2

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA

OAA*AIEA

EIAEOEAEI

Aaeaioeia ?aaai?aia

OAeE 581.19.577.152.24

Aieea iaia?aii-aeoeaieo aaeaioiaai?a ia oa?iaioe

aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a

03.00.12 — o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? a?ioaoiieia?? a
?ineeiieoeoa? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AOEAO Aiaoie?e Aiae??eiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? a?i- oaoiieia?? a
?ineeiieoeoa?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?IOeEI ?aaea Oaiaein??aia,

?inoeooo aioai?ee ?i. I.A.Oieiaeiiai

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

AIIOA?AIEI Na?oeaia Ieeiea?aia,

?inoeooo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. ?aaia O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.24 Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252127, Ee?a, i?iniaeo
Aeooeiaa, 2, ei?ion 12, a?ioae, aoae.215; Iiooiaa aae?ana: Ee?a 252033,
aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A?aeii I.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O nenoai? caoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? aaeeea ?ieue iaeaaeeoue aeei?enoaiith
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. C ?o iiyaith noaei iiaeeeaei ?aaoethaaoe
o?c?ieia?/i? i?ioeane o ?ineei, iia?e?coaaoe caeeaaeai? a ?o aaiii?
i?e?iaeith ? naeaeoe??th iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?, ui ?aae?cothoueny a
oiiaao ?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e.

Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aoaeoeaiino? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ? oae?
?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee, ye ??no ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ineei. Iaeiae aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ?o
aeei?enoaiiy iaiao?aei? ciaiiy i?i aieea oeeo ?a/iaei ia iniiai?
iaoaaie?/i? oeyoe, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia
?ice?eooy iaoai?cio ae?? oa aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ii? aeoeaiino?
i?aia?ao?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ea?oaaiiy iioiaaiacii ?ineei oeyoii
ni?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ia?aa?a o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo c ?o
?inoii, oaiiii ?icaeoeo, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi iaoaaie?o?a, no?ee?noth aei
iani?eyoeeaeo oiia na?aaeiaeua oa ?ioeie ooieoe?yie, ia no/aniiio aoai?
? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo ? ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yi?a o?c?ieia?? ?ineei.

A oeueiio ieai? ie aea/aee ??no?aaoethth/? niieoee — aoaiii oa o?eiaen.
Aoaiii a e?oa?aoo?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye noeioeyoi? ?inoo oe?ieiai
niaeo?o ae?? c aeineoue aenieith noaa?euei?noth [AEe?ioineay I.E. e
ae?., 1991; I?eoiaeueei I.A. e ae?., 1997]. Ae?th/a ?a/iaeia — aeeiaoee
oinoi?iieeneee aeeiaoee-a?n oie?i. I?aia?ao i?ieoia
oieneeieiai-a?a??i?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ? io?eiaa iiceoeaio ioe?ieo
aenia?oii? ?aaee. I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue i?iyaea naaa ye
iaia?aii-aeoeaia niieoea c ae?aaeaieie aioeno?aniaeie aeanoeainoyie oa
caeaoi?noth iineethaaoe ??no ei?aiaai? nenoaie [AEe?ioineay I.E. e ae?..
1991; I?enyaeithe E.I., 1995].

O?eiaen- iiaee ia?niaeoeaiee ?aaoeyoi? ?inoo, neioaciaaiee a ?inoeooo?
a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i??, ? iio?aeiith i??eaeeio. A 1994 ?ioe? oeae i?aia?ao
i?ieoia ia?aa??eo ia icei?e ioaieoe? ? i?iyaea naaa ye iaia?aii-aeoeaia
niieoea c aioeno?aniaeie aeanoeainoyie [I?enyaeithe E.I., 1995]. Ia
iin?aao oeoe?iaiai ao?yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aia?oa.

Oeoe?iaee ao?ye a Oe?a?i? ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeeaeo i?iaeiaieue/eo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Iniaeeaino? o?c?ieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aeaii? eoeueoo?e aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aea/aoe ae?th ??no?aaoethth/eo
niieoe ia o?eueee ia oaee ?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee, ye ??no ? ?icaeoie,
aea ? i?inoaaeeoe oi?ioaaiiy aaaeeeaiai ye?niiai iieacieea —
oeoei?iiaeiie/aiiy. A 1991-1992 ??. i?iaiaeeeeny eiiieaeni?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?? aoaiiio ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
[I?eoiaeueei I.A. e ae?., 1997]. Aea i?e oeueiio ia aea/aany aieea oeeo
?a/iaei ia a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane, ui i?eeiathoue o/anoue o
oeoe?iiaeiie/aii?. I?ioa ciaiiy i?i ieo ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey
iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee cania?a ca?eueoaiiy oeoe?enoino? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oe??? eoeueoo?e.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiith iaoith ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy
aieeao neioaoe/ieo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe — aoaiiio oa o?eiaeno (i?e
aeeth/aii? ?o a eiiiiceoe?ei? noi?o? aeey ia?iaee ian?iiy) ia
aeoeai?noue eeth/iaeo oa?iaio?a aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io oa ?inoia?
i?ioeane, ye? caaacia/othoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1) c’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo ae?? ia?aaeiin?aii? ia?iaee ian?iiy aoaiiiii oa
o?eiaenii ia i?ioeane ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a;

2) aeine?aeeoe ca’ycie i?ae aeoeai?noth naoa?icioinoaoneioace oa
aeeiai?eith iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoaeaaiae?a a eenoeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?ae
aieeaii aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?a/iaei;

3) aea/eoe aieea ia?iaee ian?iiy aoaiiiii ? o?eiaenii ia oa?iaioe
iaoaaie?cio naoa?ice a ei?aiaieiaeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a — naoa?icineioaco
oa ?iaa?oaco;

4) aecia/eoe oa ii??aiyoe ii?oiaaiaoe/io aeoeai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?aia?ao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia niaoeeo?ea ae??
aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno ia iaoaaie?ci aoaeaaiae?a oa aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a
aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io.

Iieacaii ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? naoa?icioinoaoneioace a eenoyo oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a i?ae aieeaii oeeo ?a/iaei, ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c ?o
noeioethth/ith ae??th ia ??no ei?aiy ? ?aaoeyoe??th aeoeaiino? oa?iaioo
e?ioeaaei i?iaeoeoii ?aaeoe?? ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai a?aeoieo
aeenaoa?eaeo a ei?aiaie?ae.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii aoaiiio ca?eueoo?oueny aeoeai?noue
iaa?iaii? naoa?icineioacii? ?aaeoe??.

Aeyaeaii caoyaiaiiy oeeeeo ?icaeoeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?ae aieeaii
aoaiiio, i?i ui na?ae/eoue aeniea aeoeai?noue naoa?icioinoaoneioace a
eenoyo ? naoa?icineioace o ei?aiaieiaeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a a ia??iae
cai?o a?iaeath.

Io?eiaii aeieace noeioethth/i? ae?? aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno ia aeoeai?noue
?iaa?oace a iieiaeeo ei??ioeyo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? iiaeaeueieo aeine?ae?a aeyaeaia caeaoi?noue aoaiiio oa
o?eiaeno ca?eueooaaoe e?euee?noue ee?oei, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a noaae??
iiae?eo oa anoaiiaeaii a?aei?ii?noue iioeiaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
aeine?aeaeaieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo aeey aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai aoaeoo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?icoe?ththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci
ae?? iiaeo ??no?aaoethth/eo aaeaioiaai?a — aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno.
Iaea?aeai? aeai? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae aeoeai?noth
oa?iaio?a ? i?iaeoeoeai?noth oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa ia??oioiaothoue a?eueo
aoaeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?aia?ao?a o ae?iaieoeoai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.
Iaea?aeai? aeai? uiaei aieeao iaia?aii-aeoeaieo aaeaioiaai?a ia
aeoeai?noue eeth/iaeo oa?iaio?a aoaeaaiaeiaaiai iaoaaie?cio iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a iia?oi?o
i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa oaoiieia?/ieo
?a?eaiaio?a ?o i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii:

1. ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe canoiniaoaaoe ia?iaeo ian?iiy aoaiiiii o aeicao, ui ia
ia?aaeuothoue 100 ie/o, ine?eueee a?eueo aenie? eiai eiioeaio?aoe??
iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei ca?eueoaiiy /enea ianoaiaea?oieo ei?aiaieiae?a.

2. I?e canoinoaaii? ia iin?aao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a aoaiiio aeioe?eueii
aeio?eioaaoenue a?eueo i?ci?o no?ie?a cai?o a?iaeath.

3. ?aeiiaiaeo?ii i?e aei?iaoaaii? iiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ia iin?aao
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia?aae cai?ii a?iaeath i?iaiaeeoe oano ia aeoeai?noue
oa?iaio?a (naoa?icineioace, naoa?icioinoaoneioace) aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a cae?aiiy a?iaeath oa iiaeeeaino? o?eaaeiai
caa??aaiiy ei?aiaieiae?a.

4. I?iaanoe ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy c iaoith io?eiaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey
?a?no?aoe?? o?eiaeno ye ?aaoeyoi?a ?inoo, yeee caaacia/o? no?eea
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oeoe?iaiai ao?yea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
ui??/ieo can?aeaiiyo A/aii? ?aaee oaeoeueoaoo aa?io?i?? oa
??oioiciaanoaa IAO(1994-1996 ??.); ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a IAO a 1994-1996??.;
ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 50-??//th ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei oa aaiaoeee (Ee?a, 1996); ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“?aaoeyoi?u ?inoa a naaeeiaiaenoaa” (?i-o oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, 1996); ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Aeieia?/i? oa aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie
canoinoaaiiy cania?a o?i?caoe??” (Oiaiue, 1997); ia a?io?i?/iiio c’?cae?
IAO (Ee?a, 1997).

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa a iaea?aeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe??. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aoei i?iaaaeaii: aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, eaai?aoi?i?, aaaaoaoe?ei? oa iieueia? aeine?aee, oaiieia?/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy, a?io?i?/i? ? oeeoieia?/i? aiae?ce, aeine?aee ia
eoeueoo?? oeaiei. Ocaaaeueiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? oa i?iaaaeaii ?o
noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo.

Aeena?oaio aeneiaeth? aaey/i?noue noa?oiio iaoeiaiio ni?a?ia?oieeo
a?aeae?eo a?io?i?? ?ineei ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee AI
ONN?, e.a.i. A.Ae.Naeaei; aeeeaaea/ai eaoaae?e o?c?ieia?? ?ineei oa
a?ioaoiieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo e.a.i.
E.A.AEaeoiiinuee?e oa e.a.i. ?.A.E?yiia?e ca aeiiiiiao a inai?ii?
iaoiaeee.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 145
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie, iaaiai?aiiy, aeniiae?a,
i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (301 aeaea?aei, c ieo 118 ?iicaiieo).
?iaioa i?noeoue 19 ?enoie?a oa oioia?ao?e, 17 oaaeeoeue oa 5 aeiaeaoe?a.

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a i’yoe iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa a iaeieo oacao.

ci?no ?iaioe

O ?icae?e? “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e” ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
aena?oeaii no/ani? oyaeaiiy c ieoaiue ae?? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio oa caniae eiai ?aaoeyoe??,
iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno ia
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iieacieee ?ineei.

C?iaeaii ?aoaeueiee iaeyae ieoaiiy i?i i?noea aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io a
oi?ioaaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa ?icaeyioo? iiaeeea?
iai?yie eiai ?aaoeyoe??.

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
?ineeie oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a a?a?eaeo “THa?eaeiee”.

Aea/aiiy aieeao aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a cae?eniaia ia aac? iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai IAI “Ae?oa”
Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano? i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a (1994 — 1996), ca
noaiith:

1. Eiio?ieue (OIOAe 4 ea/o + oo?iaeai 30 e/o).

2. Aoaiii, 100 ie/o.

3. O?eiaen, 2 a/o.

I?aia?aoe aeiaeaaaee a noi?o oo?iaeaia ? OIOAe aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae
ia?iaeith. Ia?aaeiin?aio ia?iaeo ian?iiy i?iaiaeeee ia iaeiaaaa?eoi?e
iaoei? aeey ia?iaee ian?iiy.

Aaaaoaoe?ei? oa eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aee aeeiioaaeenue ia eaoaae??
o?c?ieia?? oa a?ioaoiieia?? a ?ineeiieoeoa? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aaaaoaoe?eiee aeine?ae caeeaaeaee a iinoaeeiao i?noe?noth
12 ea c oaiii-n??ei ii?aecieaiei ??oioii, eoaee aiineee iiaeeaio noi?o
AI?Oe. Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo 10-e?aoia, iieea — aei 60 % iieueiai?
aieiai?ieino?.

O aeine?aeao i?iaiaeeee oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy, aecia/aee iin?ai?
yeino? ian?iiy: aia?a?th i?i?inoaiiy oa noiae?noue (AeNOO-2292-93), iano
100 ?ineei o oacao “aeei/ea” ? iaei??? ia?e ni?aaaei?o eenoe?a
(Iaoiaeeea AI?Oe, 1995). Oeoe?eno?noue ei?ai?a aecia/aee ia iioi/i?e
e?i?? “Aaiaia” iaoiaeii oieiaeii? aeeaano?? a eaai?aoi???
Oi?inoe?anueeiai oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaee a?io?i?/i?, a?ioaoiieia?/i? oa
oeeoiaaiaoe/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? aecia/aee o eenoeao oa ei?aiaieiaeao oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a ai?no oeoe??a ca iaoiaeeeith Ii/eiea O.I. [1976]. Iaeii/anii
aecia/aee aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a: naoa?icioinoaoneioace (OAeOA:
D-o?oeoici-6-oinoao-2-aetheiceeo?ain-oa?aca — E.O. 2.4.1.14) a eenoeao;
naoa?icineioace (OAeOA: D-o?oeoici-2-aetheiceeo?ainoa?aca — E.O.
3.2.1.13) — i?yia e iaa?iaia ?aaeoe??, oa ?iaa?oace (OAeOA:
A-D-o?oeoi-oo?aiiceae-o?oeoiaeae?ieaca — E.O. 3.2.1.26) eenei? e eoaeii?
— a ei?aiaieiaeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Naoa?icioinoaoneioaco aeae?eyee c eenoe?a na?aaeiueiai y?ono aac
aaeeeeo aeeeie ca iaoiaeii, iienaiei Fieuw [1987]. Iaaaaeeo 5a o?enoaaee
??aeeei acioii oa ?icoe?aee c 30 ie 50iI Hepes-KOH aooa?a, ?I-7,5, c
aeiaeaaaiiyi 5 iiieue/e MgCl2, 2 — AAeOA, 10 iiieue/e — AeAeO, 2,0 %
IAA-20000 ? 2 % ia?ic/eiiiai iie?aei?eie?ie?aeiia, oeaio?eooaoaaee 40oa
i?e 9000 g. ?ieoaaoe?eio noi?o ia’?iii 0,2 ie aeo?eioaaee 30oa i?e 370N.
Aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo aecia/aee ?aci?oeeiiaei iaoiaeii [Roe, 1934].

Aeae?eaiiy oa /anoeiao i/enoeo ?iaa?oace ? naoa?icineioace c
ei?aiaieiae?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith, yea iienaia
Naeaei A.Ae.[1995]. Ai?no a?eea aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii Eio?? [Lowry,
1951], aeoeai?noue eenei? oa eoaeii? ?iaa?oace — ca ai?noii ca?eueiaii?
o?oeoice [Somoggi, 1952], aeoeai?noue naoa?icineioace — ca iaoiaeeeith
Iaae?iiai? ? I?anieiai? [1970]. Aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a aecia/aee o
i?e?iiieyo ooai?aii? naoa?ice (i?yia ?aaeoe?y) ? o?oeoice (iaa?iaia
?aaeoe?y) ia 1 ia a?eea ca aiaeeio.

I?e aea/ai? ii?oiaaiaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? i?aia?ao?a aeei?enoiaoaaee
iiaeaeuei? ?ineeii? ia’?eoe. Oae, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oioe/ii? aeoeaiino?
i?iaiaeeee ia 3-aeaiieo i?i?inoeao ai?ioo ni?oo “Aiaaoe? *anueeee”.
Ian?iiy i?i?iuoaaee a /aoeao Iao?? o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao c aeiaaaeaie
aoaiiio ? o?eiaeno a eiioeaio?aoe?yo 2o10-6 I oa 4 o 10-6I. I?oioe/iee
?iaeaen aecia/aee ia aeaaeaieo i?aia?aoao [Aino?inueeee, 1974].

Eoeueoo?o ?cieueiaaieo aenieaioao?a oii?iaiao?a aeei?enoiaoaaee ye
oano-nenoaio ia aoeneie [Miller, 1963]. Aeey aeine?aeo a?aee aea?
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aia?aoo. Noaia aeine?aeo aoea oaeith:

1. Eiio?ieue, aac ?iaeie?eioeaoiai? eeneioe (?IE).

2. Eiio?ieue, ?IE 2o10-6I.

3. O?eiaen 2o10-6I;

4. O?eiaen 4o10-6I;

5. Aoaiii 2o10-6I;

6. Aoaiii 4o10-6I.

Aenieaioaoe ae?iuoaaee a oa?iinoao? 21 aeaiue i?e 260N ? aieiaino?
iia?o?y 70-80%. Ee?oeie i?ae?aoiaoaaee a eaia?? Ooena-?icaioaey ca
iaoiaeii A?aoia [Ia?o/aaa I.A., 1965]. Aeine?aee caeeaaeaee 5 ?ac?a
i?ioyaii ?ieo o 10-e?aoi?e iiaoi?iino?.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeoie?i?iiai? aeoeaiino? iaie aoea aaaaeaia a
eoeueoo?o eaeonia oeaieia ni? n?i’yaeieueiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A
noa?eeueieo oiiaao oiaoi/ee eaeona aenaaeaeoaaee ia iiaeeaia na?aaeiaeua
ca o??th ae noaiith, ui ? a iiia?aaeiueiio aeine?ae?, aea ca eiio?ieue
a?aee na?aaeiaeua c e?iaoeiii [Miller, 1953]. Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo
12-e?aoia.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?ae?a ia?aeiieeai
na?ae/aoue, ui aoaeoeai?noue ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae i?e?iaeieo oiia [Eoeee A.A., 1995; Aiioa?aiei N.I.,
1989]. Oiio a aeaiiio ?icae?e? iaie ?icaeyaeathoueny ee?iaoe/i? oiiae,
i?e yeeo aoee i?iaaaeai? iieueia? aeine?aee a 1994 — 1996 ??.
Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii
aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co ia AII [Aeiniaoia , 1986], noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo
a?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a — c ia/enethaaiiyi aeia??/iai ?ioa?aaeo [Eieoiei
A.A., 1975].

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

1. I?iaeoeoeai?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?e aeei?enoaii? a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Aia?a?th i?i?inoaiiy oa noiae?noue ian?iiy, ca aeaieie
aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeo, iaea?eueo iineethaaei aeei?enoaiiy o?eiaeno:
oe? iieacieee o aeaiiio aa??aio? noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii 67 oa 68,3 %, ui
ia 18 % ? 10 % aeua i?ae o eiio?ie?. I?e ia?iaoe? ian?iiy aoaiiiii
aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy oa noiae?noue c?inoaee ia 9% ? 6% a?aeiinii aei
eiio?ieth. Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? ? a iieueiaiio
aeine?ae?. A na?aaeiueiio ca 3 ?iee iieueiaa noiae?noue aoea aeuith ia
10,3 % o aa??aio? c o?eiaenii ? ia 5,6 % — o aa??aio? c aoaiiiii
ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (65,7%).

Nooo?aei iieacieeii o aecia/aii? aieeao ia?iaee ian?iiy a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei ? aeeiai?ea ia?iuoaaiiy
?o iane. O iaoeo aeine?aeao o oac? “aeei/ea” iaeneaao? ?ineeie aoee a
eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio? — 6,2 a, a iaea?eueo ?icaeioo? — o aa??aio?, aea
ian?iiy aoei ia?iaeaia aoaiiiii. ??cieoey c eiio?ieai neeaaeaea 1,6 a, a
a aa??aio?, aea ian?iiy ia?iaeyee o?eiaenii, — 1,1a. Noeioethth/a ae?y
?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo caa??aa?oueny ? a iiaeaeueoeo oacao aaaaoaoe??
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, aea ??cieoey i?ae aa??aioaie aeaui i?aaeth?oueny.

O oiae? oaiieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui oaca o?ueio ia?
ni?aaaei?o eenoe?a ianooia? a aeine?aeieo aa??aioao ia 3-4 aei? ?ai?oa,
i?ae o eiio?ieueiiio. A?aei?/aany ? a?eueo ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie iacaiii?
/anoeie ?ineei. Oae, ca aeaieie aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeo 1994?., iana
eenoy ?ineei eiio?ieueiiai aa??aioo ia e?iaoeue aaaaoaoe?? noaiiaeea 560
a, aeine?aeieo — 640 a (ia?iaea aoaiiiii) ? 630 a (ia?iaea o?eiaenii).
Oaea ae caeiiii??i?noue niinoa??aaeanue o 1995 ?. — ia eiio?ie? — 688 a,
a aeine?ae? — a?aeiia?aeii 790 a ? 772 a.

Iniiaiei e?eoa???i ioe?iee canoinoaaiiy ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo?e: a?iaeae ei?aiaieiae?a oa ?o oeoe?eno?noue. O
na?aaeiueiio ca ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy a?iaeaeiino? ca
?aooiie ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo noaiiaeei 10-11% (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

O?iaeaei?noue ei?aiaieiae?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?e ia?iaoe? ian?iiy

?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo

Aa??aioO?iaeaei?noue, oe/aaaeine?aeo?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a??cieoey
c eiio?ieai1994 1995 1996 na?aaei?aaniethoia, oe/aaa?aeiinia,
%Eiio?ieue451301419390—Aoaiii504o347o444431o+ 41+
10,5O?eiaen498o346o454433o+ 43+ 11,0I?? 09513,115,711,616,6I?ei?oea. o)
? 0,05.

I?aeaeuoth/e o?iaeaei?noue, o?eiaen i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaaa ia ai?no oeoe?o
a ei?aiaieiaeao, a i?e canoinoaaii? aoaiiio niinoa??aaeanue oaiaeaioe?y
aei cieaeaiiy oeoe?enoino?: ai?no naoa?ice a ei?aiaieiaeao o oeueiio
aa??aio? a on? ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a aoa ia 0,3-0,4 %
ieae/ei, i?ae o eiio?ie? (oaae.2). Oaeei /eiii, aeeth/aiiy a
eiiiiceoe?eio noi?o aeey ia?iaee ian?iiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a aoaiiio ?
o?eiaeno caaacia/eei a?eueoee ca?? oeoe?o c iaeeieoe? ieiu? (ia 7,3 oa
6,8 oe/aa) ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy iane ei?aiaieiae?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Oeoe?eno?noue ei?aiaieiae?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?e ia?iaoe? ian?iiy

?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo

Aa??aioOeoe?eno?noue, %Ca?? oeoe?o, oe/aaaeine?aeo1994 ??e1995 ??e1996
??ena?a-aei?1994 ??e1995 ??e1996 ??ena?a-aei???cieoey c
eiio?ieaiEiio?ieue
16,515,415,515,868,446,364,959,9-Aoaiii16,215,015,115,483,252,066,667,2+
7,3O?eiaen16,415,215,515,777,252,670,366,7+ 6,8IN? 0955,14,04,33,64,2

2. Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee iaeiie/aiiy aoaeaaiae?a oa aeoeai?noue
naoa?icioinoaoneioace o eenoeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a. I?iaeoeoeai?noue
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iaoiiaeaia aeeiai?eith aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae i?aaiaie oe?ei? ?ineeie. Oae, c?inoaiiy
ei?aiaieiae?a ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a ieo oeoe?o iia’ycaia, ianaiia?aae, c
??aiai neioaco naoa?ice a eenoeao, yeee cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
naoa?icioinoaoneioace (NON). Eeno oeoe?iaiai ao?yea ii/eia?
ooieoe?iioaaoe ye aeaea?aei anei?eyo?a i?ney aeinyaiaiiy 40-50 % naiai
?ici??o [Giaquinta, 1980]. Naia a oeae ia??iae a eenoia?e ieanoeioe?
c’yaey?oueny NON, aeoeai?noue yei? aeinyaa? iaeneioio a ia??iae
?ioaineaiiai oeoe?iiaeiie/aiiy [Iaaeeiiaa I.A., 1986], ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue (?en.1). Ia?aaeiin?aia
ia?iaea ian?iiy aoaiiiii noeioethaaea aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo a 1,5-2 ?ace
i?ioyaii an??? aaaaoaoe??. A aeine?aeao c o?eiaenii aoaeo noeioeyoe??
i?iyaey?oueny neaaoa ? ia? ?ioee i?e aeoeaiino?. Oae, ia a?aei?io a?ae
eiio?ieth oa aa??aioo c aoaiiiii, i?e aeoeaiino? oa?iaioo i?eiaaea? ia
oaco 10-12 ia? eenoe?a ? i?aeo?eio?oueny ia oaeiio aenieiio ??ai? aei
e?ioey aaaaoaoe??.

wmetafile8? ???????????? ???????yyy????????????
_q???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe©Oace ?icaeoeo: 1
— 4,5 ia?e eenoe?a; 2 — 10-12 ia? eenoe?a; 3 -ca i?nyoeue aei cae?aiiy
a?iaeath; 4 — ca?? a?iaeath.

Eieeaaiiy aeoeaiino? NON o ee?oei? iiaea ?aaoethaaoeny ??aiai ??
noano?ao?a — iiiioeoe??a [Eo?naiia A.E., 1982] oa e?ioeaaei i?iaeoeoii
?aaeoe?? — naoa?icith [Pontis, 1980].

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee iaeiie/aiiy a?aeiiaethth/eo aoaeaaiae?a o
eenoeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? iieacaei, ui ye o
eiio?ieueiiio , oae ? a aeine?aeieo aa??aioao ia?aaaaea? o?aeoe?y
iiiioeoe??a, ai?no ?o eieeaa?oueny ia??aiii??ii, aeaui i?aeaeuoth/enue
ia e?iaoeue aaaaoaoe??. O aeine?aeao, aea a noi?o aeey ia?iaee ian?iiy
aeiaeaaaee aoaiii, noia a?aeiiaethth/eo oeoe??a aoea a 1,5-1,7 ?ace
aeua, i?ae o eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio?. Ca?eueoaiiy oe??? o?aeoe??
aoaeaaiae?a o eenoia?e ieanoeioe? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi
aeoeaiino? NON. Oeae oaeo iiaeia iiynieoe ?aaoeyoe??th aeoeaiino?
oa?iaioo ia ??ai? noano?aoo.

O aeine?aeao c o?eiaenii e?euee?noue iiiioeoe??a c?inoaea a 1,2-1,4
?ace a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Aeiyoie neeaa eeoa ia??iae oaoi?/ii?
noeaeino? ca i?nyoeue aei cae?aiiy a?iaeath, eiee oeae iieaciee ia iaa
nooo?ai? ??cieoe? c eiio?ieai. Io?eiaii? aeai? ni?aiaaeathoue c
aeeiai?eith aeoeaiino? NON, a oeae /an aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo ia?aaoaa? ia
??ai? eiio?ieth.

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