Eiio?ieueia ?iaioa

1. Aieea ?aae?aoe?? ia ethaeeio. 2.Ina?aaeie a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy,
i?aaeea iiaaae?iee a ina?aaeeo aaeoa??aeia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy.

1. Aieea ?aae?aoe?? ia ethaeeio.

Ieai

1. Anooi no?.2

2. A?ieia?/ia ae?y ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy no?.2-4

3. ?aae?aoe?eia aaciaea no?.5-7

Ii?ii?iaiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ca inoaii? ?iee ca ?aooiie ooo/ieo
aeaea?ae ?aae?aoe??, a iniiaiiio iia’ycaia c iane?aeeaie aaa??? ia
*i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN, a oaeiae aenieoaoaoe??th ? “ae??aieie” aaa??yie ia
?ioeo AAN. I?i oea aeinoaoiuei aaaaoi ? aeieeaaeii iaienaii a
e?oa?aoo??.

Na?aae oaoiiaaiieo aeaea?ae ?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy ia nueiaiaei?
ethaeeia iaea?eueo ii?ii?ith?oueny i?ae /an iaaee/ieo i?ioeaaeo? ?
e?eoaaiiy, iia’ycaiiai ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?aae?iaeoeaiino?, aeaea?ae
?aae?aoe??.

?aae?aoe?y aeei?enoiao?oueny a iaaeeoeei? ye o ae?aaiinoe/ieo oe?eyo,
oae ? aeey e?eoaaiiy. Iaeiei ?c iaeiioe?ai?oeo iaaee/ieo i?eeaae?a a
?aioaai?anueeee aia?ao. Oaeiae ana a?eueoa iioe?ththoueny ? iia?
neeaaei? ae?aaiinoe/i? iaoiaee, ui nie?athoueny ia aeei?enoaiiy
?aae?i?cioii?a. Iaeiei ?c cania?a ai?ioueae c ?aeii, ye a?aeiii, ?
i?iiaiaaa oa?ai?y. A ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ??/ia eieaeoeaia aoaeoeaia
aea?aaeaioia aeica a?ae ?aioaai?anueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue noaiiaeoue
i?eaeecii 1000 oa ia 1 iei aeeoae?a.

Aeica, yeo iaea?aeo? ethaeeia, caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
aia?a??, u?eueiino? iioieo ? o?eaaeino? aieeao. I?ioa iiaeeiooa aeica
?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia a?aoiao? oiai, ui aieea ia a?ieia?/iee
ia’?eo iaei??? ? o??? ae aeice ??cieo aeae?a aei?ii?ithaaiue
iaiaeiaeiaee. Uia a?aooaaoe oeae aoaeoo aaaaeaii iiiyooy aea?aaeaioii?
aeice.

Aea?aaeaioia aeica ? i??ith a?ieia?/iiai aieeao aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia
eiie?aoio ethaeeio, oiaoi ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei e?eoa???i iaaaciaee,
coiiaeaiei ?ii?coth/ei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi. Ca iaeeieoeth aei??thaaiiy
aea?aaeaioii? aeice i?eeiyoee c?aa?o (Ca). C?aa?o aei??aith? iiaeeioo?e
aeic? a 1 Aeae/ea (aeey ?aioaai?anueeiai oa a, b aei?ii?ithaaiue).
Iicanenoaiiith iaeeieoeath neoaeeoue aa? (a?ieia?/iee aea?aaeaio ?aaea).
1 aa? = 0,01 Ca.

2. A?ieia?/ia ae?y ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy

I?ae aieeaii ?ii?caoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aoiie ? iieaeoee aeeaeo
ee?oei ?ii?cothoueny, a ?acoeueoao? /iai a?aeaoaathoueny neeaaei?
o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, ye? aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? iiaeaeueoi?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

Ca?aeii c iaeieie iiaeyaeaie, ?ii?caoe?y aoii?a ? iieaeoe, ui aeieea?
i?ae ae??th aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aaaea aei ?ic??aaiiy ca’yce?a o a?eeiaeo
iieaeoeao, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaeaae? ee?oei ? ii?acee anueiai
i?aai?cio. Ca?aeii c ?ioeie oyaeaiiyie, o oi?ioaaii? a?ieia?/ieo
iane?aee?a ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue i?iaeoeoe
?aae?ie?co aiaee, yea, ye a?aeiii, noaiiaeoue aei 70% iane i?aai?cio
ethaeeie. I?e ?ii?caoe?? aiaee ooai?ththoueny a?euei? ?aaeeeaee I+ oa
II-, a a i?enooiino? eenith — ia?ieneaei? niieoee, ui ? neeueieie
ieenethaa/aie. Inoaii? anooiathoue

o o?i?/io aca?iiae?th c iieaeoeaie a?ee?a oa oa?iaio?a, ?oeioth/e ?o, a
?acoeueoao? /iai ooai?ththoueny niieoee, ia aeanoea? aeeaiio i?aai?cio.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy iai?iieo i?ioean?a, i?eaiiaeaiiy
oa?iaioieo ? ie?aieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai, oiaoi ii?ooaiiy
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? anueiai i?aai?cio.

Aieea ?aae?iaeoeaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie iiaeia oyaeoe
a aeoaea ni?iuaiiio aeaeyae? oaeei /eiii. I?eiono?ii, ui a i?aai?ci?
ethaeeie a?aeaoaa?oueny ii?iaeueiee i?ioean o?aaeaiiy, ?aea, ui
iaaeoiaeeoue, ?iceeaaea?oueny ia a?eueo i?ino? niieoee, ye? iio?i
iaaeoiaeyoue /a?ac iaia?aio ona?aaeeio eiaeii? ee?oeie ? aoaeooue
aeei?enoai? ye aoae?aaeueiee iaoa??ae aeey a?aeoai?aiiy nia? iiae?aieo,
aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao ia o?ainii?ooaaiiy ?a/iaei ?
?oith ia?a?iaeo. I?ae /an iio?aieyiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iaia?aio
a?ae?aco ae ii?ooothoueny iieaeoey?i? ca’ycee, aoiie ia?aoai?ththoueny a
?iie. E??cue c?oeiiaaio iaia?aio a ee?oeio ii/eiathoue iaaeoiaeeoe
noi?iii? (oiene/i?) ?a/iaeie, ?iaioa ?? ii?ooo?oueny. sseui aeica
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaaaeeea, a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aeiia?iaoe?y aeaeo?ii?a, oiaoi
iiaa?iaiiy ?o ia nai? i?noey. Iieaeoey?i? ca’ycee a?aeiiaeththoueny, ?
ee?oeia i?iaeiaaeo? aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe??. sseui ae aeica ii?ii?iaiiy
aeniea aai aeoaea aaaaoi ?ac?a iiaoi?th?oueny, oi aeaeo?iie ia
anoeaathoue ?aeiia?ioaaoe; iieaeoey?i? ca’ycee ia a?aeiiaeththoueny;
aeoiaeeoue c eaaeo aaeeea e?euee?noue ee?oei; ?iaioa i?aai?a
?iceaaeio?oueny; ii?iaeueia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?cio noa?
iaiiaeeeaith.

Niaoeeo?/i?noue ae?? ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ioaineai?noue o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ?iaeooe?eiaaieo a?eueieie ?aaeeeaeaie,
i?aeaeuo?oueny, e o ieo aoyaothoueny aaaaoi nioaiue ? oeny/? iieaeoe, ia
ii?ooaieo ii?ii?iaiiyi. Oaeei /eiii, aoaeo ae?? ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy coiiaeaiee ia e?euee?noth iiaeeiooi? ia’?eoii, ui
ii?ii?ith?oueny, aia?a??, a oi?iith, a ye?e oey aia?a?y ia?aaea?oueny.
I?yeee ?ioee aeae aia?a?? (oaieiaa, aeaeo?e/ia oa ?i.), ui iiaeeia?oueny
a?ieia?/iei ia’?eoii o o?e nai?e e?eueeino?, ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo
ci?i, ye? ni?e/eiy? ?ii?coth/a aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Oaeiae iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe aeaye? iniaeeaino? ae?? ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie:

* i?aaie /oooy ia ?aaaothoue ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

* iae? aeice aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaeooue i?aenoiiaoaaoeny ? iaeiie/oaaoeny
a i?aai?ci? (eoioeyoeaiee aoaeo);

* aei?ii?ithaaiiy ae?? ia o?eueee ia aeaiee aeeaee i?aai?ci, aea ? ia
eiai, niaaeei?ioe?a (aaiaoe/iee aoaeo);

* ??ci? i?aai?cie iathoue ??cio /ooeea?noue aei aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Iaeneeuei?oiai aieeao caciathoue ee?oeie /a?aiiiai e?noeiaiai iiceo,
ueoiaeaeia caeica, eaaai?, aioo??oi? i?aaie, oiaoi i?aaie, ee?oeie yeeo
iathoue aenieee ??aaiue iiae?eo. I?e iaei?e ? o?e nai?e aeic?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy o ae?oae a?aaea?oueny a?eueoa ee?oei, i?ae o aei?ineeo,
oiio o ae?oae an? ee?oeie ia?aaoaathoue o noaae?? iiae?eo.

Iaaaciaea ??cieo ?aae?iaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aeey ethaeeie aecia/a?oueny
ni?iiiaei?noth i?aai?cio ?o iiaeeiaoe ? iaeiie/oaaoe.

?aae?iaeoeai? ?cioiie iaaeoiaeyoue ana?aaeeio i?aai?cio c ieeii,
iia?o?yi, ?aeath aai aiaeith ? iiaiaeyoue naaa ii-??ciiio: *aeaye?
?cioiie ?iciiae?eythoueny ??aiii??ii a i?aai?ci? ethaeeie (o?eo?e,
aoaeaoeue, cae?ci, iieii?e), * aeaye? iaeiie/othoueny a e?noeao (?aae?e,
oinoi?, no?iioe?e), *?io? caeeoathoueny a i’ycao (eae?e, ?oa?ae?e,
oeac?e), * iaeiie/othoueny a ueoiaeaei?e caeic? (eiae), o ia/?ioe?,
ie?eao, naeac?ioe? (?ooai?e, iieii?e, i?ia?e) oiui.

Aoaeoe, aeeeeeai? ae??th ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue (?aae?aoe??),
nenoaiaoecothoueny ca aeaeaie ooeiaeaeaiue ? /anii i?iyao. Ca aeaeaie
ooeiaeaeaiue ?o iiae?eythoue ia o?e a?oie: niiaoe/i?,
niiaoeei-noioaoe/i? (aeiaaeeia?, eiia??i?), aaiaoe/i?. Ca /anii i?iyao
aeae?eythoue aea? a?oie —’ ?aii? (aai aino??) ? i?ci?. ?aii? o?aaeaiiy
aoaathoue o?eueee niiaoe/i?. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei nia?o? aai i?iiaiaai?
oai?iae. Iinoa/aeueieeii oaeeo /anoie ? a iniiaiiio ?cioiie, ui iathoue
ei?ioeo o?eaae?noue aeeooy, y — aei?ii?ithaaiiy, iio?e iaeo?ii?a.

Aino?a oi?ia aeieea? a ?acoeueoao? ii?ii?iaiiy aaeeeeie aeicaie ca
ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano. I?e aeicao ii?yaeeo oeny/ ?aae o?aaeaiiy
i?aai?cio iiaea aooe ieoo?aei. O?ii?/ia oi?ia ?icaeaa?oueny a
?acoeueoao? o?eaaeiai ii?ii?iaiiy aeicaie, ui ia?aaeuothoue e?i?oe aeice
(EAe). A?eueo a?aeaeaeaieie iane?aeeaie i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe i?iiaiaa? eaoa?aeoe,

* ceiye?ni? iooeeie oa ?ioa.

Aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy ia?aaeon?i
aeeeeeathoue ?ioa?an aoaeoe, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e iaeeo aeicao
ii?ii?iaiiy — ii?yaeeo aeae?eueea naioeceaa??a ia aiaeeio, ui ?aaeueii
o?aieythoueny i?e i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaii? aoiiii? aia?a??. O ii?iao
?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee I?AO-97, aaaaeaieo 1998 p., ye iaeeieoe? /ano
aeei?enoiao?oueny ??e aai iiiyooy ??/ii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy. Oea
aeeeeeaii, ye cacia/aeiny ?ai?oa, aoaeoii iaeiie/aiiy “iaeeo” aeic ?
?oiueiai noia?iiai aieeao ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

?niothoue ??ciiiai?oi? ii?ie ?aae?iaeoeaiiai ca?aaeaiiy: ?acia?,
noia?i?, a?aie/ii i?eionoei? oa ?ioa. An? aiie iienai? a niaoe?aeueieo
aeia?aeieeao.

EAe caaaeueiiai ii?ii?iaiiy ethaeeie aaaaea?oueny aeica, yea o na?oe?
/no/anieo ciaiue ia iiaeiia aeeeeeaoe cia/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue i?aai?cio
i?ioyaii aeeooy.

Oi?ie i?iiaiaai? oai?iae: aino?a ? o?ii?/ia.

AIAe aeey — ethaeae, ye? iino?eii i?aoeththoue c ?aae?iaeoeaieie
?a/iaeiaie, noaiiaeoue 2 aa? ia ??e. I?e oe?e aeic? ia niinoa??aa?oueny
niiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue, i?ioa aeinoia??ii iiee iaa?aeiii, yeei /eiii
?aae?cothoueny eaioea?iaaiiee ? aaiaoe/iee aoaeoe ae??. Oeth aeico ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye aa?oith iaaeo, aei yei? ia aa?oi iaaeeaeaoeny.

3. ?aae?aoe?eia aaciaea

Ieoaiiy caoenoo ethaeeie a?ae iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iinoaee iaeaea iaeii/anii c a?aee?eooyi ?aioaai?anueeiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai ?iciaaeo. Oea coiiaeaii oaeeie
oaeoi?aie: ii-ia?oa, iaaecae/aeii oaeaeeei ?icaeoeii canoinoaaiiy
a?aee?eoeo aei?ii?ithaaiue a iaooe? oa ia i?aeoeoe?, ?, ii-ae?oaa,
aeyaeaiiyi iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia i?aai?ci.

Caoiaee ?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee aeei?enoiaothoueny ia i?aei?e?inoaao ?, ye
i?aaeei, iio?aaothoue i?iaaaeaiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno ??ciiiai?oieo
caoenieo caoiae?a, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ?iaioe c
aeaea?aeaie ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue ?, ia?aaeon?i, a?ae oeio
aeaea?aea aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

* Cae?eoeie iaceaathoueny aoaeue-ye? aeaea?aea ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ono??e yeeo aeeeth/a? i?iieeiaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaieo
?a/iaei o iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua i?e ia?aaeaa/aieo oiiaao ?oiuei?
aenieoaoaoe?? ? ciino.

Oea — aaiia-onoaiiaee ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy; iaeo?iii?, aaoa-?
aaiia-aei?ii?ithaa/?; ?aioaai?anuee? aia?aoe ? i?enei?thaa/?
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie. I?e ?iaio? c cae?eoeie aeaea?aeaie ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia?niiae iiaea caciaaaoe o?eueee ciai?oiueiai
ii?ii?iaiiy.

Caoeni? caoiaee, ui aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe oiiae ?aae?aoe?eii?
aaciaee i?e canoinoaaii? cae?eoeo aeaea?ae, iniiaai? ia ciaii? caeii?a
iioe?aiiy ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue ? oa?aeoa?o ?oiuei? aca?iiae?? c
?a/iaeiith. Aieiai? c ieo oae?:

> aeica ciai?oiueiai ii?ii?iaiiy i?iii?oe?eia ?ioaineaiino?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? /ano aieeao;

> ?ioaineai?noue aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae oi/eiaiai aeaea?aea i?iii?oe?eia
e?eueeino? eaaio?a aai /anoie, ui aeieeathoue o iueiio ca iaeeieoeth
/ano, ? iaa?iaii I?iii?oe?eia eaaae?aoo a?aenoai?;

> ?ioaineai?noue aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaea aooe ciaioaia ca aeiiiiiaith

ae?ai?a.

C oeeo caeiiii??iinoae aeieeaathoue iniiai? i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy
?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee:

1) ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino? aeaea?ae aei i?i?iaeueieo ?ici???a (“caoeno
e?euee?noth”);

2) nei?i/aiiy /ano ?iaioe c aeaea?aeii (“caoeno /anii”);

3) ca?eueoaiiy a?aenoai? a?ae aeaea?ae aei ethaeae (“caoeno
a?aenoaiith”);

4) ae?aioaaiiy aeaea?ae aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaoa??aeaie, ui iiaeeiathoue
?ii?coth/a aei?ii?ithaaiiy (“caoeno ae?aiii”).

Iaee?aueie aeey caoenoo a?ae ?aioaai?anueeiai ? aaiia-aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?
naeiaoeue ? o?ai. I?ioa, c iaeyaeo ia aenieo aa?o?noue naeioeth e o?aio,
Iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny ae?aie c a?eueo eaaeeo iaoa??ae?a —
i?inaeioeueiaaiiai neea, cae?ca, aaoiio, cae?ciaaoiio ? iaa?oue aiaee. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo, i?e?iaeii, aea?aaeaioia oiaua ae?aio cia/ii
ca?eueoo?oueny.

Aeey caoenoo a?ae aaoa-iioie?a aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe ae?aie, ye?
aeaioiaeai? c iaoa??ae?a c iaeei aoiiiei /eneii. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aeo?ae aaeuei?aiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaaaeeeee. Cae/aeii ye ae?aie aeey
caoenoo a?ae aaoa-aei?ii?ithaaiue aeei?enoiaothoue i?aai?/ia neei,
ieanoiano, aethi?i?e.

A?aee?eoeie iaceaathoueny oae? aeaea?aea ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
i?e aeei?enoaii? yeeo iiaeeeaa iio?aieyiiy ?aae?iaeoeaieo ?a/iaei o
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua.

I?e Oeueiio iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ia o?eueee ciai?oi?, aea ? aeiaeaoeiaa
aioo??oi? ii?ii?iaiiy ia?niiaeo. Oea iiaea a?aeaooeny i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii?
?aae?iaeoeaieo ?cioii?a o iaaeieeoi? ?iai/a na?aaeiaeua o aeaeyae?
aac?a, aa?icie?a, a oaeiae oaa?aeeo ? ??aeeeo ?aae?iaeoeaieo a?aeoiae?a:
Aeaea?aeaie aa?icie?a iiaeooue aooe ia o?eueee aeeiioaai? ae?iaie/?
iia?aoe??, aea ? caa?oaeiai? ?aae?iaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie ?iai/? iiaa?oi?,
niaoeiaeya ? acoooy.

Iniiai? i?eioeeie caoenoo:

> aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeei?a caoenoo, ui canoiniaothoueny i?e ?iaio? c
aeaea?aeaie aei?ii?ithaaiiy o cae?eoiio aeae?;

> aa?iaoecaoe?y ae?iaie/iai onoaoeoaaiiy c iaoith ?cieyoe?? i?ioean?a,
ui iiaeooue noaoe aeaea?aeaie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaieo ?a/iaei o
ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua;

> caoiaee ieaioaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

> canoinoaaiiy nai?oa?ii-oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? onoaoeoaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo caoenieo iaoa??ae?a;

> aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caoenoo ? nai?oa?ii? ia?iaee
ia?niiaeo;

> aeio?eiaiiy i?aaee iniaenoi? a?a??ie;

> i/euaiiy a?ae ?aae?iaeoeaieo caa?oaeiaiue iiaa?oiiue aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e, aia?aoo?e ? cania?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caoenoo;

> aeei?enoaiiy ?aae?ii?ioaeoi??a (a?ieia?/iee caoeno).

?aae?iaeoeaia caa?oaeiaiiy niaoeiaeyao, cania?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
caoenoo oa oe??e ia?niiaeo ia iiaeiii ia?aaeuoaaoe i?eionoeieo ??ai?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieo Ii?iaie ?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee I?AO-97.

O aeiaaeeo caa?oaeiaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie iniaenoee iaeya ?
acoooy iiaeii? i?ieoe aeacaeoeaaoe?th i?ae eiio?ieai neoaeae
?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee, a o aeiaaeeo iaiiaeeeaino? aeacaeoeaaoe?? ?o
ne?ae caoi?iieoe ye ?aae?iaeoeai? a?aeoiaee.

?aioaaii?aae?ieia?/i? i?ioeaaeo?e iaeaaeaoue aei iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee caoai?thaaiue ethaeeie. Oea aecia/a? iiaeaeueoa
c?inoaiiy canoinoaaiiy ?aioaaia- ? ?aae?ieia?/ieo i?ioeaaeo? aai
aeei?enoaiiy ?o o oe?oeo ianooaaao. I?ioa ?ioa?ane aaciaee iaoe??io?a
ciaia’ycothoue i?aaiooe aei iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai cieaeaiiy ??ai?a
ii?ii?iaiiy, ine?eueee aieea ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aoaeue-ye?e
aeic? ii?aeiaiee c aeiaeaoeiaei, a?aei?iiei a?ae ioey ?eceeii aeieeiaiiy
a?aeaeaeaieo ,noioanoe/ieo aoaeo?a. O aeaiee /an c iaoith cieaeaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? eieaeoeaieo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy ianaeaiiy ca ?aooiie
ae?aaiinoeee oe?iei canoiniaothoueny i?aai?caoe?ei? ? oaoi?/i? caoiaee:

• ye aeiyoie iaiaa?oioiaai? (oiaoi aac aeiaaaeaiue) aeine?aeaeaiiy;

• ci?ia no?oeoo?e aeine?aeaeaiue ia ei?enoue oeo, ui aeathoue iaioa
aeiciaa iaaaioaaeaiiy;

• ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? aia?aoo?e, iniauaii? no/aniith aeaeo?iiiith
oaoi?eith iineeaiiai a?coaeueiiai cia?aaeaiiy;

• canoinoaaiiy ae?ai?a aeey caoenoo ae?eyiie o?ea, ui i?aeeyaathoue
aeine?aeaeaiith, oiui.

Oe? caoiaee, i?ioa, ia ae/a?iothoue i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii?
aaciaee iaoe??io?a ? iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeeo ae?aaiinoe/ieo
iaoiae?a. Nenoaia caaacia/aiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee iaoe??io?a iiaea
aooe iiaiith e aoaeoeaiith, yeui aiia aoaea aeiiiaiaia a?a??i?/ieie
?aaeaiaioaie i?eionoeieo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy.

2.Ina?aaeie a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy, i?aaeea iiaaae?iee a ina?aaeeo
aaeoa??aeia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy

1. Ina?aaeie a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy

Oiane?aeie canoinoaaiiy ai?iaii a?ieia?/ii? ca?i? ooai?th?oueny ciia
a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy. Ciiith a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy iaceaa?oueny
oa?eoi??y, ui iio?aieea i?ae ae?th a?ieia?/ii? ca?i?, ? oa?eoi??y, ia
yeo iioe?th?oueny a?ieia?/ia ?aoeaioo?a (ia?aiiniee?a ?ioaeoe??).

Ia oa?eoi??? aea i?ney canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii? ca?i? aeieeee iania?
ca?aaeaiiy ethaeae oa oaa?ei, iaceaa?oueny ina?aaeeii a?ieia?/iiai
o?aaeaiiy.

Aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iioe?aiiy ?ioaeoe?? caoai?thaaiiy a ina?aaeeo
a?ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy anoaiiaeth?oueny ea?aioei. Ea?aioei aaiaeeoueny
oiae?, eiee anoaiiaeaii oaeo canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii? ca?i?. Ea?aioeiiee
?aaeei ia?aaeaa/a? iiaio ?cieyoe?th ina?aaeea o?aaeaiiy a?ae ioi/oth/iai
ianaeaiiy. Ia ciai?oi?e iaae? ciie ea?aioeio anoaiiaeth?oueny ioi?iia,
i?aai?ciao?oueny eiiaiaeaonueea neoaeaa. Caai?iiy?oueny aeo?ae ethaeae,
aeaaaeaiiy oaa?ei oa aeiin iaeia ca iaae? ciie ea?aioeio. I?aeoeoe
oa?/oaaiiy, ieoia aiaea oa i?aaeiaoe oe?ieiai aaeeoeo iinoa/athoueny.
I?eieiy?oueny ?iaioa on?o i?aei?e?inoa oa caeeaae?a, e??i oeo, ui
iathoue iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa (?ia?oieee oa
neoaeaiaoe? ia?aoiaeyoue ia eaca?iaia noaiiaeua.

No?ie ea?aioeio e iana?aaoe?? anoaiiaeth?oueny caeaaeii a?ae
?ieoaaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo caoai?thaaiiy, c iiiaioo aini?oae?caoe??
inoaiiueiai oai?iai ? cae?i/aiiy aeac?ioaeoe??.

2.I?aaeea iiaaae?iee a ina?aaeeo aaeoa??ieia?/iiai o?aaeaiiy.

? Iaeyaiooe aaoii-ia?eaao iia”yceo. Iaia”yceiai i?iaiaeeoe uiaeaiia
aieiaa i?eae?aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aeac?io?eoth/eo ?ic/ei?a. Ni?ooy
niaethaaoe;

? Noai?i aeio?eioaaoenue i?aaee iniaenoi? ? a?iiaaenueei? a?a?ie.
?aoaeueii ieoe ?oee c ieeii. Aiaeo aeei?enoiaoaaoe c ia?aa??aieo
aeaea?ae ? ieoe o?eueee eei”y/aio. Ne?? iai/? ? o?oeoe i?ney ieooy
iaeeaaoe ie?iiii;

? Aeiaeyaeath/e oai?iai iaeyaiooe oaeao, oonoeieo ? aaoii-ia?eaao
iia”yceo. ?ia?oiee?a, ye? caoai??ee ?ioaeoe?eiei caoai?thaaiiyi,
iaiao?aeii ?ciethaaoe. O i?ei?uaii?, aea ia?aaoaa? oai?ee, aea?/? ia
aeaiue ?iaeoe aieiaa i?eae?aiiy ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeac?io?eoth/eo caia?a;

? Ethaeyi, ye? ni?eeothoueny c oai?ei, eaoaai?e/iiai caai?iiy?oueny
aeoiaeeoe c eaa?oe?e oa ni?eeoaaoenue c ?ioeie;

? O ?ac? aini?oae?caoe?? oai?iai c?iaeoe o eaa?oe?? aeac?ioaeoe?th,
iino?eueio a?eecio ? iinoae eei”yoeoe i?ioyaii 15 oaeeei o 2% ?ic/ei?
niaee ? caii/eoe ia 2 aiaeeie o 2% ?ic/ei? aeac?io?eoth/iai caniao.
Caiaeii iinoae iiieoe aa?y/ith aiaeith, a?eecio aei?anoaaoe, e?iiaoo
i?ia??eoe.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

§ Aaciaea aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. I?ae?o/iee. – E., 2000.

§ Aaciaea aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. Iaa/aeueiee
iin?aiee.-“Ciaiiy”E.,2002

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