3

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AO?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Iiaeueyiaiei Ia?eia A?eoi??aia

OAeE 728.37

AIEEA INEOIEIA?*IIAI *EIIEEA IA

A?O?OAEOO?O NO*ANIEO ?IAeEA?AeOAEUeIEO

AEEOEIAEO AOAeEIE?A A OIIAAO OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 18.00.02 –

A?o?oaeoo?a aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? iniia a?o?oaeoo?e oa a?o?oaeoo?iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e (EIOAA) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeeaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

Eioaeia ?ai? Eineiiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iniia a?o?oaeoo?e oa a?o?oaeoo?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioeaeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

??I?I TH??e Aaa?eeiae/,

caa.a?aeae?eii a?o?oaeoo?e aeeoea Oe?a?inueeiai ciiaeueiiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ? i?iaeoiiai ?inoeoooo ii oeea?eueiiio
aoae?aieoeoao

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio

I?EIEA?IEI Aieiaeeie? Aiaoie?eiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeecaeio a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?yOa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, a?o?oaeoo?iee oaeoeueoao, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 1300 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.056.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith:
252037, Ee?a-37, Iia?o?ioeionueeee i?iniaeo 31, aoae.466.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e: i. Ee?a,
Iia?o?ioeionueeee i?ini., 31.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

O?iio?i A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. ?noi?e/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? i?ecaaee aei aeoea?caoe??
aoae?aieoeoaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a. Aeania oeae i?ioean
ii/aany aeaui ?ai?oa, eiee aoee neaniaai? iaiaaeaiiy ia ?ici??e oa
aaee/eio aeeoeiai? ieiu? oae caaieo “aea/” aai naaeiaeo aoaeeie?a. Oaeei
/eiii iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui noa?oiaa iicia/ea eaaeiiiiae?aiiai
“naiiaoaeo” ii/aeanue ua caaeiaai aei iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? iaoi?
aea?aeaae.

Naia a noeo?eiino? aeacaiiai i?ioeano ? ia?iaeaeoaaeenue iaeaooi?
i?iaeaie, ye? a iao /an aeaaeae? a?eueoa i?eaa?oathoue aei naaa oaaao
ni?eueiioe.

Ii/aoe c oiai, ui iiiaeo iiiyooy naaeiaiai aoaeeieo ci?ieeiny ia iiiyooy
i?ei?nueeiai aai cai?nueeiai aoaeeieo oa iaa?oue naaeeae.

Ia aeaeue i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy aai iaai?oa caaeoio oaeeo nii?oae
caeeoeeeny ia iiia?aaeiueiio “naaeiaiio” ??ai?. Ia?aaaaeath/eie noaee
ooee?oa?i? /eiieee, ye? aeiiiaieeenue aoae?aaeueiith aeniain??th –
aaaeaiiy iaaoaeoaaoe yeiiiaa a?eueoa aac a?aooaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie oa oa?aeoa?o aeiae?eey. Oaeei /eiii oa oa?eoi??yo, a?aeaaaeaieo
aeey naaeiaeo ianea?a c?inee neoi/aiiy iioai?ieo a?ia?o?ioiaaieo
nii?oae, ui auaio cieueee ia o?eueee e?a?aeae, aea e ?ae?aaoe?eiee
?ano?n. A?aoo? naiiae?yeueia u?eueia caaoaeiaa yaey? niaith aeieia?/io
caa?ico, yea aaea ii/eia? aeyaeyoeny a cani?/aieo iaaeieeoi?o iieyo,
eoeao, ??/eao oa e?nao.

A oie aea /an aeacaiee i?ioean aoa aeineoue ia?aaeaa/aiee, eiee
a?aooaaoe iai?aeaioiaai?noue noni?euenoaa aei aeacaieo ?noi?e/ieo ci?i
i? a i?aeoe/iiio, i? a oai?aoe/iiio ieaiao.

Ae?enii, aaeeeee, iaa?oue a ?noi?e/ieo ianooaaao ?ic?ea a aaiethoe??
a?o?oaeoo?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aoaeeie?a i?eca?a aei oiai, ui ia o?eueee
caaoaeiaieee, aea e i?iaeooaaeueieee iieieeeny ia?aae ieceith i?iaeai
uiaei oei?caoe??, eeaneo?eaoe??, ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie oa
ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e no/aniiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai
aoaeeieo. Ia oeueiio yaeu? a?aecia/eany ? iaaiee noa?aioei
iai?eeiyoiino? aeina?aeo aiaeia?/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a eai?oae?noe/ieo
e?a?iao aiane?aeie ?ica?aeiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith.

Oea ia icia/a?, ui oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? iiooee aoee
iiai?noth i?eieiai?: oaea aeooaeueia i?iaeaia, ye oi?ioaaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoea ciaeoea oe?iea a?aeia?aaeaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e
niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? ia o?eueee ?noi?e/i?e, aea e no/ani?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaeee? ci?ie noaeeny o aecia/aii?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e oa ?ici???a ei?enii? ieiu? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a. sseui a oiiaao nioe?ae?noe/ii? aeiiii?ee oa
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ii?iaoeaia aaca a?aeaeca?eaethaaea neeaae ?iaeeie
oa e?euee?noue ?? /eai?a, oi a ?eieiaiio ainiiaea?noa? ca iniiao
i?eeiathoueny o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? caaoaeiaieea.

Oea aieeaa? ia o?eueee ia ca?eueoaiiy ei?enii? oa aeeoeiai? ieiu?
aoaeeieo, aea e ia cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy e?eueeino? ooieoe?e. Oaeei /eiii
no/ani? oiiae i?iaeooaaiiy oa aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? aeiaaathoue
ia?aaeyaeo cae/ieo ii?iaoeaieo canaae.

Aea/ath/e oa?aeoa? aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a ia a?o?oaeoo?o
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo, aoee ?icaeyioo? i?aoe? oaeeo
aaoi??a ye Iiena?iei C., Oeei I., Einieii? O., Oai-Iaaiiaoiaa N.,
Eaa?eea A., i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/iee /eiiee a i?aoeyo: Ae?ei? E.,
Aeaaeaeniia A., Eeoeeaae/a A., nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iee – Ea?oaoiaa
E., Ei?aei ?., Ieaoiiiaa A., ineoi-o?c?ieia?/iee – Aeace/aaa A.,
?eiiieeiaa A., a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aoee i?enay/ai? ieoaiiyi
??oaiiy u?eueii? caaoaeiae O?oai?eiai? I., ?ai?ia TH. oa ?i.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a?aenooi?noue nioe?aeueiiai caiiaeaiiy oa
aeiiii?/ieo canaae iaiaaeoaaea aaoi??a ?noi?e/iei aiae?cii oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e,
eiiiiceoe?? oa aeaei?o o?aaeeoe?eieo n?euenueeeo aoaeeie?a ??cieo ca
?ici??aie c a?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

?ioa?an aei aeiia no/anii? i?iaeoii-aoae?aaeueii? i?aeoeee aecia/ea
aeioe?euei?noue caa?iaiiy aei na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, a?aeaeca?eaeaiiio a
?iaioao oaeeo aaoi??a, ye O. E. ?aeo, I?n aai aea? ?ia oa ?i.

Iacaaaeath/e ia i/aaeaeio ei?enoue a?aooaaiiy iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui aiie ia a iiai?e
i??? a?aeiia?aeathoue no/ani?e niaoeeo?oe? i?iaeooaaiiy oa aoae?aieoeoaa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a a Oe?a?i?, ?? eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae. Aiaeii/an no/ani? iaoeia? oa
e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea, a oaeiae aiae?c i?iaeoii? oa aoae?aaeueii?
i?aeoeee ye a?o/eciyii?, oae ? na?oiai?, ia aeathoue iiaeeeaino?
a?aooaaoe ia?oeneiaoe?eiiai /eiieea, ui aecia/a? caeaaei?noue
a?o?oaeoo?iiai ??oaiiy a?ae iniaeeainoae ineoieia?/iiai oeio caiiaieea,
eiai anoaoe/ieo oiiaeiaaiue, eoeueoo?iiai oa ina?oiueiai ??aiy, oaoiai?
i?eiaeaaeiino?.

Oaeei /eiii noi?ioaaeanue oaia iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Aieea
ineoieia?/iiai /eiieea ia a?o?oaeoo?o no/anieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a a oiiaao Oe?a?ie”.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeeoeia? aoaeeiee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iiaeueia oa a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiy
i?aai?caoe?y ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.

Iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy: a?o?oaeoo?a i?nueeeo, ia?aaei?nueeeo oa cai?nueeeo
eioaaeae?a ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: aecia/aiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei i?iaeooaaiiy no/anieo oei?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a
a Oe?a?i? ?c a?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?? ni?eeiyooy.

Caaaeaiiy ?iaioe:

— Aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?y ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo
aoaeeie?a.

— Aecia/aiiy aiioe?eiiai aieeao i?e ni?eeiyoo?.

— Aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e.

— Aecia/aiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo oa ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae
a?o?oaeoo?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.

— Aeya ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae a?o?oaeoo?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey io?eiaiiy aeinoia??ieo aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui i?noyoue aiae?oe/iee iaeyae aeina?aeo i?iaeooaaiiy,
aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a,
iaoo?i? ianoaaeaiiy, iieooaaiiy iaoeaioe?a, caiiaiee?a oa
i?iaeooaaeueiee?a, aeenia?niee oa ii?oieia?/iee aiae?c, iaoiae
aeno?aiieyoe??, ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeueia oa
?aaeueia i?iaeooaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aecia/a?oueny o oeiieia?/i?e iciaee oa eeaneo?eaoe??
no/anieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a oa ia?niaeoea? ?o
?icaeoeo, a oaeiae aieea? ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia oi?ioaaiiy
aenoa?’??o oa ?ioa?’??o, iniiai? e?eoa??? ioe?iee i?iaeoieo ?ic?iaie,
nooi?iue naiaiaee a?o?oaeoo?ieo ??oaiue.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

— aecia/aiiy oei?a no/anieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a, ui
aoaeothoueny a Oe?a?i?;

— — iaae? aeaaiae?eiiai aieeao na?aaeiaeua ia aiioe?eiee noai ethaeeie;

— iiaeeea? ooieoe?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo
aoaeeie?a ia nueiaiaeaiiy;

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aiith eiiiiceoe??, ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueii?
no?oeoo?e oa a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o ??oaiue no/anieo oei?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a;

— iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy a?eueo aaeaeiai i?iaeoiiai ??oaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a ?aaeueiiio i?iaeooaaii? oa aoae?aieoeoa?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a oa aeeoeiaeo ianea?a, a oaeiae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?; i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ieaioaaeueieo,
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?inoi?iaeo, eiiiiceoe?eieo oa ooaeiaei?o ??oaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Aieiai? aeniiaee oa iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia a?o?oaeoo?iiio
oaeoeueoao? EAeOOAA (1997/98 iaa/aeueiee ??e).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo EAeOOAA (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??: ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 4 noaoo? o
iaoeiaeo ca??eao ianyaii 13 noi??iie, 2 — o ni?aaaoi?noa? ianyaii 10
noi??iie.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue anooi, o?e aeaae oa
aeniiaie, ia?ae?e iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoee –
caaaeueiei ianyaii – 104 noi??iee oaenoo, 45 ?ethno?aoe?e, a oaeiae
nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 163 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aecia/a?oueny iniiaia i?iaeaia, iaoeiaa oa nioe?aeueia
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, nooi?iue aea/aiino? ieoaiue, iaoa, caaea/? oa
iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?oe/iee iaeyae i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa
aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo” ?icaeyaea?oueny
aaiethoe?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoea, ?icaeoie
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, eiiiiceoe?eieo, ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo oa
oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue. Aecia/aoueny oeiieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
eeaneo?eaoe?y no/anieo oei?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a a
Oe?a?i?.

AEeoei iino?eia /e oei/aniaa, aea ethaeeia i?iaiaeeoue cia/io /anoeio
naiai aeeooy /e yeeenue ia??iae /ano, iio?aao? iaeiaeiai aaaaoi oaaae.
AEeoei – oea oa, ui ci?ith?oueny a oiiaao ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, ?
eiaeia aiioa aenoaa? nai? aeiiae. ??cieie ? ? oa?i?ie ia?aoai?aiiy
aeeoea: oeny/i??//y a aeaeaeiio ieioeiio oa aeoaea ei?ioe? a?ae??cee
/ano a OO noi??//?.

Iaeiae iinoa? ieoaiiy: a ?ac?, eiee ia? i?noea aacia?a?aiee iinooi
eoeueoo?e oa oeea?e?caoe?? /e ia ? iiaa?iaiiy aei o?aaeeoe?? noi?ioeaiei
?ooii — oae ae iiaeoe iiaa?iaiiy a ia/a?e? An?i a?aeiiee oa?i?i
aeanoeaee eeoa Oe?a?i? — “oa?iaa?ecaoe?y eoeueoo?e”, ui aeiee aiane?aeie
iaaei??iino? coneeue aeayeeo ae?y/?a ano?aaee a caiia?aaiiyo ia?aae
eicaoeueeei aiiaeii. Ia aoaeaii cina?aaeaeoaaoenue ia iioiaeaeaii?
oa?iaa??a oa aa?oi a?aooaaoe caoaiee aieea aeoeaiino? oeo, ooi ca
aoaeue-yeeo ianoaaei o?eia?oueny ca a?o?ii, a a??i?oa — ca nueiaiaeaiiei
iaaooeii. Oaeei /eiii, ie iieieeenue ia?aae aeeeaiith: — /e aa?oi
o?eiaoeny o?aaeeoe??, oi/a a a a?o?oaeoo?? oa aoae?aieoeoa??
A?aeiia?aeue ia oea caieoaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiia ?icoi?iiy, ye
iaeiie/aiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oa ia’?io
i?ciaiiy. Ia aeaeue iiaeaeoaee a a?eueoino? o?aaeeoe?y i?iiaao?oueny
aeineoue oi?iaeueii. Ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i iaoai?/ia ia?aianaiiy aeoeaaieo
i?iaiaio?a a aoae?ae? aac ?icoi?iiy neiaie?ee oi?i oa eieuei?o, ne?ae
caa?iooe oaaao ia a?eueo iaaacia/i? caiice/aiiy, ye, iai?eeeaae,
aeaoooaaiiy no??o ia aaaaoiiiaa?oiaeo aoaeeieao, ye? ianooue nia?oaeueio
iaaaciaeo a ?ac? iaae?iiy aaaeei? ao?oeueee. Oa, iaaooue, a?aeiioaiith
aei o?aaeeoe?? aa?oi aeaoe i?ioan?eio ioe?ieo c oi/ee ci?o ??
ei?eniino?. Ii/iaii c ?icoaooaaiiy aoaeeieo: an?i a?aeiiee i?eioeei “iiy
oaoa c e?ath”. Oeae i?eioeei iaa?oue iaaoa iaaaoeaiiai cia/aiiy, ye
na?ae/aiiy aai?cio. Oa eiee caaeeaeoenue a ieioea, iiaa eoea i?i iaaio
?cieyoe?th iiiaoeaiiy, ?ici?uaiiy eiai a na?aaeei? ae?eyiee, ioi/aiiy
naaei/eii, ai?iaeaie.

Iaoooaaiiy oeei o?aaeeoe?eiei i?eioeeiii i?ecaaei aei noai?aiiy
noiiica?nieo oa?aia ia ?aaeainiieo aoeeoeyo. Oa iiaeia aeaui aei?aaaeaoe
i?iaeooaaeueiee?a o oiio, ui aoaeeiee aoee iaeiaeia?. Iiaa eoea eiee ia
i?i ?eoi, oi oi/a a i?i iao? a eiiiiceoe??. sse ia aeeaii, aea?eueiaiiy
oai?/eo oa aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae eeoa iia??oeei neooaoe?th.

Eiee ia iaaaeee?e oa?eoi??? neoi/eeenue ??ciiaa?ai? oa aia?oe?ei?
“oacaiaee” iiaeo oe?a?ioe?a — neeaeanue neooaoe?y, yea iaaaaeo?
ca?aiaenueei iia?ieo nie?no?a, ye? caiiacyoi ni?aathoue ??ciiiai?oi?
a???.

Ioaea, ii?ooaiee ua iaeei o?aaeeoe?eiee i?eioeei — ?aei?noue ?eoi?ee,
ianooaao, iiaeoeueii? nenoaie.

Aei ?a/?, o?aaeeoe?eiee aeeaiieniee, iaiaeii?aciai a?aeia?aaeaiee a
ienoaoeoa? oei, yeee caoeuaa a?ae ia?an?/ii? ooaeiae, aea a?aee?eaaa an?
a?coaeuei? ia?aaaae naaeeae ca?ac cai?iaiee ia aeooo, aenieo
cae?ciaaoiiio iai?iaeo.

?noi?e/iee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue iaiaaeaiiy ia o?eueee
ie?aiiai iiiaoeaiiy, oa iaa?oue ie?aii? caaoaeiae, oa iaa?oue i?noa.

Anoia?a/ oiio ie noaee na?aeeaie iaiaiaaeaiiai ?icoe?aiiy i?no, yea
aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeiiai ?icaeoeo ia?aae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, eaiae?caoe??,
aeaeo?eee, aaco oiui. Ii?o/ c oei iaaei?aaaeaii ?icoe?ththoueny ieiu?
ie?aieo aoaeeie?a. Ooo ia?ii caeeeeaoe aei a?aooaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e —
aaeaea a?aeiii i?i a?aie/ia naiiiaiaaeaiiy a ia?iaeiiio aoae?aieoeoa?.
Aa?oi caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui a?eueo?noue ei?enii? ieiu?
aeei?enoiao?oueny ? ia?aoai?th?oueny ia eiii?o, a ?aaeoa — neeaae.
Oa?eoi??? ia?aaei?noy iathoue aeineoue iii?oi? a?aei?iiino? a caaoaeia?
a ii??aiyii? ye c o?aai?ciaaiei, oae ? c n?euenueeei na?aaeiaeuai. A
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ia?aaei?noy noaee oa?aiaie aeoeaii? aoae?aaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, nii/aoeo iaiaaeaiiai aei?noeeie ii?iaoeaaie nii?oaeaeaiiy
“naaeiaeo” aoaeeie?a (aaaeei iaceaaoe ?o aea/aie), a iaaeae?, i?ney
ciyooy iaiaaeaiue — iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi a?ia?o?ioiaaieo ca ?ici??aie ?
iaaeineiiaeeo a a?o?oaeoo?? nii?oae.

Aiae?c i?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aecia/ea ?nioth/e o no/aniiio
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aoae?aieoeoa? iiaeeea? iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? ?ene:

Iaaeie?ee:

— ieaioaaiiy ca i?eioeeiii eieainiiiai naea, ?aii?oaaiiy ?nioth/i? oa
ia?niaeoeaii? caaoaeiae;

— ciaaaaa aei ioi/aiiy;

— iaaei??i? ieiu? i?ei?uaiue, ui iiaaii ina?oeththoueny, oa /ano?oa ia
iaeaaeiai? oa a?aoo? aeei?enoiaothoueny ye caaeeua.

Oaeiae oa ui ei?enii nueiaiaei?:

— i?iii?oe?ei?noue, iiaeoeuei?noue, ?aeeiee ianooaa, iaenoa?i?noue,
ca?aene oe?e?ni?noue caaoaeiae oa iiaeeeaa noai?aiiy ainaiae?a;

— ioi/aiiy oaoe naaei/eii, aaeeea a?aenoaiue a?ae non?ae?a;

— oaaaa aei iaeeo oi?i, a?aaeath/a aeeaiieni?noue oa aa?iii?y eieuei?o;

— aa?iii?caoe?y c aeiae?eeyi, ia?aaeaa/aiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai e?a?aeaeo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo ?c a?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?/iiai
/eiieea.” aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
oa ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?, aecia/athoueny oiiae ?o ?aae?caoe??, neeaae
aeeoeiaeo oa aeiiii?aeieo i?ei?uaiue oa ?o ia?aiao?e. Aieiaiei /eiieeii
a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/a?oueny ineoieia?/iee. Oea aeiaiaeeoueny
ca aeiiiiiaith aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ni?eeiyooy ??cieo oi?i i?inoi?o.
Iaeiei c oaeeo iai?yie?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe ineoieia?th. Aea/ath/e ethaeeio
ye eiiieaen noaeeo iiaaae?ieiaeo ?aaeoe?e, iiaeia anoaiiaeoe aeaye?
iaae? aieeao ioi/aiiy ia ineo?/iee noai ethaeeie c iaaaoeaiiai /e
iiceoeaiiai aieo. Aea /enoa ineoieia?y caeia?oueny ethaeeiith,
canoiniaoth/e i?e oeueiio, aieiaiei /eiii, ineoiae?aaiinoeeo, oiaoi a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oanooaaiiy ?aoeei??ioa ia aoaeue-yeiio ??ai?
aecia/a?oueny eiai oei ? oa?aeoa?.

A eiiieaen? c a?o?oaeoo?ith ineoieia?y aeiiiiaaa? aecia/eoe nooi?iue
aieeao ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ia ethaeeio, aecia/a? iaeiicia/i?
?aaeoe?? ia o?ce/iee aieea, neaiaee ??cii? neeaaeiino? oa oa?aeoa?o.
Iaeiae ciaiiy eeoa iaoai?cio ineo?ee ethaeeie iaaeinoaoi? iaiao?aeii
iaoe oyao ? i?i ieneaiiy oiai, aeey eiai i?iaeoo?oueny oey nii?oaea.
Aaeaea ni?eeiyooy iaeiiai e oiai ae ia’?eoo iaaaeaeaaoia, ana caeaaeeoue
a?ae noie ciaiue i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o; ana ni?eeia?oueny a aeon? aeaniiai
na?oia?ae/oooy.

C?oeiaiiy aeyaea/a c ia c?icoi?eei oa ia ciaeiiei ?ai?oa eiio ia’?eoii
iiaea aeeeeeaoe ?aaeoe?th aeiieoeeaino?, ?ioa?ano, i?aaiaiiy i?ciaoe
a?eueoa oa aeeaoa, iaeiae, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao oea iiaea ii?iaeaeoaaoe
ae?aooaaiiy oa a?aeoi?aiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ? aeieeiaiiy “eiioe?eoo
iac?icoi?iiy”. Noa?a oai?/ino? a?o?oaeoi?a aeeth/a? a naaa ??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie. ?icae?e ineoieia?? i?aei?ia? ? aeiiiiaaa? aeine?aeaeoaaoe
i?iaeaio ? ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue. Oaeiae a oeueiio
?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyiee aiae?c aa??aio?a ieaioaaeueieo oa
ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.
AEeoeiaa na?aaeiaeua ia? ???a?o?/io no?oeoo?o – a?ae aeaiaioa?iiai
aeeoeiaiai i?inoi?o aei na?aaeiaeua iinaeaiiy. E?eoa???i ioe?iee
?icnaeaiiy ia? aooe eiioi?o i?iaeeaaiiy ethaeeie. A?i c’yniao?oueny
nooiaiai ?cieueiaaiino? i?ioean?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ?o caaacia/aiiy
i?inoi?iaei na?aaeiaeuai oa oaoiieia?/iei iaeaaeiaiiyi.

Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith oiia i?iaeeaaiiy ? eiai aeiaaio?eaae?noue:

iino?eia, oei/aniaa, iao?eaaea.

Eiaeai c aeae?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaeeie ?aae?co?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
aieiaieo oa aeiiii?aeieo i?ioean?a. Aeey cae?eniaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo
iio?aaothoueny iaai? aeiiae, ye? iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe niaoeeo?oe?
naiiai i?ioeano oa aecia/aoeny ye iane?aeie oa?aeoa?o ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie oa eiai aeiia aei i?noey cae?eniaiiy aeaiiai i?ioeano oa eiai
iaeaaeiaiith.

Ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny:

— nooiaiai noaoe?iia?iino? (ia?ooiia, iaei?ooiia, aeeiai?/ia);

— nooiaiai aeoeaiino? (aeoeaia, ianeaia);

— ?aaeeiii cae?eniaiiy: /anoioith (?aaoey?ia, ia??iaee/ia, ai?ciaee/ia,
o?eaae?noth (aeiaaa, oei/aniaa);

— nooiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy (?iaeea?aeoaeueia, ca?oiiaaia,
caaaeueii?iaeeiia).

Aeiiae aei i?noey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano oa eiai iaeaaeiaiiy
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny:

— nooiaiai eieaeueiino? (aecia/aiiy i?noey cae?eniaiiy, iaiaaeaia
e?euee?noue i?noeue /e o anueiio i?inoi?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai
aoaeeieo);

— nooiaiai iniauaiino? (noaoe?iia?ia iaeaaeiaiiy, ai?ciaee/ia
iaeaaeiaiiy, aac iaeaaeiaiiy);

— nooiaiai ina?oeaiiy, caoei?cieyoe??, aaioeeyoe??, oaiia?aoo?iei oa
aieiaei ?aaeeiii);

— noi?ni?noth (iiaia i?inoi?iaa ?cieyoe?y, iiaeeea?noue o non?aei?o
ia?cieueiaaieo i?inoi?ao, iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy a iaeiiio ? oiio ae
i?inoi??).

C oi/ee ci?o a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeeoea o aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaeeie iiaeii? aooe aecia/ai? o? i?ioeane,
ye? a neeo naiai oa?aeoa?o ?ic??ciythoueny ca i?noeai cae?eniaiiy,
nooiaiai eiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ?cieyoe??, ina?oeaiiy ? o.ae.

A oie aea /an i?ioeane, ?aeaioe/i? ii i?inoi?iaei aeiiaai cae?eniaiiy ?
ye? ?ic??ciythoueny iaai?ii aeei?enoaieo i?aaeiao?a, iiaeooue aooe
ia’?aeiai? a iaeio a?oio oa ?icaeyaeaoeny ye ?aeeiee oiiaiee i?ioean
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (iai?eeeaae, ?icoiia? caiyooy, ye? aeeth/athoue
i?ioeane /eoaiiy, ienueia, e?aneaiiy ? o.ae. i?e i?eaiooaaii? o/aiaeo
caaaeaiue, naiiina?oe, i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? o.ae.).

Niaoeeo?ea ia?aco aeeooy ??cieo ?iaeei aecia/a?oueny iiaeeeaeie
i?ioeanaie cae?eniaiiy eiaeiiai c aieiaieo aeae?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Ii?aeioth/e aeaye? oeie ae?yeueiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe eeaneo?eaoe?th ??
aeae?a, ui aeicaieeoue nei?aaoaaoe i?ino??, aecia/eoe a?aeiia?aei? ciie
oa i?ei?uaiiy:

1) I?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue. I?ioan?eia oai?/?noue; i?aoey “ia aeiio”;
caiyooy i?ioan?eiith ae?yeuei?noth c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy eeaneo?eaoe??.
2)Iai?ioan?eia oai?/?noue. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia; ooaeiaeiy; aeaye? aeaee
ethaeoaeuenueei? ae?yeueiino?. 3) Ae?yeuei?noue c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
naiiina?oe, io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??. *eoaiiy oa i?ineooiaoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??, i?aeaiooaaiiy aei caiyoue, io?eiaiiy niaoe?aeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??. 4)A?aeii/eiie oa ?icaaae. I?eeii ainoae, ?icaaae; ia?aaeyae
oaeaia?aaea/, o?euei?a; i?ineooiaoaaiiy ioceee; /eoaiiy ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e. 5) Nii?o. Caaaeueia icaei?ia/a a?iianoeea; caiyooy nii?oii c
iaoith o?ce/iiai oaeineiiaeaiiy. 7) I?aaenoaaieoeoai. 8) Ona?aaeei?
?iaeeie; iica?iaeeii?; cono??/? c ae?ocyie; i?ioan?ei? cono??/?.

Aea eiaeia ooieoe?iiaeueia ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a iiaeiia iaoe ? ??ci?
ieanoe/i? ??oaiiy, aeey aeinyaiaiiy anoaoe/ii? ae?aciino?:

— i?oiaiiaeueia (ia?aaaaeii ieaie i?yiieooii? oi?ie);

— iie?aiiaeueia (ieaie c aico?eie eooaie);

— iii’yeoaia (iiaeieaiiy e?enoae?/iino?);

— ieanoe/ia (i?aai?/i? oi?ie);

— eiia?aaaoe?eia (ii?aeiaiiy i?oiaiiaeueieo oa iii’yeoaieo oi?i).

Ii?aeiaiiy nooiai? ieanoe/iino? ?c no?oeoo?iith i?aai?caoe??th aea?
iiaeeea?noue iaoe i?eioeeiiai iia? ieaioaaeuei? ??oaiiy, ye? a a cia/i?e
i??? caaeiaieueieee niiaeeaa/a. Oae? ??oaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue ?
anoaoe/iei aeiiaai aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo, aea
aieeaathoue ia ineoieia?/iee noai ii-??ciiio. ? ooo aaaeeeai aecia/eoe,
ye? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeuei? ??oaiiy ? /e iiaeooue aooe
iaeaeioe?euei?oeie c oi/ee ci?o ni?eeiyooy ?o ethaeeiith, a oaeiae
aeiiii?/i? i?e ?o cae?eniaii? ia i?aeoeoe?.

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai i?e ae??oaii? oeueiai ieoaiiy ?
c’ynoaaiiy o?aiceoieo niieo/aiue a ieaioaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? aeeoea.
Oeueiio ieoaiith aeoaea aaaaoi i?eae?eyeinue oaaae aaaaoueia oao?aoeyie.
sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae a?o/eciyiee oa caei?aeiiiee, o?aiceoe
a?ae?a?athoue aeoaea aaeeeo ?ieue o ieaioaaeueiiio ??oaii?. Iaeiae, yeui
oea aieeaa? ia ieaioaaiiy aoaeeieo, oi, cae/aeii, iaieio/a oeae aieea
a?aeia?aaea?oueny ? ia ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaiio ae??oaii? nii?oaee, a ioaea,
ia ineoieia?/iiio aieea? ia aeyaea/?a-niinoa?aaeiee?a.

Aeae?, ii??aiyaoe oa cei?aaoaaaoe iaeei?ioo? e?i?? o?aiceoo ?c
ia?anoaaiiyi o i?inoi?? (a?aoiaoth/e ineoieia?th ethaeeie), iiaeia
aeaanoe caaaeueio caeiiii??i?noue ia?aiao??a aeey noai?aiiy i?aai?/ii?
oi?ie aeeoeiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia?anoaath/enue ii aeeoeiaiio aoaeeieo, ui neeaaea?oueny c ??ciiiai?oieo
ciaeiaeo ooai?aiue, eiaeai c yeeo ia? nai? aiioe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy, ie
iae?a?ii iaeei?iooee oa iaee?auee oeyo. Ioi/oth/a i?inoioa iiaa?oiiue oa
e?i?e ia i?ioenoiyoue neeaaeiino? oa ci?noiaiino?

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaee no/aniiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoea” ?icaeyaeathoueny eiiiiceoe?ei? oa
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei? ??oaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.
Ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo
aecia/a?oueny: i?noea ?icoaooaaiiy iaeaooiuei? aoae?ae?, ieiueia
ae?eyiee, e?euee?noue /eai?a ?iaeeie caiiaieea, ??ae ae?yeueiino? /eai?a
?iaeeie, iiaaaeaiiy caiiaieea, iaoa??aeuei? iiaeeeaino? caiiaieea.

Ana oea aieeaa? ia ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaa ??oaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo. I?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ae?yeueiino?
iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny a ??ciiiai?oieo i?inoi?iaeo noaiao, aea i?e
oeueiio aca?iica’ycee i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo a a?eueoino? caa??aathoueny.
Aieiaio ?ieue i?e aeai?? iio??aii? ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?a?
iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a. Aiia iia’ycaia c o?c?ieia??th ethaeeie ?
ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino?
niiaeeaa/a. Caaaeueia no?oeoo?a no/aniiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo
a?aeia?aaea? ??ciiiai?oi?noue an?o aeaiaio?a, ca’yce?a oa i?ioean?a.

Oaeiae aecia/a?oueny aaaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?enoinoaaiiy
ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?.

1. Ia ai?eciioaeueieo ae?eyieao iiaeeeai canoinoaaiiy an?o oei?a
no?oeoo?, oi/ iinoia? oa a?eaiiiae?ai? cia/ii oa iaaei?aaaeaii aei?iae/?
ca ?io?. 2. Ia noeeao – a?eaiiiae?ai?, ci?uai? oa iinoia?. 3. Ia
neeaaeiiio ?aeue?o? – iinoia? oa ci?uai?. Oaeiae caaeeaeai? oa
iai?acaaeeaeai?. Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai eiiiiceoe?eiiai ??oaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo iaiao?aeii ia?aoe aieiai?
e?eoa???. A ?ie? oaeiai e?eoa??th iiaeooue aenooiaoe ??ciiiai?oi?
/eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai
aoaeeieo: i?noiaoae?aia neooaoe?y, ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia (caeaaeeoue
a?ae ae?yeueiino? iaoeaioe?a iaeaooiueiai aoaeeieo), aeiiii?/i?noue
??oaiiy (o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? niiaeeaa/a), ?aoe?iiaeueia eiino?oeoeaia
noaia ? o.ae.

?iaey/e aeniiaee c iiia?aaeiuei? aeaae iiaeia c’ynoaaoe oi?ie yei?
aaiiao??? iathoue ia?aaaae. Ia i?eeeaae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai
aoaeeieo ?c naoiith, aanaeiii, o?aiaaea?iei caeii, niey???i, e?ooii oa 7
aeeoeiaeie e?iiaoaie iiaeia iicia/eoe ?aeiaiiy eiioi?oo oa ?aeaaeueii?
ae?aciino? ia?aco.

A?aeiii, ui oi?ia ioe?ith?oueny ca oaeeie ia’?eoeaieie aeanoeainoyie, ye
iao?, ?eoi, i?iii?oe??.

Aaiiao?e/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oi?ie ae?aaea?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aieiaieo
ia?aiao??a, iniaeeainoyie ?? iaae, aaee/eiith eooa i?ae aeaiaioaie.
Ia?aaaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ?ici??o ii iaeiiio iai?yieo oa?aeoa?eco? e?i?eio
oi?io. ?icaeoie oi?ie ii aeaii aei??ai – aeaioi??io. Ia’?iio oi?io
aecia/a? ?icaeoie ii o?ueii aei??ai.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aiao??a oi?ie aecia/a? aiioe?ei? ioe?iee. I?e
oioiaeiino? ia?aiao??a oi?ia ioe?ith?oueny ye noaoe/ia. An? oe? yeino?
iaeaaeaoue aei aeaiiai i?eeeaaeo. C?inoa? iiieo ia o?eueee ia
ca?eueoaiiy eiioi?oo oa ei?eni?noue aeei?enoaiiy eiaeiiai iao?o
aoaeeieo, aea ? iaaeaiiy eiio yeinoae oe?eeii iiaiai, anoaoe/ii
ae?aciiai oa iaiiae?aiiai ia aaiaeuei? eiiiiceoe?ei? ??oaiiy.

Eiio?anoi?noue ia?aiao??a aeeeeea? a?ae/oooy aeeiai?/iino?. Aaiiao?e/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea oi?ia aeeeeea? ? ci?ie ?? iaae, eiioo??a, iiaa?oiiue.

?ici?? oi?ie ioe?ith?oueny ii aaniethoiei oa a?aeiiniei e?eoa??yi.
Nii/aoeo i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyiiy ?ici??o c oiiaieie iaeeieoeyie
aei??thaaiiy, a iio?i ?c aaee/eiaie ??ciiiai?oiiai cia/aiiy. sseui i?e
aaniethoi?e ioe?ioe? i??iino? iaeeieoe? aei??thaaiiy a?aeiia?aea?
i??iino? oi?ie, oi a?aeiinia ioe?iea ?ici??o aeicaiey? c?noaaeyoe ??ci?
aeaee oi?i.

A?aeiiniei e?eoa???i ioe?iee ?ici???a yei?-iaaoaeue oi?ie ? ii??aiyiiy
?? c ?ici??aie ethaeeie. Niieo/aiiy ioe?iie ?ici??iino? oi?ie ii
aaniethoiei oa a?aeiiniei e?eoa??yi oa?aeoa?eco? ae?aci?noue ?ici???a
oi?ie, ?? ianooaai?noue.

Ae?aci?noue ?ici???a ei?aeoo?oueny on?ia ia’?eoeaieie aeanoeainoyie
oi?ie. Iai?eeeaae, canoinoaaiiy e?oi?o i?ei?uaiue (oa?an, aaeeii?a oa
?i.) iaaea? aoaeeieo a?eueoa ieanoe/iino?, aieeaa? ia a?aeiinio
ianooaai?noue aoaeeieo.

Iiaa?oi? oi?ie a?aeaeca?eaeththoue /anoeio iaaeath/iai ia ia? na?oeiaiai
iioieo. A?aeiioaiiy a?aeaeca?eaeaiiai iioieo aei iaaeath/iai aecia/a?
na?oe?noue oi?ie, yea aiioe?eii aieeaa? ia aeyaea/a. Na?oe?noue
iiaa?oiiue aieeaa? ia ni?eeiyooy oa ioe?ieo ?ici???a, aaae oa ?ioeo
aeanoeainoae oi?ie. Ci?ia na?oea iiaea iaa?oue ei?aeooaaoe ??
aaiiao?e/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Oaeoo?a oa no?oeoo?a iiaa?oiiue ianooue a?coaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th i
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoyo oi?ie, aeyaey? ?? iiiie?oi?noue,
iooe?noue, oaa?ae?noue, i’ye?noue ? o.ae.

C?noaaeaiiy ia’?eoeaieo aeanoeainoae oi?ie oa ?? aeaiaio?a iieyaa? a
iniia? ioe?iee ?ic/eaioaaiiy oi?ie. Caniaii ?ic/eaioaaiiy oi?ie ?
aeene?aoia ci?ia aoaeue-yeiai c ?? aeanoeainoae (aaiiao???, eieuei?o,
?ici??o, na?oeino?).

Noai?thth/e ia?ac a?o?oaeoi? iiaeiai caaacia/eoe ii iiaeeeaino? a?eueoa
i?ea?iaeueiino?. Iaa?oue ethaeei? c iaiaaeaiei oacao?onii no/aniee
aeeoeiaee aoaeeiie caea?oueny aaiaeueiei. C oaeei oyaeaiiyi i?i aeeoei
aiia ia?iaeeeany, c?inoaea oa ia?aaea? oea oyaeaiiy nai?i iauaaeeai.

Iaiao?aeii canoinoaaiiy nooi i?ioan?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei oeueiai ieoaiiy,
aaeaea iiaia ia?oeneiaoe?y i?ecaaaea aei aaiaeueiino?.

Ia?oeneiaoe?eiee iaoiae – caeo/aiiy caiiaieea aei oai?/iai i?ioeano – ?
iaeaaaeeea?oei ? iaeei?eni?oei aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaaii? iaoe i?e
i?iaeooaaii? iiaiai oeio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo. Aea
oeae i?ioean ia iiaea aooe anainyaeiei. O?aaa anoaiiaeoe iaaeo
a?aooaaiiy iiaaaeaiue niiaeeaa/a, ?iaeoa iia? aoaeeiee ia aoaeooue i?/ei
a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae oiai, ui ie ia?ii ia nueiaiaeaiiy. Oiiae caiiaieea
iiaeii? iaiaaeeoeny eeoa a?aooaaiiyi neeaaeo eiai ?iaeeie, ia?niaeoeaaie
?? ?icaeoeo oa noeaia??yie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? /eai?a ?iaeeie.

I?ney aecia/aiiy oiia caiiaieea oao?aaoeue iiaeiai aecia/eoe eiai
ineoieia?/iee oei oa oiiaeiaaiiy. Oea aeiiiiiaea i?e noai?aii? a?eueo
eiioi?oiiai na?aaeiaeua, yea a aeaaiae?eii aieeaaei a ia iaoeaioe?a
aoaeeieo.

Aea/ath/e na?oiaee aeina?ae i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui
caeo/aiiy iaoeaioe?a aei i?iaeooaaeueiiai oa aoae?aiiai i?ioeano ? eiai
aaaeeeaith /anoeiith. Caa?aaeaiiy oa i?aeo?eiea ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aaaeaiue aei na?aaeiaeua a oe?eiio, ? aieiaiith iaoith a?o?oaeoi??a.
Oiio ia?o i?ae i?iiiioaaoe, /e ci?ieoe ?nioth/ee noai aaea ?nioth/iai
na?aaeiaeua i?iiiio?oueny i?ecaanoe iieooaaiiy iaoeaioe?a ioi/oth/eo
aoaeeie?a.

A noia?a/ ia?oeneiaoe?eiiio iaoiaeo i?iaeooaaiiy ?nio? oaeiae nooi
i?ioan?eia noaaeaiiy aei aeeiiaiiy aoaeue-yeiai caaaeaiiy ia
i?iaeooaaiiy. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aieiaiei ? iai?aeeia?iee i?aeo?ae
oao?aoey aei ae??oaiiy caiiaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaeooaaiiy ia? niaith oaeo iniaeea?noue, ye
canoinoaaiiy oa noai?aiiy ia?aco ?c iiaea?eiei eiaeoaaiiyi. Oiaoi
iiaeeea? ??ci? ni?iae ni?eeiyooy a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy
oao?aoey. Oaeiae ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? iai?aeeia?iee i?aeo?ae aei
ae??oaiiy i?iaeoiiai caaaeaiiy oa i?iiiioaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae?
iaeaooiueiai aoaeeieo. Ianooiiei e?ieii ? naia i?ioan?eia ioe?iea
??oaiiy /e aenia?oia, oiio ui ioe?ith?oueny eeoa oao?aoeyie. Oey
iaoiaeeea caia?a/o? o/anoue caiiaieea aei ei?aeooaaiiy i?iaeoo oa eiai
aiae?co. A?o?oaeoi? i?ia?aio? ni?eeiyooy niiaeeaa/a, aea ? a?i nai
iiaea ia?aa??eoe naaa, yeui ia aeia??y? nai?io niaeo, ca aeiiiiiaith
noai?aii? i?ia?aie.

?nio? i’youe aoai?a aeey io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai?aiee i?iaeo:

1. Aaia?oaaiiy – oanooaaiiy ??oaiiy. I?ioean i?eeiio ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
ae?iao aeaiaio?a ??oaiiy iaeei ca iaeiei iine?aeiaii.

2. ?nieo – aecia/a? /e ? aeaye? aeiiae a??ieie, /e i?. sseui i?,
cae?enith?oueny iiaa?iaiiy aei iiia?aaeiueiai aoaio, aai oea iiaea
oe?eeii caaeiaieueiyoe ? i?ia?aia i?iaeiaaeo? naith ?iaioo.

3. Ai?ii?aeaeuaiiy – i?ioeaaeo?a ciaoiaeaeaiiy iioeioio, yeui ia
aaea?oueny cae?enith?oueny iiaa?iaiiy ia aoai ?ai?oa, aai i?iaeiaaeo?.

4. Aa?enoe/iee iiooe – ?icaeyae aeniiiaioii ?icaeiooiai i?inoi?o, oa
aecia/aiiy eiai ca anoaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

5. Caaa?oaeueiee aoai – iaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?iaeoia ??oaiiy ca
e?eoa??yie iioeiaeueieie aeey aecia/aiiy yeino? aeaiiai aoaeeieo, ye?
aoee caeeaaeai? o i?ia?ai?.

Noai?aiiy i?ia?aie iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe yeino? aeaiiai
i?iaeoiiai ??oaiiy, ia o?eueee oao?aoeyi, aea ? iaeaooi?i iaoeaioeyi.
I?iaiaeeoueny oaeiae ii??aiyiee aiae?c a?o?oaeoo?ieo ??oaiue c
a?aooaaiiyi nooiaith ne?aeoaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iei o?aaeeoe?yi, i???
ino/aniaiiy, noee?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae oa iaaiaeyoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a icia/aieo a
?iaio? oei?a.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE, ?ACOEUeOAOE OA ?AEIIIAeAOe??

1. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aecia/ai? oa ?icaeyioo? iniiai?
oeie no/anieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a, c aeyaeaiiyi
ie?aieo a?oi i?ei?uaiue: aeeoeia?, neoaeaia?, i?aaenoaaieoeuee?,
aeiiii?aei?. I?nueeee oei aoaeeie?a aecia/a?oueny ?icoaooaaiiyi
a?eueoi? e?eueeino? aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiue. C oi/ee ci?o ia?aco o?aaa
a?eueoa i?eae?eyoe oaaae aa?iii?eiiio ca’yceo c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai. Cai?nueeee oei aoaeeieo caaaeyee iiaeeeaiio iao?eaaeiio
aeei?enoaiith aeicaiey? iaoe a?eueo iaiaaeaiee iaa?? i?ei?uaiue,
aieiaiei /eiii aeeoeia?, aeiiii?aei? oa neoaeaia?. I?ei?nueeee oei
aoaeeie?a ia? iioe?aio ooieoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o oa aaaaoi i?ei?uaiue,
ui cai?ia?aiiaai? oa iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny ca noeaia???i
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ae?yeueiino? eiie?aoiiai niiaeeaa/a.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii ii?aeiaiiy aeaio noa? iaoee a?o?oaeoo?o oa ineoieia?th
a eiiieaen?, ui aeiiiiaaa? o aecia/aii? nooiaith aieeao ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua ia ethaeeio. O noa?? ineoieia?? aaaeeeaei ? oaeiae ?icae?e
a?coaeueiiai oyaeaiiy oa ni?eeiyooy, yeee aecia/a? iio??ai? aea?aaeaioe
i?aaeiao?a oa yaeu ae?eniino?, ye? a naith /a?ao iaae?eai? a?aeaeoeaie
oiia ?o ?nioaaiiy a aeaiiio i?inoi??. Oaeiae aaaeeeaei ? iiiyooy
naini?iiai ni?eeiyooy oa c’ynoaaiiy i??e aeei?enoaiiy eiai a?o?oaeoi?aie
i?e i?iaeooaaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a /e acaaae?
aoaeue-yeeo ia’?eo?a.

3. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ni?eeiyooy na?aaeiaeua ethaeeiith oa
caeiiii??iino? aieeao ia’?i?a ia ?? ia?aiaee noai. A oaeiae iiaeeeaino?
ei?aeoe?? i?inoi?o, ui ? aaaeeeaei aeey a?o?oaeoi?a i?e noai?aii?
ioi/oth/iai i?inoi?o, aeaaiae?eii aieeaath/iai ia aiioe?eiee noai
ethaeeie. Ineoieia?/i? i?ioeane i?aena?aeiiino? iathoue i?yiee aieea
ia ni?eeiyooy, oyaeaiiy, a?ae/oooy oa ?i. I?iyaeaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a ia
caaaeaee iana iiceoeaiee oa?aeoa?. A iiae?aieo aeiaaeeao ia i?aai?ci
aieeaa? eiiieaen iiae?aciee?a iaei??? iiaeaeueiino?. Neioac a?ae/ooo?a
aeieea? ye iane?aeie noai?aiiy ia?aiaeo ca’yce?a, nieeaath/eo ia
iiae?acieee oa ia ?o oei/ania?, i?inoi?ia? oa ?io? a?aeiineie.

4. Ci?ia oiia i?iaeeaaiiy o nueiaiaeaii? aaaea aei ci?ie aeayeeo
i?ioean?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. Oea aaaea aei
ci?ie oa ??ciiiai?oiino? ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?. Aecia/ai? iniiai?
no?oeoo?i? oeie ieai?a ?c ??ciei nooiaiai ieanoe/iino?.

Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith oiia i?iaeeaaiiy ? eiai
aeiaaio?eaae?noue: oei/aniaa, iino?eia, iao?eaaea. Aaaeeeaa i?noea a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?ei?uaiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo
caeiathoue oi?ie eiioaeo?a /eai?a ?iaeeie, e?euee?noue oa neeaae
eiaeiiai i?ioeano aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. A caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o
i?ioeano eiioaeoe iiaeooue aooe caaaeuei? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?. I?e
oeueiio eiaeia ?iaeeia aca?iiae?? a oe?eiio oa iiae?ey?oueny aioo??oi?
a?oie, a yeeo cae?enith?oueny i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, oa
?iaeea?aee.

5. Aecia/ai? iniiai? oeie aoaeeie?a:

— Iniaiye; i?aaenoaaieoeuee? i?ei?uaiiy oa ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo,
aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy oa aeey ainoae, aai: ao?aeia a?oia, ianeoaiaoth/ee
ia?niiae oa aeiiii?aei? i?ei?uaiiy, (aae’?oaae) i?aaenoaaieoeuee?
i?ei?uaiiy, aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy.

— Eioaaeae: oeieieueiee iiaa?o — aeiiii?aei? i?ei?uaiiy, 1 iiaa?o –
i?aaenoaaieoeuee?, 2 iiaa?o — aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy.

— Naaeeaa: i?ei?uaiiy aeaiiiai aeei?enoaiiy, aeiiii?aei? i?ei?uaiiy;
aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy; aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy,

— Aea/a: i?ei?uaiiy aeaiiiai aeei?enoaiiy, aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy.

?ic?iaea i?iaeoieo ??oaiue aeaieo oei?a aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a caeaaeeoue
a?ae i?ia?aioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i?ioean?a.

6. Iioe?aiiy aoae?aieoeoaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a
iio?aao? ? ??ciiiai?oiino? ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? oa aecia/aiiy ??
ieanoe/iino?. Aaaeeeaa i?noea i?e ia?aii? iaiao?aeii? ieaioaaeueii?
no?oeoo?e a?ae?a?a? iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a, ui ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy
iioeiaeueieo oiia aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? niiaeeaa/a.

Aeyaeai? oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia noai?aiiy oa ia?aiiy
ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo oa
?ic?iaea oa cacia/aiiy ?o iniiaieo oei?a:

— ieiueii?;

— noaeaaei?;

— ci?uai?;

— a?eaiiiae?ai?;

— iinoia?;

— eiia?iiaai?;

— ao??oii?;

Oaeiae aecia/a?oueny iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaa canoinoaaiiy ieaioaaeueieo
no?oeoo? oa ?ici?uaiiy ?o i?e neeaaeieo i?e?iaeieo oiiaao. Aa??aioe
ooai?aiiy oa canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ia’yiii-ieaioaaeueieo ??oaiue
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae
i?e?iaeiiai oaeoo, oiaoi i?e ?icoaooaaii? aoaeeieo ia ?aeue?o?.

7. Iioeiaeueia eiiiiceoe?eia ??oaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai
aoaeeieo aecia/a?oueny ia?aiiyi aieiaieo e?eoa???a, a ?ie? yeeo
aenooiathoue ??ciiiai?oi? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy
oi?iiooai?aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a: i?noiaoae?aia
neooaoe?y, ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia, aeiiii?/i?noue ??oaiiy,
?aoe?iiaeueia eiino?oeoeaia noaia, oiui. Ia’?eoeai? aeanoeaino? oi?ie,
ui ? caniaaie a?o?oaeoo?ii? eiiiiceoe?? aoaeeieo, oae?: — aaiiao?e/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea, i???ioaoe?y a i?inoi?iaiio na?aaeiaeu?, ?ici??,
na?oe?noue, eie??, oaeoo?a.

8. Iiaoaeiaa no?oeoo?e aeeiiaiiy i?iaeoiiai caaaeaiiy uiaei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iai?yie?a
iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy, yea iaaea? iiaeeea?noue caeo/eoe niiaeeaa/a aei
i?ioeano noai?aiiy aeey iueiai na?aaeiaeua. Nueiaiaei? aaaeaiiy
caeacieea ? aieiaiei aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii uiaei ieiu? oa acaaae?
aaee/eie aoaeeieo. Nei?aaoaaaoe eiai iio?aae c oi/ee ci?o i?ioan?iiaea
a?o?oaeoi? iiaeiai c?iaeoe ?aeaaeueia na?aaeiaeua. Oey iaoiaeeea i?e
i?iaeooaaii? ia? iacao – ia?oeneiaoe?eia, oiaoi caeo/aiiy caiiaieea aei
i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy. Ae?oaei ? nooi i?ioan?eiee i?aeo?ae, oiaoi
a?o?oaeoi? nai ? caiiaieeii oa aeeiiaaoeai i?iaeooaaeueiiai ??oaiiy.

9. ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeeeaa ia?aiiy a?eueo
aaeaeiai i?iaeoiiai ??oaiiy. I?ia?aia i?aoeth? ia aac? ?ic?aooieo
iieaciee?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue yeino? aeaiiai i?iaeoo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeaii? i?ia?aie aeei?enoiaothoueny ye aeiiii?aeiee iaoa??ae aeey
canoinoaaiiy eiioi?oiiai aeeoea, ye ciai? oae ? aioo??oiueiai i?inoi?o.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??:

1. Uaaeiaa I.A. (Iiaeueyiaiei I.A.) Ia?acii-yiioeeiiaeueiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeeeiai aeiia. A ca.: No/ani? i?iaeaie
a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aeione 1. – E.: EAeOOAA, 1997. – N.186 –
190.

2. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. Oe?a?inueea aeeoei: ieioea /e iaeaooi?? A ca.:
No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aeione 2. – E.:
EAeOOAA, 1997. – N.137 – 139.

3. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. A?o?oaeoo?ia o?aaeeoe?y: aeio?eioaaoenue /e
ciaaaaeeoe? A ca.: O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e ina?o?. Aeione 5. – Oa?e?a, OOI?, 1997. – N. 38
– 40.

4. Uaaeiaa I.A. (Iiaeueyiaiei I.A.) I?i aaiiao?e/io ia?aiao?ecaoe?th
oi?iiooai?aiiy a a?o?oaeoo??. A ca.: I?eeeaaeia aaiiao??y oa ?iaeaia?ia
a?ao?ea. Aeione 61. – EAeOOAA, 1996. – N. 228 – 230.

5. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. Aiioe?eiee aieea ia’?iii-i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo. — A ca.: No/ani? i?iaeaie
a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aei.4. — E.: EIOAA, 1999. — n.149-151.

6. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. Ioe?iea ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo
oeyoii aiae?co ?oo?a ethaeeie. — A ca.: No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aei.5. — E.: EIOAA, 1999. — n.125-128.

7. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A., Eioaeia ?.E. Iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy aeeoeiai?
caaoaeiae ia?aaei?noy. A ca.: No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aeione 3. – E.: EAeOOAA, 1998. – N.181 – 187.

8. Iiaeueyiaiei I.A., Aeia?iaieuenueeee E.A., Iaaeaiia I.TH. O?aaeeoe??
oe?a?inueeiai aeeoea.- E.: A?o?oaeoo?a Oe?a?ie. ?4, 1992. – N.18-20.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. A?o?oaeoo?a no/anieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo
aoaeeie?a a Oe?a?i? ?c a?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?/iiai /eiieea. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.02 – A?o?oaeoo?a aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae. –
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeai? oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie, caniae oa
i?eeiie oi?iiooaia?iiy ooieoeeiiaeueii-ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a ?c a?aooaaiiy ineoieia?/iiai
/eiieea. A ?iaio? aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ineoieia?/iiai ni?eeiyooy oi?ie
oa i?inoi?o a oe?eiio. Oaeiae aecia/aia eeaneo?eaoe?y no/aniiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoea a oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue
a Oe?a?i?. Cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo?
iacaeaaeii a?ae i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy oa i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, a
oaeiae i?iiiceoe??, uiaei canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeieia?? i?iaeooaaiiy a
no/anieo oiiaao aeey noai?aiiy a?eueo eiioi?oiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?inoi?ia? no?oeoo?e, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aeeoeiaee
aoaeeiie, ineoieia?y ni?eeiyooy, aeni?aneaiee aieea, aieea na?aaeiaeua,
oi?iiooai?aiiy, aioo??oi?e i?ino??.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iiaeueyiaiei I.A. A?oeoaeoo?a nia?aiaiiuo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeeeuo
aeiiia a Oe?aeia n o/aoii ineoieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.02 – A?oeoaeoo?a caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee. Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu e iao/ii iainiiaaiu i?eioeeiu, n?aaenoaa e
i?eaiu oi?iiia?aciaaiey, ooieoeeiiaeueii-ieaie?iai/iuo no?oeoo?
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeeeuo aeiiia n o/aoii ineoieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a a
Oe?aeia. A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe ineoieiaee aini?eyoey oi?iu e
i?ino?ainoaa a oeaeii. Aeey iauyniaiey ?acoeueoaoia aini?eyoey iauaeoia
ioia/aiu a ?aaioa nioeeieiae/aneea e ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeytho iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae aeey eiie?aoiiai ia?aca, /oi e
aeoeaece?oao aeaenoaea eioi?iaoeee ia iauaeoa.

Oaaee/aiea no?ieoaeuenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeeeuo aeiiia o?aaoao
?aciiia?acey a iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiuo e ieaie?iai/iuo no?oeoo?ao.
Aaaeioth ?ieue i?e auai?a iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aoaiey ea?aao iioeiecaoeey
i?ioeannia, eioi?ua iai?aaeaiu ia nicaeaiea eiioi?oaaaeueiuo oneiaee
aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeouaai aeeeueoea. Aeey yoiai ii?aaeaeaiu oeiu
ieaie?iai/iuo no?oeoo?, a oaeaea eo iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiia ?aciauaiea.

Ii?aaeaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey nia?aiaiiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueii aeeeuey a
niioaaonoaee n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie a
ainoaea?noaa. ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii i?eiaiaieth
iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiuo no?oeoo? iacaaeneii io oa?aeoa?a ianoiinoe e
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee, a oaeaea ii i?eiaiaieth iaoiaeieiaee
i?iaeoe?iaaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey nicaeaiey aieaa
eiioi?oaaaeueiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeeeiai aeiia.

Eciaiaiea oneiaee aeecie ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia i?eaaei e eciaiaieth
iaeioi?uo i?ioeannia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.
Aaaeiui e oa?aeoa?iui oneiaeai i?iaeeaaiey yaeyaony
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue. A ?aaioa aeeeuea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae a?aiaiiia
iinoiyiiia, naciiiia. A oaeaea aeaeeony ia oaeea oeiu: 1). Iniaiye, a
ninoaa eioi?iai iiaoo aoiaeeoue oaeea a?oiiu iiiauaiee:
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea, ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, aeeeua,
aniiiiaaoaeueiua; 2). Eiooaaeae – aeeeua, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea,
aniiiiaaoaeueiua a?oiiu iiiauaiee; 3). naaeeaa – aniiiiaaoaeueiua,
aeeeua, neoaeaaiua a?oiiu iiiauaiee; 4). Aea/a – aeeeua e eaoiea
iiiauaiey.

I?i?aaioea i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee aeaiiuo oeiia aeeeuo aeiiia caaeneo io
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia eee iaee/ey ooieoeeiiaeueiie
i?ia?aiiu. Aaaeioth ?ieue a aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iiiauaiee ea?atho oi?iu
eiioaeoia /eaiia naiuee, eiee/anoai e ninoaa eaaeaeiai i?ioeanna
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeai i?ioeann auiieiaiey i?iaeoiiai caaeaiey ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue aeeeie aeii n eniieueciaaieai iai?aaeaiee iaoiaeeee
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/ue caeac/eea e
i?ioeanno nicaeaiey aeey iaai eaeaaeueiie n?aaeu aeey i?iaeeaaiey e
?aaiou, oae eae naaiaeiy aeaeaiea caeac/eea, yaeyaony aeaaiui
ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii i?e nicaeaiee ii?iaoeaiie aacu aeey aeaiiiai
i?iaeoa. Nei??aeoe?iaaa aai iio?aaiinoe n oi/ee c?aiey eiae/aneiai
a?oeoaeoo?iiai iiaeoiaea i?ioanneiiae aeieaeai nicaeaoue eaeaaeueioth
eiioi?oaaaeueioth n?aaeo.

Ae?oaie iaoiae i?iaeoe?iaaiey iniiaai ia /enoii i?ioanneiiaeecia
a?oeoaeoi?a aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aoaeouaai aeeoaey aeiia, o.a. a?oeoaeoi?o
aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue auoue naiiio e caeac/eeii e eniieieoaeai
i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeeeiai aeiia.

Aeey iaeaa/aiey caaea/e, i?e auai?a i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey, caeac/eeo iiaeao
auoue i?aaeeiaeaia i?ia?aiia, ?ac?aaioaiiay a aeaiiie ?aaioa. I?ia?aiia
?aaioaao ia aaca ?an/aoa iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho ea/anoai
aeaiiiai i?iaeoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ino?ainoaaiiua no?oeoo?u, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue aeeeie
aeii, ineoieiaey aini?eyoey, yeni?anneaiia aicaeaenoaea, aicaeaenoaea
n?aaeu, oi?iiia?aciaaiea, aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai.

ANNOTATION

Mrs. Marina V. Omelianenko Architecture of Modern individual living
houses in Ukraine with account of psychological factor, — Manuscript.

Dissertation looking for scientific degree of Doctor of Architecture
Speciality 18.00.02 — Architecture of building and constructions, The
Kiev State University of Construction and Architecture, Kiev, 1999.

Principles, facilities and methods of shaping and functional — planning
structures of individual living houses with account of psychological
factor are investigated and scientifically substantiated. Peculiarities
of shape and space perception are marked out in the research.
Classification of modern individual dwelling corresponding to social —
economical changes in the state is specified. Proposals on using of
volume structures non-dependent from relief and natural — climatic
conditions are given as well as proposals for current design nethology
at presents in order to create more comfortable individual living house.

Key words: volume structures, individual living house, psychology of
perception, expressive influence, environmental impact, shaping,
interior space.

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