fond of modern
music and I can’t point out one certain style of music, I enjoy them
all, including pop, rock, metal, techno, rave, rap, hip-hop and others.
I’m also fond of different ballads because they are very melodious and
In my daily life I use computer technologies that help me to be in
course of all events in the world thanks for Internet. Computer helps me
to make reports and homework. I write small computer programs,
collection CD, when I have free time I like discover Internet.
Besides, I go in for sports. I go to the swimming pool twice a week, but
I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. I also attended
volleyball, basketball and table tennis sections. As for me sport helps
me to keep fit and always to be in good shape. I can’t imagine my life
So, I think that my leisure time is quite variable. I’m not bored and
always have a good mood.
I am a student of Donetsk lyceum, which is situated in the center of the
town, and it is a little part of Donetsk State University. Lyceum is a
new type of special school. It was established in 1990. Every boy and
girl having 9-year schooling and a good command of mathematics, physics,
foreign language, history and other subjects may enter the lyceum. Two
years ago I successfully passed examinations and entered the lyceum to
the history department. By the way, there are 8 departments in our
lyceum. They are biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, Ukrainian,
history, Russian, Nova-Greek departments. I can say that Donetsk Lyceum
uses the large popularity among the boys and girls who the 9th forms,
because our classes and lectures are held by highly qualified teachers
and professors from the University. That is why in our Lyceum is the
creative atmosphere. Peoples write scientific works and reports. It
promotes the development of high level of knowledge. That is why our
students constantly take firsts places in different scientific
congresses. There is the club Polyglot in our lyceum. Every year the
open tournament of polyglots takes place there. A lot of pupils from
schools come to it but the victory is always on the side of our pupils.
There is a tradition in our lyceum to provide different intellectual
competitions. This year we celebrate 10 years anniversary from the date
of its foundation. As for me, this two years of my studying in Lyceum
were very useful for me thanks to friendship atmosphere with my
classmates and teachers. I hope that a lot of knowledge, which I took at
lyceum, will be of great use in my life. And I very glad to be graduate
of 2000 year.
*My teacher of English
Knowledge of foreign languages nowadays helps to promote cultural,
educational and technical cooperation among nations. At present English
is the most important of the world’s languages. In number of speakers it
ranks second. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is
evidence of its importance. That is why millions of people learn English
as a second language. I began study English ten years ago. Thanks to my
English teachers in my own opinion I have not bad commands of language
nowadays. And now I want to tell you about my teachers of English. To be
a teacher is very difficult.
Why so? Because a teacher should correspond with many requirements. He
must be an educated person, well-read, good at listening and
comprehending others, easy to deal with, tolerant to other people’s weak
points, but very demanding to himself. A teacher should be
high-qualified in his subject because his pupils will never forgive him
negligence with it. To be a good teacher of English is very difficult
but my lyceum’s English teacher Natalia Evgenivna is the best teacher.
Her lessons are conducted knowledgeably and strictly. She has her own
method of complex teaching. It trains our memory and thinking, it helps
to know the native language better, it makes our outlook wider. Her
motor is: “lets change our passive vocabulary to active”. We like to
communicate with her after lessons. I think she is so unique that is why
our group thinks much about our teacher.
*Environmental protection in Great Britain
Our civilisation has gone so far in its development and polluted the
environment to such an extend that is very difficult to reverse it to
primordial nature. The poisoning of the World’s land, air and water in
the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation.
Great Britain, as a highly developed industrial country also faces a
monumental task in the restoring urban and rural environments. The
ecological problems of Great Britain are of the same global scale.
Pollution is one of the most urgent problems to solve. Factories, power
station and motor vehicles, pump large quantities of waste gases into
the air. This is major cause of the greenhouse effect and global
warming. Rivers and streams are also polluted by industrial waste from
factories, chemical fertilisers and pesticides used by farmers. Since
1949 Britons have destroyed 95% of wild meadows, heats, fens and ancient
woods. The trees are cut down to wood or burnt to dear the land for
The British government has worked out the practical plan of action. The
main items of the survival projects in Britain are:
a) overcoming the problem of air and water pollution;
b) protection of special nature sites;
c) conservation of the wildlife;
d) Control on the use of pesticides and nitrate fertilisers.
Besides the official there are many public international and local
organisations which try to find solution to the problems at national and
international levels such as: “Greenpeace”, “Friends of the Earth”.
So the Britons are the optimists. They are sure that people start
pollution, people can stop it. Let it be so.
*Environmental protection in Ukraine
Our civilisation has gone so far in its development and polluted the
environment to such an extend that it is very difficult to reverse it to
primordial nature that is why the topic of environmental protection is
very actual facing Ukraine today.
Ukraine is suffering many environmental problems. Many of them have been
caused by economic activities. There are many consequences of damaging
the environment. One of them is water pollution. The Dnipro and others
rivers are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial waste, all
kinds of chemical elements and pesticides. Industrial enterprises of
large cities waste harmful substances into river and sea’s waters. The
emissions destroy fishing industry and lead to a damage of wildlife.
Another problem is air pollution. For example, pumping waste gases from
a power station or metallurgical plants do not get rid of them. The
waste gases cause acid rains.
The next ecological problem is the problem of the Sea of Azov. The Sea
of Azov is the special case. Because it is such a small sea, it becomes
dirty very easily. Many industrial centres such as Mariupol, Berdyansk
pour into the sea all kinds of chemicals. It naturally effects the state
of the sea water and the shore line flora and fauna.
But the most terrible ecological problem of Ukraine is Chernobyl. The
effect of Chernobyl disaster is dangerous and tragic, because we don’t
know up to the end all the consequences of radioactive contamination.
Ukraine, as the member of World Community, is co-operating with
international ecological organisation such as “Greenpease” for example.
As you see our country has many ecological problems and if our
generation don’t do our best to solve these ecological problems we will
have a global ecological catastrophe.
*From the history of Great Britain: the Magma Carta
Great Britain is a monarchy, but the power of the King or Queen is
limited. The supreme authority of the country is Parliament, which
consists of three etements-the Monarchy, the House of Lords and the
House of Commons.
The history of the British Parliament dates back to the 13th century,
when in the face of demands by barons King John signed the Magna Carta
(Great Charter). It secured feudal rights and established areas over
which the King had no jurisdiction
Even before William the Conqueror’s invasion in 1066, the Saxon and
Danish kings had a council of wise men or elders. It was then called
Witan, from it we have the English word «wit». This body of men was very
much like the feudal King’s Council. The Norman kings called their
council Parliament from the French word «parler» which means «to speak».
After the death of Richard the Lion Hearted in 1199, his brother known
in the history as John Lackland (landless) succeeded to the throne. King
John was cruel and despotic, and the Church and barons took a decision
to restrict the power of the King. On June 10, 1215 (it was in the times
of Robin Hood) a table was set in the meadow, and King John signed the
document in which he agreed to consult the Parliament from that time on.
The Magna Carta is celebrated on every possible occasion. It has been
interpreted throughout English history as the Charter of political and
But there is a point of view that the Magna Carta did not help to alter
and develop the Parliamentary Government of Great Britain. The rest of
the 13th century saw the development of Parliament as a gathering of
feudal barons and representatives of counties and towns summoned by the
King. By the end of the century, it had adopted its basic make-up of
Lords and Commons and had established the right to approve taxation. It
also soon acquired the right to approve new laws. But it came only
several centuries later that the merchants and squires (landowners)
joined in the House of Commons and became a parliamentary power. As
feudalism declined, the power of the Commons grew together with the new
merchant and nonfeudal class.
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It is a large political, industrial,
scientific and cultural centre. Its population equals nearly 3 million
people. Kyiv is situated on the Dnieper, the longest river in Ukraine.
The glorious history of Kyiv spans 1,500 years. From olden times it is
referred to as “the Mother of all cities of ancient Rus”. In the 9th
century the city became a big trading centre of Eastern Europe linked
through the Dnieper and the Black Sea with Caucasus, the Middle East
countries and Rome. From the 11th century, a time of prosperity for the
Kyiv Rus State, many European kings considered it an honour to establish
matrimonial ties with the family of the Grand Prince of Kyiv.
Kyiv enjoys wide popularity in many countries. It is the scientific,
industrial and cultural center of Ukraine. It has many scientific
institutions and higher educational establishments among which are
National University, Polytechnic University, Food Industry Technological
University, Light industry Technological University, Pedagogical
University Medical University, etc.
There are huge enterprises in Kyiv. They produce excavators, airliners,
computers, automatic lathes, gas equipment, chemical goods, cameras,
ready-made clothes, etc. The museums, art galleries, theatres and
historical monuments in the capital make it very important for world
St. Sophia Cathedral rightly belongs to the world treasury of ancient
architecture. I personally find the Sophia Cathedral the masterpiece and
the top of the creative spirit of the Ukrainian people.
Kyiv is the centre of Ukrainian culture. The famous Kyiv Shevchenko
Opera and Ballet Theatre has one of the best opera and ballet companies
in the country. There are also lots of other theatres in Kyiv.
The picturesque green banks and hills, plentiful flower-beds with
millions of different flowers, wonderful beaches of the Dnieper, the
Kreshchatik, one of the widest and most beautiful streets in our country
– all this adds up to the beauty of the Ukrainian capital. The people of
Ukraine are proud of their capital because is become one of the world
biggest center’s where different festivals, scientific congresses,
international exhibitions and world sport events take place every year.
*My working day
I will try to describe my daily actions or the things that I do, more or
less, every day. I mean the things I regularly did when I was at lyceum.
There was little variation in my life then, all days expect weekends
looked very much the same.
I usually started my day with getting up and doing all things that
everybody does in the morning: washing, having breakfast, etc. Then I
put my learning tools: pencils, exercise books, textbooks to my bag.
Then I usually went to the lyceum. Fortunately, father takes a car every
morning and he often picks me up and drives me to the doors of our
Soon the lectures and lessons began… We had from 2 to 4 lectures every
time, depending on day.
After the lessons, I usually returned home where I had dinner and
started thinking about my ways of spending the rest of the day. Very
often, I went to my friend’s places. During the early autumn and summer,
I often went to the sports ground. I also like visiting different sports
events, for example, football matches of «Shahter» in Ukrainian
championship. So, the world was full of enjoyable things to do.
On returning home I usually started to do my homework (perhaps, it is
the most dull part of the day). Having finished it, I opened a book and
read it or watched TV. At last, I went to the bed.
Of course, I would like to tell you more about myself and my working
day, but, unfortunately, my time is rather limited and I have to do a
lot of exercises. Generally, now you know about my working day enough.
*Places of interest in England
I have always dreamed to visit England. Imagine I am there. I came there
by ferry. Speaking about sightsee of England Dover is the first that I
saw. It impressed me greatly. Now I realise why the island is cold foggy
Albion – because of it white cliffs of Dover. So London is the next I
visit. My dream came true. Trafalgar square with the monument to Nelson
in the centre. A lot of people and I am happy but I must go on my trip.
Just opposite it there is the National Gallery. Hermitage was real in my
life but now I can’t believe my eyes. Leo Greco, Salvador Daly,
Gainsborough, Rubins and other outstanding masterpieces are in full
view. Along White hall I direct my steps to Piccadilly. Every body knows
that Downing Street 10 one of the main places of interest of the country
because it is the residence of Prime minister. Piccadilly is place loved
by everybody especially youth. Because it is the place of dating and no
wonder – as statue of Eros is standing there. One of main buildings of
England is Westminster Abby. On the other side Westminster palace is
situated which is the place where parliament seats. Big Ban is next to
it. It is something incredible. A lot of prominent people of England are
burred at Westminster Abby. But one of the most wonderful places of
interest in my opinion is Tower Bridge. I can’t help speaking about two
residences of Queen – Buckingham palace in London and Windsor palace out
of it with its beautiful rooms and queen’s galleries.
And Tower of London. I can speak about endlessly but I’ll tell about one
thing – the star of Africa, the largest diamond in the world. I am sure
you wouldn’t tear away your eyes out of it. And as for Madam Tusoe
Museum I don’t like wax figures, but I am sure somebody found a lot of
masterpieces. Probably enough of this, next time I’ll try to see
something interest not only in London and its suburbs but in whole
*Places of interest in Ukraine
A visitor to Ukraine should start his sightseeing with Kiev, the capital
of Ukraine, the ancient city, which celebrated its 1,500th anniversary
The most ancient building in Kiev is St. Sophia’s Cathedral, founded by
Prince Yaroslav the Wise in 1037. He meant to turn it into the cultural
center of his Eastern Slavic state, but the Cathedral was also the place
where the Kiev community gathered for assemblies, and where the Prince
gave official audiences to foreign ambassadors.
The Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the oldest monastery in Ukraine, owes its name
to the numerous caves which were used as dwellings from pre-historic
times. About a thousand years ago the caves were taken over by monks who
set up a monastery there, and very soon the Lavra became a, major center
for the promotion of early Russian culture.
The Golden Gate, St. Vladimir’s Cathedral, St. Andrew’s Church,
Andriyivsky Uzviz, Kreschatik, these are the places of interest in Kiev
which it’s better to see once, than to hear about them many times.
The town of Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky is situated not far from Kiev and
happens to be the third oldest town in Ukraine after Kiev and Chernihov.
This town is a real wonder and one cannot help admiring its 22 museums
of all possible kinds.
Lvov is one of the richest towns in Ukraine for the number and value of
historical and architectural monuments. It was founded in the 13th
century by Prince Danilo Galitsky, who named the town after his elder
son Lev. A relic coming down to us from that period is the Church of St.
Nicolas (late 13th c.), which is the oldest church in Lvov. The highest
point of the town is the hill High Castle, where a mediaeval fortress
bearing the same name is situated, and from which one can see the whole
town with its beautiful churches, cathedrals and other historical
It is claimed that anyone who has ever been to the Crimea wants to
return there again and again. The first written mention of the Crimea
occurs in Herodotus’ «History». One will be affected by the ruins of
ancient Roman, Byzantine and Genoese fortress as well as by the
Swallow’s Nest, Vorontsov’s Palace and Park, Armenian church, to say
nothing of its gentle sea and beautiful mountains.
*Special Ukrainian Dates
There are special dates and events in the life of Ukraine that are
memorable to every Ukrainian citizen. They are Christmas, St.
Valentine’s Day, Women’s Day, and Independence Day.
The first special date in the Ukrainian calendar has to be 6th January,
Christmas Day. Until recently this day wasn’t recognized by the
government and indeed was even prohibited. Nevertheless, it has always
been celebrated within homes, especially in western Ukraine.
A new date to add into the calendar is February 14th, otherwise known as
St Valentine’s Day. This day of lovers has always been popular in
western European countries and has now reached Ukraine. On this day
people with romantic interest in each other should give presents and
flowers. It is also an opportunity to tell somebody you art-interested
in them if they do not already know!
International Women’s Day falls on March 8th, is like Mother’s Day in
Great Britain. This day is hugely popular with women in Ukraine as they
receive flowers and chocolates from the men. Children give their mothers
presents, or send them postcards.
One of the most exciting holidays for families is Easter. It could fall
on any Sunday in April or May and full of lovely traditions which the
whole family become involved in.
Eggs are boiled and then painted brightly in different colors. Very
special sweet Easter bread is baked, full of raisins and sultanas. Often
people will take food like the eggs and bread to be blessed by a priest
on Easter night.
Everybody gets two days off work for May Day on 1st May. This political
holiday represents the solidarity of workers and very often red flags
are flown on the many buildings.
Eight days later on 9th May is Victory Day. There is always a military
parade involving all the people who took part in World War II. All the
old uniforms are worn with the original medals. Their family and friends
give these old soldiers flowers and congratulations.
Nowadays one of the main holidays of Ukraine is the Independence Day,
celebrated on the 24th of August. On this day in 1991 the “Act of
Independence of Ukraine” was proclaimed.
And in the end of year we celebrate the most popular holiday – New Year.
On the New Year night people go to dance, visit their friends, or stay
at home because this is a family holiday.
*Sport in our life
Good health is a great blessing. Everyone should do all he can to stay
healthy. Being in good health means having both body and mind in good
working order free from disease and pain. As they say: “A sound mind in
a sound body”.
All sorts of physical exercises are very helpful to make our bodies
strong as well as to keep us well mentally. So if we want to keep
ourselves fit, we have to go in for sports or games.
Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They do morning
exercises, jog in the morning and train themselves in clubs and
different sections and take part in sport competitions. All necessary
facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport grounds, swimming
pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football grounds.
Other people like sports too, but they only watch sports games, listen
to sports news. They prefer reading interesting stories about sportsmen.
But they don’t go in for sports.
Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments.
Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools and colleges.
My favourite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming pool twice a week,
but I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. I also
attended volleyball, basketball and table tennis sections. Because those
games need mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps a person in
*The climate of Great Britain
The climate of Great Britain varies considerably depending upon the time
of year and the area. Great Britain includes four different countries:
England in the sought, Wales to the west of England, Northern Ireland
off the western coast of Wales and also Scotland in the north. England’s
driest months are July and August with very little rainfall.
Temperatures are warm with an average of around 25? C throughout
England. During the winter months, however, the rainfall increases
amazingly. Almost every day during January and February sees rain or
cold winds. Temperature fall to a little above 0? C and the sun is very
Wales to the west has a large number of mountains, the main range is the
Cambrian. Rainfall is much higher than in England but the temperatures
are very similar during both the summer and winter months.
Scotland is almost a thousand kilometres to the north of London. This
results in a much lower average temperature year-round. Indeed the
highland of Scotland has temperatures in January and February as cold,
if not colder, that Kiev. The rainfall is huge.
Ireland faces the Atlantic Ocean. On the western coast of Ireland there
are a few low mountains which catch a lot of rain. Very cold winds are
blowing across from the ocean. The high rainfall in both Ireland and
Scotland however means that both countries are amongst the greenest and
the most beautiful in the whole Europe.
*The Geographical Location of Great Britain
The full and official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles
consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland and a great
number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North
Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is
washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders
on the Irish Republic in the south.
The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the
southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula
in the West) and Scotland (the northern part of the island).
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest
and the longest of the British rivers. Some of the British greatest
ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clyde
and Bristol Avon.
Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources; it has some
deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were
discovered in the North Sea.
Great Britain has few mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most
important of them. Much of the country is under cultivation and about
20% of the land is covered by National Parks and others countryside
conservation areas. Great Britain is one of the leading countries in the
world. It has highly developed motorcar, shipbuilding, textile, and
chemical and electronics industries which are centered in such cities as
London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle.
Great Britain is also famous for its woolens industry. English wool is
exported to many countries.
*The Geographical Location of Ukraine
Ukraine is a wondrous land of spectacular scenic beauty, a land of shady
woods and rolling hills, glittering lakes and deep blue seas, soaring
mountains and tranquil estuaries.
Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe and the 22nd in the
world community. Its territory is 603.7 thousand square kilometres. The
country is situated in the South-Eastern part of Central Europe. The
geographical centre of Europe is located near the little Ukrainian town
of Rakhiv. Neighbouring Ukraine are the countries of Belarus, Russia,
Moldova, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and Romania. Ukraine is washed by the
Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
The country is richly endowed by nature. It is rich in iron ore, coal,
natural gas, oil, salt and other mineral recourses. Ukraine has big
metallurgical, machine-building, fuel and power industries. It is a
producer of chemicals and agricultural raw materials.
Largest cities of Ukraine are Kiev, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and
The population of Ukraine is more than 52 million people. It is the
Motherland of representatives of more than 100 nationalities, the
Ukrainians making 75%.
There are 71,000 rivers and streams in Ukraine, the most important of
these being the Dnipro, the Dnister, the Pivdenny Buh, the Danube and
the Desna. The Dnipro is the major river in the country and the third
longest one in Europe. The Danube connects Ukraine with seven European
Ukraine occupies only 0,45% of the planet’s dry land, but it boasts
almost 5% of the world’s mineral resources, particularly in terms of
hard coal. Huge reserves of coal and iron have formed for the
metallurgical industry. The reserves of black coal are concentrated in
two basins: the Donts and Vviv-Volynian Basins. Today commercially
valuable deposits of manganese ore, oil, gas, nickel, graphite, bauxite,
rare metals and other valuable raw materials have been found in Ukraine.
For example titanium is important in the space, chemical, atomic and
other areas. It has been discovered in Dnipropetrovsk provinces. There
are many curative mineral waters in Ukraine. In a word Ukraine has
inexhaustible reserves of natural resources.
That is why our generation must to do our best to use this resources in
right way and I believe if we do that we will come to firsts positions
in the world.
I can’t say that I often go to museums. We are always in a hurry and it
is very difficult to spare 2 or 3 hours to visit a local museum. But
when I travel I always try to see all the museums and exhibitions that
can be found in the place I am. Some month ago I was in S. Petersburg. I
visited many places of interest including the Hermitage Gallery and now
I want to tell you about it.
I was greatly impressed by visiting this museum of art. It was founded
in 1764 by Ecatherine the Second when she bought 225 pictures in Berlin.
Under Nicholas I the Hermitage was reconstructed (1840-52), and it was
opened to the public in 1852. Following the October Revolution of 1917,
the imperial collections became public property. The museum is housed
within five interconnected buildings, including the Winter Palace
(1754-62) and the Small, Old, and New Hermitages.
Now I’d like to tell you about pictures, sculptures and other works of
art that I’ve seen in the Hermitage Gallery. A great number of wonderful
pictures are offered there. Everyone can find some kind of pictures to
enjoy, for example the pictures by the world’s greatest masters:
Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrands, Rubens and many others. All great
schools of paintings are represented there: Italian, Spanish, German,
and French. A few words about sculptures. I saw a lot of vases, statues
and fountains. The most beautiful thing I have ever seen was the
fountain belonged to Alexander the Second. Among other outstanding
pieces of art I saw the coach of Ecatherine the Second and beautiful
tapestries. It took 60 years to make one of these tapestries.
In conclusion I’d like to stress that no one could see everything for
the one visit. To enjoy the Hermitage Gallery you must visit it several
*The life of Ukrainian Youth
Nowadays when our independent state Ukraine is developing, much
attention is paid for our youth because we are the future of our
country. In today’s Ukraine, people aged between 15 and 28 number a
little less than 10 million, and their ration is dropping. Some 80
percent of the younger generation various physical malfunctions. Among
the problems most actually for our Youth are low personal income, low
parent’s take-home pay, and bad living conditions because of our current
economical situation. Youth problems are caused not only by today’s
economic hardships. The worst destabilising factor in the modern
Ukrainian community is the crisis of consciousness and cultural and
moral values. Nevertheless our youth take active part in life of
community. For example in Greenpeace young people learn to love their
land and the world that surrounds them. This organisation protest
against environmental pollution, against murder of all animals. Some
young people work in their church organisations. Future belongs to the
young, that is why the political life of our country is important to us.
Many young people are engaged is political parties and organisations
such as: “the greens”, the Union of Ukrainian Youth, the Scouts.
*THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN
Great Britain is only major country in the world, which does not have a
written constitution set out in a single document. The constitution in
the UK is made up of Acts of Parliament, common law and conventions
which may be changed by general agreement.
The British Government sits in London. Great Britain is a limited or
constitutional or parliamentary monarchy headed by Queen Elizabeth II
now. The Queen acts only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but
she doesn’t rule. Parliament, which consists of two houses: the House of
Commons and the House of Lords, both of which arose during the Middle
Ages, limit the power of the Queen. England was a first country to have
a Parliament. The House of Lords is an out-of-date institution.
The House of Commons is elective and more powerful. The members of
Parliament sit on both sides of the Speaker, the government on his
right, the opposition on his left.
Most members of the government belong to the party, which wins a
majority of the sits in the House of Commons. The leader of the majority
party becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses the
Government. From the 60 ministers in the government Prime Minister
chooses the smaller group of about 20, called the Cabinet. The Cabinet
takes all major political decisions. At present there are four political
parties in England, the Conservative (or Tory) Party, the Labour Party,
the Liberal Party, the Social-Democratic Party.
Since 1867 British politics have been dominated by two major parties,
the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, which both represent the
*THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF UKRAINE
The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and
specifies its powers and duties. Under the Constitution the powers of
the government are divided into three branches — the legislative which
consists of the Verhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President,
and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.
The parliament — the Verhovna Rada is the only body of the legislative
power in Ukraine. There are 450 peoples deputies who are elected for a
term of four years on the basis of universal, equal suffrage by the
The Verhovna Rada`s main function is making laws. Law drafting work is
performed by its Committees.
The Verhovna Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1
to December 31 and controls the execution of it. The monetary unit of
Ukraine is the Hrivnia.
The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf
of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years
with no more then two full terms.
The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It
is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verhovna Rada.
It carries out domestic and foreign policy of the State, the fulfilment
of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and
fulfils national programs on the economic, scientific and technological,
social and cultural development of Ukraine.
Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. It is
administered by the Constitution Court and by courts of general
jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body
of general jurisdiction.
*Today’s weather and my attitude to it
Weather is a thing that worries everybody. When people meet they like to
talk about today’s weather and the weather forecast for the next day.
Many our decisions and plans depend upon weather. In accordance with
weather we often plan our weekends. If a weather forecast promises a
clear and warm day, the best way to spend it is to have a picnic. But
human nature is very strange. Many people often miss summer in winter
and miss winter in summer. Most people like thunderstorm and downpour.
Our mood in many respects depends on weather too.
Today’s weather is very beautiful. The sun is shining brightly, the sky
is clear and it is warm outside. And I like such weather very much.
Thanks to this weather I am always in good mood in spite of everything.
But it is difficult to study when the bright sun and the birds’ singing
remind us about a seashore with light breeze or a shade of the forest,
or cool river water. On such days we dream about travelling and
Today’s weather is not very good. The sky is cloudy, it is raining and
it is very damply. And I don’t like such weather. Because of such
weather many people have bad mood. It prevents all our plans to weekend.
But in spite of such weather we must not get upset and we must believe
that next day will be sunny and warm.
Today’s weather is very bad. It is cold, muddy and windy outside. And I
hate such weather. It is difficult to imagine that such weather can be
in summer. During such days people don’t leave their houses and they try
to spend their time at home. And it is normal because we want to see
bright sun’s rays and blue sky but the sky is grey and we almost can’t
see the sun.
The weather doesn’t justify our hopes very often. As a mater of fact
weather is independent, we can’t subject it to our influence or change
it. So let be thankful together whatever the weather.
Ukrainian literature contains a lot of glorious names. Among them one
can name Taras Shevshenko, Pavlo Zagrebelny, Lesia Ukrainka, Lina
Kostenko and others. But it’s a pity but I’ll to admit that Ukrainian
writers and poets are not well-known in the country. In my own opinion
this can be explained by the fact of poor popularity of Ukrainian
literature in general. But especially nowadays much is being done to
make it known to everybody who wishes to learn something about the
Ukrainian writers and poets.
I would like to tell you about outstanding Ukrainian poet – Vasyl
Simonenko. His name became known not so long ago. He represents the
generation of the Ukrainian progressive poets and writers.
He was born on the 8th of January in 1935 to a poor family in a small
Ukrainian village not far from Poltava. According to his mother
recollections he was the brightest pupil at school. The family couldn’t
afford giving the boy a proper education. He managed to study only 5
years at school in the village where he lived. And them he had to go to
the village that was nine kilometres away from his house. At this school
he was the brightest and the poorest one.
Vasyl had a great thirst for knowledge, he was a great lover of books.
He left school with distinction. When he was a boy he decided to devote
his life to people by writing about everything he experienced and knew.
He wrote poems, fables and short stories for children. His works are
full of love for his motherland and people. In one of his poems he
wrote: “I live for you, I came from you, I’ll go into you”. He died very
young in 1963 in Cherkassy.
There is no denying the fact that not so long ago Ukraine had very weak
connections with other countries in the world. But at present the
situation has changed for the better. Ukraine establishes new relations
with the countries throughout the world. Ukraine is one of the members
of the United Nations Organisation and participates in the work of many
Ukraine has wide relations with English-speaking countries such as Great
Britain, the United States of America and Canada.
In its international activity Ukraine follows the universally accepted
standards and principles of the international law and acknowledges the
priority of human values. One of the main principles of the Ukrainian
foreign policy is its openness, predictability, and adherence to the
civilized rules of conduct in the world arena and in the international
One of the main partners of Ukraine are English-speaking countries.
These countries are the major source of potential new technology,
hi-tech products and foreign investments for Ukraine. Foremost among
them stand Great Britain with the largest economic, financial,
production, market, and scientific, technological and military
potential. The agro-industrial complex, power engineering, aerospace
industry and heath care is priority areas of Ukrainian-British
Certainly Ukraine has diplomatic relations with all these countries. It
means that they have ambassadors in Ukraine and we have Ukrainian
diplomatic missions in these countries. We have some joint political
Scientific co-operation is also very important because Ukrainian science
is very good but it has not enough money for experiments. We have joint
projects for space exploration with the USA, Canada and Great Britain.
In future Ukraine will launch some space rockets from Canadian
Speaking about cultural exchanges I must admit that they are very
Besides we have wide relations with these countries in education. We
exchange students and teachers.
It’s common knowledge that tourism is very popular nowadays. And our
country also has wide relations with many countries in this sphere too.
I must say, that we have special relations with the USA and Canada
because there are many people who are Ukrainians by origin. So there is
a Ministry for Diaspora in Ukraine that solves the problem of relations
between our country and Ukrainians abroad.
As you can see Ukraine became as equals with world community and develop
the relations with English-speaking countries in all spheres of human