OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO ?EAIIAI AINIIAeA?NOAA

AOIAAe Aooae

OAeE
574.64:597.08

AIEEA OIENEEAIO?A ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb 2+ )

IA A?II?IAeOEOe?EI? IA?AIAO?E IIEIAe? ?EA

03.00.10 – ?oo?ieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio AAIAeCTH?A
AIEIAeEIE? IAO?IAE*, aeieoi?aio eaoaae?e ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?AOOOAIEI IEEIEA TH??EIAE*, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo ?oo?ieia?? ?inoeoooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAIO;

— eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe NEAeI?IA IEEIEA
AIAe??EIAE*, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? aeaaeoeueoo?e
?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 20 ”_n?/iy 1999 ?ieo
i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.364.01
i?e ?inoeooo? ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo
iaoe ca aae?anith: 252164, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaoo?anueea, 135.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI ca aae?anith: 252164, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaoo?anueea, 135

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21”_a?oaeiy_1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe N.A.
E?aaeai

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A eiiieaen? ?oo?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
a?ae/oaa?oueny iaaaeueia iio?aaa anaa?/iiai a?aooaaiiy aieeao yeino?
aiaee ia i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ea. A iniia? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia? eaaeaoe ?oo?i-oieneeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia, ui ia?aaeaa/a?, ii?yae c
o?aaeeoe?eieie a?ae?ia?ieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie ioe?iee yeino? iiaa?oiaaeo
aiae, aeeth/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo a?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a, ui aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue iaaa-oeaiee aieea caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei ia
i?aai?ci ?ea (?aoooaiei, 1991). Na?aae oaeeo ?ioaa?aeueieo ia?aiao??a
/?eueia i?noea iathoue iin?noe i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e, ui a
?ioaa?aeuei?e oi?i? a?aeia?aaeothoue oiiae ?nioaaiiy ?ea oa ?ioeo
a?ae?ia?iio?a. I?ioa oe? aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue –
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? oa aeioieneeieia?/i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ?icaeaaeeny
iaeaea iacaeaaeii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai (A?aaeineee, 1988). A oiiaao ae?ae
iai?oaeaiiai aeioieneeieia?/iiai noaio ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aiaeiei
Oe?a?ie aino?i iinoa? i?iaeaia ?o a?i?iaeeeaoe?? oa aeieia?/iiai
icaei?iaeaiiy (?aoooaiei, 1997; ?iiaiaiei, 1997).

Iniaeeaa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia ?eaia
ianaeaiiy Iaeenoaio iaoiiaeaia aenieei ??aiai ?oiueiai caa?oaeiaiiy
i?iieneiaeie no?/ieie aiaeaie (Al-Akel, 1996).

Aiaeii/an ae?ae iaiaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y c ieoaiue aieeao aaaeeeo
iaoae?a ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea — ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no c iaeiiai
aieo oiaiiaeeeaeth? ei?aeoi? ?ic?aooiee ?eaii?iaeoeoeiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiaiiy, a c ?ioiai — iicaaaey?
aeioieneeieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaothui? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace c
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea, ye? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Oeei ? iaoiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca*ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca?aeii oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e ii oai? ? 97/091 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaa?eiiiai
na?oo Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie na?oiai? oaoie, ii?oi-o?c?ieia?/ieo
? aeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oaa?ei oa ?aaoeyoe?? aeayeeo ia?aiao??a ?o
iiioeyoe?e a oiiaao ye?nieo ci?i aeiae?eey”, yea aoiaeeoue aei
eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Ioi?iia
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: Iaoith ?iaioe aoei c*ynoaaiiy aieeao
iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oieneeaio?a – o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth ia
iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea ? ia aeaiaioe ?o
oinoi?iiai iai?io.

Aeey oeueiai o?aaa aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

—aea/eoe aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oieneeaio?a ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o ?ea
? o?iio – ia a?aeiiniee ai?no oinoi?o o o?e? ?ea;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia
aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e;

— anoaiiaeoe a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o na?aaeiaeu?;

— ?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee oieneeaio?a o aiae? ? yeino? na?aaeiaeua a oe?eiio oa
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy c oe??th iaoith ?iaeaena iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua (?IN) (Aaiaecth?a, 1993).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia cia/iiio
iaoa??ae? aeine?aeaeaii aieea oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, naeioeth ? i?eaeth
ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea – ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no.
Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o aiae?. Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueoith /ooeea?noth c
aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a a?ae??ciy?oueny ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui o?ii ? i?eaeue o eiioeaio?aoe?yo
a?ae 1 AIE (aeey o?iio a?ae 0,001ia/e; aeey i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 ia/e) ?
aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea—cia/ia
c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ui a?aoo? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy eiai
a?aeiiniiai ai?noo a o?e? ?ea. Oaeei /eiii caii/aoeiaaii oe?ieiiaooaaia
aea/aiiy e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea a
oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue ca-noinoaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee oie-neeaio?a o
aiae?. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue ei?aeoiiai aea/aiiy
a?ii?i-aeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea ? iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia-/aiiy ?eaii?iaeoeoeaiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiia?aaei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeanii?o/ii aeeiiaii aanue
ianya aenia?e-iaioaeueieo ?ia?o, o?i?/iee aiae?c i?ia, noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a, aiae?c e?oa?a-oo?e. Aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee ? cai?iiiiiaai? iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ca ?a-coeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ciieia??, ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1997), ia Ae?oaiio c*?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiaai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, i?enay/ai?e iai*yo?
A.I.Ea?eoeia (Iieoaaa, 1998), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a, 20 i?ae?ic-ae?e?a, aeeth/a? 14 oaaeeoeue oa 20 ?enoie?a.
?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 115 noi??ieao iaoeiiien-iiai oaenoo. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 243 aeaea?aea.

IAOA??AE OA IAOIAeE
AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee aieiaiei /eiii ia iieiae? aoi? Poecilia
reticulata ? cieioi? ?eaee Carassius auratus auratus. Oeeo ?ea
aeei?enoiaothoue ye oano-ia*?eoe a oieneeieia?/ieo aen-ia?eiaioao a
NOA, ssiii??, ?iae??, Aieaiae??, e?a?iao NIAe (Eoeueyiaiei,1985;
Aanueeiaaoe e ae?., 1991). I?e aeine?aeaeaii? neeaaeiaeo oinoi?iiai
iai?io aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae iieiaeue ie?oee (Rutilus rutilus), eeia
(Tinca tinca) ? ieoiy (Perca fluviatilis). Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee a 10 —
oe e?o?iaeo aeaa??oiao c i?aai?/iiai neea. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaee
oo?eioaaeany a iaaeao 201 0N ca aeiiiiiaith oa?ii?aaoeyoi??a,
oe?eiaeiaiaa aa?aoe?y caaacia/oaaeany i?e?ieiii-?ani?aie. A eiaei?e
na??? aeine?ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iieiaeue c iaeiiai iiiaoo, iaea?aeaio a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Iieiaeue ie?oee, eeia ? ieoiy a?aeeiaethaaee ia
i?eeiaiaeaeyo Eai?anueeiai aiaeinoiaeua. A?aeae?aee iaeii?ici??ieo
iniaei, ye? aeia?a naaa ii/oaaee ? ia aeyaeyee iciae noo?aiaaiino?.
Aee?iaoe?y aei oiia aenia?eiaioo o?eaaea 2 — 3 oeaei?. Iio?i a eiaeiee
aeaa??oi iii?uaee ii e?eueea (aeecueei 10) iaeii?ici??ieo iniaei
eiaeiiai aeaeo. 2 aeaa??oie neoaoaaee eiio?ieai – ?ea a ieo oo?eioaaee
aac oieneeaio?a. Ii eiaei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaioo caeeaaeaee 3
ia?aeaeuei? aeine?aee. Eiioeaio?aoe?th oieneeaioo aeae?aee, aeoiaey/e c
eiai ?eaiainiiaea?nueei? AIE (a?aie/ii i?eionoeii? eiioeaio?aoe??) ? aei
eiioeaio?aoe?e, ye? ?noioii aieeaaee ia aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e. Oea
neeaaeaei: aeey oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio — a?ae 0,001 aei 50 ia/e; aeey
i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 aei 50 ia/e; aeey naeioeth — a?ae 0,1 aei 10 ia/e.
Oieneeaioe aiineee o aeaeyae? a?o?iiaoo eae?th K2Cr2O7, noeueoaoo
i?eaeth NiSO4 ? i?o?aoo naeioeth PbNO3. Uiaeiy aiaeo a aeaa??oiao
iiai?noth ci?ithaaee ia a?aenoiyio i?ioyaii o?ueio ae?a aiaeii?ia?aeio.
I?e oeueiio ui?aco aiineee iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue oieneeaioo aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy eiai iino?eii? eiioeaio?aoe?? o aiae?. O?eaae?noue eiaeiiai
aenia?eiaioo neeaaeaea 28 ae?a. Aiaeoaaee ?ea o?oai/ieeii Tubifex
tubifex ? ee/eieaie o??iiii?ae. Uioeaeiy ?ea caaaeoaaee ia oi?n?eieo
aai ia aioaea?nueeeo oa?acao (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o ?ici??o). Aeeoaiiy
aecia/aee a caieiaieo ?ani??iiao?ao o?e/? ia aeiao, aeniiceoe?y eiaeiiai
— aiaeeia, eenaiue aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii A?ieea?a (Aeaeei e ae?.,1973).

Ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca oi?ioeith (Aeiyia?aaoeea
e ?ino ?ua, 1983):

ln m2/m1

g = ——— ;

t2 — t1

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; m1 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano t1;
m2 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano t 2.

Aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no (E1)
?ic?aoiaoaaee ye a?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo iane o?ea ?ea aei iane niiaeeoi?
ca /an aeine?aeaeaiue ?ae? (Caeea, 1983; Ua?aeia, 1983).

Ia iniia? ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?
ia ??no ?ic?aoiaoaaee iieaciee iioeiaiaeueiino? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano
– (II) ca oi?ioeith (Aaiaecth?a, 1991):

II = g x E1 ;

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; E1 — aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no. Oeae ia?aiao? (II) cai?iiiiiaaii o ca*yceo c
oei, ui a iaeieo aeiaaeeao cia/ia ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ae?, a ?ioeo — ia oe?
iacia/ieo oaii?a ?inoo niinoa??aa?oueny aeineoue aeniea aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?, ? oiio /anii iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe, ye? oiiae a?eueo
ni?eyoeea? aeey i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?i-oeano. A ca iieacieeii
iioeiaeueiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe o? oiiae, ca yeeo ia? i?noea cia/ia
ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aeniea aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae?. Oea
aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe i?ae niaith ye?noue aiaee iaeii/anii ca
?ioaineai?noth oa aoaeoeai?noth a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua aeey
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano – ?IN ( Aaiaecth?a, 1993):

?IN = (II? / IIa) o 100%;

aea: IIi — iieaciee iioeiaeueiino? a i-oiio na?aaeiaeu? (a eiaeiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeine?ae?); IIa — a aoaeiiiiio na?aaeiaeu? (o eiio?ie?).

Aeey a?eueo iiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea a
oiiaao aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a aea/aee oaeiae ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
— c iaeyaeo ia aenieo /ooeea?noue oeueiai ia?aiao?o aei ci?i o noai?
aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (?iiaiaiei, Aaoooaiei, Eioea?ue, 1980) oa aaaeeeao
?ieue oinoi?o a i?ioeanao ieanoe/iiai ? aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io (
?iia-iaiei, A?nai, Nieiiaoeia, 1982), a oaeiae ai?no caaaeueiiai oinoi?o
o o?e? ?ea, ui i?ioyaii 45 ae?a oo?eioaaeeny a oiiaao iayaiino?
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o aiae?.

Aene?aoe?th oinoi?o aecia/aee oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aaeainiaeo
aeine?ae?a (?oeiaiaenoai ii iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiee oeceieiaee ?ua,
1962) a aeaa??oiao, iaeei c yeeo eeoaany aac ?ea ? neoaoaaa eiio?ieai, o
aeaio ?ioeo aoea ?eaa (ii e?eueea aecaiiey??a o eiaeiiio), aaee/eio
aene?aoiaaiiai oinoi?o aecia/aee ca ??cieoeath eiai ai?noo a
aenia?eiai-oaeueieo aeaa??oiao ? o eiio?ieueiiio i?ney aeiaiai?
aeniiceoe??. Oinoi? aecia/aee eiei?eiao?e/iei iie?aaeaoii-no?ueiyiiaei
iaoiaeii c anei?a?iiaith eeneioith (Goltarman, 1969) c ianooiiith
aeno?aeoe??th aaenaiieii (Stephens, 1963). Aieea aeeaeaiiy ia iai?ii?
i?ioeane aea/aee oaeei /eiii. ?ea aeo?eioaaee 3 aeiae aac ei?io, i?ney
/iai aei??thaaee ??aaiue ?oiueiai aeeoaiiy oa aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. Iio?i
a aeine?aei? aeaa??oie aiineee ?aeo (o?oai/iee aai ee/eiie o??iiii?ae),
iano yei? aecia/aee oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy ia oi?n?eieo oa?acao c oi/i?noth
aei 1 ia. I?e/iio ei?i aiineee c iaaeeeoeii. *a?ac 24 aiaeeie aecia/aee
iano iac*?aeaiiai ei?io oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy eiai caeeoeo ? oaeei /eiii
?ic?aoiaoaaee aaee/eio niiaeeoiai ?aoe?iio. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aaee/eio
?aoe?iio aaaaeaee ca iaeneiaeueio. I?ioyaii ianooiieo o?ueio ae?a
aiineee uiaeiy iieiaeio a?ae aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai ?aoe?iio ? ciiao
aei??thaaee ??aaiue iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaia ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie ( Eaeei, 1980
).

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeaii c 10 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo ii 5 aa?aciy 1998
?ieo. Anueiai i?iaaaeaii 124 aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a
o?e? 4 aeae?a ?ea; 16 na??e 28-ie aeiaiaeo aeine?ae?a ii aea/aiith
aieeao oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiaoa?e ?ea; anueiai 2786
aecia/aiue iane o?ea ?ea a i?ioean? ?inoo, 458 ?ani??aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a,
198 aecia/aiue ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o o?ueio aeae?a ?ea.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea o?iio ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? oa ieoiii?
oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee a?eii a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a iieacaee,
ui i?e?inoe iane o?ea ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? a?ae 0,001 aei 0,1
ia/e ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeeny i?ae niaith (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1. Iana o?ea ? e?euee?noue niiaeeoi? ?ae? o aeaii?ny/ii?
cieioi? ?eaee i?ney 28-ie aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio o aiae? (iana o?ea 1 aec. ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeo
neeaaeaea 1487 ia). n = 10

Eiioeaio?aoe?y

o?iio o aiae?, ia Cr6+/eIana o?ea 1 aec. i?ney 28 ae?a aeine?aeo,
ia I?e??no iane o?-

ea o 1 aec. Ca

28 ae?a, ia Iana niiaee-

oi? ?ae? ca 28 ae?a, ia/aec Yoaeoeai?noue

aeei?enoaiiy

?ae? ia ??no, % Eiio?ieue614 124662361 12 19,70,001619
144712211 13 21,30,010640 114921939 19 25,50,100609
134612100 18 21,91,000508 173601881 11 19,1
10,000219 12 711217 17 5,8 50,000163 17 151358 25
1,1a?ae eiio?ieth, a oie /an ye aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia
??no aoea iaeneiaeueiith ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,01 ia/e (oaae.1).
Aiaeii/an ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o eiio?ie? ?eae niiaeeaaee ?ae? a?eueoa,
i?ae ca aoaeue-yei? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae?. Oaeei /eiii,
iayai?noue o?iio iaa?oue o e?eueeino? 0,001 ia/e (ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE) iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?ioaineai?noue niiaeeaaiiy
?ae?. Ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? 10 ? 50 ia/e i?e?inoe iane o?ea ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no cieaeothoueny aeineoue ?noioii.
Ia iniia? aeaieo oaae.1 aoee ?ic?aoiaai? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua aeey i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeey
c?o/iino? ia?aiao?e aeai? o % a?ae eiio?ieth (?en.1). Noiaeo ea?oeio
niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c iieiaeaeth aoi? (?en.2).

wmetafile8? ??ue?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
KJ???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy?????? oi? ?eaee (a?eii 1-2 i?nyoe?)
oa ?IN?en.2.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o aoi?

(a?eii 1-2 i?nyoe?) oa ?IN O aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth
ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo neeaaeaea 3,860,18 %; aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea 18,670,39 %. Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio a?ae 0,001 aei 0,05 ia/e ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no aeaui c?inoa-thoue, a ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio
1 ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia cieaeaiiey aeaieo ia?aiao??a (?en.2).
I?e/iio a ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e a?ae 1 aei 50 ia Cr6+/e aiie
ci?iththoueny ia iaeiicia/ii (iathoue i?noea eieeaaiiy oeeo aaee/ei). A
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua cieaeo?oueny i?yii i?iii?oe?eii
eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaioo (?en.2).

I?e ii??aiyii? aeine?ae?a c aieeao o?iio ia iieiaeue cieioi? ?eaee
? aoi? iaeiaeiaiai a?eo iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aoi? cia/ii
/ooeea?o? aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en. 1-2). Oae, ca eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio 1 ia/e o cieioeo ?eaie a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aoee aeecueeeie
aei eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue, a oie /an ye o aoi? aiie neeaaeaee eeoa
iaaaeeeo /anoeo a?ae ?o eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ? oa ianoaaeia, ui a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei
ci?ithaaeenue i?ioyaii 28 ae?a. Aiaeii/an ca oiia ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
o?iio aeeiai?ea oeeo ia?aiao??a aoea aeineoue neeaaeiith (?en.3 — 4).
Cia/i? eieeaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a o /an? na?ae/aoue, c
iaeiiai aieo, i?i nooi?i/aoee oa?aeoa? i?enoinoaaiiy ?ea aei oiia
oiene/iiai na?aaeiaeua, a c ?ioiai – i?i ?icaaeainoaaiiy iaoaaie?/ieo
i?ioean?a i?ae aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaaothoue
ia iayai?noue o?iio o

wmetafile8? ??????-???????? ???????yyy????????????
‡»???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy?????? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae

1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio-

?aoe?e o?iio o aiae??en. 4. Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?oo-

aaiiy ?ae? o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 1

aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e

o?iio o aiae?

aiae?, ? ca a?aeoeeaiiyi ?oi?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieth iiaeia aecia/eoe
iayai?noue oieneeaioo.

Ii??aithth/e i?ae niaith a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e oa ?IN ca ?o
a?aeiiniith /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en.5) iiaeia
ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui ?IN iae/ooeea?oee c oeeo ii-

wmetafile8? ??‘?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
????

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????iieacieea a?ae eiai cia/aiiy o
eiio?ie?).

Ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue

aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? oaeiae ?noioii ciaioo-

thoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio.

?en.5. ??aaiue aeeoaiiy (R), ieoiia
oaeaee?noue

?inoo (g), aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? (K1) o

aoi? (a?eii 1i?nyoeue) i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o oa

?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua (IOC) ca eii-oeaio?aoe??? o?iio 1 ?
10 ia/e

??aaiue aeeoaiiy iaeiaioa a?aeoeey?oue-

ny a?ae nai?o cia/aiue o eiio?ie?. Oaeei /e-

iii ?IN,ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoae-

oeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? aei-neoue /ooeeaeie iieacieeaie,
ui ?noioii ci?iththoueny a oiiaao oiene/iiai aieeao.

Aieea i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

A aeine?aeao ia aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
neeaaeaea 3,74 0,21; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea
22,030,47%. Ca iayaiino? o aiae? i?eaeth o eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 0,05
ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny noeioeyoe?y aeine?aeaeoaaieo a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a, i?e/iio oea a?aei?/aii ? o aeine?aeao c cieioith ?eaeith
(?en.6 — 7).

wmetafile8? ??~?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
™J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) oa ?IN ca
??cieo eiioeaio?a-

oe?e i?eaeth o aiae??en.7.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o cieioi?

?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a) oa ?IN ca

??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?eaeth o aiae?

O eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo cieioi? ?eaee neeaaeaea
5,190,22%; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? noaiiaeea 17,830,71%.
Noeioethth/ee aoaeo i?enooiino? i?eaeth o aiae? aeyaeyany i?e eiai
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 2,5 ia/e. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth
aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a. A on?o aa??aioao
aeine?ae?a c aea/aiiy aieeao i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith a?aeoeeaiue a?ae eiio?ieth a?ae??ciyany
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua. Eiio i?eoaiaiia oaeiae ua iaeia
aeanoea?noue – a?i ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eiioeaio?aoe??
i?eaeth o aiae? ? oiio iaeiiai?oa a?aeaeca?eaeth? nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy
aiaee. I?e/iio aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
aoaeue-yea eiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieth – ye c?inoaiiy, oae ?
cieaeaiiy. Ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ei?io
c? c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth ci?iththoueny nooi?i/aoi (?en.6 —
7).

Aieea naeioeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

Aeine?aee c cieioith ?eaeith iieacaee, ui naeiaoeue o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 0,1 aei 5 ia/e ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo (ca ?acoeueoaoaie 28-ie aeiaiaiai aenia-?eiaioo
(oaae.2). Aea ca oiia iayaiino? o aiae? naeioeth ieoiia oaeaee?noue
?inoo ?noioii eieeaa?oueny a /an?. Aiaeia?/ia caeiiii??i?noue i?eoaiaiia
? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae O eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei ci?ithaaeeny i?ioyaii 28
ae?a, o oie /an ye ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth niinoa??aathoueny
cia/i? eieeaaiiy iaio ia?aiao??a. ? oi/ a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei
a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue (ca aeiyoeii eiioeaio?aoe??
naeioeth 10 ia/e, ca yei? a e?ioe? ae?oaiai ? ia ii/aoeo o?aoueiai
oeaeiy niinoa??aaeany ae?i?iaoe?y a?eueoino? iniaei), cia/i? eieeaaiiy

Oaaeeoey 2. Aeeiai?ea ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a) o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth o aiae? (a %). n=16

Eiioeaio?a-oe?y naeioeth,

ia Pb2+ / e

1 — e

oeaeaeaiue

2 — e

oeaeaeaiue

3 — e

oeaeaeaiue

4 — e

oeaeaeaiue

A oe?eiio

ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue4,53±0,094,59±0,064,49±0,07 4,45±0,03
4,50±0,05

0.14,75±0,10 4,49±0,085,21 ±0,10 3,78 ±0,09 4,59± 0,09
0,55,03±0,08 3,63±0,05 6,06±0,08 3,83±0,09 4,45±0,08 2,55,21±0,09
4,04±0,07 4,76±0,08 3,52±0,07 4,54±0,10 5,0 4,39±0,10 3,17±0,10
5,66±0,11 4,54±0.10 4,37±0,09 10,05,21±0,12 2,98±0,17 a e ?

i ? i a oe ? y Oaaeeoey 3.Aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naei-oeth (a %)
o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a). n = 16.

Eiioeaio?a- oe?y naeioeth,

ia Pb2+ / e 1 — e

oeaeaeaiue 2 — e

oeaeaeaiue 3 — e

oeaeaeaiue 4 — e

oeaeaeaiueA oe?eiio ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue

0,121,41±0,38

22,050,32 21,63±0,41

21,200,48 21,92±0,29

28,710,36 20,95±,0,31

18,650,31 21,49±0,35

22,350,54 0,523,760,56 19,250,44 30,910,39 19,060,44
21,920,43 2,525,260,52 17,740,59 32,660,60 16,970,21 22,130,38
5,025,480,64 18,170,35 25,650,84 19,270,37 21,270,47
10,025,910,68

15,570,61 a e ? i ? i a oe ? y
oeeo ia?aiao??a a oiiaao iayaiino? naeioeth o aiae? na?ae/aoue i?i
oiene/i?noue na?aaeiaeua (?en.8).A oe?eiio ca 28 ae?a aenia?eiaioo
aeyaeaii, ui ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth aeine?aeaeai? ia?aiao?e
ci?ithaaeeny aeineoue nea/eiiiae?aii (?en.9) ? ca eiioeaio?aoe??
naeioeth10 ia/e a?aeaoaaeany ae?i?iaoe?y ?ea. Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeai?
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iathoue cia/io aeeiai?eo o /an? ca oiia
aieeao ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth. Oa ae yaeua ie niinoa??aaee ? o
aeiaaeeo aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio ? i?eaeth. Oiaoi ie iiaeaii aaea
aiai?eoe i?i caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oiene/iiai aieeao o?ueio
aeine?aeaeaieo iaie oieneeaio?a. Aea aieea naeioeth ia? ? nai?
iniaeeaino?. C aea/aieo iaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a eiai aieea aeineoue
nai???aeiee: ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a a?i ia
aeeeeeaa o ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie eiioeaio?aoe?e aae aei 5 ia/e
? eeoa ca eiai ai?noo o aiae? 10 ia/e niinoa??aaeany caaeaaeue
a?eueoino? i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea. A oie /an ye o?ii ? i?eaeue iaa?oue o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 50 ia/e i?aeoe/ii ia i?ecaiaeeee aei ae?i?iaoe?? i?

wmetafile8? ??e?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
?o???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????AIEEA O?IIO ? I?EAETH IA AEAIAIOE
OINOI?IIAI IAI?IO O ?EA

Aieea o?iio ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o Anoaiiaeaii, ui
?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ?ea (Aaiaecth?a, 1986). Oiio aea/aiiy
aene?aoe?? ie i?iaiaeeee i?e ??cieo aaee/eiao ?aoe?ii?a.

A iaoeo aenia?eiaioao i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o an? aeine?aeaeai?
aeaee ?ea iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee.

A a oiiaao eiioeaio?aoe?? Cr6+ 1 ia/e (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o)
cieio? ?eaee aene?a-ooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth 0,59 iea/a ia
aeiao, o oie /an ye o eiio?ie? ?eae iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee c
?ioaineai?nth 0,66 iea/a ia aeiao ( ?en.12). Aiaeia?/io ea?oeio
niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c aoi?.

Oaeei /eiii, a on?o aeiaaeeao aeine?aeaeai? eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio aeeeeeaee cia/i? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeei
na?e i?iya o cia/iiio c?inoaii? ??ai?a aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa aei ci?ie
eiai aani?aoe?? ia aene?aoe?th i?e aeeaeaii? ?ea aeinoi/o (?en.10 — 12).

wmetafile8? ??c ???7???????? ???????yyy????????????
Vu???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????wmetafile8? ??9 ?? ?7????????
???????yyy???????????? J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????Oaaeeoey 4 . ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy,
aene?aoe?? ? aani?aoe?? oinoi?o o eeia a eiio?ie? oa ca oiia aieeao
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o eiioeaio?aoe?? 1 ia/e. (iana o?ea iaei???
iniaeie neeaaeaea 13,64 a) i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo aaee/eie aeiaiaiai
?aoe?iio. n=6

?aoe?ii,/anoea a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai
Aene?aoe?y oinoi?o,

iea?/a ca aeiao
Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae ??aaiue aeeoaiiy, iaI2/a

ca aeiao

Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae 0,0 5,60,2 7,20,2
5,90,1 4,70,2 0,5 1,80,1 2,90,2 6,20,4 5,20,3
1,0 -1,60,1 1,70,1 17,31,1 8,10,5 Noiae? ?acoeueoae
io?eiai? iaie ? o aeine?aeao c ie?oeith.

Aieea o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea.

O ca*yceo c anoaiiaeaieie iaie ?noioieie ii?ooaiiyie oinoi?iiai
iai?io ?ea a oiiaao oine/iiai aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ii c*ynoaaiith aieeao o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e?
i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea. I?ioyaii 45 ae?a ?ea o?eiaee a oiiaao
eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,05 ia/e.. ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeineoue iaeiicia/ieie
(oaae.5).

Oaeei /eiii iaie anoaiiaeaii noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia cieaeaiiy
??aiy caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a o?e? an?o aeine?aeaeaieo iaie aeae?a ?ea a
oiiaao oo?eiaiiy ?o o aiae? c eiioeaio?aoe??th o?iio 0,05 ia/e. (? 0,01)
I?e/iio a na?aaeiueiio oea cieaeaiiy neeaaeaei 9,05 % (a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai). A a?aeoae iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue caaaeueiiai
oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea oaeiae aei iaaii? i??e ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi nooiaiy
caa?oaeiaiiy aiaee.

Oaaeeoey 5. Ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea a e?ioe? 45-oe
aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo a eiio?ie? oa ca eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,05 ia Cr6+ /e

Aeaee ?ea n Iana o?ea, ia

Ii/aoie E?iaoeue

aeine?aeoAi?no nooi?

?a/iaeie a

e?ioe? aeine?aeo Ai?no oinoi?o a noo?e

?a/iaei?, %

Eiio?ieue Aeine?aeCieioa

?eaea20 54817 22436419,760,512,3020,1632,0540,189Ie?oea15
95414 29637621,320,482,416-0,1482,1580,196Eei 15 124527
34235920,410,392,4010,1732,2850,232Ieoiue12 161738
41958120,890.722,9020,2012,5830,315 Aieea i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o.

Anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ci?ie a ??aiyo aene?aooe?? oinoi?o i?ae
aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio niiioeaee ian aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
i?eaeth ia oeae ia?aiao?. Aeine?aee, i?iaaaeai? ia iieiae? cieioi? ?eaee
na?ae/aoue i?i nooo?aee aieea i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
(?en.13)

Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth 0,01 ia/e, ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE. I?e aieiaeoaaii? o cieioi? ?eaee a eiio?ie?
??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o neeaaeaa 2,78 iea/a ca aeiao, a oie /an ye o
aeine?ae? a?i aoa 3,67 iea/a ( ui noaiiaeoue 131 % a?ae eiio?ieth). I?e
aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o a eiio?ie? aani?aoe?y oinoi?o neeaaeaea 1,29 iea/a ia
aeiao, a o aeine?ae? cieio? ?eaee aene?aooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth
1,52 iea/a ia aeiao.

I?e iayaiino? i?eaeth o aiae? a ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie
eiioeaio?aoe?e a aeiaeiiio aa??aio? ia niinoa??aaeiny aani?aoe?? oinoi?o
c aiaee (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o). Iaoii?noue iaea i?noea eiai
aene?aoe?y, ?ioaineai?noue yei? c?inoaea c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaioo o aiae?.

Oaeei /eiii ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaao? ia
iayai?noue oieneeaio?a o aiae?, a oiio cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe??
oinoi?o iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i oiene/i?noue na?aaeiaeua. Cae/aeii, aea/aiiy
oeueiai ieoaiiy iio?aao? i?i-aaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, c aeine?aeaeaieo iaie ia?aiao??a ca /ooeea?noth aei
iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa – ?iaeaen
iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua, yeee aea? iaea?eueo iaeiicia/io ea?oeio
noaio yeino? aiaee (ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaio?a), ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, yeee aeoaea /ooeeai ?aaao?
ia iayai?noue o aiae? oieneeaio?a (o?iio ? i?eaeth).

Uiaei /ooeeaino? ??cieo ia?aiao??a aei iayaiino? a na?aaeiaeu?
oieneeaio?a, oi ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith, yea cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea eieeaaiiy ??ai?a
aeeoaiiy. Oae, o aeine?aeao c aieeaii naioieneeieia?/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio (0,05 ia/e) o o?ei?ny/ii? iieiae? cieioi? ?eaee i?e
aieiaeoaaii? ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy ciaiooaaeanue ia 20%, a ??aaiue
aene?aoe?? oinoi?o c?inoaa ia 144%. O aeine?aeao c aieeaii o?iio o
eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e ( ui neeaaea? 1 ?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE )
??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o ia?aaeuoaaa eiio?ieuei? cia/aiiy ia 160%; ca
?aoe?iio 0,5 a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai aene?aoe?y oinoi?o a oiiaao aieeao
o?iio (10 ia/e) ia?aaeuoaaea ??aaiue eiai aene?aoe?? o eiio?ie? a 4,5
?ace.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy
oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea (cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ciaioaiiy
eiai ai?noo a o?e?) a oiiaao aieeao oeo eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio ? i?eaeth,
ye? aeeeeeathoue iaaio noeioeyoe?th ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ?
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no. Oaeei /eiii, iaaia noeioeyoe?y
i?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oieneeaioaie ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
iiceoeaiee aieea ia i?aai?ci ?ea. Oiio, aeei?enoiaoth/e a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee, aaaeeeai anoaiiaethaaoe
aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy
?aoaeueiiai aiae?co oeeo ci?i.

AENIIAEE:

1. Oanoeaaeaioee o?ii, i?eaeue ? naeiaoeue o ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo
iaie eiioeaio?aoe?e (0,001 — 50,0 ia/e aeey o?iio; 0,01 — 50,0 ia/e aeey
i?eaeth ? 0,1 — 10,0 ia/e aeey naeioeth) ?noioii aieeaaee ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? ??aaiue
aeeoaiiy ?ea. C a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a iae?noioi?oa ci?ithaaeany a
oiene/iiio na?aaeiaeu? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo.

2. Iayai?noue naeioeth o aiae? o eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 0,1 aei 5 ia/e
i?aeoe/ii ia aeeeeeaea cieaeaiiy i? oaii?a ?inoo, i? aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no (ca 28 ae?a aeine?aeo) ? eeoa o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo, aeecueeeo aei eaoaeueieo ( 5,0 — 10,0 ia/e)
i?eai?/oaaea a?i-i?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. Iaeiae i?enooi?noue naeioeth
o na?aaeiaeu? aeeeeeaea cia/i? eieeaaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue oiene/iiai aoaeoo.

3. Ca /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a iieiaeue aoi?
cia/ii ia?aaa?oo? iieiaeue cieioi? ?eaee. O iaio aeae?a noa?o? a?eia?
a?oie iaio /ooeea?, i?ae iieiaeo?.

4. Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aieeao aeine?aeaeaieo oieneeaio?a ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. O?ii ? i?eaeue iiae?ai? ca nai?i aieeaii: ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 0,05 aeey i?eaeth ? aei 0,1 ia/e aeey o?iio aiie o
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeeeeeathoue iaaia c?inoaiiy ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo
? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? (i?ioyaii 28 -ie aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo):
a?eueo aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ecaiaeyoue aei caeiiii??iiai ?o
ciaioaiiy. Naeiaoeue a?aecia/aany iaeaeuith oiene/i?noth ? aaea ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 ia/e i?ecaiaeea aei caaeaae? i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea.

5. O?ii o eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e (ui a?aeiia?aea? 1 AIE ) ? aeua ?
i?eaeue ca eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae 0,01 ia/e ? aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi?
ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeoue na?e i?iya o cia/iiio
c?inoaii? eiai aene?aoe??. Ca oiia aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o aiie, ia
a?aei?io a?ae eiio?ieth, ia iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee, a eeoa
aene?a-ooaaee eiai, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei cieaeaiiy a?aeiiniiai eiai ai?noo
a o?e? ?ea.

6. A on?o aeiaaeeao iaea?eueo /ooeeaei (aei iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o
aiae?) c aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a aeyaeany ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. A?i iaa iaeneiaeuei? a?aeoeeai-iy a?ae eiio?ieueieo
cia/aiue o an?o aa??aioao aeine?ae?a, i?e/iio ci?ithaaany iaea?eueo
i?iii?oe?eii aei ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaio?a.

7. Aeine?aeaeai? iieacieee a ii?yaeeo /ooeeaino? aei iayaiino?
oieneeaio?a ?icoaoiaai? (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy) oaeei /eiii: ??aaiue
aene?aoe?? oinoi?o – ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua – ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo – aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no –
??aaiue aeeoaiiy.

8. A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea oa ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua
iiaeooue aeei?enoi-oaaoeny aeey ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii?
neooaoe??. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o
cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo.

9. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe aeioieneei-eia?/io neooaoe?th o aiaeiei?, yea ?noioii
aieeaa? ye ia i?iaeoeoe?ei?, oae ? ia ?io? iaoa-aie?/i? i?ioeane o ?ea.
Oiio aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?eaii?i-aeoeoeaiino?
aiaeiei ia? a?oiooaaoeny oaeiae ? ia ?acoeueoaoao ?o aeioieneeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

IIIA?AAeI? I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue cai?iiiioaaoe iiia?aaei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoi-noaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey
ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee oa ei?aeoe?? ?aoe?iio ?ea a oiiaao aieeao
oieneeaio?a.

1. A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea ? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? iiaeooue
oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee. I?e oeueiio
iaeoi/i?oo ioe?ieo iiaeia io?eiaoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?IN. sseui ae
aecia/aiiy aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio aeeeeea? o?oaeiiu?, aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe c oe??th iaoith ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ea. I?e
oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ia?aiao??a a?ae
?o cia/aiue o eiio?ie?, ui iiaea aooe neaiaeii i?i ci?io oieneeieia?/ii?
neooaoe?? ? yeino? aiaee a oe?eiio.

2.I?e aeei?enoaii? ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iayaiino?
oieneeaio?a o aiae? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ?noioiee aieea aaee/eie
aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia ?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. Oea aeiaaa?
?aoaeueiiai aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio aiae?ae?. Iiaeia ?aeiiai-aeoaaoe aeaa
aa??aioe — aeei?enoaiiy ?ea, ui aieiaeothoue i?ioyaii 2 — 3 ae?a – o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aeinyaoe aeineoue iino?eiiai ??aiy aene?aoi?ieo
i?ioean?a. Iaeiae a?eueo iaae?ei? ? iaeiicia/i? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia
io?eiaoe ia ?eaao, ui aeeaeyoueny aeinoi/o. A oeueiio aa??aio? ci?ia
aani?aoe?? oinoi?o ia eiai aene?aoe?th iaeiicia/ii aeaaea ia iayai?noue
oieneeaio?a o aiae?.

3.I?e ae?iuoaaii? ?ea a oiiaao oiene/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiae o?iiii ?
i?eaeai aeioe?eueii iniaeeao oaaao caa?iooe ia i?aeaeuaiee ai?no oinoi?o
a ?aoe?ii? aeey eiiiainaoe?? eiai ao?ao a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy
aene?aoi?ii-aani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Ioe?iea yeino? aiaee ca
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie ?ea //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei. 28.— N. 51—52.

2.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei.
28.—N. 53—55.

3.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae Aieea Cr6+, Ni2+, Pb2+ ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei. 28.—N. 55—57.

4.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Ae?aaiinoeea yeino? aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ca i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie iieiae? ?ea
//Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iiei-ae? /Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i.
Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?eue-nueeee, 25—26 ethoiai 1998
?.—Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998.—N. 82—85.

5.Aaiaecth?a A.A., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea.—oai aea.—N. 85—86.

6.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae, Aieea oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e ?ea.—oai aea.—N. 86—88.

7.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea //*ao-aa?o? Ea?eoeinuee? /eoaiiy.—Anaoe?a?inueea
i?aeaoc?anueea iaoeiai-iaoiae.eiio.—Ca??iee noaoae.—Iieoaaa,
1998.—*anoeia 1.—N. 113—116.

8.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //Ae?oaee c*?cae a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie.—Ee?a, 27-31 aeiaoiy 1997 ?..—Oace aeii.—O.2.—N. 116.

Aoiaae Aooae Aieea oieneeaio?a ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.10 — ?oo?ieia?y. — ?inoeooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa ia cia/iiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??ae? anoaiiaeai?
e?euee?ni? cia/aiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oa ??ai?a aene?aoe??
oinoi?o o iieiae? ?ea a oiiaao aieeao ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth. Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio
/ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aei iayaiino? o aiae?
oieneeaio?a. Iieacaii, ui iae/ooeea?oei c aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a aei
iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a ? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
iio?i (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy /ooeeaino?) — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo,
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? ??aaiue aeeoaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?en-oiaoaaoe ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae? oa aeai? iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoi-noaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae?; anoaiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiai ai?noo
oinoi?o a ?aoe?ii? ?ea i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o ca oiia caa?oaeiaiiy aiae
o?iiii ? i?eaeai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iieiaeue ?ea, oieneeaioe, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e, aene?aoe?y oinoi?o, ye?noue aiaee.

Aoiaae Aooae Aeeyiea oieneeaioia ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u iieiaee ?ua. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.10 — Eooeieiaey.-Einoeooo ?uaiiai
oicyenoaa OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aia?aua ia iaoe?iii yenia?eiaioaeueiii iaoa?eaea onoaiiaeaiu
eiee/anoaaiiua cia/aiey aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia e o?iaiy
yene?aoeee oinoi?a o iieiaee ?ua a oneiaeyo aeeyiey ?acee/iuo
eiioeaio?aoeee oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iia, ieeaey e naeioea. Onoaiiaeaia
ioiineoaeueiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua e
iaee-/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia. Iieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiui ec
enneaaeiaaiiuo iiea-caoaeae e iaee/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia yaeyaony
eiaeaen iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, caoai (a ii?yaeea oiaiueoaiey
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe) — oaeaeueiay nei?inoue ?inoa, yooaeoeaiinoue
en-iieueciaaiey ieue ia ?ino e o?iaaiue aeuoaiey. I?aaeeiaeaii
eniieueciaaoue eiaeaen iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, oaeaeueioth nei?inoue
?inoa e o?iaaiue yene?aoeee oinoi?a aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a
aiaea e aeaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieue-ciaaieth
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a aiaea;
onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiauoaiiiai niaea?aeaiey oinoi?a a ?aoeeiia
?ua i?e au?aueaaiee eo a oneiaeyo oiene/aneiai caa?yciaiey aiae o?iiii e
ieeaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieiaeue ?ua, oieneeaiou, aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua
ia?aiao?u, yene?aoeey oinoi?a, ea/anoai aiaeu.

Ahmed Ishfaq. Effects of Toxicants ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) on
Bioproductional Parameters of Young Fishes. Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree (biology) by speciality 03.00.10 —
Ichthyology.—Fish farmer institute, Kyiv, 1999.

For the first time the quantitive significance of bioproductive
parametres and the level of phosphorus excretion of young fishes has
been stated in the vast experimental material. Comparitive sensitiveness
of fishs bioproductive parametres to the availability
of toxicants in the
water also has been stated. It has been demonstrated that the most
sensitive parameter to the availability of the toxicants in the water
is an optimum environment index, then ( in the decreasing order )
specific velocity of growth, the effectiiveness of food convertation
and the respiration level. It has been proposed to use an index of an
optimum environment, specific speed of grovth and the level of
phosphorus txcretion for diagnosis of toxicants in the water and
preliminary recomendations of utilizations of fishis bioproductive
parametres for diagnosis of the toxicants in the water. A neccessity of
the high phosphorus content in the fish*s ration while growing them in
the conditions of high chromium and nickel pollution has been proved.

Key words: young fishes, toxicants, bioproductional parameters,
phosphorus excretion, water quality.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A eiiieaen? ?oo?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
a?ae/oaa?oueny iaaaeueia iio?aaa anaa?/iiai a?aooaaiiy aieeao yeino?
aiaee ia i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ea. A iniia? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia? eaaeaoe ?oo?i-oieneeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia, ui ia?aaeaa/a?, ii?yae c
o?aaeeoe?eieie a?ae?ia?ieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie ioe?iee yeino? iiaa?oiaaeo
aiae, aeeth/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo a?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a, ui aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue iaaa-oeaiee aieea caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei ia
i?aai?ci ?ea (?aoooaiei, 1991). Na?aae oaeeo ?ioaa?aeueieo ia?aiao??a
/?eueia i?noea iathoue iin?noe i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e, ui a
?ioaa?aeuei?e oi?i? a?aeia?aaeothoue oiiae ?nioaaiiy ?ea oa ?ioeo
a?ae?ia?iio?a. I?ioa oe? aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue –
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? oa aeioieneeieia?/i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ?icaeaaeeny
iaeaea iacaeaaeii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai (A?aaeineee, 1988). A oiiaao ae?ae
iai?oaeaiiai aeioieneeieia?/iiai noaio ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aiaeiei
Oe?a?ie aino?i iinoa? i?iaeaia ?o a?i?iaeeeaoe?? oa aeieia?/iiai
icaei?iaeaiiy (?aoooaiei, 1997; ?iiaiaiei, 1997).

Iniaeeaa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia ?eaia
ianaeaiiy Iaeenoaio iaoiiaeaia aenieei ??aiai ?oiueiai caa?oaeiaiiy
i?iieneiaeie no?/ieie aiaeaie (Al-Akel, 1996).

Aiaeii/an ae?ae iaiaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y c ieoaiue aieeao aaaeeeo
iaoae?a ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea — ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no c iaeiiai
aieo oiaiiaeeeaeth? ei?aeoi? ?ic?aooiee ?eaii?iaeoeoeiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiaiiy, a c ?ioiai — iicaaaey?
aeioieneeieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaothui? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace c
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea, ye? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Oeei ? iaoiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca*ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca?aeii oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e ii oai? ? 97/091 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaa?eiiiai
na?oo Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie na?oiai? oaoie, ii?oi-o?c?ieia?/ieo
? aeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oaa?ei oa ?aaoeyoe?? aeayeeo ia?aiao??a ?o
iiioeyoe?e a oiiaao ye?nieo ci?i aeiae?eey”, yea aoiaeeoue aei
eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Ioi?iia
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: Iaoith ?iaioe aoei c*ynoaaiiy aieeao
iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oieneeaio?a – o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth ia
iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea ? ia aeaiaioe ?o
oinoi?iiai iai?io.

Aeey oeueiai o?aaa aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

—aea/eoe aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oieneeaio?a ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o ?ea
? o?iio – ia a?aeiiniee ai?no oinoi?o o o?e? ?ea;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia
aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e;

— anoaiiaeoe a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o na?aaeiaeu?;

— ?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee oieneeaio?a o aiae? ? yeino? na?aaeiaeua a oe?eiio oa
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy c oe??th iaoith ?iaeaena iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua (?IN) (Aaiaecth?a, 1993).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia cia/iiio
iaoa??ae? aeine?aeaeaii aieea oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, naeioeth ? i?eaeth
ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea – ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no.
Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o aiae?. Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueoith /ooeea?noth c
aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a a?ae??ciy?oueny ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui o?ii ? i?eaeue o eiioeaio?aoe?yo
a?ae 1 AIE (aeey o?iio a?ae 0,001ia/e; aeey i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 ia/e) ?
aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea—cia/ia
c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ui a?aoo? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy eiai
a?aeiiniiai ai?noo a o?e? ?ea. Oaeei /eiii caii/aoeiaaii oe?ieiiaooaaia
aea/aiiy e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea a
oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue ca-noinoaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee oie-neeaio?a o
aiae?. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue ei?aeoiiai aea/aiiy
a?ii?i-aeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea ? iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia-/aiiy ?eaii?iaeoeoeaiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiia?aaei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeanii?o/ii aeeiiaii aanue
ianya aenia?e-iaioaeueieo ?ia?o, o?i?/iee aiae?c i?ia, noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a, aiae?c e?oa?a-oo?e. Aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee ? cai?iiiiiaai? iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ca ?a-coeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ciieia??, ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1997), ia Ae?oaiio c*?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiaai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, i?enay/ai?e iai*yo?
A.I.Ea?eoeia (Iieoaaa, 1998), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a, 20 i?ae?ic-ae?e?a, aeeth/a? 14 oaaeeoeue oa 20 ?enoie?a.
?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 115 noi??ieao iaoeiiien-iiai oaenoo. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 243 aeaea?aea.

IAOA??AE OA IAOIAeE
AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee aieiaiei /eiii ia iieiae? aoi? Poecilia
reticulata ? cieioi? ?eaee Carassius auratus auratus. Oeeo ?ea
aeei?enoiaothoue ye oano-ia*?eoe a oieneeieia?/ieo aen-ia?eiaioao a
NOA, ssiii??, ?iae??, Aieaiae??, e?a?iao NIAe (Eoeueyiaiei,1985;
Aanueeiaaoe e ae?., 1991). I?e aeine?aeaeaii? neeaaeiaeo oinoi?iiai
iai?io aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae iieiaeue ie?oee (Rutilus rutilus), eeia
(Tinca tinca) ? ieoiy (Perca fluviatilis). Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee a 10 —
oe e?o?iaeo aeaa??oiao c i?aai?/iiai neea. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaee
oo?eioaaeany a iaaeao 201 0N ca aeiiiiiaith oa?ii?aaoeyoi??a,
oe?eiaeiaiaa aa?aoe?y caaacia/oaaeany i?e?ieiii-?ani?aie. A eiaei?e
na??? aeine?ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iieiaeue c iaeiiai iiiaoo, iaea?aeaio a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Iieiaeue ie?oee, eeia ? ieoiy a?aeeiaethaaee ia
i?eeiaiaeaeyo Eai?anueeiai aiaeinoiaeua. A?aeae?aee iaeii?ici??ieo
iniaei, ye? aeia?a naaa ii/oaaee ? ia aeyaeyee iciae noo?aiaaiino?.
Aee?iaoe?y aei oiia aenia?eiaioo o?eaaea 2 — 3 oeaei?. Iio?i a eiaeiee
aeaa??oi iii?uaee ii e?eueea (aeecueei 10) iaeii?ici??ieo iniaei
eiaeiiai aeaeo. 2 aeaa??oie neoaoaaee eiio?ieai – ?ea a ieo oo?eioaaee
aac oieneeaio?a. Ii eiaei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaioo caeeaaeaee 3
ia?aeaeuei? aeine?aee. Eiioeaio?aoe?th oieneeaioo aeae?aee, aeoiaey/e c
eiai ?eaiainiiaea?nueei? AIE (a?aie/ii i?eionoeii? eiioeaio?aoe??) ? aei
eiioeaio?aoe?e, ye? ?noioii aieeaaee ia aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e. Oea
neeaaeaei: aeey oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio — a?ae 0,001 aei 50 ia/e; aeey
i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 aei 50 ia/e; aeey naeioeth — a?ae 0,1 aei 10 ia/e.
Oieneeaioe aiineee o aeaeyae? a?o?iiaoo eae?th K2Cr2O7, noeueoaoo
i?eaeth NiSO4 ? i?o?aoo naeioeth PbNO3. Uiaeiy aiaeo a aeaa??oiao
iiai?noth ci?ithaaee ia a?aenoiyio i?ioyaii o?ueio ae?a aiaeii?ia?aeio.
I?e oeueiio ui?aco aiineee iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue oieneeaioo aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy eiai iino?eii? eiioeaio?aoe?? o aiae?. O?eaae?noue eiaeiiai
aenia?eiaioo neeaaeaea 28 ae?a. Aiaeoaaee ?ea o?oai/ieeii Tubifex
tubifex ? ee/eieaie o??iiii?ae. Uioeaeiy ?ea caaaeoaaee ia oi?n?eieo
aai ia aioaea?nueeeo oa?acao (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o ?ici??o). Aeeoaiiy
aecia/aee a caieiaieo ?ani??iiao?ao o?e/? ia aeiao, aeniiceoe?y eiaeiiai
— aiaeeia, eenaiue aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii A?ieea?a (Aeaeei e ae?.,1973).

Ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca oi?ioeith (Aeiyia?aaoeea
e ?ino ?ua, 1983):

ln m2/m1

g = ——— ;

t2 — t1

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; m1 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano t1;
m2 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano t 2.

Aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no (E1)
?ic?aoiaoaaee ye a?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo iane o?ea ?ea aei iane niiaeeoi?
ca /an aeine?aeaeaiue ?ae? (Caeea, 1983; Ua?aeia, 1983).

Ia iniia? ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?
ia ??no ?ic?aoiaoaaee iieaciee iioeiaiaeueiino? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano
– (II) ca oi?ioeith (Aaiaecth?a, 1991):

II = g x E1 ;

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; E1 — aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no. Oeae ia?aiao? (II) cai?iiiiiaaii o ca*yceo c
oei, ui a iaeieo aeiaaeeao cia/ia ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ae?, a ?ioeo — ia oe?
iacia/ieo oaii?a ?inoo niinoa??aa?oueny aeineoue aeniea aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?, ? oiio /anii iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe, ye? oiiae a?eueo
ni?eyoeea? aeey i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?i-oeano. A ca iieacieeii
iioeiaeueiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe o? oiiae, ca yeeo ia? i?noea cia/ia
ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aeniea aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae?. Oea
aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe i?ae niaith ye?noue aiaee iaeii/anii ca
?ioaineai?noth oa aoaeoeai?noth a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua aeey
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano – ?IN ( Aaiaecth?a, 1993):

?IN = (II? / IIa) o 100%;

aea: IIi — iieaciee iioeiaeueiino? a i-oiio na?aaeiaeu? (a eiaeiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeine?ae?); IIa — a aoaeiiiiio na?aaeiaeu? (o eiio?ie?).

Aeey a?eueo iiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea a
oiiaao aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a aea/aee oaeiae ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
— c iaeyaeo ia aenieo /ooeea?noue oeueiai ia?aiao?o aei ci?i o noai?
aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (?iiaiaiei, Aaoooaiei, Eioea?ue, 1980) oa aaaeeeao
?ieue oinoi?o a i?ioeanao ieanoe/iiai ? aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io (
?iia-iaiei, A?nai, Nieiiaoeia, 1982), a oaeiae ai?no caaaeueiiai oinoi?o
o o?e? ?ea, ui i?ioyaii 45 ae?a oo?eioaaeeny a oiiaao iayaiino?
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o aiae?.

Aene?aoe?th oinoi?o aecia/aee oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aaeainiaeo
aeine?ae?a (?oeiaiaenoai ii iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiee oeceieiaee ?ua,
1962) a aeaa??oiao, iaeei c yeeo eeoaany aac ?ea ? neoaoaaa eiio?ieai, o
aeaio ?ioeo aoea ?eaa (ii e?eueea aecaiiey??a o eiaeiiio), aaee/eio
aene?aoiaaiiai oinoi?o aecia/aee ca ??cieoeath eiai ai?noo a
aenia?eiai-oaeueieo aeaa??oiao ? o eiio?ieueiiio i?ney aeiaiai?
aeniiceoe??. Oinoi? aecia/aee eiei?eiao?e/iei iie?aaeaoii-no?ueiyiiaei
iaoiaeii c anei?a?iiaith eeneioith (Goltarman, 1969) c ianooiiith
aeno?aeoe??th aaenaiieii (Stephens, 1963). Aieea aeeaeaiiy ia iai?ii?
i?ioeane aea/aee oaeei /eiii. ?ea aeo?eioaaee 3 aeiae aac ei?io, i?ney
/iai aei??thaaee ??aaiue ?oiueiai aeeoaiiy oa aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. Iio?i
a aeine?aei? aeaa??oie aiineee ?aeo (o?oai/iee aai ee/eiie o??iiii?ae),
iano yei? aecia/aee oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy ia oi?n?eieo oa?acao c oi/i?noth
aei 1 ia. I?e/iio ei?i aiineee c iaaeeeoeii. *a?ac 24 aiaeeie aecia/aee
iano iac*?aeaiiai ei?io oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy eiai caeeoeo ? oaeei /eiii
?ic?aoiaoaaee aaee/eio niiaeeoiai ?aoe?iio. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aaee/eio
?aoe?iio aaaaeaee ca iaeneiaeueio. I?ioyaii ianooiieo o?ueio ae?a
aiineee uiaeiy iieiaeio a?ae aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai ?aoe?iio ? ciiao
aei??thaaee ??aaiue iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaia ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie ( Eaeei, 1980
).

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeaii c 10 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo ii 5 aa?aciy 1998
?ieo. Anueiai i?iaaaeaii 124 aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a
o?e? 4 aeae?a ?ea; 16 na??e 28-ie aeiaiaeo aeine?ae?a ii aea/aiith
aieeao oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiaoa?e ?ea; anueiai 2786
aecia/aiue iane o?ea ?ea a i?ioean? ?inoo, 458 ?ani??aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a,
198 aecia/aiue ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o o?ueio aeae?a ?ea.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea o?iio ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? oa ieoiii?
oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee a?eii a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a iieacaee,
ui i?e?inoe iane o?ea ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? a?ae 0,001 aei 0,1
ia/e ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeeny i?ae niaith (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1. Iana o?ea ? e?euee?noue niiaeeoi? ?ae? o aeaii?ny/ii?
cieioi? ?eaee i?ney 28-ie aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio o aiae? (iana o?ea 1 aec. ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeo
neeaaeaea 1487 ia). n = 10

Eiioeaio?aoe?y

o?iio o aiae?, ia Cr6+/eIana o?ea 1 aec. i?ney 28 ae?a aeine?aeo,
ia I?e??no iane o?-

ea o 1 aec. Ca

28 ae?a, ia Iana niiaee-

oi? ?ae? ca 28 ae?a, ia/aec Yoaeoeai?noue

aeei?enoaiiy

?ae? ia ??no, % Eiio?ieue614 124662361 12 19,70,001619
144712211 13 21,30,010640 114921939 19 25,50,100609
134612100 18 21,91,000508 173601881 11 19,1
10,000219 12 711217 17 5,8 50,000163 17 151358 25
1,1a?ae eiio?ieth, a oie /an ye aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia
??no aoea iaeneiaeueiith ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,01 ia/e (oaae.1).
Aiaeii/an ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o eiio?ie? ?eae niiaeeaaee ?ae? a?eueoa,
i?ae ca aoaeue-yei? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae?. Oaeei /eiii,
iayai?noue o?iio iaa?oue o e?eueeino? 0,001 ia/e (ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE) iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?ioaineai?noue niiaeeaaiiy
?ae?. Ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? 10 ? 50 ia/e i?e?inoe iane o?ea ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no cieaeothoueny aeineoue ?noioii.
Ia iniia? aeaieo oaae.1 aoee ?ic?aoiaai? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua aeey i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeey
c?o/iino? ia?aiao?e aeai? o % a?ae eiio?ieth (?en.1). Noiaeo ea?oeio
niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c iieiaeaeth aoi? (?en.2).

wmetafile8? ??ue?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
KJ???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy?????? oi? ?eaee (a?eii 1-2 i?nyoe?)
oa ?IN?en.2.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o aoi?

(a?eii 1-2 i?nyoe?) oa ?IN O aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth
ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo neeaaeaea 3,860,18 %; aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea 18,670,39 %. Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio a?ae 0,001 aei 0,05 ia/e ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no aeaui c?inoa-thoue, a ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio
1 ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia cieaeaiiey aeaieo ia?aiao??a (?en.2).
I?e/iio a ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e a?ae 1 aei 50 ia Cr6+/e aiie
ci?iththoueny ia iaeiicia/ii (iathoue i?noea eieeaaiiy oeeo aaee/ei). A
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua cieaeo?oueny i?yii i?iii?oe?eii
eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaioo (?en.2).

I?e ii??aiyii? aeine?ae?a c aieeao o?iio ia iieiaeue cieioi? ?eaee
? aoi? iaeiaeiaiai a?eo iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aoi? cia/ii
/ooeea?o? aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en. 1-2). Oae, ca eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio 1 ia/e o cieioeo ?eaie a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aoee aeecueeeie
aei eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue, a oie /an ye o aoi? aiie neeaaeaee eeoa
iaaaeeeo /anoeo a?ae ?o eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ? oa ianoaaeia, ui a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei
ci?ithaaeenue i?ioyaii 28 ae?a. Aiaeii/an ca oiia ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
o?iio aeeiai?ea oeeo ia?aiao??a aoea aeineoue neeaaeiith (?en.3 — 4).
Cia/i? eieeaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a o /an? na?ae/aoue, c
iaeiiai aieo, i?i nooi?i/aoee oa?aeoa? i?enoinoaaiiy ?ea aei oiia
oiene/iiai na?aaeiaeua, a c ?ioiai – i?i ?icaaeainoaaiiy iaoaaie?/ieo
i?ioean?a i?ae aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaaothoue
ia iayai?noue o?iio o

wmetafile8? ??????-???????? ???????yyy????????????
‡»???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy?????? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae

1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio-

?aoe?e o?iio o aiae??en. 4. Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?oo-

aaiiy ?ae? o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 1

aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e

o?iio o aiae?

aiae?, ? ca a?aeoeeaiiyi ?oi?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieth iiaeia aecia/eoe
iayai?noue oieneeaioo.

Ii??aithth/e i?ae niaith a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e oa ?IN ca ?o
a?aeiiniith /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en.5) iiaeia
ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui ?IN iae/ooeea?oee c oeeo ii-

wmetafile8? ??‘?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
????

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????iieacieea a?ae eiai cia/aiiy o
eiio?ie?).

Ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue

aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? oaeiae ?noioii ciaioo-

thoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio.

?en.5. ??aaiue aeeoaiiy (R), ieoiia
oaeaee?noue

?inoo (g), aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? (K1) o

aoi? (a?eii 1i?nyoeue) i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o oa

?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua (IOC) ca eii-oeaio?aoe??? o?iio 1 ?
10 ia/e

??aaiue aeeoaiiy iaeiaioa a?aeoeey?oue-

ny a?ae nai?o cia/aiue o eiio?ie?. Oaeei /e-

iii ?IN,ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoae-

oeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? aei-neoue /ooeeaeie iieacieeaie,
ui ?noioii ci?iththoueny a oiiaao oiene/iiai aieeao.

Aieea i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

A aeine?aeao ia aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
neeaaeaea 3,74 0,21; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea
22,030,47%. Ca iayaiino? o aiae? i?eaeth o eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 0,05
ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny noeioeyoe?y aeine?aeaeoaaieo a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a, i?e/iio oea a?aei?/aii ? o aeine?aeao c cieioith ?eaeith
(?en.6 — 7).

wmetafile8? ??~?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
™J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) oa ?IN ca
??cieo eiioeaio?a-

oe?e i?eaeth o aiae??en.7.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o cieioi?

?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a) oa ?IN ca

??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?eaeth o aiae?

O eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo cieioi? ?eaee neeaaeaea
5,190,22%; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? noaiiaeea 17,830,71%.
Noeioethth/ee aoaeo i?enooiino? i?eaeth o aiae? aeyaeyany i?e eiai
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 2,5 ia/e. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth
aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a. A on?o aa??aioao
aeine?ae?a c aea/aiiy aieeao i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith a?aeoeeaiue a?ae eiio?ieth a?ae??ciyany
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua. Eiio i?eoaiaiia oaeiae ua iaeia
aeanoea?noue – a?i ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eiioeaio?aoe??
i?eaeth o aiae? ? oiio iaeiiai?oa a?aeaeca?eaeth? nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy
aiaee. I?e/iio aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
aoaeue-yea eiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieth – ye c?inoaiiy, oae ?
cieaeaiiy. Ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ei?io
c? c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth ci?iththoueny nooi?i/aoi (?en.6 —
7).

Aieea naeioeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

Aeine?aee c cieioith ?eaeith iieacaee, ui naeiaoeue o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 0,1 aei 5 ia/e ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo (ca ?acoeueoaoaie 28-ie aeiaiaiai aenia-?eiaioo
(oaae.2). Aea ca oiia iayaiino? o aiae? naeioeth ieoiia oaeaee?noue
?inoo ?noioii eieeaa?oueny a /an?. Aiaeia?/ia caeiiii??i?noue i?eoaiaiia
? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae O eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei ci?ithaaeeny i?ioyaii 28
ae?a, o oie /an ye ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth niinoa??aathoueny
cia/i? eieeaaiiy iaio ia?aiao??a. ? oi/ a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei
a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue (ca aeiyoeii eiioeaio?aoe??
naeioeth 10 ia/e, ca yei? a e?ioe? ae?oaiai ? ia ii/aoeo o?aoueiai
oeaeiy niinoa??aaeany ae?i?iaoe?y a?eueoino? iniaei), cia/i? eieeaaiiy

Oaaeeoey 2. Aeeiai?ea ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a) o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth o aiae? (a %). n=16

Eiioeaio?a-oe?y naeioeth,

ia Pb2+ / e

1 — e

oeaeaeaiue

2 — e

oeaeaeaiue

3 — e

oeaeaeaiue

4 — e

oeaeaeaiue

A oe?eiio

ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue4,53±0,094,59±0,064,49±0,07 4,45±0,03
4,50±0,05

0.14,75±0,10 4,49±0,085,21 ±0,10 3,78 ±0,09 4,59± 0,09
0,55,03±0,08 3,63±0,05 6,06±0,08 3,83±0,09 4,45±0,08 2,55,21±0,09
4,04±0,07 4,76±0,08 3,52±0,07 4,54±0,10 5,0 4,39±0,10 3,17±0,10
5,66±0,11 4,54±0.10 4,37±0,09 10,05,21±0,12 2,98±0,17 a e ?

i ? i a oe ? y Oaaeeoey 3.Aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? o eiio?ie? oa ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naei-oeth (a %)
o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a). n = 16.

Eiioeaio?a- oe?y naeioeth,

ia Pb2+ / e 1 — e

oeaeaeaiue 2 — e

oeaeaeaiue 3 — e

oeaeaeaiue 4 — e

oeaeaeaiueA oe?eiio ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue

0,121,41±0,38

22,050,32 21,63±0,41

21,200,48 21,92±0,29

28,710,36 20,95±,0,31

18,650,31 21,49±0,35

22,350,54 0,523,760,56 19,250,44 30,910,39 19,060,44
21,920,43 2,525,260,52 17,740,59 32,660,60 16,970,21 22,130,38
5,025,480,64 18,170,35 25,650,84 19,270,37 21,270,47
10,025,910,68

15,570,61 a e ? i ? i a oe ? y
oeeo ia?aiao??a a oiiaao iayaiino? naeioeth o aiae? na?ae/aoue i?i
oiene/i?noue na?aaeiaeua (?en.8).A oe?eiio ca 28 ae?a aenia?eiaioo
aeyaeaii, ui ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth aeine?aeaeai? ia?aiao?e
ci?ithaaeeny aeineoue nea/eiiiae?aii (?en.9) ? ca eiioeaio?aoe??
naeioeth10 ia/e a?aeaoaaeany ae?i?iaoe?y ?ea. Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeai?
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iathoue cia/io aeeiai?eo o /an? ca oiia
aieeao ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth. Oa ae yaeua ie niinoa??aaee ? o
aeiaaeeo aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio ? i?eaeth. Oiaoi ie iiaeaii aaea
aiai?eoe i?i caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oiene/iiai aieeao o?ueio
aeine?aeaeaieo iaie oieneeaio?a. Aea aieea naeioeth ia? ? nai?
iniaeeaino?. C aea/aieo iaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a eiai aieea aeineoue
nai???aeiee: ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a a?i ia
aeeeeeaa o ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie eiioeaio?aoe?e aae aei 5 ia/e
? eeoa ca eiai ai?noo o aiae? 10 ia/e niinoa??aaeany caaeaaeue
a?eueoino? i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea. A oie /an ye o?ii ? i?eaeue iaa?oue o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 50 ia/e i?aeoe/ii ia i?ecaiaeeee aei ae?i?iaoe?? i?

wmetafile8? ??e?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
?o???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????AIEEA O?IIO ? I?EAETH IA AEAIAIOE
OINOI?IIAI IAI?IO O ?EA

Aieea o?iio ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o Anoaiiaeaii, ui
?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ?ea (Aaiaecth?a, 1986). Oiio aea/aiiy
aene?aoe?? ie i?iaiaeeee i?e ??cieo aaee/eiao ?aoe?ii?a.

A iaoeo aenia?eiaioao i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o an? aeine?aeaeai?
aeaee ?ea iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee.

A a oiiaao eiioeaio?aoe?? Cr6+ 1 ia/e (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o)
cieio? ?eaee aene?a-ooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth 0,59 iea/a ia
aeiao, o oie /an ye o eiio?ie? ?eae iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee c
?ioaineai?nth 0,66 iea/a ia aeiao ( ?en.12). Aiaeia?/io ea?oeio
niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c aoi?.

Oaeei /eiii, a on?o aeiaaeeao aeine?aeaeai? eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio aeeeeeaee cia/i? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeei
na?e i?iya o cia/iiio c?inoaii? ??ai?a aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa aei ci?ie
eiai aani?aoe?? ia aene?aoe?th i?e aeeaeaii? ?ea aeinoi/o (?en.10 — 12).

wmetafile8? ??c ???7???????? ???????yyy????????????
Vu???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????wmetafile8? ??9 ?? ?7????????
???????yyy???????????? J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????I?e ii??aiyii? ci?i a aene?aoe??
oinoi?o ? a ??aiyo aeeoaiiy a oiiaao aieeao o?iio caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
e?eueea oaeo?a. Ii-ia?oa, aieea o?iio i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai
c?inoaiiy ae-ne?aoe?? oinoi?o. I?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o aani?aoe?y oinoi?o
ia niinoa??aa?oueny: iaoii?noue ia? i?noea eiai aene?aoe?y. Ii-ae?oaa, a
oiiaao aieeao o?iio ??aaiue aeeoaiiy cieaeo?oueny. I?e/iio iae?noioi?o?
ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny ca oiia aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o (oaae. 4).
Aei?a/ii a?aecia/eoe, ui ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o a oiiaao iayaiino?
o?iio o aiae? ia? iaenoo?a?o? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiiue?ieth ca oiia
aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny yaeua,
ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeia eiio?ieth (iiaeeiaiiy ci?ith?oueny
aene?aoe??th.

Oaaeeoey 4 . ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy, aene?aoe?? ? aani?aoe?? oinoi?o o
eeia a eiio?ie? oa ca oiia aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o eiioeaio?aoe??
1 ia/e. (iana o?ea iaei??? iniaeie neeaaeaea 13,64 a) i?e ??cieo
cia/aiiyo aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio. n=6

?aoe?ii,/anoea a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai
Aene?aoe?y oinoi?o,

iea?/a ca aeiao
Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae ??aaiue aeeoaiiy, iaI2/a

ca aeiao

Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae 0,0 5,60,2 7,20,2
5,90,1 4,70,2 0,5 1,80,1 2,90,2 6,20,4 5,20,3
1,0 -1,60,1 1,70,1 17,31,1 8,10,5 Noiae? ?acoeueoae
io?eiai? iaie ? o aeine?aeao c ie?oeith.

Aieea o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea.

O ca*yceo c anoaiiaeaieie iaie ?noioieie ii?ooaiiyie oinoi?iiai
iai?io ?ea a oiiaao oine/iiai aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ii c*ynoaaiith aieeao o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e?
i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea. I?ioyaii 45 ae?a ?ea o?eiaee a oiiaao
eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,05 ia/e.. ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeineoue iaeiicia/ieie
(oaae.5).

Oaeei /eiii iaie anoaiiaeaii noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia cieaeaiiy
??aiy caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a o?e? an?o aeine?aeaeaieo iaie aeae?a ?ea a
oiiaao oo?eiaiiy ?o o aiae? c eiioeaio?aoe??th o?iio 0,05 ia/e. (? 0,01)
I?e/iio a na?aaeiueiio oea cieaeaiiy neeaaeaei 9,05 % (a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai). A a?aeoae iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue caaaeueiiai
oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea oaeiae aei iaaii? i??e ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi nooiaiy
caa?oaeiaiiy aiaee.

Oaaeeoey 5. Ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea a e?ioe? 45-oe
aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo a eiio?ie? oa ca eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,05 ia Cr6+ /e

Aeaee ?ea n Iana o?ea, ia

Ii/aoie E?iaoeue

aeine?aeoAi?no nooi?

?a/iaeie a

e?ioe? aeine?aeo Ai?no oinoi?o a noo?e

?a/iaei?, %

Eiio?ieue Aeine?aeCieioa

?eaea20 54817 22436419,760,512,3020,1632,0540,189Ie?oea15
95414 29637621,320,482,416-0,1482,1580,196Eei 15 124527
34235920,410,392,4010,1732,2850,232Ieoiue12 161738
41958120,890.722,9020,2012,5830,315 Aieea i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o.

Anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ci?ie a ??aiyo aene?aooe?? oinoi?o i?ae
aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio niiioeaee ian aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
i?eaeth ia oeae ia?aiao?. Aeine?aee, i?iaaaeai? ia iieiae? cieioi? ?eaee
na?ae/aoue i?i nooo?aee aieea i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
(?en.13)

Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth 0,01 ia/e, ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE. I?e aieiaeoaaii? o cieioi? ?eaee a eiio?ie?
??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o neeaaeaa 2,78 iea/a ca aeiao, a oie /an ye o
aeine?ae? a?i aoa 3,67 iea/a ( ui noaiiaeoue 131 % a?ae eiio?ieth). I?e
aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o a eiio?ie? aani?aoe?y oinoi?o neeaaeaea 1,29 iea/a ia
aeiao, a o aeine?ae? cieio? ?eaee aene?aooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth
1,52 iea/a ia aeiao.

I?e iayaiino? i?eaeth o aiae? a ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie
eiioeaio?aoe?e a aeiaeiiio aa??aio? ia niinoa??aaeiny aani?aoe?? oinoi?o
c aiaee (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o). Iaoii?noue iaea i?noea eiai
aene?aoe?y, ?ioaineai?noue yei? c?inoaea c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaioo o aiae?.

Oaeei /eiii ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaao? ia
iayai?noue oieneeaio?a o aiae?, a oiio cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe??
oinoi?o iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i oiene/i?noue na?aaeiaeua. Cae/aeii, aea/aiiy
oeueiai ieoaiiy iio?aao? i?i-aaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, c aeine?aeaeaieo iaie ia?aiao??a ca /ooeea?noth aei
iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa – ?iaeaen
iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua, yeee aea? iaea?eueo iaeiicia/io ea?oeio
noaio yeino? aiaee (ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaio?a), ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, yeee aeoaea /ooeeai ?aaao?
ia iayai?noue o aiae? oieneeaio?a (o?iio ? i?eaeth).

Uiaei /ooeeaino? ??cieo ia?aiao??a aei iayaiino? a na?aaeiaeu?
oieneeaio?a, oi ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith, yea cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea eieeaaiiy ??ai?a
aeeoaiiy. Oae, o aeine?aeao c aieeaii naioieneeieia?/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio (0,05 ia/e) o o?ei?ny/ii? iieiae? cieioi? ?eaee i?e
aieiaeoaaii? ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy ciaiooaaeanue ia 20%, a ??aaiue
aene?aoe?? oinoi?o c?inoaa ia 144%. O aeine?aeao c aieeaii o?iio o
eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e ( ui neeaaea? 1 ?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE )
??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o ia?aaeuoaaa eiio?ieuei? cia/aiiy ia 160%; ca
?aoe?iio 0,5 a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai aene?aoe?y oinoi?o a oiiaao aieeao
o?iio (10 ia/e) ia?aaeuoaaea ??aaiue eiai aene?aoe?? o eiio?ie? a 4,5
?ace.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy
oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea (cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ciaioaiiy
eiai ai?noo a o?e?) a oiiaao aieeao oeo eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio ? i?eaeth,
ye? aeeeeeathoue iaaio noeioeyoe?th ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ?
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no. Oaeei /eiii, iaaia noeioeyoe?y
i?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oieneeaioaie ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
iiceoeaiee aieea ia i?aai?ci ?ea. Oiio, aeei?enoiaoth/e a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee, aaaeeeai anoaiiaethaaoe
aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy
?aoaeueiiai aiae?co oeeo ci?i.

AENIIAEE:

1. Oanoeaaeaioee o?ii, i?eaeue ? naeiaoeue o ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo
iaie eiioeaio?aoe?e (0,001 — 50,0 ia/e aeey o?iio; 0,01 — 50,0 ia/e aeey
i?eaeth ? 0,1 — 10,0 ia/e aeey naeioeth) ?noioii aieeaaee ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? ??aaiue
aeeoaiiy ?ea. C a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a iae?noioi?oa ci?ithaaeany a
oiene/iiio na?aaeiaeu? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo.

2. Iayai?noue naeioeth o aiae? o eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 0,1 aei 5 ia/e
i?aeoe/ii ia aeeeeeaea cieaeaiiy i? oaii?a ?inoo, i? aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no (ca 28 ae?a aeine?aeo) ? eeoa o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo, aeecueeeo aei eaoaeueieo ( 5,0 — 10,0 ia/e)
i?eai?/oaaea a?i-i?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. Iaeiae i?enooi?noue naeioeth
o na?aaeiaeu? aeeeeeaea cia/i? eieeaaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue oiene/iiai aoaeoo.

3. Ca /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a iieiaeue aoi?
cia/ii ia?aaa?oo? iieiaeue cieioi? ?eaee. O iaio aeae?a noa?o? a?eia?
a?oie iaio /ooeea?, i?ae iieiaeo?.

4. Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aieeao aeine?aeaeaieo oieneeaio?a ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. O?ii ? i?eaeue iiae?ai? ca nai?i aieeaii: ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 0,05 aeey i?eaeth ? aei 0,1 ia/e aeey o?iio aiie o
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeeeeeathoue iaaia c?inoaiiy ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo
? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? (i?ioyaii 28 -ie aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo):
a?eueo aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ecaiaeyoue aei caeiiii??iiai ?o
ciaioaiiy. Naeiaoeue a?aecia/aany iaeaeuith oiene/i?noth ? aaea ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 ia/e i?ecaiaeea aei caaeaae? i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea.

5. O?ii o eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e (ui a?aeiia?aea? 1 AIE ) ? aeua ?
i?eaeue ca eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae 0,01 ia/e ? aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi?
ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeoue na?e i?iya o cia/iiio
c?inoaii? eiai aene?aoe??. Ca oiia aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o aiie, ia
a?aei?io a?ae eiio?ieth, ia iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee, a eeoa
aene?a-ooaaee eiai, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei cieaeaiiy a?aeiiniiai eiai ai?noo
a o?e? ?ea.

6. A on?o aeiaaeeao iaea?eueo /ooeeaei (aei iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o
aiae?) c aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a aeyaeany ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. A?i iaa iaeneiaeuei? a?aeoeeai-iy a?ae eiio?ieueieo
cia/aiue o an?o aa??aioao aeine?ae?a, i?e/iio ci?ithaaany iaea?eueo
i?iii?oe?eii aei ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaio?a.

7. Aeine?aeaeai? iieacieee a ii?yaeeo /ooeeaino? aei iayaiino?
oieneeaio?a ?icoaoiaai? (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy) oaeei /eiii: ??aaiue
aene?aoe?? oinoi?o – ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua – ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo – aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no –
??aaiue aeeoaiiy.

8. A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea oa ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua
iiaeooue aeei?enoi-aoaaoeny aeey ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii?
neooaoe??. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o
cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo.

9. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe aeioieneei-eia?/io neooaoe?th o aiaeiei?, yea ?noioii
aieeaa? ye ia i?iaeoeoe?ei?, oae ? ia ?io? iaoa-aie?/i? i?ioeane o ?ea.
Oiio aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?eaii?i-aeoeoeaiino?
aiaeiei ia? a?oiooaaoeny oaeiae ? ia ?acoeueoaoao ?o aeioieneeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

IIIA?AAeI? I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue cai?iiiioaaoe iiia?aaei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoi-noaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey
ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee oa ei?aeoe?? ?aoe?iio ?ea a oiiaao aieeao
oieneeaio?a.

1. A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea ? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? iiaeooue
oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee. I?e oeueiio
iaeoi/i?oo ioe?ieo iiaeia io?eiaoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?IN. sseui ae
aecia/aiiy aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio aeeeeea? o?oaeiiu?, aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe c oe??th iaoith ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ea. I?e
oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ia?aiao??a a?ae
?o cia/aiue o eiio?ie?, ui iiaea aooe neaiaeii i?i ci?io oieneeieia?/ii?
neooaoe?? ? yeino? aiaee a oe?eiio.

2.I?e aeei?enoaii? ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iayaiino?
oieneeaio?a o aiae? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ?noioiee aieea aaee/eie
aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia ?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. Oea aeiaaa?
?aoaeueiiai aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio aiae?ae?. Iiaeia ?aeiiai-aeoaaoe aeaa
aa??aioe — aeei?enoaiiy ?ea, ui aieiaeothoue i?ioyaii 2 — 3 ae?a – o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aeinyaoe aeineoue iino?eiiai ??aiy aene?aoi?ieo
i?ioean?a. Iaeiae a?eueo iaae?ei? ? iaeiicia/i? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia
io?eiaoe ia ?eaao, ui aeeaeyoueny aeinoi/o. A oeueiio aa??aio? ci?ia
aani?aoe?? oinoi?o ia eiai aene?aoe?th iaeiicia/ii aeaaea ia iayai?noue
oieneeaio?a o aiae?.

3.I?e ae?iuoaaii? ?ea a oiiaao oiene/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiae o?iiii ?
i?eaeai aeioe?eueii iniaeeao oaaao caa?iooe ia i?aeaeuaiee ai?no oinoi?o
a ?aoe?ii? aeey eiiiainaoe?? eiai ao?ao a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy
aene?aoi?ii-aani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Ioe?iea yeino? aiaee ca
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie ?ea //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei. 28.— N. 51—52.

2.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei.
28.—N. 53—55.

3.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae Aieea Cr6+, Ni2+, Pb2+ ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei. 28.—N. 55—57.

4.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Ae?aaiinoeea yeino? aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ca i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie iieiae? ?ea
//Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iiei-ae? /Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i.
Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?eue-nueeee, 25—26 ethoiai 1998
?.—Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998.—N. 82—85.

5.Aaiaecth?a A.A., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea.—oai aea.—N. 85—86.

6.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae, Aieea oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e ?ea.—oai aea.—N. 86—88.

7.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea //*ao-aa?o? Ea?eoeinuee? /eoaiiy.—Anaoe?a?inueea
i?aeaoc?anueea iaoeiai-iaoiae.eiio.—Ca??iee noaoae.—Iieoaaa,
1998.—*anoeia 1.—N. 113—116.

8.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //Ae?oaee c*?cae a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie.—Ee?a, 27-31 aeiaoiy 1997 ?..—Oace aeii.—O.2.—N. 116.

Aoiaae Aooae Aieea oieneeaio?a ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.10 — ?oo?ieia?y. — ?inoeooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa ia cia/iiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??ae? anoaiiaeai?
e?euee?ni? cia/aiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oa ??ai?a aene?aoe??
oinoi?o o iieiae? ?ea a oiiaao aieeao ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth. Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio
/ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aei iayaiino? o aiae?
oieneeaio?a. Iieacaii, ui iae/ooeea?oei c aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a aei
iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a ? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
iio?i (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy /ooeeaino?) — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo,
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no ? ??aaiue aeeoaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?en-oiaoaaoe ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae? oa aeai? iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoi-noaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae?; anoaiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiai ai?noo
oinoi?o a ?aoe?ii? ?ea i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o ca oiia caa?oaeiaiiy aiae
o?iiii ? i?eaeai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iieiaeue ?ea, oieneeaioe, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e, aene?aoe?y oinoi?o, ye?noue aiaee.

Aoiaae Aooae Aeeyiea oieneeaioia ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u iieiaee ?ua. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.10 — Eooeieiaey.-Einoeooo ?uaiiai
oicyenoaa OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aia?aua ia iaoe?iii yenia?eiaioaeueiii iaoa?eaea onoaiiaeaiu
eiee/anoaaiiua cia/aiey aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia e o?iaiy
yene?aoeee oinoi?a o iieiaee ?ua a oneiaeyo aeeyiey ?acee/iuo
eiioeaio?aoeee oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iia, ieeaey e naeioea. Onoaiiaeaia
ioiineoaeueiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua e
iaee-/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia. Iieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiui ec
enneaaeiaaiiuo iiea-caoaeae e iaee/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia yaeyaony
eiaeaen iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, caoai (a ii?yaeea oiaiueoaiey
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe) — oaeaeueiay nei?inoue ?inoa, yooaeoeaiinoue
en-iieueciaaiey ieue ia ?ino e o?iaaiue aeuoaiey. I?aaeeiaeaii
eniieueciaaoue eiaeaen iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, oaeaeueioth nei?inoue
?inoa e o?iaaiue yene?aoeee oinoi?a aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a
aiaea e aeaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieue-ciaaieth
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a aiaea;
onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiauoaiiiai niaea?aeaiey oinoi?a a ?aoeeiia
?ua i?e au?aueaaiee eo a oneiaeyo oiene/aneiai caa?yciaiey aiae o?iiii e
ieeaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieiaeue ?ua, oieneeaiou, aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua
ia?aiao?u, yene?aoeey oinoi?a, ea/anoai aiaeu.

Ahmed Ishfaq. Effects of Toxicants ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) on
Bioproductional Parameters of Young Fishes. Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree (biology) by speciality 03.00.10 —
Ichthyology.—Fish farmer institute, Kyiv, 1999.

For the first time the quantitive significance of bioproductive
parametres and the level of phosphorus excretion of young fishes has
been stated in the vast experimental material. Comparitive sensitiveness
of fishs bioproductive parametres to the availability
of toxicants in the
water also has been stated. It has been demonstrated that the most
sensitive parameter to the availability of the toxicants in the water
is an optimum environment index, then ( in the decreasing order )
specific velocity of growth, the effectiiveness of food convertation
and the respiration level. It has been proposed to use an index of an
optimum environment, specific speed of grovth and the level of
phosphorus txcretion for diagnosis of toxicants in the water and
preliminary recomendations of utilizations of fishis bioproductive
parametres for diagnosis of the toxicants in the water. A neccessity of
the high phosphorus content in the fish*s ration while growing them in
the conditions of high chromium and nickel pollution has been proved.

Key words: young fishes, toxicants, bioproductional parameters,
phosphorus excretion, water quality.

— 1 —

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A eiiieaen? ?oo?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
a?ae/oaa?oueny iaaaeueia iio?aaa anaa?/iiai a?aooaaiiy aieeao yeino?
aiaee ia i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ea. A iniia? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia? eaaeaoe ?oo?i-oieneeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia, ui ia?aaeaa/a?, ii?yae c
o?aaeeoe?eieie a?ae?ia?ieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie ioe?iee yeino? iiaa?oiaaeo
aiae, aeeth/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo a?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a, ui aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue iaaa-oeaiee aieea caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei ia
i?aai?ci ?ea (?aoooaiei, 1991). Na?aae oaeeo ?ioaa?aeueieo ia?aiao??a
/?eueia i?noea iathoue iin?noe i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e, ui a
?ioaa?aeuei?e oi?i? a?aeia?aaeothoue oiiae ?nioaaiiy ?ea oa ?ioeo
a?ae?ia?iio?a. I?ioa oe? aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue –
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? oa aeioieneeieia?/i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ?icaeaaeeny
iaeaea iacaeaaeii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai (A?aaeineee, 1988). A oiiaao ae?ae
iai?oaeaiiai aeioieneeieia?/iiai noaio ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aiaeiei
Oe?a?ie aino?i iinoa? i?iaeaia ?o a?i?iaeeeaoe?? oa aeieia?/iiai
icaei?iaeaiiy (?aoooaiei, 1997; ?iiaiaiei, 1997;).

Iniaeeaa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia ?eaia
ianaeaiiy Iaeenoaio iaoiiaeaia aenieei ??aiai ?oiueiai caa?oaeiaiiy
i?iieneiaeie no?/ieie aiaeaie (Al-Akel, 1996).

Aiaeii/an ae?ae iaiaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y c ieoaiue aieeao aaaeeeo
iaoae?a ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea — ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no c iaeiiai
aieo oiaiiaeeeaeth? ei?aeoi? ?ic?aooiee ?eaii?iaeoeoeiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiai-iy, a c ?ioiai — iicaaaey?
aeioieneeieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaothui? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace c
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea, ye? iiaeia aeei?en-oiaoaaoe aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Oeei ? iaoiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca*ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca?aeii oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e ii oai? ? 97/091 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaa?eiiiai
na?oo Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie na?oiai? oaoie, ii?oi-o?c?ieia?/ieo
? aeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oaa?ei oa ?aaoeyoe?? aeayeeo ia?aiao??a ?o
iiioeyoe?e a oiiaao ye?nieo ci?i aeiae?eey”, yea aoiaeeoue aei
eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Ioi?iia
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: Iaoith ?iaioe aoei c*ynoaaiiy
aieeao iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oieneeaio?a – o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth ia
iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea ? ia aeaiaioe ?o
oinoi?iiai iai?io.

Aeey oeueiai o?aaa aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

—aea/eoe aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oieneeaio?a ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o ?ea
? o?iio – ia a?aeiiniee ai?no oinoi?o o o?e? ?ea;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia
aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e;

— anoaiiaeoe a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o na?aaeiaeu?;

— ?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee oieneeaio?a o aiae? ? yeino? na?aaeiaeua a oe?eiio oa
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy c oe??th iaoith ?iaeaena iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua (?IN) (Aaiaecth?a, 1993).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia cia/iiio
iaoa??ae? aeine?aeaeaii aieea oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, naeioeth ? i?eaeth
ia iaeaaaeeea?o? a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea – ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no.
Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio /ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a aei
iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o aiae?. Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueoith /ooeea?noth c
aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a a?ae??ciy?oueny ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui o?ii ? i?eaeue o eiioeaio?aoe?yo
a?ae 1 AIE (aeey o?iio a?ae 0,001ia/e; aeey i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 ia/e) ?
aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea—cia/ia
c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ui a?aoo? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy eiai
a?aeiiniiai ai?noo a o?e? ?ea. Oaeei /eiii caii/aoeiaaii oe?ieiiaooaaia
aea/aiiy e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea a
oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee oieneeaio?a o
aiae?. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue ei?aeoiiai aea/aiiy
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea ? iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?eaii?i-aeoeoeaiino? aiaeiei aac
o?aooaaiiy nooiaiy ?o caa?oaeiaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiia?aaei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aeey
ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeanii?o/ii aeeiiaii aanue
ianya aenia?eeiaioaeueieo ?ia?o, o?i?/iee aiae?c i?ia, noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea ?acoeue-oao?a, aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e. Aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee ? cai?iiiiiaai? iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ca ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ciieia??, ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1997), ia Ae?oaiio c*?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiaai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, i?enay/ai?e iai*yo?
A.I.Ea?eoeia (Iieoaaa, 1998), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998).

— 3 —

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a, 20 i?ae?icae?e?a, aeeth/a? 14 oaaeeoeue oa 22 ?enoiee.
?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 115 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 243 aeaea?aea.

IAOA??AE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee aieiaiei /eiii ia iieiae? aoi? Poecilia
reticulata ? cieioi? ?eaee Carassius auratus auratus. Oeeo ?ea
aeei?enoiaothoue ye oano-ia*?eoe a oieneeieia?/ieo aenia?eiaioao a NOA,
ssiii??, ?iae??, Aieaiae??, e?a?iao NIAe (Eoeueyiaiei,1985; Aanueeiaaoe
e ae?., 1991). A aenia?eiaioao ii aea/aiith neeaaeiaeo oinoi?iiai iai?io
aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae iieiaeue ie?oee (Rutilus rutilus), eeia (Tinca
tinca) ? ieoiy (Perca fluviatilis). Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee a 10 — oe
e?o?iaeo aeaa??oiao c i?aai?/iiai neea. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaee i?ioyaii
aeine?ae?a oo?eioaaeany a iaaeao 201 0N ca aeiiiiiaith
oa?ii-?aaoeyoi??a, oe?eiaeiaiaa aa?aoe?y caaacia/oaaeany
i?e?ieiii?ani?aie. A eiae-i?e na??? aeine?ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iieiaeue
c iaeiiai iiiaoo, iaea?aeaio a eaai-?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Iieiaeue ie?oee,
eeia ? ieoiy a?aeeiaethaaee ia i?eeiaiaeaeyo Eai?anueeiai aiaeinoiaeua.
A?aeae?aee iaeii?ici??ieo iniaei, ye? aeia?a naaa ii/oaaee ? ia aeyaeyee
iciae noo?aiaaiino?. Aee?iaoe?y aei oiia aenia?eiaioo o?eaaea 2 — 3
oeaei?. Iio?i a eiaeiee aeaa??oi iii?uaee ii e?eueea (aeecueei 10)
iaeii?ici??ieo iniaei eiaeiiai aeaeo. 2 aeaa??oie neoaoaaee eiio?ieai –
?ea a ieo oo?eioaaee aac oieneeaio?a. Ii eiaei?e eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaioo caeeaaeaee 3 ia?aeaeuei? aeine?aee. Eiioeaio?aoe?th
oieneeaioo aeae?aee, aeoiaey/e c eiai ?eaiainiiaea?nueei? AIE (a?aie/ii
i?eionoeii? eiioeaio?aoe??) ? aei eiioeaio?aoe?e, ye? ?noioii aieeaaee
ia aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e. Oea neeaaeaei: aeey oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio
— a?ae 0,001 aei 50 ia/e; aeey i?eaeth — a?ae 0,01 aei 50 ia/e; aeey
naeioeth — a?ae 0,1 aei 10 ia/e. Oieneeaioe aiineee o aeaeyae? a?o?iiaoo
eae?th K2Cr2O7, noeueoaoo i?eaeth NiSO4 ? i?o?aoo naeioeth PbNO3.
Uiaeiy aiaeo a aeaa??oiao iiai?noth ci?ithaaee ia a?aenoiyio i?ioyaii
o?ueio ae?a aiaeii?i-a?aeio. I?e oeueiio ui?aco aiineee iaiao?aeio
e?euee?noue oieneeaioo aeey i?ae-o?eiaiiy eiai iino?eii? eiioeaio?aoe??
o aiae?. O?eaae?noue eiaeiiai aenia?e-iaioo neeaaeaea 28 ae?a. Aiaeoaaee
?ea o?oai/ieeii Tubifex tubifex ? ee/eieaie o??iiii?ae. Uioeaeiy ?ea
caaaeoaaee ia oi?n?eieo aai ia aioaea?nueeeo oa?acao (a caeaaeiino? a?ae
?o ?ici??o). Aeeoaiiy aecia/aee a caieiaieo ?ani??iiao?ao o?e/? ia
aeiao, aeniiceoe?y eiaeiiai — aiaeeia, eenaiue aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii
A?ieea?a (Aeaeei e ae?.,1973).

Ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith (Aeiyia?aaoeea e
?ino ?ua, 1983):

ln m2/m1

g = ——— ;

t2 — t1

— 4 —

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; m1 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano
t1; m2 — iana o?ea a iiiaio /ano t 2.

Aaeiao aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no (E1)
?ic?aoiaoaaee ye a?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo iane o?ea ?ea aei iane niiaeeoi?
ca /an aeine?aeaeaiue ?ae? (Caeea, 1983; Ua?aeia, 1983).

Ia iniia? ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?
ia ??no ?ic?aoiaoaaee iieaciee iioeiaiaeueiino? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano
– (II) ca oi?ioeith (Aaiaecth?a, 1991):

ln m2 /m1 o m

II = g x E1 = ———————;

t x R

aea g — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo; E1 — aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ??no (/e aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae?); m1 —
ii/aoeiaa iana o?ea; m2 — e?ioeaaa, m — i?e?inoe iane o?ea ca ia??iae
/ano t ; R — aaee/eia niiaeeoiai ca oeae /an ?aoe?iio. Oeae
ia?aiao? (II) cai?iiiiiaaii o ca*yceo c oei, ui a iaeieo aeiaaeeao
cia/ia ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaoaeoeaiei
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ae?, a ?ioeo — ia oe? iacia/ieo oaii?a ?inoo
niinoa??aa?oueny aeineoue aeniea aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ? oiio
/anii iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe, ye? oiiae a?eueo ni?eyoeea? aeey
i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. A cai?iiiiiaaiee iieaciee iioeiaeueiino?
i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeicaiey? aecia/eoe o? oiiae, ca yeeo ia?
i?noea cia/ia ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aeniea aoaeoeai?noue
eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae?. Oea aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe i?ae niaith ye?noue aiaee
iaeii/anii ca ?ioaineai?noth oa aoaeoeai?noth a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai
i?ioeano. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua aeey a?ii?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano – ?IN ( Aaiaecth?a, 1993):

II i

?IN = ——- ;

II a

aea: II i — iieaciee iioeiaeueiino? a i-oiio na?aaeiaeu? (a eiaeiiio

eiie?aoiiio aeine?ae?); II a — a aoaeiiiiio na?aaeiaeu? (o eiio?ie?).

Aeey a?eueo iiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea a
oiiaao aieeao aaaeeeo iaoae?a aea/aee oaeiae ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
— c iaeyaeo ia aenieo /ooeea?noue oeueiai ia?aiao?o aei ci?i o noai?
aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (?iiaiaiei, Aaoooaiei, Eioea?ue, 1980) oa aaaeeeao
?ieue oinoi?o a i?ioeanao ieanoe/iiai ? aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io (
?iiaiaiei, A?nai, Nieiiaoeia, 1982), a oaeiae ai?no caaaeueiiai oinoi?o
o o?e? ?ea, ui i?ioyaii 45 ae?a oo?eioaaeeny a oiiaao iayaiino?
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o aiae?.

Aene?aoe?th oinoi?o aecia/aee oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aaeainiaeo
aeine?ae?a (?oeiaiaenoai ii iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiee oeceieiaee ?ua,
1962) a aeaa??oiao, iaeei c yeeo eeoaany aac ?ea ? neoaoaaa eiio?ieai, o
aeaio ?ioeo aoea ?eaa (ii e?eueea aecaiiey??a o eiaeiiio), aaee/eio
aene?aoiaaiiai oinoi?o aecia/aee ca ??cieoeath eiai ai?noo a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaa??oiao ? o eiio?ieueiiio

— 5 —

i?ney aeiaiai? aeniiceoe??. Oinoi? aecia/aee eiei?eiao?e/iei
iie?aaeaoii-no?ueiyiiaei iaoiaeii c anei?a?iiaith eeneioith (Goltrman,
1969) c ianooiiith

aeno?aeoe??th aaenaiieii (Stephens, 1963). Aieea aeeaeaiiy ia iai?ii?
i?ioeane aea/aee oaeei /eiii. ?ea aeo?eioaaee 3 aeiae aac ei?io, i?ney
/iai aei??thaaee ??aaiue ?oiueiai aeeoaiiy oa aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. Iio?i
a aeine?aei? aeaa??oie aiineee ?aeo (o?oai/iee aai ee/eiie o??iiii?ae),
iano yei? aecia/aee oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy ia oi?n?eieo oa?acao c oi/i?noth
aei 1 ia. I?e/iio ei?i aiineee c iaaeeeoeii. *a?ac 24 aiaeeie aecia/aee
iano iac*?aeaiiai ei?io oeyoii caaaeoaaiiy eiai caeeoeo ? oaeei /eiii
?ic?aoiaoaaee aaee/eio niiaeeoiai ?aoe?iio. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aaee/eio
?aoe?iio aaaaeaee ca iaeneiaeueio. I?ioyaii ianooiieo o?ueio ae?a
aiineee uiaeiy iieiaeio a?ae aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai ?aoe?iio ? ciiao
aei??thaaee ??aaiue iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaia ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie ( Eaeei, 1980
).

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeaii c 10 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo ii 5 aa?aciy 1998
?ieo. Anueiai i?iaaaeaii 124 aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a
o?e? 4 aeae?a ?ea; 16 na??e 28-ie aeiaiaeo aeine?ae?a ii aea/aiith
aieeao oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiaoa?e ?ea; anueiai 2786
aecia/aiue iane o?ea ?ea a i?ioean? ?inoo, 458 ?ani??aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a,
198 aecia/aiue ??aiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o o?ueio aeae?a ?ea.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea o?iio ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? oa ieoiii?
oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee a?eii a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a iieacaee
(oaae.1), ui i?e?inoe iane o?ea ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? a?ae
0,001 aei 0,1 ia/e ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeeny

Oaaeeoey 1.Ianna o?ea ? ianna niiaeeoi? ?ae? o aeaii?ny/ii? cieioi?
?eaee i?nea 28-ie aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo o eiioie? oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio o aiae? ( iana o?ea 1 aec. ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeo
neeaaeaea 1487 ia). n = 10.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y

o?iio o aiae?, ia Cr6+/eIana o?ea 1 aec. i?ney 28 ae?a aeine?aeo,
ia I?e??no iane o?-

ea o 1 aec. ca

28 ae?a, ia Iana niiaee-

oi? ?ae? ca 28 ae?a, ia/aec Yoaeoeai?noue

aeei?enoaiiy

?ae? ia ??no, % Eiio?ieue614 124662361 12 19,70,001619
144712211 13 21,30,010640 114921939 19 25,50,100609
134612100 18 21,91,000508 173601881 11 19,1
10,000219 12 711217 17 5,8 50,000163 17 151358 25
1,1

— 6 —

a?ae eiio?ieth, a oie /an ye aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no
aoea iaeneiaeueiith ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,01 ia/e (oaae.1).
Aiaeii/an ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o eiio?ie? ?eae niiaeeaaee ?ae? a?eueoa,
i?ae ca aoaeue-yei? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae?. Oaeei /eiii,
iayai?noue o?iio iaa?oue o e?eueeino? 0,001 ia/e (ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE) iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?ioaineai?noue niiaeeaaiiy
?ae?. Ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio o aiae? 10 ? 50 ia/e i?e?inoe iane o?ea ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no cieaeothoueny aeineoue ?noioii.
Ia iniia? aeaieo oaae.1 aoee ?ic?aoiaai? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua aeey i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeey
c?o/iino? ia?aiao?e aeai? o % a?ae eiio?ieth (?en.1). Noiaeo ea?oeio
niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c iieiaeaeth aoi? (?en.2).

wmetafile8? ??ue?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
KJ???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii 1-2
i?nyoe?)?en.2.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o

aoi? (a?eii 1-2 i?nyoe?)

O aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo neeaaeaea
3,860,18 %; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea 18,670,39
%. Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio a?ae 0,001 aei 0,05 ia/e ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no aeaui
c?inoathoue, a ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 1 ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia
cieaeaiiey aeaieo ia?aiao??a (?en.2). I?e/iio a ae?aiacii?
eiioeaio?aoe?e a?ae 1 aei 50 ia Cr6+/e aiie ci?iththoueny ia
iaeiicia/ii (iathoue i?noea eieeaaiiy oeeo aaee/ei). A ?iaeaen
iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua cieaeo?oueny i?yii i?iii?oe?eii
eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaioo (?en.2).

I?e ii??aiyii? aeine?ae?a c aieeao o?iio ia iaeiia?eiao iieiaeue
cieioi? ?eaee ? aoi? iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aoi? cia/ii /ooeea?o?
aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en.1-2). Oae, ca eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 1
ia/e o cieioeo ?eaie a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aoee aeecueeeie aei
eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue, a oie /an ye o aoi? aiie neeaaeaee eeoa iaaaeeeo
/anoeo a?ae ?o eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ? oa ianoaaeia, ui a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei
ci?ithaaeenue i?ioyaii 28 ae?a. Aiaeii/an ca oiia ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
o?iio aeeiai?ea oeeo ia?aiao??a aoea aeineoue neeaaeiith (?en.3 — 4).

— 7 —

wmetafile8? ??????-???????? ???????yyy????????????
‡»???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy?????? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae

1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio-

?aoe?e o?iio o aiae??en. 4. Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?oo-

aaiiy ?ae? o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 1

aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e

o?iio o aiae? Cia/i? eieeaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a o
/an? na?ae/aoue, c iaeiiai aieo, i?i nooi?i/aoee oa?aeoa? i?enoinoaaiiy
?ea aei oiia oiene/iiai na?aaeiaeua, a c ?ioiai – i?i ?icaaeainoaaiiy
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a i?ae aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaaothoue
ia iayai?noue o?iio o aiae?, ? ca a?aeoeeaiiyi ?oi?o cia/aiue a?ae
eiio?ieth iiaeia aecia/eoe iayai?noue oieneeaioo o aiae?.

Ii??aithth/e i?ae niaith a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ca ?o
a?aeiiniith /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o?iio o aiae? (?en.5) iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ca wmetafile8? ??‘?? ?-????????
???????yyy???????????? ????

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy???????en.5. ??aaiue aeeoaiiy (R), ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo (g), aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? (K1)
oa ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua (IOC) o aoi? (a?eii 1 i?nyoeue)
ca eiioeaio?aoe??? o?iio 1 ? 10 ia/e (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o)

a?aeiiniith /ooeea?noth ia?oa i?noea iin?aea? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua,

— 8 —

iio?i eaeooue ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiiy ?ae?
ia ??no ?, ia?aoo?, ??aaiue aeeoaiiy.

Aieea i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

A aeine?aeao ia aoi? a oiiaao eiio?ieth ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
neeaaeaea 3,74 0,21; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiiy ?ae? ia ??no noaiiaeea
22,030,47%. Ca iayaiino? o aiae? i?eaeth o eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 0,05
ia/e niinoa??aa?oueny noeioeyoe?y aeine?aeaeoaaieo a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a, i?e/iio oea a?aei?/aii ? o aeine?aeao c cieioith ?eaeith
(?en.6 — 7).

wmetafile8? ??”?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????(a?eii a?ae 1 aei 2 i?nyoe?a) ca
??cieo eii-

oeaio?aoe?e i?eaeth?en.7.A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e o ci-

eioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a)

ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?eaeth

O eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo cieioi? ?eaee neeaaeaea
5,190,22%; aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? noaiiaeea 17,830,71%.
Noeioethth/ee aoaeo i?enooiino? i?eaeth o aiae? aeyaeyany i?e eiai
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 2,5 ia/e. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth
aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a. A on?o aa??aioao
aeine?ae?a c aea/aiiy aieeao i?eaeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith a?aeoeeaiue a?ae eiio?ieth a?ae??ciyany
?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua. Eiio i?eoaiaiia oaeiae ua iaeia
aeanoea?noue – a?i ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eii-oeaio?aoe??
i?eaeth o aiae? ? oiio iaeiiai?oa a?aeaeca?eaeth? nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy
aiaee. I?e/iio aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
aoaeue-yea eiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieth – ye c?inoaiiy, oae ?
cieaeaiiy. Ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ei?io
c? c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth ci?iththoueny nooi?i/aoi(?en.6 —
7).

— 9 —

Aieea naeioeth ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea.

Aeine?aee c cieioith ?eaeith iieacaee, ui naeiaoeue o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 0,1 aei 5 ia/e ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo (ca ?acoeueoaoaie 28-ie aeiaiaiai aenia?eiaioo
(oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2. Aeeiai?ea ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo o cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii
a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a) o eiio?ie? (aaniethoi? cia/aiiy) oa ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth o aiae? ( a % a?ae eiio?ieth). n=16

Eiioeaio?a-oe?y naeioeth

ia Pb2+ / e

1 — e

oeaeaeaiue

2 — e

oeaeaeaiue

3 — e

oeaeaeaiue

4 — e

oeaeaeaiue

A oe?eiio

ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue4,53±0,094,59±0,064,49±0,074,45±0,034,50±0,05

0.1105±2,13 99±1,87116 ±2,19 85 ±2,03 102± 2,07 0,5111±1,74
79±1,21 135±1,89 86±1, 91 99±1,70 2,5115±1,93 88±1,53 106±1,75
79±1,48 101±2,17 5,0 97±2,09 69±2,22 126±2,37 102±2,19 97±1,98
10,0115±2,68 65±3,74 a e ?

i ? i a oe ? y Aea ca oiia iayaiino? o
aiae? naeioeth ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?noioii eieeaa?oueny a /an?.
Aiaeia?/ia caeiiii??i?noue i?eoaiaii? ? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?
ia ??no (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3.Aoaeoeai?noue eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? o eiio?ie? (aaniethoi?
cia/aiiy) oa ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth ( a % a?ae eiio?ieth) o
cieioi? ?eaee (a?eii a?ae 2 aei 3 i?nyoe?a). n = 16.

Eiioeaio?a-oe?y naeioeth,

ia Pb2+ / e

1 — e

oeaeaeaiue

2 — e

oeaeaeaiue

3 — e

oeaeaeaiue

4 — e

oeaeaeaiueA oe?eiio

ca

28 ae?a Eiio?ieue

0,121,4±0,38

1031,5921,6±0,41

982,42 22,0±0,29

1311,79 20,9±,0,31

891,5721,47±0,35

1042,71 0,5 1112,79 892,18 1411,97 912,19 1022,13 2,5
1182,58 822,94 1493,02 811,04 1031,91 5,0 1193,21 841,75
1174,21 921,84 992,38 10,0 1213,42

723,04 y e ? i ? i a oe ? y
A eiio?ie? ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?
ia ??no iaei ci?ithaaeeny i?ioyaii 28 ae?a, o oie /an ye ca ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? eieeaaiiy iaio
ia?aiao??a. ? oi/ a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no iaei a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae
eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue (ca aeiyoeii eiioeaio?aoe?? naeioeth 10 ia/e, ca
yei? a e?ioe? ae?oaiai- ia ii/aoeo o?aoueiai oeaeiy niinoa??aaeany
ae?i?iaoe?y a?eueoino? iniaei), cia/i? eieeaaiiy oeeo ia?aiao??a a
oiiaao iayaiino? naeioeth o aiae? na?ae/aoue i?i oiene/i?noue
na?aaeiaeua (?en.8). A oe?eiio ca 28 ae?a aenia?eiaioo aeyaeaii, ui ca
??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e naeioeth aeine?aeaeai? ia?aiao?e ci?ithaaeeny
aeineoue nea/eiiiae?aii (?en.10) ? ca eiioeaio?aoe?? naeioeth10 ia/e
a?aeaoaaeany ae?i?iaoe?y ?ea.

wmetafile8? ??e?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
?o???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????AIEEA O?IIO ? I?EAETH IA AEAIAIOE
OINOI?IIAI IAI?IO O ?EA

Ine?eueee a oiiaao aeineoue cia/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e aeine?aeaeaieo
iaie oieneeaio?a /anoi niinoa??aaeany noeioeyoe?y a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a, aoei aeine?aeaeaii aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia aeoaea /ooeeaee
ia?aiao? oinoi?iiai iai?io (ye neeaaeiai? ieanoe/iiai ? aia?aaoe/iiai
iai?io) — ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o.

Aieea o?iio ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o Anoaiiaeaii, ui
?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaee/eie aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ?ea (Aaiaecth?a, 1986). Oiio aea/aiiy
aene?aoe?? ie i?iaiaeeee i?e ??cieo ?aoe?iiao.

A iaoeo aenia?eiaioao i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o an? aeine?aeaeai?
aeaee ?ea iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee.

A a oiiaao eiioeaio?aoe?? Cr6+ 1 ia/e (i?e iaeneiaeueiiio
?aoe?ii?) cieio? ?eaee aene?aooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth 0,59
iea/a ia aeiao, o oie /an ye o eiio?ie? ?eae iiaeeiaee oinoi? c
aiaee c ?ioaineai?nth 0,66 iea/a ia aeiao ( ?en.10). Aiaeia?/io
ea?oeio niinoa??aaee ? o aeine?aeao c aoi?.

Oaeei /eiii, a on?o aeiaaeeao aeine?aeaeai? eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio
aeeeeeaee cia/i? ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeei na?e
i?iya o cia/iiio c?inoaii? ??ai?a aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa aei ci?ie eiai
aani?aoe?? ia aene?aoe?th i?e aeeaeaii? ?ea aeinoi/o (?en.10 — 12).

wmetafile8? ?? ???-???????? ???????yyy????????????
.???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????’yy???

????yyy???? ???????.???????’yy???

????yyy???? ???????.???????ue??aaa????-?
???u?????????»????-????
aaa??????????????????$?B???O?B?O?B?????E?)?1/
2?
???u?????????»????-??????????B????yyy?????????
???O????O?B?????B?
???u??????????»????-????ue??yyy??????-????’yy???

????-????-????yyy???? aaa???.????
???u??????????»????-??????????B????????????O?B????
uoy??????I?e ii??aiyii? ci?i a aene?aoe?? oinoi?o ? a ??aiyo aeeoaiiy a
oiiaao aieeao o?iio caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao e?eueea oaeo?a. Ii-ia?oa,
aieea o?iio i?ecaiaeeoue

aei cia/iiai c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o. I?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o
aani?aoe?y oinoi?o ia niinoa??aa?oueny. Iaoii?noue ia? i?noea eiai
aene?aoe?y. Ii-ae?oaa. A oiiaao aieeao o?iio ??aaiue aeeoaiiy
cieaeo?oueny. I?e/iio iae?noioi?o? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny ca oiia
aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o (oaae. 4 ).

wmetafile8? ??9 ?? ?7???????? ???????yyy????????????
J???

?-???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??
yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????Oaaeeoey 4 . ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy,
aene?aoe?? ? aani?aoe?? oinoi?o o eeia a eiio?ie? oa ca oiia aieeao
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio o eiioeaio?aoe?? 1 ia/e. (iana o?ea iaei???
iniaeie neeaaeaea 13,64 a) i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo aaee/eie aeiaiaiai
?aoe?iio. n=6

?aoe?ii,/anoea a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai Aene?aoe?y oinoi?o,
iea?/a ca aeiao ca aeiao
Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae ??aaiue aeeoaiiy, iaI2/a

ca aeiao

Eiio?ieue Aeine?ae 0,0 5,60,2 7,20,2
5,90,1 4,70,2 0,5 1,80,1 2,90,2 6,20,4 5,20,3
1,0 -1,60,1 1,70,1 17,31,1 8,10,5 Noiae? ?acoeueoae
io?eiai? iaie ? o aeine?aeao c ie?oeith.

Aieea o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea.

O ca*yceo c anoaiiaeaieie iaie ?noioieie ii?ooaiiyie oinoi?iiai
iai?io ?ea a oiiaao oine/iiai aieeao oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ii c*ynoaaiith aieeao o?iio ia ai?no oinoi?o a o?e?
i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea. I?ioyaii 45 ae?a ?ea o?eiaee a oiiaao
eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio 0,05 ia/e.. ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeineoue iaeiicia/ieie
(oaae.5).

Oaeei /eiii iaie anoaiiaeaii noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia cieaeaiiy
??aiy caaaeueiiai oinoi?o a o?e? an?o aeine?aeaeaieo iaie aeae?a ?ea a
oiiaao oo?eiaiiy ?o o aiae? c eiioeaio?aoe??th o?iio 0,05 ia/e. (? 0,01)
I?e/iio a na?aaeiueiio oea cieaeaiiy neeaaeaei 9,05 % (a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai). A a?aeoae iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue caaaeueiiai
oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea oaeiae aei iaaii? i??e ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi nooiaiy
caa?oaeiaiiy aiaee.

— 13 —

Oaaeeoey 5. Ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? oinoi?o a o?e? ?ea a e?ioe? 45-oe
aeiaiaiai aeine?aeo a eiio?ie? oa ca eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,05 ia Cr6+ /e

Aeaee ?ea n Iana o?ea, ia

Ii/aoie E?iaoeue

aeine?aeoAi?no nooi?

?a/iaeie a

e?ioe? aeine?aeo Ai?no oinoi?o a noo?e

?a/iaei?, %

Eiio?ieue Aeine?aeCieioa

?eaea20 54817 22436419,760,512,3020,1632,0540,189Ie?oea15
95414 29637621,320,482,416-0,1482,1580,196Eei 15 124527
34235920,410,392,4010,1732,2850,232Ieoiue12 161738
41958120,890.722,9020,2012,5830,315Aieea i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th oinoi?o.

Anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ci?ie a ??aiyo aene?aooe?? oinoi?o i?ae
aieeaii oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio niiioeaee ian aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
i?eaeth ia oeae ia?aiao?. Aeine?aee, i?iaaaeai? ia iieiae? cieioi? ?eaee
na?ae/aoue i?i nooo?aee aieea i?eaeth ia ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o
(?en.13)

Ca oiia eiioeaio?aoe?? i?eaeth 0,01 ia/e, ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE. I?e aieiaeoaaii? o cieioi? ?eaee a eiio?ie?
??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o neeaaeaa 2,78 iea/a ca aeiao, a oie /an ye o
aeine?ae? a?i aoa 3,67 iea/a ( ui noaiiaeoue 131 % a?ae eiio?ieth). I?e
aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o a eiio?ie? aani?aoe?y oinoi?o neeaaeaea 1,29 iea/a ia
aeiao, a o aeine?ae? cieio? ?eaee aene?aooaaee oinoi? c ?ioaineai?noth
1,52 iea/a ia aeiao.

I?e iayaiino? i?eaeth o aiae? a ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie
eiioeaio?aoe?e a aeiaeiiio aa??aio? ia niinoa??aaeiny aani?aoe?? oinoi?o
c aiaee (i?e aeeaeaii? aeinoi/o). Iaoii?noue iaea i?noea eiai
aene?aoe?y, ?ioaineai?noue yei? c?inoaea c ? c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaioo o aiae?.

Oaeei /eiii ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeineoue /ooeeai ?aaao? ia
iayai?noue oieneeaio?a o aiae?, a oiio cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe??
oinoi?o iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i oiene/i?noue na?aaeiaeua. Cae/aeii, aea/aiiy
oeueiai ieoaiiy iio?aao? i?i-aaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, c aeine?aeaeaieo iaie ia?aiao??a ca /ooeea?noth aei
iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa – ?iaeaen
iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua, yeee aea? iaea?eueo iaeiicia/io ea?oeio
noaio yeino? aiaee (ci?ith?oueny iaea?eueo i?iii?oe?eii eiioeaio?aoe??
oieneeaio?a), ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, yeee aeoaea /ooeeai ?aaao?
ia iayai?noue o aiae? oieneeaio?a (o?iio ? i?eaeth).

Uiaei /ooeeaino? ??cieo ia?aiao??a aei iayaiino? a na?aaeiaeu?
oieneeaio?a, oi ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
iaeneiaeueiith aiie?ooaeith, yea cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea eieeaaiiy ??ai?a
aeeoaiiy. Oae, o aeine?aeao c aieeaii naioieneeieia?/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
o?iio (0,05 ia/e) o o?ei?ny/ii? iieiae?

— 14 —

cieioi? ?eaee i?e aieiaeoaaii? ?ioaineai?noue aeeoaiiy ciaiooaaeanue ia
20%, a ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o c?inoaa ia 144%. O aeine?aeao c
aieeaii o?iio o eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e ( ui neeaaea? 1
?eaiainiiaea?nueeo AIE ) ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o ia?aaeuoaaa
eiio?ieuei? cia/aiiy ia 160%; ca ?aoe?iio 0,5

a?ae iaeneiaeueiiai aene?aoe?y oinoi?o a oiiaao aieeao o?iio (10 ia/e)
ia?aaeuoaaea ??aaiue eiai aene?aoe?? o eiio?ie? a 4,5 ?ace.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui anoaiiaeai? iaie ?noioi? ii?ooaiiy
oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea (cia/ia c?inoaiiy aene?aoe?? oinoi?o, ciaioaiiy
eiai ai?noo a o?e? ?e) a oiiaao aieeao oeo eiioeaio?aoe?e o?iio ?
i??eaeth, ye? aeeeeeathoue iaaio noeioeyoe?th ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo ?
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no. Oaeei /eiii, iaaia noeioeyoe?y
i?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oieneeaioaie ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
iiceoeaiee aieea ia i?aai?ci ?ea. Oiio, aeei?enoiaoth/e a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee, aaaeeeai anoaiiaethaaoe
aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy
?aoaeueiiai aiae?co oeeo ci?i.

AENIIAEE:

1. Aeine?aeaeai? iaie oieneeaioe ca iaaieo eiioeaio?aoe?e (aeey o?iio
aei 0,1 ia/e; aeey i?eaeth aei 0,05 ia/e) aeeeeeathoue iacia/ia
c?inoaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea. I?e/iio noeioethth/ee aoaeo
aeaieo caa??aaany i?ioyaii anueiai aeine?aeo (28 ae?a). Aea iaa?oue ca
eiioeaio?aoe?e aeey o?iio 0,001 ia/e, aeey i?eaeth 0,01 ia/e
niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? eieeaaiiy o /an? an?o aeine?aeaeaieo
ia?aiao??a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue oiene/iiai aoaeoo.

2. Iayai?noue naeioeth o aiae? o eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?ae 1 aei 50 AIE
i?aeoe/ii ia aeeeeeaea cieaeaiiy i? oaii?a ?inoo, i? aoaeoeaiino?
eiiaa?ooaaiiy ?ae? ? eeoa o eiioeaio?aoe?yo, aeecueeeo aei eaoaeueieo (
100 AIE, oiaoi 10 ia/e) i?eai?/oaaea a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. Iaeiae
eiai iayai?noue o na?aaeiaeu? aeeeeeaea cia/i? eieeaaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo
ia?aiao??a ? ca eiai ai?noo o aiae? 10,0 ia/e niinoa??aaeany caaeaaeue
i?aeaeine?aeieo ?ea.

3. Ca /ooeea?noth aei iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a aoi? cia/ii
ia?aaa?oothoue iieiaeue cieioi? ?eaee. C eiaeiei i?nyoeai /ooeea?noue
?ea aei oieneeaio?a ?noioii cieaeo?oueny.

4. Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aieeao aeine?aeaeaieo oieneeaio?a ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e. O?ii ? i?eaeue iiae?ai? ca nai?i aieeaii: ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 0,05 aeey i?eaeth ? aei 0,1 ia/e aeey o?iio aiie
aeeeeeathoue iaaia c?inoaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a: a?eueo aenie?
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ecaiaeyoue aei caeiiii??iiai ?o ciaioaiiy. Naeiaoeue ia
aeeeeeaa ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aiao??a aae aei
eiioeaio?aoe?e, ui ni?e/eithaaee ae?i?iaoe?th ?ea (10 ia/e).

5. O?ii o eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,001 ia/e (ui a?aeiia?aea? 1 AIE ) ? aeua ?
i?eaeue ca eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae 0,01 ia/e ? aeua aeeeeeathoue ?noioi?
ii?ooaiiy oinoi?iiai iai?io o ?ea, ui ciaoiaeeoue na?e i?iya o cia/iiio
c?inoaii? eiai aene?aoe??. Ca oiia aeeaeaiiy ?ea aeinoi/o aiie ia
iiaeeiaee oinoi? c aiaee, ui iaei i?noea o eiio?ie?, a eeoa aene?aooaaee
eiai. Oea a?aoo? i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy a?aeiiniiai eiai ai?noo a
o?e? ?ea.

6. A on?o aeiaaeeao iaea?eueo /ooeeaei (aei iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o
aiae?) c a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a aeyaeany ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino?
na?aaeiaeua. A?i iaa iaeneiaeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue
o an?o aa??aioao aeine?ae?a.

7. Aeine?aeaeai? ia?aiao?e a ii?yaeeo /ooeeaino? aei iayaiino?
oieneeaio?a ?icoaoiaai? (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy) oaeei /eiii: ??aaiue
aene?aoe?? oinoi?o – ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua – ieoiia
oaeaee?noue ?inoo – aaeiaa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ae? ia ??no –
??aaiue aeeoaiiy.

8. A?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai
a?aoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy ?o cia/aiue a?ae eiio?ieueieo (ca
oiia eiioeaio?aoe?? oieneeaio?a, ui neeaaeathoue e?eueea AIE,
niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy oaiio ?inoo ? aoaeoeaiino? eiiaa?ooaaiiy
?ae?, i?ioa a?aeaoaa?oueny ii?ooaiiy aeaiaio?a oinoi?iiai iai?io).

9. ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o o ?ea iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaiei aeey
ioe?iee iayaiino? oieneeaio?a o na?aaeiaeu?. I?e oeueiio iniaeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ?aaeei oa?/oaaiiy (iaeneiaeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieth
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aeeaeaii? ?ea aeinoi/o). O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
iaoii?noue aani?aoe?? oinoi?o o eiio?ie? ia? i?noea eiai aene?aoe?y ( ca
oiiae iayaiino? oieneeaioa o aiae?).

10. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe aeioieneeieia?/io neooaoe?th o aiaeiei?, yea ?noioii aieeaa?
ye ia i?iaeoeoe?ei?, oae ? ia ?io? iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane o ?ea. Oiio
aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?eaii?iaeoeoeaiino?
aiaeiei ia? a?oiooaaoeny oaeiae ? ia ?acoeueoaoao ?o aeioieneeieia?/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

IIIA?AAeI? I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue cai?iiiioaaoe
iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaee, ?ic?aooieo
?eaii?iaeoeoeaiino? aiaeiei oa ei?aeoe?? ?aoe?iio ?ea a oiiaao aieeao
oieneeaio?a.

1.Iaeaaeaeaaoi?oo ea?oeio aeioieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? iiaeia io?eiaoe
ca aeiiiiiaith ?iaeaena iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua. sseui ae aecia/aiiy
aeiaiaiai ?aoe?io aeeeeea? o?oaeiiu?, aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ieoiio
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ea.

2.A on?o aeiaaeeao o?aaa iaoe ia oaac?, ui aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ii?iaeoe-oe?eieo ia?aiao??a a?ae ?o eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue iiaea aooe
neaiaeii i?i ci?io oieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

3.??aaiue aene?aoe?? ?eaaie oinoi?o iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee aeey
ae?aaiinoeee oieneeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. ?noioiee aieea aaee/eie
aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio ia ?ioaineai?noue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeiaaa?
?aoaeueiiai aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio aiae?ae?. Iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeaa
aa??aioe — aeei?enoaiiy ?ea, ui aieiaeothoue i?ioyaii 2 — 3 ae?a – o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aeinyaoe aeineoue iino?eiiai ??aiy aene?aoi?ieo
i?ioean?a. Iaeiae a?eueo iaae?ei? ? iaeiicia/i? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia
io?eiaoe ia ?eaao, ui aeeaeyoueny aeinoi/o. A oeueiio aa??aio? ci?ia
aani?aoe?? oinoi?o ia eiai aene?aoe?th iiicia/ii aeaaea ia iayai?noue
oieneeaio?a o aiae?.

4.I?e aeei?enoaii? ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?eaii?iaeoeoeaiino?
aiaeiei iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aeioieneeieia?/io neooaoe?y. Oea
aeicaieeoue aai aianoe iaai? ei?aeoeae a ?ic?aooiee, aai ae anoaiiaeoe
i?e/eio iaa?ae-iia?aeiino? i?iaiiciaaieo aaee/ei ? ?aaeueii io?eiaieo
?eaii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a.

5. I?e ae?iuoaaii? ?ea a oiiaao oiene/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiae o?iiii ?
i?eaeai aeioe?eueii iniaeeao oaaao caa?iooe ia i?aeaeuaiee ai?no oinoi?o
a ?aoe?ii? aeey eiiiainaoe?? eiai ao?ao a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy
aene?aoi?ii-aani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?ea.

Aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iaiao?aeii
i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ii ooi/iaiith aca?iica*yceo i?ae
ye?noth aiaee ? a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie ?ea, a oaeiae o?aooaaiiy
ci?i iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a a oiiaao aieeao ??cieo oieneeaio?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae Ioe?iea yeino? aiaee ca
a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie ?ea //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei.28.— N.—51—52.

2.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea o?iio ? i?eaeth ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei.28.—N.53—55.

3.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae Aieea Cr6+, Ni2+, Pb2+ ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?ea//A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.—A?ieia?y.—1998.—Aei.28.—N.55—57.

4.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Ae?aaiinoeea yeino? aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ca i?iaeoeoe?eii-a?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie iieiae? ?ea //
Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?/Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i.
Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 25—26 ethoiai 1998
?.—Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998.—N.82—85.

5.Aaiaecth?a A.A., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea // Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei?
iieiae?/Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i.
Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 25—26 ethoiai 1998
?.—Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998.—N. 85—86.

6.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae, Aieea oieneeaio?a ia a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e ?ea // Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei?
iieiae?/Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i.
Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 25—26 ethoiai 1998
?.—Eai*yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1998.—N.86—88.

7.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o o ?ea //*aoaa?o? Ea?eoeinuee? /eoaiiy.—Anaoe?a?inueea
i?aeaoc?anueea iaoeiai-iaoiae.eiio.—Ca??iee noaoae.—Iieoaaa,
1998.—*anoeia1.—N. 113—116.

8.Aaiaecth?a A.I., Aooae Aoiaae. Aieea oieneeaio?a ia aene?aoe?th
oinoi?o ?eaaie //Ae?oaee c*?cae a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie.—Ee?a, 27-31 aeiaoiy 1997 ?..—Oace aeii.—O.2.—N. 116.

Aoiaae Aooae Aieea oieneeaio?a ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e iieiae? ?ea. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.10 — ?oo?ieia?y. — ?inoeooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa ia cia/iiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??ae? anoaiiaeai?
e?euee?ni? cia/aiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oa ??ai?a aene?aoe??
oinoi?o o iieiae? ?ea a oiiaao aieeao ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iio, i?eaeth ? naeioeth. Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiinio
/ooeea?noue a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aei iayaiino? o aiae?
oieneeaio?a. Iieacaii, ui iae/ooeea?oei c a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a
aei iayaiino? o aiae? oieneeaio?a ? ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
iio?i (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy /ooeeaino?) — ieoiia oaeaee?noue ?inoo,
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ei?io ia ??no ? ??aaiue aeeoaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?iaeaen iioeiaeueiino? na?aaeiaeua,
ieoiio oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? ??aaiue aene?aoe?? oinoi?o aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae? oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiia?aaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoinoaaiiy a?ii?iaeoeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?ea aeey ae?aaiinoeee
oieneeaio?a o aiae?; anoaiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiai ai?noo
oinoi?o a ei?iao ?ea i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o ca oiia caa?oaeiaiiy aiae o?iiii
? i?eaeai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iieiaeue ?ea, oieneeaioe, a?ii?iaeoeoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e, aene?aoe?y oinoi?o, ye?noue aiaee.

Aoiaae Aooae Aeeyiea oieneeaioia ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) ia
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u iieiaee ?ua. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.10 — Eooeieiaey.-Einoeooo ?uaiiai
oicyenoaa OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aia?aua ia iaoe?iii yenia?eiaioaeueiii iaoa?eaea onoaiiaeaiu
eiee/anoaaiiua cia/aiey aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia e o?iaiy
yene?aoeee oinoi?a o iieiaee ?ua a oneiaeyo aeeyiey ?acee/iuo
eiioeaio?aoeee oanoeaaeaioiiai o?iia, ieeaey e naeioea. Onoaiiaeaia
ioiineoaeueiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua e
iaee/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia. Iieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiui ec
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia e iaee/eth a aiaea oieneeaioia yaeyaony
eiaeaen iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, caoai (a ii?yaeea oiaiueoaiey
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe) — oaeaeueiay nei?inoue ?inoa, yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey ieue ia ?ino e o?iaaiue aeuoaiey. I?aaeeiaeaii
eniieueciaaoue eiaeaean iioeiaeueiinoe n?aaeu, oaeaeueioth nei?inoue
?inoa e o?iaaiue yene?aoeee oinoi?a aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a
aiaea e i?aaeeiaeaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth
aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ua aeey aeeaaiinoeee oieneeaioia a aiaea;
onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiauoaiiiai niaea?aeaiey oinoi?a a ?aoeeiia
?ua i?e au?aueaaiee eo a oneiaeyo oiene/aneiai caa?yciaiey o?iiii e
ieeaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieiaeue ?ua, oieneeaiou, aeii?iaeoeoeeiiiua
ia?aiao?u, yaeene?aoeey oinoi?a, ea/anoai aiaeu.

Ahmed Ishfaq. Effects of Toxicants ( Cr,6+ Ni,2+ Pb2+ ) on
Bioproductional Parameters of Young Fishes. Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree (biology) by speciality 03.00.10 —
Ichthyology.—Fish farmer institute, Kyiv, 1999.

Похожие записи