IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Eii?nnae I?oain?i Iaae?i

OAeE 631.51:[631.445.4:633.85

AIEEA ??CIEO NIINIA?A INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO IA O?CEEI-O?I?*I?
AEANOEAINO? *I?IICAIO OEIIAIAI OA I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe NIIssOIEEO

A OIIAAO E?AIAA?AAEIIAI E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE

06.01.01 – Caaaeueia caiea?ianoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? A.A. Aeieo/a?aa I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI Aoaeueiiiee TH??e Aaneeueiae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caiea?ianoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
I?eiie ?aai Aeieo?iae/, A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai caiea?ianoaa

— eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe Iiiia Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,
?inoeooo ?ineeiieoeoaa ?i. A.ss. TH?’?aa OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
?ineeiieoeoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI,

i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” ethoiai 2000 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.10 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 15, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” ni/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieo?eoae I.ss.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Niiyoiee ? iaei??th c iniiaieo oaoi?/ieo eoeueoo?
Oe?a?ie. O aaeeeiio eiiieaen? oaoiieia?/ieo caoiae?a ae?iuoaaiiy oe???
eoeueoo?e ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo caiea?ianoaa iniaeeai aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ?aoe?iiaeueia nenoaia ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ca aeiiiiiaith yei?
eiai i?e?iaeia ?iaeth/?noue o?ainoi?io?oueny a aoaeoeaio. Iniaeeao
aeooaeuei?noue oey i?iaeaia iaaoea a oaia??oi?e /an o ca’yceo c
aeeaieeie aeiiii?/ieie ? aia?aaoe/ieie e?ecaie, a oaeiae oaeaeeei
?icoe?aiiyi a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a ? ??ceei cieaeaiiyi ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a
a Oe?a?i?.

??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, ia aeoieo a?eueoino? a/aieo, iieyaa? a oe?ie?e
i?i?iae?caoe?? ia?ia?oeo a?oioo: ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny i?inaiieo
eoeueoo?. Iaeiae aeaieo i?i aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo niinia?a iniiaiiai
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae niiyoiee aei oaia??oiueiai /ano
aeoaea iaei ? aei oiai ae, iae/ano?oa, aiie noia?a/eea?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e caiea?ianoaa Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa, iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194U12991.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o
anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae aieeao ??cieo niinia?a ia?ia?oeo ia iniiai?
o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai, a ia oiiae ?inoo,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? ye?noue o?iaeath niiyoieeo a oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeiiai
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o ?ic?iaeaii? ia oe?e iniia? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei canoinoaaiiy iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo niinia?a
?ano?nicaa??aath/iai, a?oioicaoenoiiai iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ye?
ni?eythoue iaea?aeaiith aenieeo, noaeeo a?iaea?a eoeueoo?e i?e cia/iiio
cieaeaii? aia?aaoe/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth iaea?aeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue: 1) aecia/eoe caeiiii??iino? ci?i iniiaieo
iieaciee?a ?iaeth/ino? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai (o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
aiaeiiai oa iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio, a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino?) i?e ??cieo
niiniaao aaciieeoeaaiai iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo; 2) anoaiiaeoe
nooi?iue aieeao niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ye? aea/aeeny a
aeine?ae?, ia aiaeyiee ?aaeei ? caao?’yiai?noue iin?ao niiyoieeo; 3)
aecia/eoe nooi?iue aieeao ??cieo niinia?a aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo ia ??no, ?icaeoie, o?iaeaei?noue ? ye?noue ian?iiy niiyoieeo; 4)
aeaoe aia?aaoe/io e aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo; 5) ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueieo niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae iin?a niiyoieeo
ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo aeey oiia E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey oiia
E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? caeiiii??iino?
aieeao ??cieo niinia?a aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo ia o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa
a?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai, a oaeiae oiiae ?inoo oa
?icaeoeo niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?ae iin?a niiyoieeo /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo
oa i?aiee a eiia?iiaai?e nenoai? ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae eoeueoo?e
iieueiaeo n?aici?i. Aeaii aeiiii?/io e aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo
aeine?aeaeoaaieo caoiae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo oa i?aiee a eiia?iiaai?e nenoai?
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae eoeueoo?e iieueiaeo n?aici?i aeicaiey? a
ii??aiyii? c iieeoeaaith i?aieith ia eiio?ie? iie?ioeoe aa?aaaoiee noai
? aiaeiee ?aaeei a?oioo, caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaio ai?ioueao c ao?’yiaie,
i?aeaeueoe i?ioea?ic?eio no?ee?noue a?oioo, noaa?e?coaaoe a?iaeaei?noue
niiyoieeo a oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie e nooo?ai nei?ioeoe
aeo?aoe iaiiiiaethaaii? aia?a?? oa iaoa??aeueieo cania?a ia ae?iuoaaiiy
oe??? oe?iii? oaoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? noaie
aeine?aeo oa i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue. Naiino?eii i?iaiaeea iieueia? oa
eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiea ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo. Cae?eniea ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? niiniae iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ieoee
ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo a ENI ?i. *aia?aa Iiaiaiaeieacueeiai ?aeiio
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
eieaeoeao OAeAO (Oa?e?a, 1996 — 1998 ??.); a oaeiae ui??/ii ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e caiea?ianoaa oi?aa?neoaoo; ia Oa?e?anuee?e iaeani?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo nenoai caiea?ianoaa Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano?» (Oa?e?a, 1998); ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Iiinoa?a e ieoeueoo?thaaiiy a?oio?a» (Oa?e?a, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? o
ainueie ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 135 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, ainueie ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeiaeaoe?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae ?ethno?o?oueny 19 oaaeeoeyie, /ioe?ia
?enoieaie, ainueie oioia?ao?yie ? 14 oaaeeoeyie o aeiaeaoeo. O nienieo
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae 247 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? 10
?iicaiieie iiaaie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?E

O ?icae?e? a noene?e oi?i? iiaea?oueny iaeyae iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e
oe?a?inueeeo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a c ieoaiue i?i?iae?caoe??
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, eiai ?ie? a caiia?aaii? a?ic??, ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie
a iin?aao niiyoieeo oa aeayeeo ?ioeo eoeueoo?. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aei
inoaiiueiai /ano aeaieo i?i aoaeoeai?noue caoiae?a aaciieeoeaaiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae niiyoiee iiee ua iaei ? iae/ano?oa aiie
noia?a/eea?, ui ? noaei i?aenoaaith aeey aeai?o oaie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

2. OIIAE OA IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a 1996-1998 ??. o noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae?
eaoaae?e caiea?ianoaa ia aeine?aeiiio iie? OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa.
Ee?iao ?aeiio i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaiai aeine?aeo iii??ii eiioeiaioaeueiee.
Na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y aei??aith? 7,2(N. Na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue aacii?iciiai ia??iaeo 171 aeaiue. Noia iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
aeua 10(N neeaaea? 2800(. Ca?aeii c aaaaoi??/ieie aeaieie, o
na?aaeiueiio ca ??e aeiaaea? 511 ii iiaae?a.

Iiaiaei? oiiae 1996 ?. aoee ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo
niiyoieeo: ??/ia ii?ia iiaae?a ia?aaeuoaaea na?aaeith aaaaoi??/io ii?io
ia 6,8 ii, a oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeoeeyany a?ae ii?ie. O
ea?oi? — ia ii/aoeo o?aaiy 1997 ?. aoa a?ae/ooiee aeao?oeeo iiaae?a ?
o?eueee c o?aouei? aeaeaaee o?aaiy aeiaee ?yni? aeiu?. I?ioyaii on???
aaaaoaoe?? niiyoieeo oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y aoea iii?oii ieae/ith a?aeiinii
na?aaeiuei? aaaaoi??/ii? ii?ie, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eeiny ia
i?iaeoeoeaiino? eoeueoo?e.

O 1998 ?. o aaniyii-e?oi?e ia??iae noiyea aea?ea, nooa iiaiaea. Ca oeae
ia??iae aeao?oeeo iiaae?a neeaa 23,7 ii, a oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y aoea ia
4,2(N a?eueoa na?aaeiuei??/ii? ii?ie, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eeiny ia
a?iaeaeiino? niiyoieeo.

A?oio aeine?aeii? ae?eyiee — /i?iicai oeiiaee aeeaieee
na?aaeiueiaoioniee aaaeeinoaeeieiaee ia ea?aiiaoiiio ean?. Ai?no aoiono
a i?iiio oa?? 4,8-5,0 %. Iaeneiaeueia a?a?ineii?/i?noue — 8,95%,
aieia?noue a’yiaiiy — 13,3, iieueiaa aieiai?ie?noue — 28,5%. Ai?no
o?aeoe?e ioeo a i?iiio oa?? (0 – 30 ni) — 30-35%, caaaeueiiai acioo —
0,28-0,29%, ?ooiiiai oinoi?o (ca *e??eiaei) — 8,2-9,6 ia ia 100 a
a?oioo, iai?iiiai eae?th — 14,4-19,5 ia ia 100 a a?oioo. ?aaeoe?y a?oioo
iaeo?aeueia (pHa = 7, pHc = 6,35).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a naiei?euei?e ca?iiia?ii?inaii?e n?aici?i?
c oaeei /a?aoaaiiyi eoeueoo?: /enoee ia?, iceia ioaieoey, oeoe?iaee
ao?ye, y/i?iue, aeei-iaan, iceia ioaieoey, niiyoiee.

O aeine?ae? aea/aeeny oae? niiniae iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae iin?a
niiyoieeo:

I?aiea ieoaii IEI-4-35 ia aeeaeio 25 — 27 ni (eiio?ieue).

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie noiyeaie Nea?IA ia aeeaeio 25 — 27 ni.

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie noiyeaie I?I-31000 ia aeeaeio 25 — 27 ni.

I?aiea ieoaii IEI-4-35 ia aeeaeio 25 — 27 ni o nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai
ia?ia?oeo a n?aici?i?.

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie /ecaeai I*-2,5 ia aeeaeio 25 — 27 ni.

Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo /ioe?e?aciaa, ?ici?uaiiy aa??aio?a ? iiaoi?aiue
iine?aeiaia. Ieiua iin?aieo ae?eyiie 300 i2, iae?eiaeo — 100 i2.

Aa?ioaoi?ea ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo, ca aeiyoeii iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo, — caaaeueiii?eeiyoa aeey Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?
(TH.A. Aoaeueiiiee, 1976). O aeine?ae? ae?iuoaaee ni?o niiyoieeo
Oa?e?anueeee-7.

O aeine?ae? i?iaiaeeeeny oae? iae?ee, aiae?ce ? niinoa?aaeaiiy:

oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy — a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiaeeee A.I. Aeini?oiaa
(1988);

u?euei?noue a?oioo iaoiaeii ??aeo/iai oeee?iae?o a aeaa oa?i?ie — o
ia??iae iiaieo noiae?a ? a oaco iaeeao ian?iiy, o oa?ao 0-10; 10-20 ?
20-30 ni ;

aa?aaaoiee neeaae a?oioo — iaoiaeii Naa?iiaa (nooa i?in?thaaiiy) o oa?ao
0-10; 10-20 ? 20-30 ni iaaani? i?ney iiyae iiaieo noiae?a;

aieia?noue a?oioo oa caiane i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae aecia/aee a i?iiio (0 —
30 ni) ? ei?aiaai?niiio (0-160 ni) oa?ao a?oioo o oace — noiae?a,
oea?o?iiy oa iaeeao ian?iiy. Aieia?noue a?oioo aecia/aee
oa?iinoaoii-aaaiaei, a caiane aieiae ?ic?aooieiaei iaoiaeii
(I.*. ?anoai?ia, 1983).

caao?’yiai?noue iin?ao aecia/aeany e?euee?nii-aaaiaei iaoiaeii aei
oi?ioaaiiy aonoioe ?ineei niiyoieeo ? ia?aae cae?aiiyi a?iaeath;

a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue aecia/aee aie?eaoe?eiei iaoiaeii ?iceeaaeaiiy
ee?oeiaeie a a?oio? ca ?.N. Aino?iaei (1961) ? A.I. I?oono?iei (1961);

aa?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aee aecia/aiiy ai?noo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei
a a?oio? oa ?ineeiao aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o aeiino iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
aeeaeaiiy. I?iae a?oioo a?aeae?aee i?ney iiyae noiae?a niiyoieeo ?
ia?aae cae?aiiyi a?iaeath. O a?oio? aecia/aany ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo
eaei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii c aeenoeueoioaiieiaith eeneioith, ?ooiiiai
oinoi?o e iai?iiiai eae?th a ioeoiai-eene?e aeoyaeoe? ca *e??eiaei c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiei?eiao?e/ieo ? oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy;

a?iaeaei?noue niiyoieeo a?aoiaoaaee iiae?eyii/ii ?c an??? iae?eiai?
ieiu? ae?eyiie ?c ia?a?aooaaiiyi ia noaiaea?oio aieia?noue;

ye?niee aiae?c ian?iiy aeeth/aa aecia/aiiy ai?noo aee?o
(AINO-10846-74);

aeai? o?iaeaeiino? niiyoieeo ia?iaeyee aeenia?n?eiei iaoiaeii, ca
A.I. Aeini?oiaei (1988);

aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ? aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo aeine?aeaeoaaieo niinia?a
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aecia/aee a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e

A.I. Ia?oueyiiaa (1996).

3. AIEEA ??CIEO NIINIA?A INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO IA AeAssE?
IIEACIEEE ?IAeTH*INO? *I?IICAIO OEIIAIAI

Iaei??th c iniiaieo aa?io?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioo, ui ci?ith?oueny a
i?ioean? iaoai?/iiai ia?ia?oeo, ? ?? u?euei?noue a i?iiio oa iin?aiiio
i?ioa?eao. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo o?e??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (oaae. 1)
iieacothoue, ui aaciieeoeaa? ia?ia?oee noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000, a
oaeiae /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie aaaeooue aei aeayeiai i?aeaeuaiiy u?eueiino?
ia?iaethaaiiai i?ioa?eo /i?iicaio oeiiaiai a iin?aao niiyoieeo. Oae, o
na?aaeiueiio ca 1996 — 1998 ??. o iin?aao i?ney i?aiee ia /an iiaieo
noiae?a niiyoieeo u?euei?noue i?iiai (0-30 ni) oa?o a?oioo aoea
1,15 a/ni3, a o aeine?aeaeoaaieo niiniaao aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo aiia
neeaea 1,17 a/ni3. I?e oeueiio aa?oi?e (0-10 ni) oa? ?? ca an?ia
aa??aioaie ia?ia?oeo aoa a?eueo c?eoeaiee o ii??aiyii? c ieae/a-
?icoaoiaaieie (10-20 ? 20-30 ni) oa?aie.

Aeine?aee i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui ca /an aaaaoaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
naiiou?eueiaiiy ia?iaethaaiiai oa?o a?oioo. E??i oiai, ia u?euei?noue
a?oioo nooo?ai aieeaathoue iiaiaei? oiiae. A oiiaao aeinoaoiueiai
caieiaeaiiy a 1997 ?. u?euei?noue a?oioo ca an?ia niiniaaie ia?ia?oeo
aoea cia/ii aeuith, i?ae a ?io? ?iee.

Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aecia/aio ??cieoeth a u?eueiino? a?oioo o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo niiniaao ia?ia?oeo, aaee/eia ?? ia aeoiaeeea ca iaae?
iioeiaeueii? aaee/eie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo, aiane?aeie /iai oeae
oaeoi? nooo?ai ia aieeioa ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei eoeueoo?e.

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a aa?io?ce/iiai noaio oaa?aei? oace a?oioo,
ye a?aeiii, ? eiai no?oeoo?a, ui caaacia/o? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?inoo
oa ?icaeoeo ?ineei, iaaea? a?oioo aenieo no?ee?noue i?ioe a?ic??.

Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee
iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aa?iiii?/ii oe?iieo /anoie (0,25-10 ii) o
aa?oiueiio 0 – 10 ni oa?o a?oioo aoea i?ney /ecaeueiiai (84,9%) ?
aaciieeoeaaiiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA (83,1%). I?aiea aaea aei
cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aa?iiii?/ii oe?iieo /anoie o oeueiio oa?? a?oioo,
aea ?o ia?aoiaoaaeiny 77,2%.

A i?iiio oa?? a?oioo (0-30 ni) iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aa?iiii?/ii
oe?iieo /anoie o aeine?ae? aoea i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie
Nea?IA (84,7%), a iaeiaioa ?o aoei i?ney i?aioe? ia eiio?ie? (78,8%).

An? niiniae aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo ? i?aiea a nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai
ia?ia?oeo i?ae eoeueoo?e n?aici?ie ni?eyee i?aeuaiith ai?noo a
ia?iaethaaiiio oa?? a?oioo aiaeio?eaeeo /anoie.

Iniaeeai aaaeeeai oa, ui aaciieeoeaa? ia?ia?oee a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith
ca?eueoothoue e?euee?noue aiaeio?eaeeo /anoie o aa?oiueiio 0-10 ni oa??,
ui ?noioii i?aeaeuo? no?ee?noue a?oioo i?ioe a?ic??.

A oiiaao ciie iano?eeiai, a oei a?eueoa iaaeinoaoiueiai caieiaeaiiy
iaeiei c iniiaieo e?i?ooth/eo oaeoi??a ? aieiaicaaacia/ai?noue ?ineei,
ui /ano?oa anueiai ? aecia/a? ??aaiue a?iaeaeiino? ae?iuoaaieo eoeueoo?.

Oaaeeoey 1

U?euei?noue a?oioo a iin?aao niiyoieeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae niinia?a
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo, a/ni3 (na?aaei? ca 1996-1998 ??.)

0-10* 10-20 20-30 0-30 0-10 10-20 20-30 0-30

* Oa? a?oioo, ni.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui a oiiaao Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano? ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo
i?ae iin?a niiyoieeo noiyeaie Nea?IA, I?I-31000 aai /ecaeai caaacia/o?
aei ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? niiyoieeo oae? ae caiane i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a
oa?? 0-160 ni, ye ? i?ney i?aiee. Oae, aei /ano iiyae iiaieo noiae?a o
na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee a oa?? a?oioo 0-160 ni aaee/eia caian?a
i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae neeaaeaea: i?ney i?aiee 198,9 ii, i?ney
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA — 193,2; I?I-31000 — 199,4 ?
i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo 195,1 ii.

Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao iaoi? ciie aeine?aeaeoaai? niiniae iniiaiiai
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia iaee ia?aaaa ia?aae i?aieith ca
??aiai iaeiie/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae iaaani? aei ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe??
niiyoieeo.

Aei e?ioey aaaaoaoe?? iaea?eueo aenie? caiane i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a
ei?aiaai?niiio oa?? a?oioo (0-160 ni) a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996 — 1998 ??.
aoee a iin?a? i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo (79,6 ii i?ioe 67,4 ii i?ney
i?aiee), ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo aoaeoeaia ? aeiiii?/ia aeei?enoaiiy
a?oioiai? aieiae ?ineeiaie niiyoieeo i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo.
Iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei oeueiai ? iaioa caao?’yiai?noue iin?ao a
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei aa??aioii.

4. CI?IA AI?NOO ?OOIIEO OI?I IIAEEAIEO ?A*IAEI O A?OIO? A CAEAAEIINO?
A?Ae NIINIA?A INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui aaciieeoeaa?
niiniae iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aeeeeeathoue /?oeo aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
i?iiai i?ioa?eo ca ai?noii i?o?ao?a ? ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o c? cia/iei
iaeiie/aiiyi ?o o aa?oiueiio (0-10 ni) ? ??ceei cieaeaiiyi o ieaeiueiio
(20-30 ni) oa?ao a?oioo. Iai?eeeaae, aei /ano iiaieo noiae?a a iin?aao
i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo a
na?aaeiueiio ca 1996 – 1998 ??. neeaa: o oa?? 0-10 ni — 2,87 ia/100 a
a?oioo, o oa?? 10-20 ni — 1,50 ? a oa?? 20-30 ni — 1,21 ia/100 a
a?oioo.

A iin?aao i?ney i?aiee ?iciiae?e i?o?ao?a ca ai?eciioaie i?iiai oa?o
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo ??aiii??ii (o aeine?ae? ai?no ?o, a?aeiia?aeii,
neeaa 2,18; 2,09 ? 1,46 ia/100 a a?oioo). Niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
??aaiue ai?noo i?o?ao?a o a?oio? ca an?ia aeine?aeaeoaaieie niiniaaie
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny nooiaiai eiai
caieiaeaiiy. I?e aeinoaoiueiio caieiaeaii? a 1997 ?. ai?no i?o?aoiiai
acioo a a?oio? aoa cia/ii a?eueoei, i?ae o iinooeeaiio 1998 ?.

Oae? ae caeiiii??iino? anoaiiaeai? ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ooiiiai oinoi?o.
Oae, o oac? noiae?a niiyoieeo, a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue
a iin?a? i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie I?I-31000 o oa??
0-10 ni eiai ai?no noaiiaea 13ia/100 a a?oioo, a a oa?? 20-30 ni ?ooiieo
oi?i oinoi?o aoei anueiai o?eueee 11,1 ia/100 a a?oioo, a oie /an ye
i?ney i?aiee ia eiio?ie? oe? iieacieee, a?aeiia?aeii, neeaaeaee 11,7 ?
10,3 ia/100 a a?oioo, oiaoi ??cieoey a ??ai? iane/aiiy a inoaiiueiio
aeiaaeeo aoea iaio cia/iith.

Iaei??th c i?e/ei oeueiai ? a?eueo neeueia ou?eueiaiiy a?oioo a iin?aao
i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo, aiane?aeie /iai ooo iia?euei?oa eaeooue
i?ioeane i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a ieaei?o oa?ao i?iiai oa?o
a?oioo. E??i oiai, i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo iiaa?oiaaee oa? ia
ia?ai?oo?oueny c ieaei?ie i?ioa?eaie, oiio iiaeeai? ?a/iaeie, aianai? c
aeia?eaaie, eieae?cothoueny o aa?oi?o oa?ao a?oioo.

I?aiea a nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai ia?ia?oeo a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue caaacia/eea a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ?ooiieo oi?i
oinoi?o ca an?i i?io?eai ia?iaethaaiiai oa?o, ui /?oei aeaeii ye o oac?
noiae?a, oae ? i?ioyaii on??? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

O aino?i iinooeeaiio 1998 ?. a?aecia/aiee iaeieae/ee ca an? ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?no ?ooiiiai oinoi?o o an? no?iee aecia/aiiy. Iniaeeai
neeueii oe? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?iyaeeenue o oac? iaeeao ian?iiy. Oae, yeui a
1997 ?. ca i?aieith ia eiio?ie? o oaco iaeeao ian?iiy o ?oa?? 0-30 ni
ai?no ?ooiiiai oinoi?o aoa 0,89 ia/100 a a?oioo, oi a 1998 ?. eiai aoei
a oiio ae oa?? 0,52 ia/100 a a?oioo, aai ia 41,6% iaioa. A iin?a? i?ney
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA a ia?iaethaaiiio oa??
(0-30 ni) o 1998 ?. ai?no oinoi?o neeaaeaa 0,32 ia/100 a a?oioo, ui
neeaei anueiai eeoa 41% a?ae ??aiy a?eueo caieiaeaiiai 1997 ?.

Ca aeaieie iaoeo o?e??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, on? aeine?aeaeoaai? niiniae
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo nooo?ai ia aieeioee ia ai?no iai?iiiai eae?th a
a?oio?. O an? no?iee aecia/aiiy e?euee?noue eiai ca an?ia aa??aioaie
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aoea i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo
noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000 o ii??aiyii? c i?aieith ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? aa?oiueiai (0-10 ni) oa?o
a?oioo, aea ??cei cieaeo? ae?yeuei?noue a?oioiai? i?e?ioei?e a
ieaeiueiio (20-30 ni) ia?iaethaaiiio oa?? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai. Aieiaiith
i?e/eiith caoooaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a a?eueo aeeaieeo oa?ao
ia?iaethaaiiai a?oioo i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo ? i?aeaeuaia eiai
u?euei?noue a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith.

I?ney i?aiee iaea?eueo aeoeaii i?ioean ?iceeaaeaiiy ee?oeiaeie i?ioiaeea
o a?eueo aeeaieiio (20-30 ni) oa?? a?oioo, ui iia’ycaii c a?eueo
oaeaeeei ? neeueiei ia?aneoaiiyi aa?oi?o eiai oa??a.

A oe?eiio, iaea?eueo aeoeaii i?e?ia?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a ia?iaethaaiiio
i?ioa?eo a?oioo (0-30 ni) i?ioiaeeee a iin?a? i?ney /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo, aeaui iia?euei?oa aiie i?ioiaeeee i?ney i?aiee ? ua a iaio?e
i??? — i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000.

Iaea?eueo aeniea i?e?ia?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue a?oioo a on?o aa??aioao
ia?ia?oeo niinoa??aaeeny a a?eueo caieiaeai? ?iee. O noo? ?iee
aiane?aeie aeao?oeeoo aieiae ae?yeuei?noue a?oioiai? i?e?ioei?e ??cei
iaaeaea. Oae, yeui i?ney i?aiee ia eiio?ie? nooi?iue ?iceeaaeaiiy
oeaieie a oa?? 0-30 ni a aeinoaoiuei caieiaeaiiio 1997 ?. a aeine?ae?
neeaa 15,7%, oi a iinooeeaiio 1996 ?. oeae iieaciee aei??aithaaa 11,6%.
O iin?aao i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA a?aenioie
?iceeaaeaiiy ee?oeiaeie aeinya a?aeiia?aeii 14,4 ? 11,0, a o aa??aio? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi noiye?a I?I-31000 a?aeiia?aeii 13,4 ? 11,0%.

5. CAAO?’ssIAI?NOUe IIN?A?A NIIssOIEEO I?E ??CIEO NIINIAAO INIIAIIAI
IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO

Iae?ee, i?iaaaeai? a iaoeo aeine?aeao, i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui aaciieeoeaa?
niiniae ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA oa I?I-31000 aaaeooue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a niiyoieeo ye iaeiie?oi?ie, oae ? aaaaoi??/ieie
ei?aiaia?inoeiaeie ao?’yiaie (oaae. 2). Iaeiaioee ??aaiue caao?’yiaiino?
iin?ao niiyoieeo a aeine?ae? aoa o aa??aio? c /ecaeueiei ia?ia?oeii.

Oaaeeoey 2

Caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a niiyoieeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae niinia?a

iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo (na?aaei? ca 1996-1998 ??.)

6. AIEEA ??CIEO NIINIA?A INIIAIIAI IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO

IA ??NO, ?ICAEOIE OA O?IAEAEI?NOUe NIIssOIEEO

Niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a oe?eiio ca an? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue niiniae
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo, ui aea/aeeny, ia aieeaaee ia ia??iaee
i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo oac ?icaeoeo niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7.
Iiaeia a?aecia/eoe o?eueee oaiaeaioe?th aei nei?i/aiiy oa?i?io
i?ioiaeaeaiiy oace «oea?o?iiy-aeiaoi-ao?ee eie?? eioee?a» a iin?aao
i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000, ui ?
iane?aeeii a?eueo aeniei? caao?’yiaiino? oeeo iin?a?a o ii??aiyii? c
iin?aii i?ney i?aiee. Aiane?aeie /iai ?ineeie niiyoieeo iaee a?eueo
neeueio eiieo?aioe?th c aieo ao?’yi?a o aeei?enoaii? aieiae oa iiaeeaieo
?a/iaei.

O?e??/ieie aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie
a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000 a oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aenioo ?ineei, ieiuo eenoiai? iiaa?oi?,
ae?aiao? eioeea oa ia e?euee?noue ian?iiy c iaeiiai eioeea, ui,
a?aeiia?aeii, cieaeo? a?iaeaei?noue niiyoieeo. O aa??aio? c /ecaeueiei
ia?ia?oeii oae? a?iiao?e/i? iieacieee ye aenioa ?ineei ? ieiua eenoiai?
iiaa?oi? aoee ia ??ai? eiio?ieueieo, a ii e?eueeino? ian?iiy c iaeiiai
eioeea iaa?oue ia?aaeuoaaee ?o.

A oiiaao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? ia /i?iicai? oeiiaiio aaciieeoeaaee
iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000 aaaea o
ii??aiyii? c i?aieith aei cieaeaiiy o?iaeaeiino? niiyoieeo ni?oo
Oa?e?anueeee-7 (oaae. 3). I?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieeo i?ney /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo ? i?aiee a nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae
eoeueoo?e n?aici?ie ciaoiaeyoueny ia eiio?ie?.

Oaaeeoey 3

O?iaeaei?noue ? aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo a
caeaaeiino? a?ae niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo (na?aaei? ca
1996-1998 ??.).

Eaai?aoi?i? aiae?ce iieacaee, ui a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy
iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a, niiniae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaciieeoeaaeo ia?ia?oe?a
a?oioo nooo?ai ia aieeaaee ia ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? niiyoieeo.

Caaaeyee a?eueo aenieiio ??aith o?iaeaeiino? niiyoieeo i?ney i?aiee
aeo?ae ie?? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? a oeeo iin?aao aeyaeany cia/ii aeuei, i?ae
a iin?aao i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000.
Oae, a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1998 ??. aeo?ae ie?? niiyoieeo, ae?iuaiiai
i?ney i?aiee, aei??aith? 976,7 e/ aa, a i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo
noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000 a?i aoa a?aeiia?aeii ia 125,3 (12,9%) ?
97,6 e/ aa (10,0%) iaioa.

Iaea?eueo aenieee aeo?ae ie?? (998,8 e/ aa) o aeine?ae? a na?aaeiueiio
ca o?e ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?aeaee i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo.

7. AEIIII?*IA ? AIA?AAOE*IA IOe?IEA AeINE?AeAEOAAIEO NIINIA?A INIIAIIAI
IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO I?Ae NIIssOIEE

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui an? aeine?aeaeoaai? niiniae
iniiaiiai aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiith
i?aieith caaacia/othoue nooo?aa nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ia eiai i?iaaaeaiiy
(oaae. 3). Oae, yeui ia i?aieo aeo?a/aeiny 26,4 a?i/aa, oi i?e
aaciieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo oe? aeo?aoe neeaee: noiyeaie Nea?IA — 15,4;
noiyeaie I?I-31000 — 11,6 ? /ecaeai — 12,1 a?i/aa. Aea a ca’yceo c
a?eueo aenieei a?iaea?i ian?iiy i?ney i?aiee iaea?aeaii iaea?eueo
aenieee oiiaii /enoee i?eaooie (386,8 a?i/aa) ? ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
(137,1%).

I?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue
iaea?aeaee i?aeoe/ii oaeee aea oiiaii /enoee i?eaooie, ye ? ia eiio?ie?
i?ney i?aiee, aea ca ?aooiie iaioeo aeo?ao ia ia?ia?oie a?oioo
/ecaeueieie cia?yaeaeyie ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ian?iiy aoea
iaea?eueo aenieith (143,0% i?ioe 137,1% ia eiio?ie?).

Aaciieeoeaa? niiniae iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aeicaieythoue cia/ii
cieceoe aeo?aoe iaiiiiaethth/i? aia?a?? ia ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo. sseui
i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?aiee ia iaeei aaeoa? ieiu? aeo?a/aeiny a na?aaeiueiio
ca o?e ?iee 1523 IAeae, oi i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA
aeo?aoe aia?a?? cieceeeny ia 389 IAeae, a i?e ia?ia?oeo I?I-31000 — ia
630. I?ioa, aiane?aeie iaioiai ??aiy a?iaeath ian?iiy o iin?aao i?ney
aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000 noia?iee
aia?aiai?no eiai a oeeo aa??aioao aoa cia/ii ieae/ei, i?ae o iin?aao
i?ney i?aiee. Oae, yeui i?ney i?aiee aia?aiai?no a?iaeath a na?aaeiueiio
ca o?e ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aoa 43217 IAeae, oi i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai
ia?ia?oeo noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000 a?i cieceany aei 38372, aai ia
4845 IAeae aoa iaioee, i?ae ia eiio?ie?. Oe? iieacieee, a?aeiia?aeii,
iicia/eeeny ia eiao?oe??io? aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
niiyoieeo. A oiiaao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? a?i aei??aithaaa i?ney i?aiee —
1,60, a i?ney aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo cieaeoaaany, a?aeiia?aeii, aei
1,44 ? 1,45.

Ca ?aooiie ??ceiai cieaeaiiy aeo?ao iaiiiiaethaaii? aia?a?? ia
i?iaaaeaiiy /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a oeueiio aa??aio? iaea?aeaee
iaea?eueo aenieee a aeine?ae? (1,61) eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7.

8. ?ACOEUeOAOE AE?IAIE*I? IA?AA??EE AOAEOEAIINO? *ECAEUeIIAI INIIAIIAI
IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO I?Ae NIIssOIEE

?acoeueoaoe ae?iaie/i? ia?aa??ee, i?iaaaeaii? a ENI ?i. *aia?aa
Iiaiaiaeieacueeiai ?aeiio, i?aeoaa?aeeee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a oiiaao
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei i?eeiiii
iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae iin?a niiyoieeo ? /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie
ia aeeaeio 25-27 ni, ui caaacia/o? cia/ia cieaeaiiy aeo?ao
iaiiiiaethaaii? aia?a??, ca?eueoo? a?iaeaei?noue niiyoieeo ? nooo?ai
i?aeaeuo? iniiai? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy ian?iiy
oe??? oe?iii? oaoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e.

AENIIAEE

Aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000, a
oaeiae /ecaeueia ?eoeaiiy aeaui i?aeaeuothoue u?euei?noue ia?iaethaaiiai
oa?o /i?iicaio oeiiaiai a iin?aao niiyoieeo a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith, aea
oe? aaee/eie ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao iioeiaeueii?
ii?ie aeey ?ineei niiyoieeo ? nooo?ai ia aieeaathoue ia ?o ??no oa
?icaeoie.

Iaea?eueo neeueii an? aea/ai? niiniae aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo
aieeaathoue ia aa?oi?e (0-10 ni) oa? a?oioo, ui i?ioyaii an???
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei niiyoieeo ciaoiaeeoueny a a?eueo c?eoeaiiio noai?,
i?ae ieaei? oa? (10-20 ? 20-30 ni).

Aeine?aeaeoaai? niiniae aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith
ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? aa?iiii?/ii oe?iieo ? aiaeio?eaeeo
aa?aaao?a a ia?iaethaaiiio oa?? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai, iniaeeai o
aa?oiueiio (0-10 ni) oa??, ui a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?aeaeuaii?
no?eeino? a?oioo aei a?ic??.

A oiiaao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo aaciieeoeaaee
iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo ia aeeaeio 25-27 ni noiyeaie Nea?IA, I?I-31000
aai /ecaeai caaacia/o? ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? niiyoieeo oae? ae caiane
i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a oa?? a?oioo 0-160 ni, ye ? i?ney i?aiee. Ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineeie niiyoieeo iaea?eueoa aeiiiiii aeei?enoiaoaaee
aieiao a iin?aao i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo, aea caeeoeeeny iaea?eueo
aenie? caiane aieiae a oa?? 0-160 ni (o na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee 79,6 ii
i?ioe 67,4 ii i?ney i?aiee).

An? aea/ai? niiniae aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo aeeeeeathoue /?oeo
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th i?iiai oa?o a?oioo ca ai?noii a iueiio iiaeeaieo
?a/iaei — o aa?oiueiio (0-10 ni) oa?? ?o iaeiie/o?oueny a?eueoa, i?ae o
ieaei?o, o oie /an ye i?ney i?aiee ?iciiae?e ?o ca oa?aie 0-10, 10-20 ?
20-30 ni, ye i?aaeei, aoa a?eueo ??aiii??iei.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ia?iaethaaiiai i?ioa?eo ca ai?noii ?ooiiiai oinoi?o
iaoiiaeaia aeae?eueeiia i?e/eiaie. Ianaiia?aae, i?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa
aiinyoueny ia iiaa?oith a?oioo ? caai?oathoueny o aa?oiueiio oa??, aea ?
eieae?cothoueny oinoi? ? eae?e. Ii-ae?oaa, i?iaeoeoe a?ae?ie?co
oeaetheice noa?i?, ui caeeoeeany o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo, ni?eythoue
a?eueo ?ioaineaiiio ?iciaaeo aeayeeo niieoe, ui i?noyoueny a oeueiio
oa?? a?oioo, c ia?aoai?aiiyi oinoi?o a aeinooii? aeey ?ineei oi?ie.
Ii-o?ao?, a?eueoa ou?eueiaiiy ieaei?o oa?? a?oioo i?e aaciieeoeaaiio
ia?ia?oeo aaeueio? i?ioeane i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei a ieo,
aiane?aeie /iai ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? ?ooiieie oi?iaie oinoi?o aoaa?
iii?oii ieae/ei, i?ae i?ney i?aiee.

Ai?no ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o oa iai?iiiai eae?th cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo oa a?ae oaii?a
?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei niiyoieeo. A oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai
aieiaicaaacia/aiiy a ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? niiyoieeo iii?oii cieaeo?oueny
??aaiue ai?noo ?ooiiiai oinoi?o a ia?iaethaaiiio oa?? a?oioo. Iniaeeai
neeueii oea aeyaey?oueny a e?ioe? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000 cieaeo? o ii??aiyii?
c i?aieith a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue i?iiai (0-30 ni) oa?o a?oioo. Iaeaeua
a?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue a?oioo i?iyaey?oueny i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo.

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000 o ii??aiyii? c
i?aieith ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? aa?oiueiai
(0-10 ni) i?ioa?eo a?oioo, aea ??cei cieaeo? ae?yeuei?noue i?e?ioei?e a
ieaeiueiio (20-30 ni) ia?iaethaaiiio oa?? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai. Iniiaiith
i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a a?eueo aeeaieeo oa?ao
ia?iaethaaiiai a?oioo i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?ia?oeo ? i?aeaeuaia
u?euei?noue a?oioo a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith. I?ney i?aiee a oiiaao
aeao?oeeoo aieiae iaea?eueo aeoeaii i?ioean ?iciaaeo ee?oeiaeie
i?ioiaeeoue o a?eueo aeeaieiio (20-30 ni) oa?? a?oioo, ui iia’ycaii c?
oaeaeeei ia?aneoaiiyi aa?oiueiai oa?o.

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000, o ii??aiyii? c
i?aieith, i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a niiyoieeo
ye iaeiie?oi?ie, oae ? aaaaoi??/ieie ei?aiaia?inoeiaeie ?o aeaeaie.
*ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie ni?ey? cieaeaiith caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a niiyoieeo.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? niiniae iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo nooo?ai ia
aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie ?ineei niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7.
Anoaiiaeaia eeoa oaiaeaioe?y aei nei?i/aiiy no?ieo i?ioiaeaeaiiy oace
«oea?o?iiy — aeiaoi-ao?a caaa?aeaiiy eioeea» a iin?aao o aa??aioao c
aaciieeoeaaei ia?ia?oeii, ui ? iane?aeeii a?eueo aeniei? caao?’yiaiino?
oeeo iin?a?a o ii??aiyii? c iin?aaie i?ney i?aiee.

Aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000 a
oiiaao ciie iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia oae? aaaeeea? a?ieia?/i? iieacieee, ye
aenioa ?ineei niiyoieeo, ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi?, ae?aiao? eioeea oa
e?euee?noue ian?iiy c iaeiiai eioeea, ui, i?e?iaeii, cieaeo?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo?e. A iin?aao i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo oae?
a?iiao?e/i? iieacieee, ye aenioa ?ineei ? ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi?
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai? c eiio?ieai, a ca e?euee?noth ian?iiy c iaeiiai
eioeea ia?aaeuothoue ?o.

A oiiaao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo aaciieeoeaaee
iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA ? I?I-31000 aaaea a ii??aiyii?
c i?aieith aei cieaeaiiy a?iaeath ian?iiy niiyoieeo ni?oo
Oa?e?anueeee-7. I?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieeo i?ney /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo e
i?aiee a nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai ia?ia?oeo i?ae eoeueoo?e n?aici?ie
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai? iieaciee?a ia eiio?ie?.

O na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaai? caniae ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo nooo?ai ia aieeaaee ia ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? niiyoieeo.

Aaciieeoeaaee iniiaiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo caaacia/o? a ii??aiyii? c
i?aieith ?noioia nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao iaiiiiaethth/i? aia?a?? ia ??
i?iaaaeaiiy. I?ioa caaaeyee a?eueo aenieiio ??aith o?iaeaeiino? ian?iiy
i?ney i?aiee noia?iee aia?aiai?no eiai aeyaeany iii?oii aeuei, i?ae o
iin?aao c aaciieeoeaaei ia?ia?oeii noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000, ui
caaacia/o? ua a?eueo aenieee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo i?ney i?aiee. Ca ?aooiie ??ceiai cieaeaiiy aeo?ao
iaiiiiaethaaii? aia?a?? ia i?iaaaeaiiy /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a oeueiio
aa??aio? iaea?aeaii iaea?eueo aenieee o aeine?ae? (1,61) eiao?oe??io
aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7.

I?e ae?iuoaaii? niiyoieeo ni?oo Oa?e?anueeee-7 i?aiea a oiiaao
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo caaacia/o? a ii??aiyii? c
aaciieeoeaaei ia?ia?oeii a?oioo noiyeaie Nea?IA aai I?I-31000,
iaea?aeaiiy cia/ii aeuiai ??aiy /enoiai i?eaooeo c eiaeiiai aa iin?ao e
?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? eoeueoo?e. I?ney /ecaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo caaacia/o?oueny oaeee aea, ye o iin?aao i?ney i?aiee oiiaii
/enoee i?eaooie, aea ca ?aooiie ?noioii iaioeo aeo?ao ia iniiaiee
ia?ia?oie a?oioo /ecaeueieie cia?yaeaeyie, ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa
ian?iiy aeyaeeany iaeaeuith.

I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

A oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ia /i?iicai? oeiiaiio
aaaeeinoaeeieiaiio o cii? iano?eeiai ? iaaeinoaoiueiai caieiaeaiiy aeey
caaacia/aiiy aenieeo, noaeeo a?iaea?a ian?iiy niiyoieeo, caiia?aaiiy
a?ic?? oa caa??aaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ye iniiaiee
ia?ia?oie i?iaiaeeoe /ecaeueia ?eoeaiiy ia aeeaeio 25-27 ni aai i?aieo
ia oo ae aeeaeio a nenoai? eiia?iiaaiiai ia?ia?oeo i?ae eoeueoo?e
iieueiai? n?aici?ie.

Nienie ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe??

1. Oaa/aiei I.A., Eii?nnae I.I. Aea/aiiy iiaeo niinia?a iniiaiiai
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae niiyoiee a cii? E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie
// A?niee OAeAO (OAA).-1998. — ? 2. — N.123-127 (iaa?oiooaaiiy,
iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue).

2. Eiiennae I.I. Aa?ioece/aneea iieacaoaee /a?iicaia oeie/iiai a
caaeneiinoe io ?aciuo niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au a oneiaeyo
Eaaiaa?aaeiie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu // A?niee OAeAO (OAA).-Oa?e?a.-1998.-
?2.-N.127-132.

3. Eiiennae I.I. Aeeyiea aacioaaeueiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia iaeioi?ua
iieacaoaee ieiaei?iaeey /a?iicaia oeie/iiai e o?iaeaeiinoue
iiaenieia/ieea // A?niee OAeAO (OAA)-Oa?e?a.-1999.-?1.-N.105-108.

4. Aoaeaiiue TH.A., Eiiennae I.I. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aciuo niiniaia
iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au iiae iiaenieia/iee ia /a?iicaiao oeie/iuo
Eaaiaa?aaeiie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu // A?niee OAeAO
(OAA).-Oa?eia.-1999.-?2.- N.202-208 (?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa
iaienaiiy noaoo?).

5. Eiiennae I.I. Aeeyiea ?aciuo niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia
oneiaey i?iec?anoaiey e o?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea a Eaaiaa?aaeiie
Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu //A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee.- 1999.-?7.-N.70-71.

6. Aoaeaiiue TH.A., Aoaeaiiue A.TH., Oaa/aiei I.A., Eiiennae I.I.
Aeeyiea ?acee/iuo niiniaia aacioaaeueiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia
o?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea a oneiaeyo Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie OA?IIOYE.-1996. — ? 70.

7. Eiiennae I.I. O?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea a caaeneiinoe io iniiaiie
ia?aaioee ii/au // Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie OA? IIOYE.-1998.-?93.

8. Eiiennae I.I., Iaaeaaaa A.I. Aeeiaieea iiaeaeaeiuo oi?i ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa e o?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea // Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie OA?
IIOYE. – 1999. — ? 62.

Eii?nnae I.I. Aieea ??cieo niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia
o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue
niiyoieeo a oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.01 — Caaaeueia
caiea?ianoai. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a,
1999.

I?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o?e??/ieo iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a c
aea/aiiy aieeao ??cieo niinia?a aaciieeoeaaiai iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo ia ci?io iieaciee?a ?iaeth/ino? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai,
caao?’yiai?noue, ??no, ?icaeoie oa o?iaeaei?noue niiyoieeo. I?iaaaeaii
aeiiii?/iee oa aia?aaoe/iee aiae?c niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ye?
aea/aeenue a aeine?ae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?ia?oie a?oioo, niiyoiee, o?iaeaei?noue, /i?iicai
oeiiaee, caao?’yiai?noue, /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie, i?aiea, aeiiii?/ia oa
aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue.

Eiiennae I.I. Aeeyiea ?aciuo niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia
oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa /a?iicaia oeie/iiai e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
iiaenieia/ieea a oneiaeyo Eaaiaa?aaeiie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.01- Iauaa
caieaaeaeea. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao. —
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

I?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou o?aoeaoieo iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee aaoi?a ii
eco/aieth aeeyiey ?aciuo niiniaia aacioaaeueiie ia?aaioee ii/au ia
eciaiaiea iieacaoaeae ieiaei?iaeey /a?iicaia oeie/iiai, cani?aiiinoue,
?ino, ?acaeoea e o?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea. I?iaaaeai yeiiiie/aneee e
yia?aaoe/aneee aiaeec eco/aiiuo niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aacioaaeueiua ia?aaioee a n?aaiaiee ni aniaoeie
niinianoaotho oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa aa?iiiie/anee oeaiiuo e
aiaeii?i/iuo aa?aaaoia a ia?aaaouaaaiii neia /a?iicaia oeie/iiai,
iniaaiii a aa?oiai (0 – 10 ni) neia, /oi ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a
iiauoaiee onoie/eainoe ii/au e y?icee.

A oneiaeyo Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe ia /a?iicaiao oeie/iuo aacioaaeueiay
iniiaiay ia?aaioea ii/au ia aeoaeio 25 – 27 ni noieeaie NeaEIY, I?I –
31000 eee /ecaeai iaania/eaaea e ia/aeo aaaaoaoeee oaeea aea caianu
i?iaeoeoeaiie aeaae a neia ii/au 0 – 160 ni, eae e ii aniaoea. A oa/aiea
aaaaoaoeee ?anoaiey iiaenieia/ieea iaeaieaa yeiiiiii ?anoiaeiaaee aeaao
a iinaaao ii /ecaeueiie ia?aaioea, aaea inoaaaeenue iaeaieaa aunieea
caianu aeaae a neia 0 – 160 ni (a n?aaeiai ca o?e aiaea 79,6 ii i?ioea
67,4 ii ii aniaoea).

Aacioaaeueiua ia?aaioee noieeaie NeaEIY e I?I –31000 aaaeoo e
iiauoaieth, a n?aaiaiee ni aniaoeie, cani?aiiinoe iinaaia iiaenieia/ieea
eae iaeiieaoieie, oae e iiiaieaoieie ei?iaioi?uneiauie ni?iyeaie. A
iaoeo iiuoao /ecaeueiay ia?aaioea niinianoaiaaea nieaeaieth cani?aiiinoe
iinaaia iiaenieia/ieea.

I?eiaiaiea aacioaaeueiie iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au iaania/eaaao, a
n?aaiaiee ni aniaoeie, nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea cao?ao iaaiciaiiaeyaiie
yia?aee ia aa i?iaaaeaiea. Ca n/ao ?aceiai nieaeaiey cao?ao
iaaiciaiiaeyaiie yia?aee ia i?iaaaeaiea /ecaeueiie ia?aaioee e aieaa
aunieiai o?iaeay ianeinaiyi a yoii aa?eaioa, a iiuoa (1,61), iieo/ai
iaeaieaa aunieee eiyooeoeeaio yia?aaoe/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe au?aueaaiey
iiaenieia/ieea ni?oa Oa?ueeianeee – 7.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee aeey oicyenoa Eaaiaa?aaeiie
Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aiaae?aieth /ecaeueiie
ia?aaioee eee aniaoee a nenoaia eiiaeie?iaaiiie ia?aaioee iiae
iiaenieia/iee ia /a?iicaia oeie/iii a ciiao iaonoie/eaiai e
iaaeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aaioea ii/au, iiaenieia/iee, o?iaeaeiinoue, /a?iicai
oeie/iue, cani?aiiinoue, /ecaeueiay ia?aaioea, aniaoea, yeiiiie/aneay e
yia?aaoe/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue.

Comissal Hortencio Pedro. Influence of Different Methods of Main Soil
Tillage Methods on Physical and Chemical Properties of Chernozem Typical
and Sunflower Productivity in Conditions of Left Bank Forest-Steppe Zone
of Ukraine. – Manuscript.

The thesis is presented to complete for the degree of Ph.D. in agrarian
sciences, speciality 06.01.01. – Soil management and crop production. –
postraduate of the Kharkov state Agrarian University. – KHARKOV, 1999.

The results of the three-year long field experiments are presented. The
carried out researches were aimed at studying influence of different
methods of no-tillage soil treatment on change of indice of chernozem
typical fertility, degree of weed spreading, sunflower’s growth,
development and yield productivity.

Economic and energetic analysis of the main soil treatment methods have
been carried out.

It has been found out that chisel soil treatment under sunflower
improves aggregate state of soil, provides effective weed control,
ensures high, stable yield of sunflower seeds as well as decreases
economic and energy costs as compared with plowing soil method.

Recommendations have been given as for putting into practice chisel soil
treatment or plowing methods in combined soil treatment system under
sunflower on chernozem typical in zones of unstable and insufficient
moisture supply.

Key words: soil treatment, tillage method, sunflower, yield
productivity, chernozem typical, weed spreading, chisel soil treatment,
plowing, economic and energy efficiency.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI, aeieoi? n.-a.
iaoe, i?ioani? Aoaeueiiiee TH.A.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 05.11.99. Oi?iao 60 o 84/16.

Oi.- ae?oe. a?e. 1.0, iae.-aeae. a?e. 0.9. Oe?aae 100.

Caiiaeaiiy

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa.

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