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ICII OA AEEOOss

Iaaecae/aeio aaaeeea?noue ia o?eueee aeey ?noi?e/ii? aaieia??, a e aeey
no/anii? ethaeeie ia? ieoaiiy i?i ni?aaaeiioaiiy aeeooy oa iciia, ui ? a
aoiinoa??. Iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeeooy — ?ineeiiee oa oaa?eiiee na?o —
ci?a ?icaeiooeny ia Caie? o?eueee oiaae?, eiee aeiee aeinoaoiuei
iiooaeiee «iciiiaee ueo», ui caoeua? ?? a?ae oeueo?ao?ieaoiai?
?aae?aoe?? Nieioey. C?icoi?ei, ui i?ioeae ueo ie ia?ii i?eeoaaoeny ?
ca?ac.

Oi/a a?e Caie? ioe?iaii ca?ac aeiaie? oi/ii – a?ey 4,5-10 9 ?ie?a,i?i
ia?aeiio aoiinoa?o Caie? iai a?aeiii aeoaea iaei. sseui Caiey aeieeea c
eini?/iiai i?ioiieainoii? oia?e, o neeaae? yei? ciaoiaeeany o aaeee?e
i?iii?oe?? aiaeaiue, oi oeae aiaeaiue aoei aeineoue ?aii caaoaeaii
Caieath. Aaieiae aaaaeathoue, ui a?aeiia iai aoiinoa?a Caie? aoi?eiia oa
ooai?eeany c aoeeai?/ieo aac?a aai aea?eueiaia c aaieia?/ieo ii??ae. A
oeeo aacao ia aoei a?eueiiai eenith (oae eiai iaeaea iaia? a aoiinoa?ao
?ioeo ieaiao). Oaea aoeeai?/ia aoiinoa?a Caie? neeaaeaeany oiae?, a?ey
109 ?ie?a oiio, iaaooue, o?eueee c I2, IIH, N2 oa NI2. Oiae? ia Caie?
iaeaea ia aoei aeeooy. Oeueo?ao?ieaoiaa ?aae?aoe?y c aeiaaeeiith oaee?
iaiueo i?ae 307 ii iiaea cieueoe AeIE aeeaeo ee?oei (e?aua neacaoe,
caoeiaeaeoaaoe ?o ?iciiiaeaiith, yeui a aiie aeieeee). O?eueee iiooaei?e
oa? aiaee i?a caoenoeoe aeeao ?a/iaeio a?ae ?aae?aoe??. Iicaei?oa a
aoiinoa?? cyaeany eenaiue, a c iueiai aeiee caoeniee oa? iciio.

Iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aiaeyia ia?a ii/aea ?iceeaaeaoeny i?ae ae??th
oeueo?ao?ieaoiai? ?aae?aoe?? c h = 134 … 237 ii ii ?aaeoe?? OII + hv
—- II + I. I?e oeueiio aoiie aiaeith I iiaee oieeiooe c aa?oiuei?
aa?y/i? aoiinoa?e — oaeee i?ioeann aea/aii ca?ac aeia?a — ni nei?inoueth
107 . . . 108 aoii?a c 1 ni2 a naeoiaeo. Aeae? i?e ?aaeoe?? II + II —-
II + I ooai?thaaany a?eueiee eenaiue.

Y. Oanoaaaeo oa N. Oai?eenai a i?aoe?, ui aoea iioae?eiaaia a
oi?aa?neoao? a Inei a 1973 a., aaaaeathoue, ui naia oaeei aoei aiaeieia
aeaea?aei eenith a aoiinoa?? aeaai?o aaieia?/ieo yiio. Niaoe?ae?noe
aaieiae aaaaeathoue, ui ooai?aiee I2 iaeaea aanue oaeaeei
aeei?enoiaoaaany ia ieeneaiiy ii??ae caiii? iiaa?oi?.

Aeaea?aeii a?eueiiai iciio i?a oaeiae aooe i?ioean oioineioaco.

I?e oeueiio ? ineoue aaaeeeaith a?eueo oi/ia ioe?iea iaaacia/ii?
?aae?aoe??, ui ia?aiia/aeueii oi?iiceea aeieeiaiiy aeeai? ?a/iaeie. Oae,
a ?aaio? Aa?eia?a e Ia?oaeea aoei i?eeiyoi, ui aeey aeeooy — aeey AeIE —
iaaacia/iith ? niaeo?aeueia iaeanoue n a = 240 . . . 285 ii i?e
yia?aaoe/i?e ina?oeaiino? a oe?e iaeano? a?eueo i?ae 10 ^Ao-i”2.
Iicaei?oa I. ?aoia? oa Aeae. Oiea? aea?aee ?ioee e?eoa??e. Oi/a o
a?eueo aeiaaeo oaeeue yoaeo, ui cieuo? AeIE, iiieaeo?oueny, yia?a?y
i?iiai?a Niioey a oeeo oaeeyo iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, a caoenia aeanoea?noue
?ioeo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ui ioi/othoue ee?oeiia yae?i, iaea. I?e
oeueiio iaaacia/iith oeueo?ao?ieaoiaie ?aae?aoe??th ? 10~1 Ao-i~2 aeey
an??? iaeano? niaeo?a n h I2 + I2. Ioaea, iieaeoea
iiiieneaeo acioo i?enei?th? oaeaee?noue ?iciaaeo iciio o no?aoinoa??, ia
ci?ithth/e naiai o?i?/iiai noaio. Oiae iiiieneae acioo ? eaoae?caoi?ii
?aaeoe?? ?iciaaeo iciio a no?aoinoa?? Caie?. Aei ?a/?, ia iaeei eeoa
iiiieneae acioo ia? oae? aeanoeaino?, i?i ui eaeaoueny aeae?.

Iane?aeeii ?icaeyiooeo aeua i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy oa ?iciaaeo iciio noa?
iciiiaee i?io?eue aoiinoa?e. Aaeeea oaeaee?noue ?iciaaeo iciio /a?ac
iiaeeiaiiy oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy Niioey ia aenioao 40—90 ei
i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui iaeneiaeueia eiai e?euee?noue niinoa??aa?oueny
a iaaeao 20—CI ei, aea /enei iieaeoe a iaeiiio eoa?/iiio naioeiao??
aeinyaa? 5 • 1012. I?e ciaioaii? aenioe iaae ??aiai ii?y aonoeia iciio
ciaioo?oueny, a na?aaeiy e?euee?noue eiai iieaeoe o eiaeiiio eoa?/iiio
naioeiao?? iia?o?y a?ey iiaa?oi? Caie? aeecueea aei 6 • 10″. Ia ia?oee
iiaeyae oea caea?oueny aeineoue aaeeeei /eneii. Iani?aaae? ae ia ??ai?
ii?y eiaeia iieaeoea iciio i?eiaaea? ia 25 iei ?ioeo iieaeoe aac?a, ui
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aoiinoa?e. Eiioeaio?aoe?y iciio ? iaeiaioith aieco
? /ei aeua a?i aoaea iaae ??aiai, oei a?eueoa c?inoa? (iaeaea a 250
?ac?a), aeinyaath/e i iaeueiiai cia/aiiy a 10~5 ia aenio? 35 ei. Oai
eiaeia c 100 oen. iieaeoe — iieaeoea iciio, oea oaae ia aeoaea aaaaoi.
Oi/ iacaaiee aac ? ia? iaaeeeoeiao aia?a?th, aea aiia ii nia? ia oaea
aaea e aaeeea. I?e ieoo?aiio ?iciaae? iciio ia aenioao eiai
iaeneiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeae?eeeany a oaea e?euee?noue aia?a??,
yei? aenoa/eei a o?eueee ia i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aoiinoa?e a oe?e
cii? ia… 0,1 a?aaeona. Aaeeea ae i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia
oeeo aenioa iia’ycaia c aeae?eaiiyi ca iina?aaeieoeoaii iciio aia?a??
oeueo?ao?ieaoiai? ae?eyiee niiy/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioyaii aeanyoe??//y ca oa?ii iciio ia?aeiiothoue, ui
eiai na?aaeiy oiaueia oa?o eeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii noaeith ? eeoa a inoaii?
?iee iii?oia iia?eueia ciaioaiiy. A io eiai ieoo?aa e?euee?noue iaae
iaaiei ioieoii caiii? iiaa?oi? iiaea ci?ithaaoeny iaiieiaeio, a ?ieiee e
a?eueoa. Oea iia’ycaii c ai?eciioaeueiei ia?ai?uaiiyi, i?aei?iaiiyi aai
iioneaiiyi ie?aieo iia?o?yieo ian c ?noioii ??ciith eiioeaio?aoe??th
iciio. A?ae iaei??? ii?e ?ieo aei ?ioi? e?euee?noue iciio iaae iaaiei
i?noeai ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 10 %, a na?aaeiuei??/ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeoeaiino? Niioey. 1989 ??e aoa ?ieii iaeneiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
inoaiiueiai ? iaea?eueoi? e?eueeino? iciio a aoiinoa?? iaoi? ieaiaoe.
Oi/i? aei??e e?eueeino? iciio aeiaaathoue aeo?aoiino? oa /eneaiieo
aei???a o aaaaoueio oi/eao Caie?. ssea ae caaaeueia e?euee?noue iciio a
iciiiaiio ueo?? Iaaecae/aeii iaea: iana Ic= 3 — 5-10o.

Ca iaeeieoeth e?eueeino? iciio iaae aeaiei i?noeai caiii? iiaa?oi?
oiiaeeeny a?aoe oa? iciio oiaueiith 0,01 ii (10 i?e?iiao??a). Oey
iaeeieoey iacaaia «aeianii» (Aea) ia /anoue i?ioani?a Ienoi?aenueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Aeianiia, yeee caneoaeea iiaaao iaoeiai? a?iiaaenueeino?
nai?ie aaaaoi??/ieie aei??thaaiiyie oa?aeoa?enoee iciiiaiai oa?o. C?
neacaiiai aeua aeieeaa?, ui na?aaeiy e?euee?noue iciio noaiiaeoue a?ae
200 aei 300 aeianii?a.

O?CEEI-O?I?*I? AEANOEAINO? ICIIO

Oea neiai a ia?aeeaaei c a?aoeueei? iiae icia/a? «iaoo/ee», «caiaoiee»,
«oie, ui iaoia». Eiaeai is ian aiae/oaaa oa?aeoa?iee ?iceee caiao
oeueiai neithaaoiai aaco i?ney a?ice c /anoeie aeeneaaeai /e i?e
ia?aaoaaii? aiey i?eno?i?a aai iaoei (a iiiaio ooai?aiiy inei? o
a?aee?eoiio iia?o?i). Aoii, ui ?a/iaeie ia?aaoaathoue o aaciaiio noaii
eeoa i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, ni?eyoeeaeo aeey aeeooy ethaeeie. Icii iiaeia
ia?aoai?eoe o ?iaeeio i?e ioieiaeaeaii? aei —111,9 “N, a i?e aeueo
oaiia?aoo?ao a?i ia?aaoaa? aaea a aaciiiaeiaiiio noai?. Iaeneiaeueia
oaiia?aoo?a ??aeeiai eenith (I2) i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo (oaiia?aoo?a
eiai eei?iiy) noaiiaeoue—183 “N.

O?i?/iee aeaiaio eenaiue ?nio? a aoiinoa?? a aeaeyae? o?ueio
aeio?ii?/ieo aeaeieci?i: I2 — iieaeoey?iiio, I — aoiia?iiio e I3 —
o?ueioaoiiiiio, ui aeania ? iaceaa?oueny iciiii oa ooai?th?oueny i?e
o?i?/iiio c?aeiaii? ia?oeo aeaio. Oiio a?eueo?noue aeanoeainoae iieaeoee
iciio iiaeia c?icoi?oe e?aua, aeoiaey/e c aeanoeainoae iieaeoey?iiai e
aoiia?iiai eenith.

Ia iniia? aea/aiey niaeo?aeueieo aeanoeainoae iciio aoee io?eiai? aeai?
i?i aoaeiao eiai iieaeoee. Iieaeoea I3 noaea eeane/iei i?eeeaaeii
aeei?enoaiiy niaeo?aeueiuo aeaieo aeey ?ic?aooie?a aeiaaeei cayce?a oa
?ici???a oeaio?aeueiiai eooa. A?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoi?
iiaeae? iieaeoee I..,, aoiie a i?e ?icoaoiaothoueny o aa?oeiao
??aiiaaae?aiiai ooiieooiiai o?eeooieea, i?e/iio a?aenoai? i?ae aoiiaie
aei??aiththoue (1,278 ±0,003)-10″” ni, a cia/aiiy oeaio?aeueiiai eooa
neeaaea? 116°50′ ±30′. Iana iieaeoeu 0^3′ neeaaea? 7,97.’1023 a.

A iieaeoeo iciio iiaeooue aoiaeeoe aoiie a?eueo aaaeeeo ?cioii?a eenith
I17 e I18. Ca iaaeeaeaieie ioe?ieaie a aoiinoa?iiio icii? ciaoiaeeoueny
a?ey 0,21″” iieaeoe I^I^I'” oa 0,41 “i iieaeoe I^I^I”.

Aaciiiae?aiee icii i?e noaiaea?oieo oaiia?aoo?? oa oeneo ia?
u?euei?noue ?aeoe = 2,144- 10″3 a-ni”3. Oaiei?ii?noue aaco N?
ciaioo?oueny ?c cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e: i?e 473 E n = = 904 Aeae-
ea-1. E-1, i?e 273 E n„ – 795 “Aeae. ea-1- E-1, i?e 100 E N? =– 690
Aeae.ea-^E-1.

Icii ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ??aeeio i?e oaiia?aoo?? 161,3 E (oaiia?aoo?a
eei?iiy) a oaiii-neith ??aeeio c u?euei?noth 1,46 a-ni~3. Ieoiia oaieioa
aeia?iaoaaiiy ??aeeie 316 000 Aeae-ea”1. I?e oaiia?aoo?? 90 E ??aeeee
icii ia? u?euei?noue 1,57 a ni~3, a aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae caoaa?ae?iiyi
eiai u?euei?noue neeaaea? 1,614 a-ni~3. Oaiia?aoo?a caoaa?ae?iiy, ca
aeaieie ??cieo aaoi??a, a?ae??ciy?oueny ia 2—3 E oa neeaaea? i?eaeecii
78 E. Oaa?aea e?enoae?/ia no?oeoo?a ia? oaiii-o?ieaoiaee eie??.

Oa?aeoa?iee caiao iciio a?ae/oaa?oueny i?e eiioeaio?aoeee \0~^ °i.
Aeaye? aaaaeathoue i?enooi?noue caiaoo iciio iieacieeii /enoioe
iia?o?y. sse iieacothoue a?ieia?/i? e iaaee/i? aeine?aee – icii —
neeueiiae?th/a io?ooa, ui e??i caaaeueiioiene/ii? ae??, ua ia? oae?
aeanoeaino? ye iooaaaii?noue, eaioea?iaaii?noue, ?aae?iieiao?e/iee
yooaeo). Ca oiene/i?noth icii ia?aaeuo?, iai?eeeaae, nei?eueioth
eeneioo.

Iciii-eeniaa? noi?o? aeaooiiaaacia/i? i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo iciio a?ae 20
aei 100%. Naia aeaooiiaaacia/i?noue eiioeaio?iaaiieo noi?oae iciio
aeiaaee /an aoea iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith aea/aiith eiai o?ce/ieo oa
o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai
iciio ?nioaaei ua c ii/aoeo XX no., iaea?eueo ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
aeanoeaino? eiai iieaeoee aoee aea/ai? o?eueee a 50-o ??., eiee a
aaaaoueio e?a?iao aoee c?iaeai? ni?iae aeei?enoaiiy eiioeaio?iaaiiai
iciio ye ieenithaa/a a ?aeaoieo nenoaiao.

Iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? iciio 2,8 yA, n?iaenoai aei yeaeo?iio ca ??cieie
aeaieie 1,9 … 2,7 yA, oiaoi aeinoaoiuei neeueii (a?eueo neeueia
iathoue o?eueee ooi? oa eiai ieneaee, a oaeiae ianoaa?euei? /anoee—
aoiie oa a?euei? ?aaeeeaee).

Icii aeineoue iano?eeee o aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo iiaea ?iceeaaeaoeny c
aeaooii, oiio oe?eeii aacia/ia eiai caa?iaaiiy aeiaaa? iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?. a?aeiii, ui ethaeeia ia iiaea inioaaoe a aoiinoa?i c /enoiai
eenith. Iaaiee /an, uia ciaioeoe iano nai?o iieioiaaieo einii/ieo
aia?aoia, aia?eeaioe? aeei?enoiaoaaee r ieo /enoi eenith aoiinoa?o, aea
aiaeiiaeeeny aiae oeueiai /a?ac iaaeoi aaeeeo iaaaciaeo iiaeaae. Aei
?a/i, ethaeeii ei?inia iaaaeeea eiioeaio?aoeiy iciio a iiaio?i, aea
aaeeea eieueeinoue eiai noaa nia?oaeueii iaaacia/iith.

Aeineiaeaeaiiyie aeyaeaii aaeeeo ?ieue i?e?iaeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iciio
(iaeia iieaeoea iciio ia e?eueea aeanyoe?a i?eueeiiia iioex iieaeoe
iiaio?y) a ieenethaaeueieo i?ioeanao, ui aiaeaoaathoueny o eeioeiao
ethaenueeiai i?aai?cio. Eiee ae ii/aee oe?iei canoiniaoaaoe i/euaia oa
eiiaeeoe?iiiaaia iiaio?y o ?iai/eo i?ei?uaiiyo, oi iii?oeee iac?icoiiea
iiaeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? caoai?thaaiue ethaeae o ii??aiyii? c ieio-eei
ia?iiaeii, eiee aiie aeeoaee «iai/euaiei iiaio?yi». Ia aiae?aco, aea
ciaeoee i?e/eio—iiaia aiaenooiinoue iciio a eiiaeeoe?iiiaaiiio iia?o??
coiiaeea ?iceaaee a i?aai?ci?.

Iiaeaeuaia ieenethaaeueia caeaoi?noue iciio ana oe?oa aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey iaacca?aaeaiiy aiae oeiaeeeaeo iie?ii?aaiiciia iiaio?y oa ieoii?
aiaee. Ia ia?eoeinue i aac eo?eicia. eieueea ?ieia oiio a iaoeo aacaoao
o?eaaeee /an ienaeiny i?i ni?iae aeei?enoaiiy iciio i?e caa?iaaiii
ea?oiie? oa ?ioeo iai/?a. E?eoeea c aieo a/aieo, yei aeacoaaee, ui oaeee
aeoeaiee ieenethaa/, ye icii, eeoa i?enei?th? i?ioeane ?iceeaaeo
?a/iaei, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ea?oiiei i?/iai ia aeaee. Aoei
ao?a/aii /eiaei a?ioae, aeiee c?icoi?ee, ui ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio
caa?iaaiiy iai/?a i?e caiiii iia?o?y o noiaeuao ia icii ia iiaeia.

Iae/anoioa icii iaea?aeothoue o aaeeeeo eieueeinoyo i?e i?iioneaii?
aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio /a?ac nooee eenaiue. Aeaeo?e/iee ?ic?yae ?icuaieth?
iieaeoee eenith ia aeai /anoeie — aoiie einith:

I2 = I+I

Caoueiao aoiie ?ooathoueny oaeaeei i /anoi noeeathoueny c aeaioaoiiieie
iieaeoeaie eenith, ui i?e ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao aaaea aei ooai?aiiy
eiiieaena i3 o?ueio aoiiia eenith iieaeoe iciio

I+ I2 = I3

IIOE*I? AEANOEAINO? ICIIO

Aia?a?th iieaeoee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoe ye noio o?ueio /anoei —
aeaeo?iiii?, eieeaaeueii? oa iaa?oaeueii? aia?a?e. Aia?aaoe/i? noaie,
ci?iththoueny aeene?aoiei /eiii. Iaai?e aia?aaoe/ieo noai?a
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeey eiaeii? iieaeoee. Ia?aoiaee iieaeoee c iaeiiai
aia?aaoe/iiai noaio a ?ioee noi?iaiaeaeothoueny iiaeeiaiiyi aai
aei?ii?ithaaiiyi eaaioa aeaeo?iiaai?oii? aia?a??. Niaeo?e, ui
aeieeathoue i?e oaeeo ia?aoiaeao, caeaaeaoue a?ae iieaeoey?ieo noaeeo,
iieaeoee, ui iiaeeia? aai aei?ii?ith? oa ? nai???aeiith a?ceoiith
ea?oeith aeaii? iieaeoee. Aeey iciio ia?aoiaee i?ae ??ciiiai?oieie
aeaeo?iiieie noaiaie a?aeaoaathoueny i?e aei?ii?ithaaii? aai iiaeeiaii?
na?oea a aeaeei?e, oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e oa oae caai?e aaeooii?e
oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e (ieae/a 2000 A) iaeano? niaeo?a. Eiaeiee aeaeo?iiiee
ia?ao?ae noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeie ca aia?a?yie ci?iaie
eieeaaeueieo oa a?auaoaeueiuo noai?a iieaeoee, /a?ac ui
aeaeo?iiii-eieeaaeueii-iaa?oaeueiee niaeo? iieaeoee i?aaenoaaey? niath
nenoaio aeecueei ?icoaoiaaieo iaeia aei iaeii? nioa. sseui i?e
iiaeeiaii? na?oea iieaeoea aeinyaia caoaeaeaiiai noaio, ui ia?
aeinoaoith aia?a?th aeey oiai, uia ?ic??aaoe neaaeee caycie a iieaeoe?,
oi inoaiiy aeenioe?th?. Aeey iieaeoee iciio aia?a?y cayceo (I—I2),
?ic?ea yei? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?iciaaeo iciio ia iieaeoey?iee oa aoiia?iee
eenaiue, neeaaea? 1,05 yA.

Iaea?eueo aaaeeea? nioae iiaeeiaiiy iciio eaaeaoue a ae?aiacii?
aeiaaeei oaeeue 2000—3000 A (?en. ). Caeaoi?noue aaco iiaeeiaoe
aei?ii?ithaaiiy e?euee?noii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiao?oe??ioii iiaeeiaiiy k
a caeii?, yeee iaceaathoue caeiiii Aa??a—Eaiaa?oa:

I(v, o)=I(v,0)10-k(v)x

aea I(v, 0) — ?ioaineai?noue io/ea iiiio?iiaoe/iiai na?oea /anoioith v,
ui i?eoiaeeoue ia ao?aeia a?eii i?eno?ith aeiaaeeiith o, caiiaiaiiai
aacii i?e aeaiiio oeneo; I(v, o) — ?ioaineai?noue na?oea, ui i?ieoia
e??cue i?eno??e..) Aei??yia a ni”‘ aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioo iiaeeiaiiy k(v)
a nioaao iiaeeiaiiy Oa?oe? iieaeoee iciio ?ic?aoiaaia ca oi?ioeith oa
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 2 a aeaeyae? caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaaeoiaeeoue. sse ? a?eueo?noue ?ioeo nioa
iiaeeiaiiy a iieaeoey?i?e niaeo?ineii??, oe? nioae iinyoue ?iy
iaoeiaoey, ui a?aee?ea ?o. A iaeneioi? iiaeeiaiiy k =135 ni””‘, i?e
oiauei? oa?o iciio 0,3 ni c oi?ioee (1) aeoiaeeoue, ui a?aeiioaiiy I(v,
0): I(v, o) aoaea ??aii 1040! Oea cia/eoue, ui caiiee oa? iciio
iineaaeoue niiy/ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy oe??? aeiaaeeie oaee? a 1040 ?ac?a,
oiaoi i?aeoe/ii iiaeeia eiai iiai?noth.

I?e aeiaaeeiao oaeeue a?eueoa 3000 A a?ey nioa Oa?oe? cyaeythoueny
a?eueo neaae? nioae Oaaa?ina oa Oaeiia— Eaoaa?a (?en. 2). Eiao?oe??io
iiaeeiaiiy a oeeo nioaao ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a iaioa, i?ae o nioa
Oa?oe?. Ie?ai? aeecueei ?icoaoiaai? a oeeo nenoaiao nioae iathoue aeia?a
aeaeei? ??ce? iaeneioie oa i?i?ioie. A aeaeei?e /anoei? niaeo?o
?icoaoiaaia ia oe?iea nioaa Oaiith?, c yeith iiaycaiee nei?e eie??
iciio. Neeueia iiaeeiaiiy iciio niinoa??aa?oueny a iaeano? aaeooiiiai
oeueo?ao?ieaoa (1000—2000 A). ?acii c iiaeeiaiiyi a nioaao Oa?oe? oea
iiaeeiaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?eao niiy/iiai niaeo?o ia iiaa?oi? Caie?
i?e aeiaaeeiao oaeeue iaioa 2900 A, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai aeey caoenoo
aeeooy ia iao?e ieaiao? a?ae ei?ioeioaeeueiaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiue. O?aa
a?aei?oeoe ,ui aaee/eie eiao?oe??io?a iiaeeiaiiy nooo?ai ci?iththoueny c
oaiia?aoo?ith.

Nioae, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue eieeaaeueii – iaa?oaeueiei ia?aoiaeai a
iieaeoe? iciio, ?icoaoiaai? a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?o (3—15 iei).
Eiao?oe??ioe iiaeeiaiiy a oeeo nioaao ci?iththoueny a oe?ieeo ?aieao.

Ia?a?niei i?ioeanii oioio?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? ? aeenioe?aoe?y iieaeoee. I?e
oeueiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai a yeeo nioaao iiaeeiaiiy a?aeaoeany
oioiaeenioe?aoe?y, e?ioeaa? i?iaeoeoe oioi?aaeoe?? iiaeooue
a?ae??ciyoeny i?ae niaith. I?e ?iceeaaeaii? na?oeii iciio ia
iieaeoey?iee oa aoiia?iee eenaiue a caeaaeiino? a?ae aia?a?? eaaioa,
yeee aoei iiaeeiooi (aeiaaeeie oaee? iiaeeiooiai na?oea) aoii oa
iieaeoea eenith iiaeooue aooe ye a iniiaieo, oae ? a caoaeaeaieo noaiao.

?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue aeaeo?iiii – caoaeaeaieo aoii?a oa iieaeoe
neeueii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?o ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? a iniiaiiio noai?
Aeey i?eeeaaeo iiaeia ?icaeyiooe ye i?ioiaeeoue oioiaeennioe?aoe?y i?e
caoaeaeaii? a nioaao Oaiith?. I?e iiaeeiaii? /a?aiiiai na?oea (~6000 A)
ia?a?niee i?ioeani caaa?oo?oueny ?iceeaaeaiiyi iciio ia aoii oa iieaeoeo
eenith a iniiaieo noaiao:

Ic hv = O(3P) + O2(3E)

ca yeei ‘eaea ae?oai?yaeiee i?ioean aca?iiae?? aoiia?iiai eenith c
iciiii.

O(3P) + O3 = 2O2

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? iiaeeiaiiy iaeiiai eaaioa naaoa aoei
c?oeiiaaii aea? iieaeoee iciia. Iaeiei c i?iaeoeo?a oioi?iceeaaeaiiy i?e
caoaeaeaii? a nioaao Oaaa?ina ? caoaeaeaia iieaeoea eenith:

O3 hv = O(3P) + O2(1E)

ca yeei eaeooue i?ioeane

O(3P) + O3 = 2O2

O2(1E) + O3 = 2O2 + O(3P)

O(3P) + O3 = 2O2

A ?acoeueoao? noia?iee eaaioiaee aeo?ae ?iceeaaeo Ic aei??aith? 4i
iieaeoeai . Aiaeia?ii iiaeii iieacaoe, u eaaioiaee aeo?ae
oioiaeenioe?aoe?? iciio i?e caoaeaeai? a nioaao Oa?oe? iiaea
aei??aithaaoe 6.

C ?icaeyiooeo caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? na?oea c iciiii iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeaa aaaeeeaeo aeniiaee : 1) iieaeoee iciio iiaeeiathoue na?oei a
oe?ieiio niaeo?aeueiiio ae?aiacii? a?ae aaeooiiiai oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai
aei i?e?ioaeeueiaiai /anoei niaeo?a, i?e/iio iaea?eueo ?ioaineaia
iiaeeiaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny aeey aeiaaeei oaeeue iaioa 3000 A; 2) i?e
iiaeeiaii? na?oea iciiii ye a oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e, oae ? o aeaeei?e
/anoeiao niaeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny oioio?i?/ia c?oeioaaiiy iciio c
ooai?aiiyi iieaeoee eenith. ?io? oe?eaa? a?aeiiino? i?i o?ceeo -o?i?/i?
iieacieee iiaeia ciaeoe a i?aoeyo N. Ae. ?acoiianueeiai oa A. A.
Ca?eiaa.

AeINE?AeAEAIIss ICIIIAI? Ae??E

A 1985? Aeaeicao Oa?iai ?acii c? nai?ie ni?a?ia?oieeaie c A?eoainueei?
aioa?eoe/ii? neoaeae aia?oa iia?aeiiea, ui c e?ioey 1970o ?ie?a iaae
Aioa?eoeaeith a?aeaoaaeiny cia/ia iioiioaiiy iciiiaiai oa?o. Aei??e
noiooieea «I?iaon-7», c?iaeai? A?e?iii E?thaa?ii c Aiaeaea?aeianueeiai
oeaio?a eini?/ieo iieueio?a IANA, iieacaee, ui c ?ieaie aeao?oeeo iciio
ca?eueooaaany a?ae iaei??? i?aaeaiii? aanie aei ?ioi?. A aa?ani? oa
aeiaoi? ao?a/a?oueny a?ey 70% iciio iaae Aioa?eoeaeith, ui aei??aith?
i?eaeecii 3% anueiai iciio aoiinoa?e.

Aei??e c?iaeai? eaai?aoi???th Ae. Oioiaia c Oi?aa?neoaoo oo. Aaeii?ia,
NOA, iieacaee, uiiaea?eueoa /anoeia ao?ao iciio i?ioiaeeoue ia aenioao
a?ae 12 aei 30 e?eiiao??a.

Aoei aenoiooi ?yae a?iioac uiaei iiyniaiiy aeieeiaiiy iciiiai? ae??e.
Aoei a?aei?aaeaii aeae?eueea aeniaaeeoe?e aeey oia, uia a?aen?yoe
iaa??i? a?iioace.

A?iioaca 1: aoiinoa?ia oee?eoeyoe?y.

Noaia oee?eoeyoe?? iiaea iinooiiai ci?ieoenue oae, ui iaae Aioa?eoeaeith
iioiee iia?o?y ni?yiiaai? aaa?o. A ?acoeueoao? no?aoinoa?ia iia?o?y,
caaaa/aia iciiii, cai?uo?oueny iia?o?yi c o?iiinoa?e – ieaeiueiai
10ei-oa?o, ui ao?eio? iaei iciio.

Iaen Eaaaiooaei oa eiai a?oia c Aeineiai aeine?aeieoeueeiai oeao?o IANA
oa ?o eieaae iaoe?iiaeueiiai oeaioo aoiinoa?ieo aeine?aeaeaiiue oa ?io?
iieacaee, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae aeei?enoaieo
i?ea?/ieeaie a?iioace oee?eoeyoe??,ia aenio? iciiiai? ae??e iathoue aooe
i?enooi?ie aaciiiae?ai? i?e?iaeaiaioe c iiaa?oi? Caie?. Aei??e,
iaaiaee, iieacaee iecuee? ??ai? aaciiiae?aieo i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ioaea
iani?aaae? iia?o?y, ui caiiaith? iciiiao ae??o iinooia? c a?eueoeo
aenio, aea iciio cacae/ae aaaaoi.

A?iioaca 2: o?i?/i? ?aaeoe??.

A iaei?e c ia?oeo a?iioac eoeiny i?i oa, ui iaaeiei iciiiai? ae??e
iiaea o i?aeaeuaieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aooe i?enooi?ie niieoee acioo, ui ?
iaeaaaei?oeie aaaioaie a ?oeioaaii? iciio. a ieaei?o oa?ao aoiinoa?e.
I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eienoaaeinue niiy/ii? aeoeaiino? oa
aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe??.

A oai??yo cana?ae/oaaeinue, ui i?aeaeuaia niiy/ia aeoeai?noue noai?th?
ia aaeeeeo aenioao iaae I?aaeaiiei iiethnii niieoee acioo c aenieith
?aaeoe?eiith caeaoi?noth. Iia?o?y, ui ?ooa?oueny aiec ia?aiineoue oeae
aeoeaiee acio a ieaei? oa?e aoiinoa?e, aea aeine?aeieee ae?enii
niinoa??aaee ao?aoo acioo. Aea ni?a?ia?oieee eaai?aoi??? ?aaeoeaiiai
?ooo IANA oa eaai?aoi??? aa?iiii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy aeine?ae?a
ieaaio oa aoiinoa?e a?aeiaeoee, ui ? iciiia?e ae??oe? aeoeai? oi?ie
acioo oaeiae ciaiooaaeenue a e?eueeino?.

Oa?iai oa eiain i?a?ia?oieee cai?iiiioaaee aeueoa?iaoeaio o?i?/io
oai??th, ui

iniiaaia ia aeine?aeao I.Iie?ia, Iana/onaonueeee oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo,
NOA oa O. Oa?aoaea ?ioeaiaea, Eae?oi?i?enueeee oi?aa?neoao, NOA, ui aoee
aeeiiai? a1970o ?ieao.

A oai??? i?eioneaeiny, ui ca ooai?aiiy iciiiai? ae??e a?aeiia?aeathoue
niieoee oei?o, ui iaaeoiaeyoue a aoiinoa?o aieiaiei /eiii o neeaae?
aio?iiiaaiiai oei?ooi?aoaeaoeth (OOA). Oe? ?ia?oi? niieoee, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye oeaaeaaaioe aeey eiiaeeoe?iia??a oa
oieiaeeeueiee?a, ye o?i?/i? aaaioe aeey ae?iaieoeoaa iaiiieano?a,
iiaeooue caa??aaoeny a aoiinoa?? a?ae 50 aei 100 ?ie?a.

Ca aeae?eueea oeny/ie?ooue aiie aeinyaathoue na?aaeeie no?aoinoa?e,
?icoaoiaaii? ia aenio? a?ey 30 ei, aai i?aei?iathoueny aeua. Oai
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?ic?eaa? ?o. Oei? ,ui aeae?eeany c
iieaeoe OOA nii/aoeo ?nio? a aeaeyae? a?eueiiai oei?o aai ?aaao? c
iciiii, ooai?thth/e caeen oei?o Cl O. Iaeaea? oi?ie anooiathoue a
iiaeaeueo? ?aaeoe??, ooai?thth/e no?ee? niieoe – ?aca?aoa?e oei?o. Aiie
neeaaeathoueny c ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i oei?enoiiaiaeiaai? eeneioe HCl, ui
ooai?th?oueny i?ae /an ?aaeoe?? a?eueiiai oei?o c oaeeie eiiiiiaioaie,
ye iaoai oa i?o?ao oei?o Cl ONO2, ui aeieea? a ?aaeoe?? i?ae ClO oa
aeaoieenii acioo NO2.

Aeania ?aca?aoa?e oei?o ia ?oeiothoue icii – a oaeeo niieoeao oei?
caeeoa?oueny ?ia?oiei oa ia iiaea ?aaaoaaoe c iciiii. Ia?o? eiiithoa?i?
iiaeae? iieacaee, ui OOA ia iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe aaeeeiai aieeao ia
iciiiaee oa?. C ieo aeieeaaei, ui aeayea /anoeia a?eueiiai oei?o c?oeio?
o?eueee iaaaeeeo /anoeio iciio.

I/aaeaeii, ui ?nio? iaoai?ci aea?eueiaiiy oei?o c ?aca?aoa??a.

Nthcai Nieiiii oa ni?a?ia?oieee c eaai?aoi??? aa?iiii?? oa
ni?a?ia?oieee c Aa?aa?aenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, NOA, ia?oeie iieacaee,
yeei iiaea aooe oeae i?ioean a 1986 ?ioe?. Aoei c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui
ei?aeyoe?y i?aeoeeeeii iioiioaiiy oa?o iciio oa iayai?noth no?aoinoa?ieo
oia? ? na?aeeii oiai, ui oei? c ?aca?aoa??a aea?eueiththoue ?aaeoe??,
ui eaeooue ia /anoeao eueiaeo a oeeo oia?ao.

Oia?e a no?aoinoa?? aaaaeaeenue yaeuai iacae/iei. A?aeiinia aieia?noue
oai aeinyaa? 1%. E?euee?noue aea aiaeyii? ia?e – anueiai aeae?eueea
/anoei ia i?eueeii, ui a 1000 ?ac?a iaioa, i?ae a o?iiinoa??, aea e
ooai?th?oueny a?eueo?noue oia?. Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano aaaaeaeiny, ui
?niothoue no?aoinoa?i? oia?e ?aeeiiai aeaeo – ia?eaioo?ia?. Aiie
ooai?ththoueny ia aenioao i?eaeecii a?e 15 aei30 ei oa yaeythoue niaith
??ciiaeae e?iciaeaeieo oia?. A aeno?aei?e /anoei? oaeeue iia?o?y
oaeaeei ?icoe?th?oueny ? ioieiaeaeo?oueny. sseui o iia?o?? ?
aeinoaoiuei aieiae, oi aiia aoaea eiiaeainoaaoenue ia aaaaoi/eneaieo
/anoeieao

Oaeaeea ioieiaeaeaiiy oa eiiaeainaoe?y aiaeyii? ia?e i?eaiaeyoue aei
oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaioo?iaeo oia?. ?iciiae?eaiiy ?ici???a /anoie a oia??
iaaea? ?e caeaoiino? ia?aeeaaoenue. Ia?eaioo?ia? oia?e iieacaee
iaoai?ieiaai, ui no?aoinoa?a aeinoaoiuei oieiaeia ? ui oai iiaea
ooai?thaaoeny e?ae oi/a a iiaeeco iiey?ieo iaeanoae, aea /a?ac e?aeith
noo?noue oaiia?aoo?a ia? aianoe aeey oeueiai ieae/a 190 E. Oae?
oaiia?aoo?e caa??aathoueny o?eueee i?ae /an aioa?eoe/ii? ceie.

I?eno??e, ui aoa caiouaiee ca i?ia?aiith «No?aoinoa?i? aa?icieuei?
ci?ie(SAM) 11» ia ai?oo noiooieea «I?iaon – 7» a 1978 ?. ciaoiaeea
/anoeiee a iia?o?y oeyoii aiae?co niiy/ieo i?iiai?a, ui oi?eathoueny
e?a?a Caie?. I?eno??e iieacaa, ui no?aoinoa?i? oia?e ?niothoue iaae
Aioa?eoeaeith iaa?oue oiae?, eiee oaiia?aoo?a iaaea? aei 195 E.. Oae?
oaiia?aoo?e caiaaeoi aenie? aeey ooai?aiiy ia?eaioo?iaeo oia?, ioaea
iiaeia aeiionoeoe, ui oia?e ooai?ththoueny yeeiinue ?ioei oeyoii.

Aoei aeneiaeaia i?eiouaiiy, ui ca neeaaeii oe? oia?e iathoue
a?ae??ciyoeny, a?ae ia?eaioo?iaeo oia?, ui neeaaeathoueny c /enoi?
aiaee, neiiaeainiaaii? ia caaeneeo /anoeieao. O?i?/i? oai??? ?oeioaaiiy
iciiio aeiaaathoue aeaeaeaiiy aeoeaiiai acioo, ui cayco? oei? a aeaeyae?
i?o?aoo oei?o – iaeiiai c iniiaeo ?aca?aoa??a.. Oae cyaeeany oai??y ,
i?i no?aoinoa?i? oia?e – iin?? acioo. Aiie iathoue neeaaeaoeny c acioii?
eeneioe (HNO3)a caii?iaeaiiio noai?, c o?ueiia iieaeoeaie aiaee ia
eiaeio iieaeoeo acioii? eeneioe (HNO3 *3H2O). Oaea niieoea, ui
iaceaa?oueny o?ea?ae?aoii acioii? eeneioe ia o?eueee caaacia/o?
aeaeaeaiiy acioo, aea e eiiaeaino?oueny i?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao,
i?ae /enoa aiaea.

Ia?eaioo?ia? oia?e c o?ea?ae?aoo acioii? eeneioe aeieeathoue a i?ioean?
iia?eueiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy.. Ii??aiyii c ia?eaioo?iaeie oia?aie oia?e c
o?ea?ae?aoo acioii? eeneioe iaio ianeai? oa a?eueo ?ic??aeaeai?, ui
caaaaea? ?o aea/aiith.

E??i ia?eaioo?iaeo oia? c o?ea?ae?aoo acioii? eeneioe cono??/athoueny
ua iiey?i? no?aoinoa?i? oia?e (INO) ua iaeiiai aeaeo. Aiie
ooai?ththoueny, yeui ceiiaa aioa?eoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?eueii
iionea?oueny ieae/a 190 E. C ioieiaeaeaiiyi iia?o?y aiaeyia ia?a
eiiaeaino?oueny ia aeayeeo caaeneeo /anoeieao, ooai?thth/e
aiaeii-eueiaeia? oia?e. *anoeieaie-ca?iaeeaie ? a ieo /anoee acioii?
eeneioe. INO oeueiai oeio, oo?eiothoue aiaeyio e?eao. Cacae/ae oe? oeie
oia? a?aeiinyoue aei iaeiiai eeano, ?ic??ciyth/e ?o ca uaeaee?noth
ooai?aiiy. Oia?e, ui iia?eueii ooai?ththoueny, aeia?a aeaeei? c iiaa?oi?
Caie?.

An? o?e oeie INO – c o?ea?ae?aoo acioii? eeneioe, o?, ui oaeaeei ?
iia?eueii ioieiaeaeothoueny(ia?eaioo?ia?) – aenooiathoue ye eeth/ia?
iiiaioe cieuaiiy iciio iaae Aioa?eoeeith. (noaia ). Eaai?aoi?i?
aeine?aee ni?a?ia?oiee?a IANA oa Noaioi?aenueeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeine?aeieoeueeiai ?inoeoooo aeiaaee, ui ?aaeoe?y i?ae
oei?enoiaiaeiaaith eeneioith oa i?o?aoii oei?o, ui oo?eiothoue oei? a
iaaeoeaiiio noai?, ae?enii aoaea eoe ia iioa?oi? aiaeiiai eueiaeo oa
o?ea?ae?aoo acioii? eeneioe. Oey ?aaeoe?y, ui aea? iieaeoey?iee oei? oa
acioio eeneioo, eaea a a?aenooiino? oaa?aeeo /anoeiie c iacia/iith
oaeaee?noth, yeith iiaeia ciaoooaaoe.

Eaai?aoi??y Aeae. Aiaea?niia c Aa?aa?aenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa
ni?a?ia?oieee oi?aa?neoaoo oo. Iueth-Ei?e a?aee?eee, ui a aioa?eoe/i?e
iciiia?e ae??oe? aeineoue aenie? ??ai? NlI – i?eaeecii a 500 ?ac?a
a?eueoa i?ae ia na?aaei?o oe?ioao ia o?e aea aenio?. Ca oaei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? NlI eaoae?oe/iee oeeee NlI-NlI iiaea iiynieoe a?eueo?noue
ao?ao iciio. Iaeei aoii oei?o iiaea c?oeioaaoe aeae?eueea oeny/ iieaeoe
iciio, ia?o, i?ae cono??ia iieaeoeo acioo., /e aiaeith, ui cayaea eiai.
O?i?y oeueiai i?ioeano ua e aein? cyniao?oueny iaoeiaoeyie.

Aeoeaiee oei?, ui aea?eueith?oueny INO a?a? ?ieue ? ?ioiio i?ioean?, ui
eaea ca o/anoth a?iia.. ?aaeoe?y c a?iiii iiaea iaoiiaeoe a?ey 20% ao?ao
iciio. I?ae /an oe??? ?aaeoe?? a?ii aeaeaey? aoii eenith c iciio,
ooai?thth/e ieneae a?iio ArI. Oey niieoea aoaea ?aaaoaaoe c ieneaeii
oei?o c ooai?aiiyi iieaeoey?iiai eenith oa aea?eueithaaiiyi aoii?a oei?o
oa a?iio, ui ciiao ?aaaothoue c iciiii. Na?aeioeoai i?i oaeee i?ioean ?
a niinoa?aaeaiiyo, c?iaeaieo ni?a?ia?oieeaie oi?aa?neoaoo
Iaineeueai?? oa Aa?aa?aea, ye? aei??yee aioa?eoe/i?e iciiia?e ae??oe?
cia/i? e?eueeino? ieneaeo a?iio.

AENIIAEE

No/ania oai??y INO-OOA ooai?aiiy iciiiai? ae??e iiynith? a?eueo?noue
aeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue. Aeae?eaiiy OOA a ?acoeueoao? eyaenueei?
ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aea? aieiaiei /eiii ca aeniaaeaiiy oa?o iciio a
I?ai?/i?e i?aeoe?. Iciiiaa ae??a a?ey Aioa?eoeee aaniith aeieea? oiio,
ui aeey ooai?aiiy ae??e iaiao?aeia i?enooi?noue no?aoinoa?ieo oia?, ui
ooai?ththoueny o?eueee a iaeoieiaei?oo ii?o ?ieo.. Ia?o? ae i?iiai?
niioey ?i?oe?ththoue o?i?/i? ?aaeoe??, ui ui aeniaaeothoue iciiiaee
oa?.Ao?aoa iciio a?ae/ooi?oa iaae Aioa?eoeeith i?ae iaae A?eoeeith, oiio
ui aioa?eoe/ia no?aoinoa?a oieiaei?oa ? ooo ooai?th?oueny a?eueoa oia?,
iniaeeai ia aenio? iaioa 20 ei. A?eueoa oia? – a?eueoa aeoeaieo aoii?a
oei?o oa ?ioaineai?oa aeaeaeaiiy acioieo niieoe. – a?eueo? ao?aoe iciio.

Iiaeeeai, a?eueo aaaeeeaa a?aei?ii?noue i?ae iiethnaie iiaycaia c
aioa?eoe/iith oee?eoeyoe??th – e?eueoeai oaeaeei oee?eoethth/iai
iia?o?y, ui iaiaaeo? ciio aeniaaeaiiy iciio.. ?oeioaaiiy iciio
ia/eia?oueny ia aa?ani? c iiaa?iaiiyi niiy/iiai na?oea, oa eiai ao?aoe
aeinyaathoue i?eo a aeiaoi?. A A?eoeoe?, aea ea?oeia oee?eoeyoe??
cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aioa?eoe/ii?, aei ii/aoeo iiey?ii? aanie io

Iaaiee aianie a ?oeiaoe?th iciiiaiai oi?o aiinyoue oaeiae aoeeai?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue oa aeeeaee no?aoinoa?ii? aa?aoe??.

Oae o 1982 ?. a?aeaoeiny aeaa?aeaiiy aoeeaia Aeue-*?/ii o Iaen?oe?.
Aeaa?aeaiiy ia aoei eaoano?io?/iei /e iaaecae/aeii aaeeeei ca
ianooaaaie, aea aeaui iacae/aeiei: no?oi?iue eiai aeeeaeo iaa aeoaea
aaeeeo oaeaee?noue ? oaeaeei aeinya no?aoinoa?e. Iniaeea?noue
oee?eoeyoe?? iia?o?y ia oeeo aenioao oaea, ui oia?a ia?aiineoueny
a?o?aie ia no?ae, caaa?ooth/e i?eaeecii ca aeaa oeaei? ?oo iaaeiei
Caie?. Iaeii/anii oia?a ?icoe?th?oueny ? iinooiiai ?icii?ioo?oueny ia
anth oa?eoi??th ieaiaoe. Aeoaea ae??aiaiuee? /anoi/ee iiaeooue
iioneaoeny c oaeeo aenio aeiieco aeiaai — i?ioyaii ?ie?a.

Iacaaiee aoeeai aeeeioa /eiaeo e?euee?noue oei?o, e??i cae/ieo aeey
aoeeai?a ieeo ? aoaeaeeneiai aaco. Oia?a, ui ooai?eeany i?ney eiai
aeeeaeo, aoea iii?oiith o?eaaeee /an o iia?o?? caaaeyee iineeaiiio
?icn?thaaiith niiy/iiai i?ii?iiy. Oiae c’yaeyeeny iacae/aeii aa?i? oa
?ioaineai? eieuei?e iaaa a /an caoiaeo Niioey oa ia?aae eiai iiyaith
?c-ca e?i?? ai?eciioo.

C /anii a?ae ciie aeaaoi?a aoiinoa?i? aeii?oee ia?aiinyoueny aei
iiethn?a, oiio aeeeaee oei?o aoeeaiii Aeue-*?/ii iiaee aeinyaiooe ?aeiio
I?aaeaiiiai iiethna. Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?icii?ioaiiy ?ioeo aeeeae?a ??cieo
aoeeai?a na?ae/eoue, ui c /anii ?oi?e aieea iiaeiai ciaiooaaoeny.
A?aoiaoth/e, oi cieaeaiiy ai?noo iciio iaae Aioa?eoeaeith ?icii/aeiny
caaeiaai aei aeaa?aeaiiy iaen?eainueeiai aoeeaia, ? iniaeeai oaeaeea
iiaeeaeaiiy iciiiai? ae??e i?eiaaea? ia ia??iae c 1985-1987??.

Aeaye? a/ai? (Eaiaeeaeao o?i?/ieo iaoe I. Iiaeeeaoiia) na?ae/aoue i?i
?aaeueio caa?ico iciiiaiio oa?o a?ae aoeeai?a Eai/aoee.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe A.I.Ao?aeaeia oa eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe
A.I.O?e?i a nai?o i?aoeyo aeathoue aaaaoi oe?eaaeo oa ia?aeiieeaeo
aeaieo i?i ae?th aeeeae?a no?aoaa?/ieo ?aeao oa oaoe?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e
ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oeeo aeeeae?a

Ca ?o na?ae/aiiyie o aeeeaeao an?o e?oae?a 0,1% ieneae?a acioo NI oa
NI2, ui i?ae ae??th OO-aei?ii?ithaaiiy niioey iaeaea ia oo?eio?oueny a
aoiinoa??. Iio?i iieaeoee NI a?athoue ?ieue ?oei?aiee?a iciio ca
?aaeoe?yie:

NO + O3 = NO2 + O2

NO2 + O3 = NO + 2 O2

NO2 = O = NO + O2

?oiaiao ?aaeoe?th iiaeia caienaoe oae:

I + I3 = 2 I2

Aoei i?ae?aoiaaii, ui aei iiiaioo naiai cieeiaiiy eiaeia iieaeoea
ieneaeo acioo cieuo? a na?aaeiueiio 10 iieaeoe iciio.

Ua a?eueo a?aaeath/? aeaii? aiie iaaiaeyoue uiaei aia?eeainueeiai
ei?aaey aaaaoi?aciaiai aeei?enoaiiy OAOOE

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaaaeai? oeeo?e, ana ae oaee aianie aoeeai?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? oa aeeeaee no?aoinoa?ii? aa?aoe??.a ?oeiaoe?th iciiiaiai
oa?o iacia/iee ii??aiyii c oaeei oei?ooi?aoaeaoeaaeo niieoe ni?eueii c
iiey?ieie no?aoinoa?ieie oia?aie.

Aeine?aeieee ia?aaeaa/athoue, ui e?euee?noue oei?o a aoiinoa?o aeinyaia
naiai i?ea a ia?oiio aeanyoe??//? ianooiiiai noie?ooy, oiio, ui
oei?ooi?aoaeaoeaa? niieoee iathoue iano?eueee aaeeeee /an aeeooy, ui
e?euee?noue oei?o a aoiinoa?? aoaea ia o?eueee caeeoaoeny iino?eiith (ia
aeeaey/enue ia /eneai? i?aeia?iaei? eiioa?aioe??, oaiaee oiui), a aoaea
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ?inoe aei na?aaeeie ianooiiiai noi??//y, a iiaea e aeae?.
Ioiae ao?aoe iciio iaeaeeae/ei /anii aoaeooue c?inoaoe a cii?
aioa?eoe/ii? iciiiai? ae??e. Iiaeeeaa iiaeai?iiy oeeo ao?ao.

?aaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ai?ioueae ca iciiiaee oa? ieaiaoe iiee ui i?ooi
ia cia?…

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE

Ei?nae E.A., Eioea?aiei I..ss.

Iciiiaa ae??a – neaiae iaaaciaee. – E: O-ai «Ciaiiy» O?N?, 1990- 48 n.

Ia?oia N.I., O?aeai A.O.

Aoiinoa?iue icii. – E: «Aeae?iiaoaiecaeao», 1980- 287 n.

Aeaieeia A.Ae., Ea?ieue E.E.

Aoiinoa?iue icii – nainaoeee e ?aaeueiinoue. – E.: «Aeae?iiaoaiecaeao»,
1991.- 120 n.

ISBN 5-286-006-49-3

I?oaiaa?a O.N., O?eoiiia TH.I.

Icii: acaeyae ec einiina. – I: «Ciaiea», 1990.- 64 n. – (Iiaia a aeecie
iaoea e oaoieea. Na?. «Einiiiaaoeea, ano?iiiiey»)

ISBN 5-07-00182-x

A ie?a iaoee (Scientific American,ecaeaiea ia ?onneii ycuea) ? 8.- I:
Ie?, 1991.-n. 34 – 41

A ie?a iaoee (Scientific American,ecaeaiea ia ?onneii ycuea) ? 3.- I:
Ie?, 1991.-n 6 – 13

The new GROLIER multimedia encyclopedia for MPC IBM PC’s & Compatibles,
release 6.- The Software Toolworks Inc., 1993

Eoiei A.A., Iiiae/ I.I., Oea/aiei N.I.

Oece/aneay oeiey iciia .- I:Ecae-ai IAO.-480n

ISBN 5-211-03719-7

Iniaeno? eiioaeoe c? ni?a?ia?oieeaie eiiiai?? NE Johnson Ee?a

IEAI EO?NIAI? ?IAIOE

1.Icii oa aeeooy

aieea no?aoinoa?iiai iciio ia aeeooy

?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie iciiiaiai oa?o

aeaye? i?aai?caoe??, ui nai?th iaoith iathoue caoeuaoe iciiiaee oa?
ieaiaoe

Iciiiaee ueo Caie?

aieea niiy/iiai na?oea ia Caieth

caoenoi? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny ? iciiiaiio oa?? ieaiaoe

O?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? iciio

caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? iciio

iioe/i? aeanoeaino? iieaeoe iciio

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iciiiai? ae??e

a?iioace ?? ooai?aiiy

OOA-INI oai??y

Aeniiaee

6. Aeioaoie

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO «EE?AI-IIAEEssINUeEA AEAAeAI?ss»

EO?NIAA ?IAIOA

Aeaye? aniaeoe i?iaeaie iciio

aeeiiaia nooaeaioeith OII-2

Ia?aaa?oaiue Ia???th Aiae???aiith

ea??aiee Aiaiethaia A.I.

Ee?a

1999?.

PAGE 1

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