1

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

Oiea?aaa Aaeaioeia ?aai?aia

OAeE 316 (091)

AIAEAeUe ? IANA. NIOe?IEIA?ss IAOIAIO A?Ae A.EAAIIA AeI A.EAIAOO?

22.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oai/a? A?eoi?
Aieiaeeie?iae/,

?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo ?noi???, oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? cioe?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Aeii/aiei Ieaia Aiae???aia, caa?aeoth/a
eaai?aoi???th ineoieia?? ian oa i?aai?caoe?e, ?inoeooo nioe?aeueieo ?
iie?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue AII Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

eaiaeeaeao nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Aaacaiei Ethaia Aeieo??aia, noa?oee
iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?noi???
ca?oa?aeii? o?einio??, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «23» ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 229. 01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a-21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: Ee?a, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 22 » aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
N.I.Nooeaei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ii/aoie XX noie?ooy iicia/eany
aaee/aciith aeoeai?noth ian. Nioe?aeuei? ?aaiethoe?? aeeaiei iio?ynee
i?aeaaeeie no/aniiai na?oo. I?ioa iane?aeee a?eueoino? ?aaiethoe?e,
aaeaeoaea, /e a?aeaoaaeeny aiie a Ac??, ?a?ii? aai Eaoeinuee?e Aia?eoe?,
ni?e/eithaaee iaeia e oa naia — aeeeoaoo?o ie?aiiai e?aea?a. Oaeei
e?aea?ii i?a aooe Iai aai Noae?i, Ionnie?i? aai Eano?i, Ia?ii aai Ia?o.
Iane ii/eiathoue ?ooaoenue, a?aeaoaathoueny ?aaiethoe??, i?ioa aeaaea
aeiaaea? aiaeaeyi.

Ia aeoieo nioe?aeueieo aiae?oee?a e?ioey iaoiai noie?ooy, aiaeae?
a?ae?a?aaaee nooo?ao ?ieue oi?iaeiaae on??? ?noi??? ethaenoaa, i?ioa
eeoa a XX noi??//? ie aa/eii ?oith aaniethoio aeaaeo, iioe?aio ia
aeanyoee i?eueeii?a ethaeae. I?eiee ?ai?oa aeaaea aiaeae?a ia aoea
iano?eueee anaioiiethth/ith e aiaeii/an eaa?oeiii a?aceeaith.

Caeaaaeiny, ui iaeiiin?aia iaioaaiiy, aeaaea, ia iaiaaeaia aeiaeiei
caeiiii, caeeoeeeny aeaeaei iicaaeo, eiee ?nioaaa eoeueo aa?i?a ?
ethaenueeeo aea?oaii?eiioaiue. Ao?i i?ia?an iaoee ? oaoi?ee cian?i ia
iicaaaea ethaenoai a??e a iaaei?e?iaei? yeino? ie?aii? iniaenoino?,
caeaoii? aenooiaoe iin??i «iaeaeueo ?noei» ? iaae?eaii? aaniethoiith
aeaaeith iineeaoe ethaeae ia e?eaaa? a?eie /e oi ia «aaee/aci?
aoae?aieoeoaa».

Iaeia c aieiaieo caaaeaiue nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee iieyaa? a oiio, uia ca
ae?yie in?a a?aeooeoaaoe i?eoiaai? a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy
i?e/eie, ye? aeathoue ciiao iaoeiai iiynithaaoe iiaaae?ieo ethaeae.
Aaaaea?oueny, ui ethaenueea iiaaae?iea aeaoa?i?io?oueny ia’?eoeaieie
caeiiaie noni?eueiiai aeeooy. O oaeiio nain? ca aeeneii aeaeaoieo
ethaeae caaaeaee e?e?oueny noni?eueia iio?aaa, yea aecia/a? ?oi? i?noea
a ?noi???. O /eneaiieo nthaeaoao ca oe??th oaiith ?ieue iniaenoino? a
?noi??? caaaeaee ne?ae oaa/aoe ae?th ?noi?e/ii? caeiiii??iino?, i?iyaii
aai iin??i yei? iiaea aenooiaoe oa?eciaoe/ia iniaeno?noue.

I?ioa oaea ?icoi?iiy, yea canoa??aa? ian a?ae ?ethci?iino? i?oo i?i
aiaeaey oa aa?iy, iaooiaoo?oueny iei? ia iaai? o?oaeiiu?, noeeath/enue
?c ?aaeueiith i?aeoeeith iiaaae?iee ian. A??a ian o aiaeaey, a eiai
aeiyoeia? cae?aiino? i?/iai ia aaaea? ciaoe i?i eiai ?noi?e/io
iaiaaeai?noue oa caaeai?noue. ?c iiiioiiiith ?aaoey?i?noth
iiaoi?ththoueny ?eooaee oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo ? i?ineaaeyiiy aiaeaey: a?ae
eiai ii?o?ao?a ia noi??ieao /aniien?a aei iaia’yceiaiai aea/aiiy eiai
i?aoeue na?aeiiei ianaeaiiyi e?a?ie. Iinoa? ieoaiiy: /e aea? ciiao
aiae?c nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo aeaoa?i?iaio ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano
iiynieoe ?ieue aiaeaey a ?noi???, iacaaaeath/e i?e oeueiio ia
ineoieia?th ian.

O iaaeao nioe?ieia?? ?nio? iaoeiaee iai?yi, ui iinoaaea nia? ca iaoo
c’ynoaaoe oeae aacia?a?aii a?aeiiaethaaiee, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino?
?noi?e/ieo aiio, eoeueoo? oa ia?iaeiinoae, i?ioean ooaa?aeaeaiiy
i?ia?aeaioe?eii? iniaenoino? aiaeaey, a oaeiae oaiiiai eieaeoeaii?
iiaaae?iee ian (iaoiaio). Caniiaieee oeueiai iai?yio, o?aioeocuee? a/ai?
Eaaii ? Oa?ae, ni?iaoaaee aeaoe a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy uiaei i?e/ei
aieeao aiaeaey ia iane, i?i iniaeea? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny c
ethaeeiith o iaoiai? (eiee ethaeeia-?iaeea?ae ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
ethaeeio-iano), i?i iio?aao ethaeeie o aiaeae?. Aeooaeuei?noue oyaeaiue
i?i ethaeeio-iano caa??aa?oueny e o iao /an. Iaeei c i?ia?aeieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a iinoiiaea?i?cio, o?aioeocueeee o?einio ? nioe?ieia
AE.-O. Eueioa? cacia/aa, ui no/ania neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?ic?eaii nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a ? ia?aoiaeii nioe?aeueieo a?oi o noai
aeayei? iane, yea neeaaea?oueny c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aoii?a, caeo/aieo
aei aano?aeiiai a?ioi?anueeiai ?ooo.

Caa?iaiiy aei aea/aiiy i?iaeai ianiaiai noni?euenoaa coiiaeaia
oeiieia?/iith aeecuee?noth iinoeiioi?noe/ii? neooaoe?? ? oeie
i?ioeanaie, ui ?o iienoaaee oai?aoeee ianiaiai noni?euenoaa. Ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae, ca yeiai iaoa noni?euenoai i?yio? aei noni?euenoaa c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith, — oea, aeania, ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeiiai oeio ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa (nioe?ae?noe/iiai) aei ?ioiai eiai oeio (eai?oae?noe/iiai).

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. I?iiiiiaaia oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii ?ic?iaeyeany o ?one? ?ia?o
c oai??? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», eii/a iioe?aii? o ca?oa?aei?e
nioe?ieia?? o 70—80-o? ?iee iaoiai noie?ooy. Aeieeiaiiy oai??e «ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa» a?aeaeaaei eiina?aaoeaii-a?enoie?aoe/io e?eoeeo
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a ?a?ii? e Aia?eoe? e i?oeii
iia’ycoaaeiny c ?icaeoeii aeine?aeaeaiue eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee ?
ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??. Aei caniiaiee?a oeueiai iai?yio iaeaaeaoue
A.Eaaii, A.Oa?ae, N.N?aaea, ?.Ia?e, A.Aeoia?.

Ae?oaee aoai noaiiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa»
i?aaenoaaeaiee caeaa?eueoiai «aioeoioae?oa?ieie» eiioeaioe?yie «ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa», a yeeo i?ia?aeia i?noea iin?aea? caoeno
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo naiaiae a?ae iaiaiaaeaiiai iaioaaiiy
«aeaaeii? ae?oe». Ni?eueiei aeey «aioeoioae?oa?ieo» eiioeaioe?e
«ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» A.Eaaea?a?a, A.O?iiia, A.A?aiae, O.Ei?aao ? oa,
ui i?ioeane nioe?aeueii? aoii?caoe??, ?cieyoe?? oa o?aaiaioaoe??,
aeano?aoeo?eaoe?? oa a?ae/oaeaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ieie ye canaaee
aeieeiaiiy e ooieoe?iioaaiiy oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a.

Ii caaa?oaii? ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie e?eoeea «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» c
aieo e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee noa? ia?aaaaeiei iai?yiii o
ca?oa?aei?e nioe?ieia??. *.?.I?een, A.O?iii, Ae.??niai oa ?io?
aeine?aeieee nie?athoueny ia iiiyooy «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» aeey
ieu?aii? e?eoeee ??cieo aie?a iiai?iiiai eai?oae?cio: aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai a?ae/oaeaiiy, ath?ie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
oeaio?ae?caoe?? aeaaee e caiaiaaeo i?ii?aeieo aaoiiiiieo anioe?aoe?e oa
i?aai?caoe?e, oi?oi?i?cio, noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa eiioi?i?cio «ianiai?»
ethaeeie, iaioaaiiy «ianiai?» eoeueoo?e.

Ii?yae ?c e?eoe/ieie oai??yie «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», o ca?oa?aei?e
nioe?ieia?? ?nio? iai?yi, ui ia? ia iao? iiaeieaoe iaaio iaeiia?/i?noue
oai?aoee?a «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa». Oaea e?eoeea aeeeeeaea ni?iae
noai?eoe yeonue iiao aeieo?eio «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», yea a
aeoeaiooaaea oaaao ia iiceoeaieo aniaeoao aeeooy no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.
I?ia?aeieie i?aaenoaaieeaie iiceoeaiiai o?aeooaaiiy ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa ? a?aeii? aia?eeainuee? nioe?ieiae Ae.Ia?o?iaeaee, Ae.Aaee,
A.Oeec oa ?i. Iia?oth/e oeie naieie iiiyooyie, ui e i?aaenoaaieee
e?eoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», aiie iaiiaiththoue ?o
iiaei ci?noii ? i?ioeeaaeiei /eiii ioe?iththoue oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
no/aniiai, cie?aia aia?eeainueeiai, noni?euenoaa.

O nioe?ieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a ?aea? «ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa» aea/aeeny aai a ieai? caaaeueiiai o?aeooaaiiy e?eoe/ieo
oai??e «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» (A.E.Aoei, ?.N.Eii, TH.I.Naiaiia), aai ye
e?eoeea iaeiiai c aa??aio?a oe??? aeieo?eie (A.N.Aia?ianeee), aai ye
aiae?c ie?aieo aniaeo?a oai??? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» (TH.I.Aeaaeaeia,
TH.A.Caiioe?i, ?.O.Aaeae?i, C.O.Aa?oeiae/, TH.I.Naiaiia, A.TH.Nieiaeia).
Caaaeueiei iaaeie?eii oeeo ?ia?o ? ia?aaaioaaeai?noue ?o ?aeaieia?/ieie
ianoaiiaaie, i?aaiaiiy aaa/aoe a eiioeaioe?? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa»
oai??th, ui eiieo?o? c ia?eneciii, i?aeaeath/e noii?ao canoiniaoaai?noue
eeaniaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeai? aaoi? nie?aany oaeiae ia ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo
nioe?ieia?a, i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai aea/aiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee oa
ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? (aeine?aeaeaiiy A.N.Aae??iaa, I.?.Aeoiyea,
A.?.Aieiae/a, ?.?.Aieiaaoe, I.A.Aeii/aiei, I.A.Einoaiei, N.I.Iae??aa,
A.E.Innianueeiai, ?.I.I?eaeoeiai?, TH.?.Na?iea, A.A.Oai/a?a, A.I.?o/ee,
I.I.*o?eeiaa).

C onueiai ?icia?ooy i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeai ianiaiai noni?euenoaa o
aeena?oaoe?? ia?aii oie, ui a oai??? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa»
iaea?eueoith i??ith iia’ycaiee ?c aea/aiiyi eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee
(Eaaii, Oa?ae, N?aaea, ?aeo, O?aeae, Aeoia?, Eaiaoo?) ? yeee iei? iaaoa
anaa?/iiai aena?oeaiiy a ?iaioao no/aniiai o?aioeocueeiai nioe?ieiaa
N.Iineia?/? e aia?eeainueeiai aeine?aeieea Ae.Eioeaiaea.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiioeaioe?? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» ?
«nioe?ieia?? iaoiaio», aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aea/aiiyi i?iaeai
eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue aiae?c eiioeaiooaeueieo iiaeaeae,
aieiaieo iiiyoue oa ?aeae nioe?ieia?? ian, oeiieia?? aca?iei “aiaeaeue”
— “iane”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, caaaeath/e ia noai no/anii? ?ic?iaee eiioeaioe??
«ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» oa «nioe?ieia?? iaoiaio», ? c’ynoaaiiy
aa?enoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo, ui i?noeoueny a ?iaioao oai?aoee?a nioe?ieia??
eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee uiaei ona?aeiieaiiy aca?iica’yceo
«aeaaea»—»aiaeaeue»—»iana».

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeiaaaei ?ica’ycaiiy aieiaieo caaaeaiue, a
naia:

a) c’ynoaaoe, /ei coiiaethaaeany iaiao?aei?noue caa?iaiiy aei iiiyoue
«iane» ? «iaoiaio» a ?a?iiaenuee?e nioe?ieia?? iai?ee?ioe? XIX—ia
ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy;

a) /e ?niothoue iaoiaeieia?/i? e?eoa???, ye? aeathoue ciiao /?oei
?ic??ciyoe oae? nioe?ieia?/i? iiiyooy, ye «iaoiai», «iana», «ioae?ea»,
«a?iiaaenuee?noue», «nioe?oi»;

a) /e ? iiiyooy «aeooa iaoiaio» (Eaaii) eeoa iaoaoi?ith aai ae iiaeia
na?eicii ?icaeyaeaoe «ieneaiiy» iaoiaio ye iaaiee nioe?aeueiee noa’?eo;

a) aecia/eoe i?e?iaeo ? aeaea?aei oi?ioaaiiy iaeonoaeai?oeo ?aeae ?
a??oaaiue iaoiaio;

ae) aeyaeoe iaoai?ci ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae o iano (i?eioeei aiaeaey);

a) aecia/eoe aa?enoe/io oe?ii?noue ?aeae ineoieia?? ian aeey
ona?aeiieaiiy e ?icoi?iiy ianiaeo ? oioae?oa?ieo ?oo?a (ia i?eeeaae?
oaoecio) oa iiaeeea?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy o aea/aii?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? i?aeoeee no/aniino? aai caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiei
yaeuai «iania?caoe??».

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieeaaeaii ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c i?aoeue caniiaiee?a
nioe?ieia?? ian, aiae?oe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue no/anieo i?eoeeueiee?a
aeaiiai iai?yio nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
aeoiee. Canoiniaaii oaeiae ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae aiae?co canaaeie/eo
?aeae ineoieia?? ian. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia
aeei?enoaii? nioe?i?noi?e/iiai oa eiiieaeniiai iaoiae?a oai?aoe/iiai
aiae?co. O aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? nie?aany ia aeniiaee oai?aoe/iiai ?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a naia: ia ?aea? Eaaiia ? Iaiaaeia i?i
iaioaaiiy ???aoe?iiaeueiiai a iiaaae?ioe? iane, aeaye? iiiyooy
ineoiaiae?co, ui iienothoue eieaeoeaio iiaaae?ieo. O aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae ?aea? no/anieo oai?aoee?a
N.Iineia?/? oa Ae.Eioeaiaea, eio?? aea/athoue i?iaeaie eieaeoeaii?
iiaaae?iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia aeai?ii oaie, yea aein? ia
aoea a Oe?a?i? i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai ?icaeyaeo, iaoith oa
caaaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe??. Aieiaia ?aeay aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui eieaeoeaia iiaaae?iea ? ia eeoa caniaii cae?eniaiiy ?oeioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa iniaeno?nii? no?oeoo?e, a e aiaeii/an
ni?ey? i?iaeooaaiith iiaeo oi?i iiaaae?iee oa iniaenoino?. Iaa?oioiaaii
ieceo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, ui iathoue iaoeiao iiaecio:

— iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeaoe eieaeoeaiee noa’?eo ye iin?e «aeooo
iaoiaio», yeee acyoee o eiai ia?aaeoeiaai?e aei eiie?aoiiai ?iaeea?aea
oi?i?, ni?e/eiaia iio?aaith iiynieoe oaeo i?eioeeiiai? ci?ie
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiaaae?iee ca oiia caeo/aiiy ?iaeea?aea aei iane,
iaoiaio (n. 36—41);

— aeiaaaeaii, ui oaiiiai i?ane a no/aniiio noni?euenoa? aeaa ciiao
Eaaiio ? Oa?aeo aeyaeoe iiaee aaaeeeaee eaiae aieeao ian ia iie?oe/ia
aeeooy noni?euenoaa — a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo. ?icoi?iiy aea?aeaae ye «noaio
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee» aoei iaeiei c ia?oeo oi?ioethaaiue i?iaeaie
eaa?oeiiino? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee (n. 21—26);

— i?eioeei aiaeaey aiiaeeeaeth? ona?aeiieaiiy oiia ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae o
iane. «E?a?aeici? a?aeiineie» ye nooi?noue ianiai? aeoo? (O?aeae),
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiyooy «e?a?aei» a oai?aoe/iee aia?ao ineoieia?? ian
ii-iiaiio aena?oeth? iinoaoue aiaeaey, ia aiae?coth/e yei? ia iiaeia
iiynieoe oaeo ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae o a?oio (n. 72—75);

— aecia/aiiy «?iciiae» ye aaaeeeaiai nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaia, ui iinoaa
ca /an?a iaioaaiiy ian; ca’ycie ni?eeoaaiiy oa ?nioth/eo o noni?euenoa?
iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei aea? ciiao noaaeoeny aei Oa?aea ye aei iiia?aaeieea
eiioi?eaoeaii? nioe?ieia?? (n. 27—31);

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui a iiiyooyo «aeooa iaoiaio», «eieaeoeaiee ?icoi»
caniiaieeaie nioe?ieia?? ian iinoaaeaii aaaeeeao i?iaeaio iayaiino?
iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa niinia?a ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy (n.
17—19);

— eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy ?aea?, yea ia?aoai?eeany ia aeii?iaioo ineo?/iiai
aeeooy iaoiaio, i?noeoueny a noa?? ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy. ?ae?a?y aenooia?
aeaea?aeii on?o a??oaaiue, oiio ?aea?, ia?aeiiaiiy iaoiaio iaaoaathoue
oi?ie ?ae?a?eieo ii/ooo?a. No?oeoo?a ?ae?a?eiiai ii/oooy nie?a?oueny ia
iayai?noue aaoi?eoaoo, ia no?ao ia?aae eiai iaa?/iith neeith, ia ne?ia
i?aeei?aiiy eiai iaeacai, ia iaiiaeeea?noue caia?a/oaaoe eiai aeiaie, ia
aaaeaiiy iioe?thaaoe ?o oa i?aaiaiiy a on?o oeo, ooi c iei ia
iiaiaeaeo?oueny, aaa/aoe ai?ia?a (n. 56—61);

— i?aaeeuei?noue aieiaieo iinooeao?a nioe?ieia?? eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iania? e oioae?oa?i? ?ooe XX noie?ooy. An? aaaii?
nioe?aeuei? ?ooe, ?aaiethoe?? i?aeaeeaeththoueny ???aoe?iiaeueiith
?aea?th, yeo ae?iaey? iana. I?ioa eeoaiue oaoeci ia?aoai?ea
???aoe?iiaeueia ia i?eioeei nai?? iie?oeee e ?aeaieia??. A oeueiio e
iieyaa? eiai i?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ii?noue a?ae eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??
(n.123—127).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??, ??
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai?:

— aeey aea/aiiy no/anieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e oa
i?ieeaeo i???ioe??a noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo;

— aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie e?aea?noaa a oi?aae?ii?
noni?euenoaii, nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe? «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny;

— aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ianiaeo ?oo?a ? oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a, iioe?aieo
iai?ee?ioe? XX noie?ooy;

— i?ae /an aeeeaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a c nioe?ieia?? eieaeoeaii?
iiaaae?iee, nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? oa nioe?ieia?? iie?oeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. I?i ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?
aeiiia?aeaa ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie
noni?euenoaa» (Oa?e?a, 1998), ia nai?ia?ao Aeiiaoeueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy (Aeiiaoeuee, 1997), ia ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii?
a?aeae?e?a oai???, ?noi??? oa iaoiaeieia?? nioe?ieia?? ? nioe?aeueii?
ineoieia?? ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (1998).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia eia?eith
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeieeaa? ?c caaaeueii? iaoe e nenoaie iniiaieo
caaaeaiue. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
— 153 noi??iee, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 86 iaca., caeia? 5
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
nooi?iue ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii ?? oai?aoe/ia e iaoiaeieia?/ia
i?aea?oioy, iieacaii, a /iio iieyaa? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia e
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe?? ?? aaoi?ii.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Iaaeiei aeoie?a aeieo?eie ianiaiai noni?euenoaa.
A.Eaaii ? A.Oa?ae» — ?ice?eoi iniiai? iieiaeaiiy nioe?ieia?? iaoiaio,
noi?ioeueiaai? Eaaiiii ? Oa?aeii.

Iai?ee?ioe? XIX noie?ooy na?aae nioe?ieia?a, caeaa?eueoiai o?aioeoc?a ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi, niinoa??aa?oueny oai?aoe/ia o?enaoe?y aeayeeo iacae/aeieo
yaeu, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a aeeoo? no/anieo ?i noni?euenoa. Oe? yaeua
aiie iicia/eee ye ii/aoie iaioaaiiy ian o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?.

Iiyaa iane aoea ?icoe?iaia ye neiioii aeaci?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioeano, na?ae/aiiy ?oeioaaiiy iaaieo nioe?aeueieo ???a?o?e. Iana
ia?aaeienaeueia. Aiia i?ae?eaa? naieoe?iiiaaio nioe?aeueio iiaaae?ieo ?
aiaeii/an aenooia? iin??i onoaeaieo ?ethc?e oa a??oaaiue: aoio ? iiaea —
io aeaa oeie nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, ye? i?iiiio? iana.

Iaioaaiiy ian iia’ycaia c oei??iaiiyi iiaiai oeio ?aeae, a??oaaiue,
?ethc?e. Aiein iaoiaio aeeeoo? o?yaeai ?oith iiaaae?ieo. Iineeaiiy
iiaooiino? iaoiaio a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii iioe?aiiy iaaieo ?aeae, ui
iinooiiai aec??aaee a na?aeiiino?, a caiaeii cae??iethaaeeny
o?aaeeoe??th.Aeii?ioth/eie ?aeayie, ye? aecia/athoue iiaaae?ieo iaoiaio
?, oaeei /eiii, ?noi?e/io neooaoe?th iiaiai /ano, ? ?aea? nioe?aeuei?,
ui iinoathoue c ?aea? ??aiino? an?o ethaeae. ?aea? oa a??oaaiiy,
i?eoaiaii? iaoiaio, noai?ththoue iniaeeaa iaioaeueia ooai?aiiy, yea
iaaoei iacao a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ? ?? aaceee?noue, ui
a?aeiia?aea? aaceeeino? o?ea iane.

Oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee iia’ycaia c aeieeiaiiyi aacao, i?ane.
I?ana ni?eyea aeieeiaiith oaeiai aaaeeeaiai nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaia ye
?iciiaa. ?iciiaa — oea ae?aeia, ui iaia? aaciina?aaeiuei? i?aeoe/ii?
ei?eno?, a?i aenooia? aaaiiei caniaii iioe?aiiy ?aeae, ii/ooo?a,
oyaeaiue ethaeae. Oa?ae ia?oei c nioe?aeueieo ieneeoae?a caeeaa
i?aea?oioy «nioe?ieia?? ?iciiae», aeia?aaeeaoe ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a /e ia
ia i?anoie?ooy.

Aaiethoe?y ?iciiae — oea aea?eueiaiiy neiaa c-i?ae aeaaee iaeaco,
?icne?aeoaaiiy, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, iia/aiiy. ?niothoue iniaeea? oiiae, aac
yeeo ?iciiaa iaiiaeeeaa. Aea/aiiy nenoai aeaaee ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ye?
?iciiae aiie eoeueoeaothoue aai caai?iiythoue, — oea caaaeaiiy, yea
aenoaaa Oa?ae ia?aae nai?ie iine?aeiaieeaie.

Eaa?oeioth/a ooieoe?y ?iciiae cae?enith?oueny ianooiiei /eiii. Ae??
aeaaee iaaiai?ththoueny o caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui, a naith
/a?ao, iaaea? a?oio aeey ?iciiae; ?iciiaa ci?ith? a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo, a
oea oaeiae aieeaa? ia aeaaeo. Ca Oa?aeii, i?oei?noue aeaaee — oea noai
caaaeueiiai iia/aiiy. A?i iaaieioo?, ui iie?oe/ia cia/aiiy iathoue ia
no?eueee aeaaaoe a ia?eaiaio?, ne?eueee i?eaaoi? aeeneon?? oa ?iciiae.
Naia a i?eaaoieo ?iciiaao ae?iaey?oueny aeaaea, oiae? ye o iaeaoao
aeaiooao?a ? eoeoa?ao aeaaea ciioo?oueny ? ia??aeei ao?a/a? cia/aiiy.

Iei?oi?e ia??iae iaoiai aeeooy iicia/aiee ianiaei caeo/aiiyi ?iaeea?ae?a
aei iie?oeee, eiee noni?euei? i?iaeaie noathoue i?aaeiaoii aeaaaiai
iaaiai?aiiy a na?aaeiaeu? ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny
iia?eueia ia?aoai?aiiy ?iaeea?aea ia a?iiaaeyieia. Iie?oeea aaea ia
cae?enith?oueny a iicaaaeaiiio aoaeue-yei? iiiceoe?? nioe?aeueiiio
i?inoi?? ye ao?eaiiy iiiieia?/ii? iie?oe/ii? no?aoaa??. Iio?aaa a
eiinainon?, ocaiaeaeaii? ??cieo iiaeyae?a ? oi/ie ci?o noa? i?eeiaoith
iaoiai /ano.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Eiioeaiooaeueia aaiethoe?y: a?ae «eieaeoeaieo
oyaeaiue» A.Aeth?eaaeia aei «eieaeoeaiiai ?icoio» iaoiaio» — ?ice?eoi
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aea? eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue o nioe?ieia?/ieo oai??yo
A.Aeth?eaaeia, I.Aaaa?a oa A.Eaaiia.

Oai?oe? nioe?ieia?? iaoiaio aenoioee aaaeeeao i?iaeaio: eaeaoueny i?i
iayai?noue yei?nue iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino?, yea, oi/ ?
iicaaaeaia on?eyei? i?noeo?eaoe??, ana ae oaee ia? oe?eeii aii??e/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaiao?aei?noue caa?iooeny aei a?oiiai? na?aeiiino? coiiaeaia iio?aaith
ona?aeiieoe nioe?aeueio aca?iiae?th. Aiia ? i?ia?aeiei iiiyooyi, ui
canoiniao?oueny aeey ?icoi?iiy i?aeaaeei nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy. Aieiaiith
oiiaith nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? ? iiaa, eiioi?eaoe?y. Iia? aeanoea? oae?
iiiyooy e oyaeaiiy, ye? aiiaeeeaeththoue ?nioaaiiy eieaeoeaii?
na?aeiiino? ? eieaeoeaiiai oyaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeii eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue ? ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?aea?, iaaiaee,
nai? iiaeyaee oa ia?aeiiaiiy ?iaeea?ae aa?a c eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue.
A.Aeth?eaaei aaaaeaa, ui eieaeoeai? oyaeaiiy noai?ththoue aieiaiee
i?aaeiao nioe?ieia??.

?aaeuei?noue eieaeoeaiiai noa’?eoa iaaeaia iai ia oiio, ui ?niothoue
oae? iiiyooy, ye ia?iae, iaoe?y, aea?aeaaa, a?oia, eieaeoea,
noni?euenoai oiui, a oiio, ui ?niothoue eieaeoeai?, a?oiia? oyaeaiiy,
aiane?aeie /iai noni?euenoai ye o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiee noa’?eo caeaoia
iiaoi?eoe aeneiaethaaiiy Aeaea?oa: «Ie ieneeoue, oiaoi ine?eueee ie
ae?iaey?, i?iaeoeo? eieaeoeai? oyaeaiiy, ie ?nio?». ?aaeuei?noue
noni?euenoaa iieyaa? a ?aaeueiino? eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue.

Cia/aiiy eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue aeey nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciooaiee aoa aeciaoe ? oaeee i?eoeeueiee iaoiaeieia?/iiai
?iaeea?aeoae?cio, yeei aoa I.Aaaa?.

A?i ia iiaea ia?eoeny aac iiiyooy a?oiiaiai oyaeaiiy /e oi a?oiiai?
na?aeiiino?, aiae?coth/e aeoo eai?oae?cio. Aeey Aaaa?a eieaeoeaia
oyaeaiiy ia? aea? ieiueie ?nioaaiiy: «noua» oa «iaeaaeia». Iayai?noue
iaeaaeiiai a eieaeoeaiiio oyaeaiiy cian?i ia icia/a?, ui ?ethci?ia
noaiiaeoue nooi?noue eieaeoeaiiai oyaeaiiy. Aaaa? noeeueiee
ioioiaeithaaoe eieaeoeaia oyaeaiiy c iiiyooyi ?aea?.

? Aeth?eaaei, ? Aaaa? iiiyooy ?aea?, aeooo aeei?enoiaoaaee cacae/ae
aaca?aeiinii aei aiae?co iiaaae?iee aeiaaeeiaeo nioe?aeueieo a?oi,
iaoiaio. Aeey ieo caa?iaiiy aei eieaeoeaiiai oyaeaiiy iia’ycoaaeiny c?
ni?iaith c’ynoaaoe aeaea?aei nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo aai c oei, aae
iieacaoe cia/aiiy ?aea? o ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Caniiaieee ineoieia?? iaoiaio Eaaii, Oa?ae, O?aeae oaa/aee
iaiao?aei?noue caa?iaiiy aei eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue o oiio, ui ?iaeea?ae,
iiaaae?ieo eio?iai aea/aii ? ia?aaeaa/aii, a iaoiai? ii/oaa?oueny,
aeoia? ? ae?? cian?i ?iaeoa, i?ae iiaeia aoei a a?ae iueiai i/?eoaaoe.

?aea? Eaaiia ? Oa?aea i?i «ieneaiiy» iaoiaio ciaoiaeyoue i?iaeiaaeaiiy a
no/ani?e nioe?ieia??, yea a ieneaii? iaoiaio ?ic??ciy? iaoai?ci
iaeeaaeaiiy ? i?iaeoe??.

O ?icae?e? o?aoueiio — «Oeiieia?y ?aeae ? a??oaaiue iaoiaio a
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? XX noie?ooy» — ?ice?eoi aioo??oi?
?iioeuene iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. A??oaaiiy — oea iaeonoaeai?o?
oa?aeoa?enoeee eieaeoeaii? aeoo? iaoiaio.

?aea?, ia a?aei?io a?ae a??oaaiue, a?eueo ?ooii? oa i?ieea?, i?oei?noue
? onoaeai?noue ia aeanoea? ?i oaeith naiith i??ith. Aiie iiaeii? aooe
ae?aaeai? o aeaeyae? ia?ac?a, iaoe yeiiiaa i?ino?oo oi?io, aae aooe
c?icoi?eeie iaoiaio. ?aea?-ia?ace ia ia’?aeiai? i?ae niaith aeiaeiei
eia?/iei ca’yceii aai iine?aeiai?noth, oiio iaoiai caeaoiee ae?yoe
iaei?ioeeaaei?oei /eiii.

Eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy ?aea?, yea noaea aeii?iaioith ineo?/iiai aeeooy
iaoiaio, ia?aaoaa? a noa?? ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy. ?ae?a?y — aieiaia
aeaea?aei an?o a??oaaiue, oiio ?aea? oa ia?aeiiaiiy iaoiaio iaaoaathoue
oi?ie ?ae?a?eiiai ii/oooy. No?oeoo?a ?ae?a?eiiai ii/oooy nie?a?oueny ia
iayai?noue aaoi?eoaoo, ia no?ao ia?aae eiai iaa?/iith (aeaiii?/iith)
neeith, ia ne?ia i?aeei?aiiy eiai iaeacai, ia iaiiaeeea?noue
caia?a/oaaoe eiai aeiaiaoe, ia i?aaiaiiy iioe?thaaoe ?o oa ia aaaeaiiy
aaaaeaoe ai?iaaie an?o oeo, ooi oeueiai ia aecia?.

O iiiyoo? a??e o?eno?oueny oaea noaaeaiiy aei iaioaeueiiai ci?noo
na?aeiiino?, eiee oe?ii?noue oeueiai ci?noo caeaaeeoue ia a?ae oiai,
?noeiia aiii /e oeaia, a a?ae oiai, /e caeaoia aiii caaeiaieueiyoe
iaaiee ?ioa?an ethaeeie, iaiiaithth/e nainii oa cia/aiiyi ?? aeeooy.

A??a — oea neeaaeiee ineoieia?/iee iaoai?ci, yeee iaiiaeeeai caanoe aei
i?inoiai aecia/aiiy, ui a??a — oea oaea oyaeaiiy na?aeiiino?, yea
i?eeia?oueny aac aeieac?a.

Noai a??e — oea oaeee noai, ca yeiai ethaeeia ia ?icoi??, /iio aiia oea
?iaeoue, i?ioa ana ae oaee ?iaeoue. C?aceii oaei? iiaaae?iee iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aea?oao Aa?aaia.

Aeey Eaaiia ci?ia a??oaaiue — oea nioe?aeueia ?aaiethoe?y. ?aaiethoe?y
caaaeaee ciaiaio? caaa?oaiiy iaeiiai ? ii/aoie iiaiai a??oaaiiy. Nia?oue
a??oaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny oiae?, eiee aiii noa? i?aaeiaoii e?eoe/iiai
aiae?co, ?aoeaen??, aaeaea a??oaaiiy caia?a/o? aoaeue-yea e?eoe/ia
noaaeaiiy aei naaa.

Aiae?c a?aeiinei i?ae a??oaaiiyi ? nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii, yeee eiai
i?aeaeeaeth?, na?ae/eoue, ui ci?ia a??oaaiiy ia iaia’yceiai i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieeiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo. Ca c?acie iiaea
i?eneoaeeoeny ?inoeooo oea?eae, ui caa??aaany ai?iaeiaae on??? ?noi???
eieeoi?o «eiioi?noe/ieo» e?a?i.

Ci?ia a??oaaiue aeiiiiiaea ii-iiaiio iiaeyiooe ia i?iaeaio aia?o?? aai
aiii??. C oaeiai iiaeyaeo aia?o?y icia/a? ia i?inoi nioe?aeueiee oain,
eiee nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe aacae?yeuei? aai aaeathoueny aei noia?a/eeaeo
ae?e, a a?aenooi?noue onoaeaieo a??oaaiue, eiee a noni?euenoa? iaia?
nioe?aeueii cia/oueo ?aeae, i?aeo?eioaaieo a?eueo?noth.

Iniaeea? aca?ieie aeieeathoue i?ae a??ith oa ?aea?th. A ?aeaieia?? ye
iin?? ?aea? i?aaenoaaeaiee oaeee oei a??e, a yeiio «ciaoe» ? «a??eoe» —
iiiyooy oioiaei?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «Oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? aca?iei «aiaeaeue» — «iana»
— ?icaeyiooi iniiai? oeie aiaeae?a, niiniae aieeao ?o ia iaoiai,
aeaea?aei ?oiuei? aeaaee iaae th?aith.

Aiaeaeue — oea ethaeeia iane. Eeoa ethaeeia, eio??e aeecueea aeeooy
iane, eio?a i?inyeiooa ?? ?ioo?oe?yie e caeaoia c?icoi?oe iaoiai ?
?iciiaeyoe c iei.

Aiaeaeue — oea ethaeeia a??e, yeith a aacaeocaeith ia aoea ?aeay, eio?o
a?i ianoith?, ?? iaiiaeeeai iioeoiooe ai? ca aeiiiiiaith a?aoiaioaoe??,
ai? iineeaiiyi ia aeina?ae. *ei i?oei?oa aei??iaia a ethaeei? ?aeay, oei
aaeaeoae?oith aiia noa? uiaei ?aooe ianoaaei aeeooy, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
ia ca?aathoueny c oe??th ?aea?th. Aiia aaeaeoaea aei ciaaaae, aei
ia?ane?aeoaaiue, aei nai?o aeanieo ?ioa?an?a. Ana oea i?eianaia a
aea?oao ?aea?. Iai?oaeai?noue aeanii? a??e iaaea? ?? neiaai iniaeeai?
neee.

Eaaii ae??ciy? aeaa oeie aiaeae?a: aiaeaey-aeaiaaiaa, oeo?iai i?aoi?a,
eio?ee ia? ia iao? eeoaiue aeani? ?ioa?ane ? caa?a? c aeoieaie iaoiaio,
oa aiaeaey-oaiaoeea, a?aeaeaiiai nai?e ?aea?. Aiaeae? ia?oiai oeio
caeaoi? ni?aaeyoe aaee/aciee aieea ia iaoiai aeoaea ei?ioeee /an.
Ni?aaaeiy aeaaea iaeaaeeoue aiaeaeaa? ae?oaiai oeio, aiaeaeaa?-oaiaoeeo.
A?aeii? o?e niiniae aieeao aiaeae?a ia iano: oaa?aeaeaiiy, iiaoi?aiiy ?
aieea.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii, ui ni?ey? aieeaia? ia iaoiai, Eaaii aaaaea?
i?eaaaeea?noue aiaeaey. O i?eaaaeeaino? a?i oaa/a? oa?iie/o neeo,
noai?thaaio c caoiieaiiy ? no?aoo. I?eaaaeea?noue — oea ??ciiaeae
iaioaaiiy yei?nue ?aea? iaae na?aeii?noth ?iaeea?aea. Iiaeia ae??cieoe
aeaa ??ciiaeaee i?eaaaeeaino?: iaaooa ? iniaeno?nia. Iaaooa
i?eaaaeea?noue — oea i?eaaaeea?noue nioe?aeueiiai noaoono, yeee ia?
aeaiee ?iaeea?ae.

Iac’yniaai? Eaaiiii i?e/eie ia?aoai?aiiy ?iaeea?ae?a ia iano ni?iaoaaa
?ice?eoe ineoiaiae?c. C.O?aeae caaeey ?ic’yniaiiy iiiyoue ianiai?
ineoieia?? canoiniao? iiiyooy e?a?aei, a yeiio oaa/aa aia?a?? ia?a?nieo
naenoaeueieo iioya?a.

Aianie O?aeaea a ?icaeoie ineoieia?? ian iieyaa? a oi?ioethaaii?
iieiaeaiiy noiniaii oiai, ui ca aca?ieiaie aiaeaeue — iana i?eoiaai?
e?a?aeici? a?aeiineie. I?ioa aca?ieie ethaeae o ian? ia iiaeia iiynieoe
eeoa iiaaae?ieith, ui ia? ia iao? i?yi? naenoaeuei? oe?e?. O ian?
ia?a?niee noaoaaee iioya i?aeaea?oueny iaai?e aeaoi?iaoe??,
a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae aaciina?aaeiuei? naenoaeueii? iaoe.

Oaea a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae i?yii? naenoaeueii? iaoe niinoa??aa?oueny ia eeoa
o aca?ieiao ?iaeea?ae?a o ian?, aiii i?eoaiaiia oaeiae ?
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiaaae?ioe?. O cai/aiiyo naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee
(«aiiinaenoaeuei?noue», «iaeaioie?y», «caeioai?noue») O?aeae oaa/aa
eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy ineoieia?? iaoiaio.

O a/aii? i?i aiaeaey iinoa? iaeei c aieiaieo ia?aaeien?a oai??? ianiaiai
noni?euenoaa. C iaeiiai aieo, ianiaa noni?euenoai ii?iaeaeo? aiaeaey,
iane ?i?oothoue naiai e?aea?a, caooueny eiai ?iaiai, noeeythoueny ia?aae
iei, c ae?oaiai, — a?aeaoaa?oueny caiaiaae ? ath?ie?aoecaoe?y
e?aea?noaa. Iecea nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaiaeeoue, ui ca oiia
«ianiaiai noni?euenoaa» /eiaei aieueiaeo ethaeae, caeaoieo i?ioenoiyoe
«ianiaei caaiaiiai», ia?aoai?ththoueny ia aeaiaioe?a, a e?aea?aie
noathoue o?, ooi aeiaiaeaea? ianiaei niaeai, eaeo/e ia iia?aeeo a?oiiaeo
aeniaeoaoe?e. Oiane?aeie oeueiai e?aea?ii noa? ethaeeia «aac ?en», oiaoi
oaea, ui aenoioeany a ea??aieee caaaeyee nai?e aaniethoi?e aaceeeino?.

Oaea neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco? ? i?iaeaio e?aea?noaa o iinooioae?oa?ieo
e?a?iao. Ui?aco i?ae /an i?aceaeaionueeeo eaiiai?e noni?euenoai aie?nii
a?aeooeo? oaeo iie?oe/io o?ao?o, ia ye?e iiaeia aoei a coieieoe na?e
aea??.

O ?icae?e? i’yoiio — «Iie?oe/ia aio?iiieia?y aeaaee a eiioeaioe?? Ae?ana
Eaiaoo?» — ?icaeyiooi niaoeeo?eo «oaiiiaiieia?/iiai» i?aeoiaeo Eaiaoo?
aei ieoaiue iane ? aeaaee.

Oeae i?aeo?ae Eaiaoo? ooai?th? nai???aeiee aoceiaee ioieo, yeee caaa?oo?
? ii/eia? iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo oaie aiaeaey oa iane. Eaiaoo? aoa
ia?aeiiaiee o iani?iiiaeiino? iaoeiai? iiae c?icoi?oe ? a?aeoai?eoe
a?aeiineie aeaaee. Oiio aeey iieno iiiyoue «iana» ? «aeaaea» a?i ae?iaea
iniaeeao iiao, iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaio aei iianyeaeaiii?, i?e?iaeii?
iiae.

Oaia aeaaee, ca Eaiaoo?, ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c oaiith no?aoo. ?niothoue
??ci? iiaeeeaino? oa niiniae oieeiooe no?aoo: no?aoo nia?o?, no?aoo
naiioiino?, no?aoo oai?iae, no?aoo aieth. Aei th?ae ethaeeio ooiaoa?
no?ao aeioeeo.

Eaiaoo? ia?aeiiaiee, ui an? aa?’??e, ui ?o ethaee caiaeyoue iaaeiei
naaa, a?oioothoueny ia no?aoo aeioeeo. Eeoa a ian? ethaeeia caeaoia
iicaooeny oeueiai no?aoo, eiee ?? o?ei ioiieaia aeioeeii c on?o aie?a.
Iaoiai noai?th? ia aeiieoeea?noue, ia ni?euei? ?aea? oa a??oaaiiy, ye
aaaaeaee Eaaii ? Oa?ae, ia e?a?aei, ye aaaaeaa O?aeae, a no?ao aeioeeo.

Iana — oea aiaeia eieaeoeaiiai iana?aeiiiai, iioya aei iane nii??aeiaiee
ia?a?niiio aaaeaiith oieeiooe noaio naiioiino?, ia?aai?ioe naiiai naaa a
yeiionue eieaeoeaiiio ae?yii?.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e nioe?aeueio aeeiai?eo iaoiaio, iiia?aaeieee Eaiaoo?
Eaaii ? Oa?ae ni?iaoaaee i?inoaaeeoe ?? aaiethoe?th a nioe?aeueiee
?inoeooo. O Eaiaoo? na?e aa??aio ia?aoai?aiiy iaoiaio, ianoi?iiaaii?
iane ia ooo/io, oiaoi ia nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo. Aeey oeueiai a?i
cai?iaaaeaeo? iiiyooy «cae?eoi? iane», «iane caai?iie», «iia?eueii?
iane» oa «ianiaiai e?enoaeo».

Nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo aeey Eaiaoo? — oea «cae?eoa iana». Cae?eoa iana —
oea i?ioei?e?iaeiee noai, iicaye iniiaia aeanoea?noue iane iieyaa? a
c?inoaii?. O?eueee-ii iana ia?anoa? ?inoe, aiia ii/eia? ?oeioaaoeny.
Oiio, aaaaea? Eaiaoo?, cae?eoa iana i?e?a/aia ia naiicieuaiiy.

Aoaeue-yea cae?eoa i?aai?caoe?y, noai?i iaiaaeoth/e naaa iaaiith
nenoaiith naiai oi?ioaaiiy, ?aii aai i?cii ae?iaeaeo?oueny, ine?eueee ia
caeaoia i?ioenoiyoe aeeiai?oe? noni?eueiiai aeeooy. O?ai, oea?eaa, eanoa
caaaeaee oeniooue ia iano, ui i?aaia aei c?inoaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a o/aii? Eaiaoo? i?i iano iin?aea? iiiyooy «ca?a?», a
yeiio aeoaea ae?acii iinoaea i?oeue eiai nioe?ieia?/ii? oyae.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaio iane ca aeiiiiiaith iiiyooy «ca?a?», Eaiaoo?
cae?enith? nai???aei? ?aaeoeoaaiiy, caaaeaiiy oaiiiaia iane aei
i?eioeeio, ui eiai iiynith?. Ooo Eaiaoo? aeiaea?aeo?oueny caaaeueii?
eia?ee iniiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ianiai? ineoieia??, ye? eiinoaoothoue
ea?oeio ?aa?ano ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aea a th?a?. Iana — oea
oeyo aei ethaenueei? a?oa?ee, a a?e ia?a?nieo ?inoeieo?a oa
ia?aaeeaaiue. XX noie?ooy aeiaaei iaaeei??iai?noue a?oa?/iiai,
aa?aa?nueeiai a ineo?oe? ethaeeie, ? Eaiaoo? iiiyooyi ca?a? i?aaioa
iaaieineoe ia iayaiino? oeueiai aeaiaioo a eoeueoo?? ethaenoaa.

Ai? oi?iae?ci, ai? aano?aeoiee oa?aeoa? i??eoaaiue Eaiaoo? i?i aeaaeo,
ianeeuenoai oa iane, a yeeo ?noi?e/i? ?aae?? ia?aieaoai? c i?oieia?/ieie
oa aio?iiieia?/ieie, aea Oeaca?, i?oe i?aaeaiiiaia?eeainueeiai ieaiai?
o?oioi oa ai?aeai?? ia?aaoaathoue a iaeiiio naiaioe/iiio i?inoi??,
iani?iiiaei? caia?a/eoe i?ea?iaeuei?noue eiai iie?oe/ii? o?einio??
aeaaee. A?i iieacaa, ui aiae?c nooiino? aeaaee ia caaaeaee iio?aao?
noai?i? iaoeiai? iaoiaeieia??, ui aiia ia iaia’yceiai iayaia a iaaieo
?noi?e/ieo ?inoeoooao, ui ?? ne?ae ooeaoe a noeo?? iianyeaeaiiiai
aeeooy, a iaeaeaiaioa?i?oeo ethaenueeeo ia?aaeeaaiiyo.

O ?icae?e? oinoiio — «I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a/aiiy i?i iane. Oaoeci —
iniaeeaa oaoi?ea ?iaioe c ianith» — i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ciiiai?oi?
nioe?aeuei? eiioeaioe??, ui i?noyoue ni?iae ?ice?eoe nooi?noue
i?iaoeueeiai oaoecio, ii??aiyoe /eneaii? iaoiaeieia?/i? eiino?oeoe??,
noai?ai? oai?aoeeaie ??cieo oe?e (ia?enecio, iaio?aeaeecio,
O?aieoo?onueei? oeiee oiui), aae iiynieoe oeae neeaaeiee oaiiiai.

I?ia?aei? oace, ia yeeo iiaoaeiaaii iiyniaiiy o ia?enenonuee?e
eiioeaioe??, oae?. Aeey ia?enecio oaoeci — ia aeiaaeeiaa yaeua, ia
oaeaeeiieeiiee eai?ec ?noi???, a ?acoeueoao caaaeueii? nioe?aeueii? oa
iie?oe/ii? e?ece, ui aeaooioea a ?a?ii?. Eai?oae?ci a?eueii?
eiieo?aioe?? ia?aoiaeea ia noaae?th iiiiiie?noe/iiai eai?oae?cio, ui, ia
aeoieo ia?eneno?a, i?aeaeaei noii?ao aoaeoeai?noue ia?eaiaionueeiai
iaoai?cio aenooiaoe a yeino? caniao oi?aae?iiy eai?oae?noe/iei
noni?euenoaii.

Caii/aoeiaaia oaoenoaie niaoeeo?/ia oi?ia aea?aeaaii-iiiiiie?noe/iiai
eai?oae?cio caaacia/oaaea caa?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo iiceoe?e iai?aiiai eeano. Oiio oaoeci aeey ia?eneno?a
aeaeyaea? ye e?eciaa oi?ia ia?aoiaeo iiiiiie?noe/iiai eai?oae?cio aei
eai?oae?cio aea?aeaaii-iiiiiie?noe/iiai.

I?ioa iine?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy eeaniaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co
i?iaoeueeiai oaoecio iaa?oue na?aae ia?eneno?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
/anoeie canoa?aaeaiiyie oa ei?aaoaaiiyi. Aiie ciooai? aeciaoe, ui i?ae
/an iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?nonueei? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee ie?ai?
i?aaenoaaieee iaioth/iai eeano caciaaaee iac?o/iinoae ? a?ae/ooieo
ao?ao, a iaai? eiea iiiiiie?noe/ii? ao?aeoac?? aeyaeyee iacaaeiaieaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, noai?aii? oaoeciii.
Aea?aeaaii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, cae?enithaaia
oaoenoaie, ia a?aeaeaaei ?ioa?an?a iiiiiie?noe/ii? ao?aeoac??.

Iaeiei c ia?oeo iiaeieaoe iaiaaeai?noue ia?enenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo
ni?iaoaaa caniiaiee «naenoaeueii-aia?aaoe/ii?» nioe?ieia?? A?eueaaeuei
?aeo. A?i i?aeaea? e?eoeoe? oeo, ooi aaa/aa oni?o oaoecio a oiio, ui oie
«caieooaa», «?icaanoea» ? «caa?iiioecoaaa» iane. I?ioa iaeiiai eeoa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iiyniaiiy caiaei. Oaa?aeaeaiiy ia c?acie
«?ia?oieee iathoue ona?aeiieoe» aai ae «iai ia c?icoi?ei» oe?eeii
aaci?aenoaai?. Iiynithaaeueia ?aeay ?aeoa caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui
eiaeai noni?eueiee eaae noai?th? a ianao nai?o /eai?a ineoieia?/io
no?oeoo?o, iio??aio eiio aeey aeinyaiaiiy nai?? iaoe.

Iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aoei ?icaeiaia A.O?iiiii ca?aaee
iiyniaiiy oaiiiaia aeieeiaiiy oaoecio. O?iii iiaiaeaeoaaany c ?aeoii, ui
oaiiiai oaoecio iiaeia ona?aeiieoe, eeoa aiae?coth/e ineoieia?th
na?aaeiueiai eeano, ae??aieo i?aei?e?ioe?a oa ?ai?niee?a.

Iniiai? ?aea? ineoieia?? ian aianee nooo?ao ei?aeoeao a ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? aeoiee. Aiie aeiaaee ?ethci?i?noue a??e a iia?eueiee
i?ia?an ?icoio a ?noi???. Iana?aeiia, ???aoe?iiaeueia i?eoiaaia ca
?aoe?iiaeuei?noth iie?oe/ieo ianoaiia oa nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a.
I?eioeei ?aoe?iiaeueiino?, ui no?eio? oaioe/i? oaiaeaioe?? a
noni?euenoa?, aoaeoeaiee aeioe, aeiee aeeiiothoueny iaai? oiiae, a
a?aeiia?aei? neee ae?thoue o oeueiio iai?yi?. Ineoieia?y ian eii/a
caaino?eea ieoaiiy i?i aeaaeo ???aoe?iiaeueiiai a ?noi?e/ieo iiae?yo,
i?iaeaiiino?oaaaoe, ui oaoi?/iee i?ia?an, ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y ??cieo noa?
aeeooy noni?euenoaa aeiaeiith i??ith ia ni?e/eieeany aei aeo?niaiiy
???aoe?iiaeueiiai c ethaenueeiai aeeooy, ui oaoi?/ia iaioaaiiy iaae
i?e?iaeith aeia?aaeeei ?icaeoie ii?aeueieo nee ? aeooaaieo yeinoae
?iaeea?aea.

Aeaoo noeo?? ???aoe?iiaeueiiai a nioe?aeueia aeeooy, ca ineoieia??th
ian, iia’ycaiee c ii/aoeii ?ooo aaee/acieo ethaenueeeo ian. ?iioeuen aei
aeaaee ii/aa iaaeoiaeeoe ia a?ae ooai?aii? ae?oe, a a?ae aeooiaii
a?aenoaei? iane.

Aeaaeae? a?eueo? nioe?aeuei? ?ooe, ?aaiethoe?? i?aeaeeaeththoueny
???aoe?iiaeueiith aia?a??th, yeo ae?iaey? iana. I?ioa eeoa oaoeci c?iaea
???aoe?iiaeueia i?eioeeiii nai?? iie?oeee e ?aeaieia??. O oeueiio e
iieyaa? eiai i?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ii?noue a?ae ?aeaieia?? eiioi?noe/ii?.
Ia?eneci iaiaaaany cai?iiiioaaoe ianai ?aoe?iiae?ciaaiee na?oiaeyae, a
yeiio ?noioia i?noea iaeaaeaei iaooe? oa iaoeia?e oaoiieia??. A?eueoa
oiai, naiee na?oiaeyae i?iaieiooaaany iaoeith. ???aoe?iiaeueia aoei
aeo?niaii ca iaae? iaoeiai? ea?oeie na?oo ? oyaeyeinue /eiinue iiae?aiei
aei iacia/iiai iaii?icoi?iiy.

Aeanoeaa ?a?iiaenueeiio i?ina?oieoeoao ia?aeiiaiiy a oiio, ui i?o
iaeaaeeoue iaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio ieioeiio ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, ui a?i
? iaaiei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo ?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a, aeyaeeiny
ni?inoiaaiei.

«I?o XX noie?ooy» aoa aaci?aoeaaeaioiei ? oiio iaia?aaeaa/oaaiei. A?i
iicia/aa niaith ?oeioaaiiy an?o i?eioeei?a I?ina?oieoeoaa. sseui
?iiaioeee aaa/aee a i?o? iana?aeiio aeoeai?noue, niiioaiio a?o oyae, oi
ca no/anieo oiia eiai aeineoue aaeaei a?ae?aaoethaaee ? i?enoinoaaee
aeey iie?oe/ieo iio?aa. Ia aeoieo Eann??a?a, a?aee?eooy, a caiaeii
aaeaea canoinoaaiiy iiaiai ?ino?oiaioo — oaoi?ee iie?oe/ieo i?o?a —
aecia/eei ia?aiiao iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?ooo a I?ia//ei?.

AENIIAEE

Onoaiiaeaia iniiaiiieiaeieeaie nioe?ieia?? “ianiaiai noni?euenoaa”
(Eaaiiii, Oa?aeii, N?aaea) aecia/aeueia ?ieue “iaoiaio” a aeeoo?
noni?euenoaa aoea i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ianooiiith ?noi?e/iith i?aeoeeith.
Aecia/ai? ieie a?aei?iiino? i?ae oaeeie iiiyooyie, ye “iaoiai”, “iana” ?
“ioae?ea” caa??aathoue naith aaaii?noue o i?aoeyo no/anieo nioe?ieia?a,
eio?? aea/athoue i?iaeaie eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee. Noi?ioeueiaaiee
Eaaiiii nioe?ieia?/iee caeii oi?aae?iiy iiaaae?ieith iaoiaio (“caeii
aeooiaii? ?aeiino? iaoiaio”) aeaa ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe iaoiai ye iniaeeaa
nioe?aeueia ooai?aiiy, i?aeei?aia ae?? iaaieo caeiiii??iinoae.

Noaaeaiiy aei a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ye aaaeeeaiai /eiieea nioe?aeueiiai
aeeooy aiiaeeeaeei ii-iiaiio iinoaaeoe i?iaeaio eaa?oeiiino? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee. Oa?ae aeyaeany ia?oei nioe?aeueiei ieneeoaeai, eio?ee caeeaa
a?oio «nioe?ieia?? ?iciiae», aeia?aaeeaoe ia i?anoie?ooy ?ioeo
aeine?aeiee?a. Eiai ?aeay aoaeoaaoe oeiieia?th aeaaee ca oeiieia??th
?iciiae e iiiei? ia ?aae?ciaaia a nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe?.

A inia? Aeth?eaaeia, Aaaa?a e Eaaiia a nioe?ieia?? noi?ioaaeeny o?e
i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue, ye? cia/iith i??ith
aecia/eee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee. Iai?yiaie ?icaeoeo
noaee: aioeineoieia?/iee i?aeo?ae Aeth?eaaeia, yeee i?e??aithaaa
nioe?aeuei? oyaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee
i?aeo?ae Aaaa?a, ni?yiiaaiee ia aea/aiiy ia?aoeaeoiaaiiai caeeoeo ?aeae,
oa ineoieia?/iee — Eaaiia, ca?aeii c yeei eieaeoeaia oyaeaiiy — oea
aiiiaeueia ooai?aiiy, ui iaiaaa?oueny oieeaoe e?eoe/ii? aeaaee iiiyooy.

Nie?ath/enue ia aacia? iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?? iaoiaio, iaioaeuei?
ooai?aiiy iaoiaio iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia aeaa ??ai?: ?aea? oa a??oaaiiy.
A??o ia iiaeia caiaeeoe aei oyaeaiiy i?i yeonue eiia??i?noue iiae??. sse
aeo naiaiaeii? aie? aiia caoaa?aeaeo? naaa a yeino? aaniethoii?.
Iniaeeaa oi?ia a??e ?aae?co?oueny a ?aeaieia??, aea aiia iaiaaa?oueny
ioioiaeieoeny c? ciaiiyi.

Iaoiae ineoiaiae?co, canoiniaoaaiee aei aea/aiiy iaoiaio ? ianiai?
iiaaae?iee, aea? ciiao /a?ac iiiyooy cai/aii? naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee
a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? aca?iei, ui ia’?aeiothoue ethaeae o
iano. Aiaeaeue th?ae ii/a?aiai aenooia? oi ye o?ao?a ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, oi
ye ia’?eoiee aea??, ui aiiaeeeaeth? ethaeyi iaoiaio ?aeaioeo?eoaaoeny
iaeia c iaeiei ? ooai?thaaoe iano.

Aiae?c iie?oe/ii? aio?iiieia?? A.Eaiaoo? na?ae/eoue, ui i?iaeaie aiaeaey
? aeaaee iiaeia aea/aoe ia eeoa niaoe?ae?ciaaiith iiaith nioe?ieia?/ii?
iaoee, a e iaoiaeii aii??e/iiai oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iieno.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy /eneaiieo oai?aoe/ieo eiino?oeoe?e, ye?
iiyniththoue aeieeiaiiy oaoecio, aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?enenonueeee
i?aeo?ae, aeei?enoiaoth/e eeaniaee aiae?c c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy aeaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai yaeua, iaooiaoo?oueny ia ieceo noia?a/iinoae ? ia?aoeiae.
A?i iani?iiiaeiee aeiaanoe, ui oaoeci — oea ?aeaieia?y aaeeei?
ao?aeoac??, ui anoaiiaeaiiy aei?noei? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie
ainiiaea?noaa a?aeaeaaei ?ioa?ane iiiiiie?noe/ii? ao?aeoac??.

Ia iicaaaeaia iaaeie?e?a ? naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia nioe?ieia?y A.?aeoa.
Ii?yae ?c oe?eaaeie i??eoaaiiyie i?i aaoi?eoa?io no?oeoo?o ianiai?
ethaeeie, ?aeo iaa?oioiao? iniaeeaino? oe??? no?oeoo?e niaoeeo?eith
naenoaeueiiai aaeueioaaiiy, cae?enithaaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith ?ae?a?eiiai
no?aoo oa aeaniioe/ii? iinoao? aaoueea. Ca ?aeoii, oaoeci — oea
aeaniioe/ia aeaaea aaoueea, yea i?eai?/o? naenoaeuei? iioyae nai?o
ae?oae.

A/aiiy O?iiia i?i nioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa? oa i??eoaaiiy Iaioaeia i?i
ooieoe?iiaeueio ? noanoaioe?iiaeueio ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue aeathoue ciiao
iienaoe nooi?ni? noi?iie oaoecio, i?ioa aiie aeaeae? a?ae oiai, uia
i?aaenoaaeoe oe?eeiaeoo eiai ea?oeio.

Iaeiae o?einioe oa nioe?ieiae, eio?? ?icaeyaeathoue oaoeci c
aeueoa?iaoeaii? ia?enecio iiceoe??, oiaoi ia ye eeaniaee, a ye ianiaee
?oo, iaaaaaoi aeeae/a i?ae?eoee aei ?icoi?iiy eiai nooiino?.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 5 noaooyo:

1. Oiea?aaa A.?. Ae?an Eaiaoo?: eiioeaioe?y a?aeiioaiue aeaaee oa ian
// Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia. — 1998. — ? 6. — N. 92—104.

2. Oiea?aaa A.E. Ainiiaenoai iann e iauanoaaiiia iiaiea. E enoi?ee
aii?ina // Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa. A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — Oa?e?a, 1998. — N. 94—99.

3. Oiea?aaa A.E. ssaeaiea iann. Ia?aua naeaeaoaee // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e
noni?euenoaa. E.: ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. — Aei. 2. — N.
129—137.

4. Oiea?aaa A.?. sse iiaeeeaee eieaeoeaiee noa ?eo: a?ae “eieaeoeaieo
oyaeaiue” A.Aeth?eaaeia aei “eieaeoeaiiai ?icoio iaoiaio”
//Ioeueoeaa?noi. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Aei.4. –E.: Oe?. Oeaio? aeooia.
eoeueoo?e, 1999. – N.235-247.

5. Oiea?aaa A.E. Nioeeaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio: ia enoi?e/aneii
iiuoa oi?aaeaiey a oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiao // Iaiaaeaea?. Aanoiee
Aeiiaoeeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee oi?aaeaiey. – Aeiiaoee, 1998. –?2.
– N.85—89.

Oiea?aaa A.?. Aiaeaeue ? iana. Nioe?ieia?y iaoiaio a?ae A.Eaaiia aei
A.Eaiaoo?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??. —
?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?cia? aeaaeieo a?aeiinei o nioe?ieia?/ieo
eiioeaioe?yo oai?aoee?a ianiaiai noni?euenoaa. A aeine?aeaeaii?
i?aaenoaaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? iiaeae? oa iniiai? iiiyooy nioe?ieia??
ian, oeie aca?iei aiaeaeue — iane.

Na?aae ?aeae oai?oe?a nioe?ieia?? iaoiaio ae??ciaii i?iaeaio iayaiino?
iiiaae?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino?, iaae?eaii? aii??e/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. ?aoe?iiaeueia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oaeiai iiiyooy aecia/a?
eiai i?noea a iaoai?ci? nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??. Cai?iiiiiaaia oeiieia?y
?aeae ? a??oaaiue iaoiaio aea? ciiao ?ice?eoe ?? aioo??oi? ?iioeuene.
Eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy ?aea?, yea noaea aeii?iaioith ineo?/iiai aeeooy
iaoiaio, ia?aaoaa? a noa?? ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy. A ?aeaieia?? oi?io?oueny
oei a??e, a yeiio “ciaiiy” ioioiaeith?oueny c “a??oaaiiyi”.

O ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? nioe?aeuei? eiioeaioe??, aaoi?e yeeo
iaiaaathoueny ?ice?eoe nooi?noue i?iaoeueeiai oaoecio, ii??aiththoueny
??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaeieia?/i? eiino?oeoe??, noai?ai? oai?aoeeaie ??cieo
oe?e (ia?eneci, iaio?aeaeeci, O?aieoo?onueea oeiea oiui) c iaoith
iiyniaiiy oeueiai neeaaeiiai oaiiiaia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoiai, iana, aiaeaeue, aeaaea, a??oaaiiy, eieaeoeaia
iiaaae?iea, oaoeci.

Oiea?aaa A.E. Aiaeaeue e ianna. Nioeeieiaey oieiu io A.Eaaiia aei
Y.Eaiaooe.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.01. – oai?ey e enoi?ey nioeeieiaee. –
Einoeooo nioeeieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco aeanoiuo ioiioaiee a nioeeieiae/aneeo
eiioeaioeeyo oai?aoeeia ianniaiai iauanoaa. A enneaaeiaaiee
i?aaenoaaeaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeaee e iniiaiua iiiyoey nioeeieiaee
iann, oeiu acaeiiioiioaiee aiaeaeue – iannu.

Iiyaeaiea iannu ia enoi?e/aneie noeaia a eiioea O1O aaea auei
eaaeeoeoee?iaaii ?yaeii nioeeieiaia (A.Eaaii, A.Oa?ae e ae?.) eae
neiioii aeaci?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeueiiai i?ioeanna, naeaeaoaeuenoai
?ac?ooaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo ea?a?oee. Ainiiaenoai iann
i?ienoiaeeei ioo?i ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaiai oeia eaeae, aa?iaaiee,
eeethcee. Eaeae e aa?iaaiey, ?acaeaeyaiua oieiie, ia?acotho iniaia
iaioaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia iieo/eei iacaaiea iauanoaaiiia iiaiea.

Nicaeaoaeyie nioeeieiaee oieiu auea iinoaaeaia i?iaeaia i iaee/ee
iaeiaai naa?oeiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey, eioi?ia, eeoaiiia any/aneie
ienoeoeeaoeee, iaeaaeaao aiieia yiie?e/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.
?aoeeiiaeueiay eioa?i?aoaoeey oaeiai iiiyoey iieacuaaao, /oi
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?auaiey e a?oiiiaiio niciaieth i?iaeeeoiaaia
iio?aaiinoueth iiiyoue nioeeaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea. Iii yaeyaony
aeaaiui iiiyoeai, eniieuecoaiui aeey iiieiaiey iniia nioeeaeueiie
aeecie. Enneaaeiaaiea eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee iicaieyao iiiyoue
oaeo aeaoi?iaoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey a oieia, aai iaeoth
noaiaiue i?aaeneacoaiinoe.

Oeiieiaee eaeae e aa?iaaiee oieiu iicaieyao ?ane?uoue a? aioo?aiiea
eiioeuenu. Eeth/ e iiieiaieth eaeae, noaaoae aeiieiaioie ineoe/aneie
aeecie oieiu, iaoiaeeony a noa?a ?aeeaeiciie aeecie. ?aeeaey — aeaaiue
enoi/iee anao aa?iaaiee, iiyoiio eaeae e oaaaeaeaiey oieiu i?eieiatho
oi?io ?aeeaeiciiai /oanoaa. Aa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue
ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci, eioi?ue iaeuecy naanoe e i?inoiio
ii?aaeaeaieth, /oi aa?a – yoi oaeia i?aaenoaaeaiea niciaiey, eioi?ia
i?eieiaaony aac aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ninoiyiea aa?u – yoi eiaaea /aeiaae ia
iiieiaao, ii/aio ii yoi aeaeaao, e an?-oaee aeaeaao.

Aiaeec ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aa?iaaieai e nioeeaeueiui einoeoooii,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuei aai, iieacuaaao, /oi eciaiaiea aa?iaaiey ia
iaycaoaeueii i?eaiaeeo e en/aciiaaieth niioaaonoaothuaai nioeeaeueiiai
einoeoooa.

Iniaiai ?iaea ioiioaiey aicieeatho iaaeaeo aa?ie e eaeaae. A eaeaieiaee,
eae iineoaeueieoea eaeae, i?aaenoaaeai oaeie oei aa?u, a eioi?ii
“ciaoue” e “aa?eoue” noaiiayony oiaeaeanoaaiiuie.

Inoaaoeany iaauyniaiiuie o Eaaiia i?e/eiu nayce eiaeeaeaeia a ianno
iiiuoaeny ?ane?uoue ineoiaiaeec. Caneoaa ineoiaiaeeca a ?acaeoee
ineoieiaee iann ninoieo a oi?ioee?iaaiee iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi ca
ioiioaieyie aiaeaeue – ianna ne?uaathony eeaeaeeiiciua ioiioaiey.
Iaeiaei ioiioaiea ethaeae a ianna iaeuecy iauynieoue iin?aaenoaii
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ia i?aneaaeoao i?yiua naenoaeueiua oeaee. A ianna
ia?aiia/aeueiia iieiaia aea/aiea iiaeaa?aaaony ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeaoi?iaoeee, ioeeiiyaony io i?yiie naenoaeueiie oeaee.

Iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee oaiu aiaeaey e iannu naycai n ?aaioaie Y.Eaiaooe.
Oaio aeanoe Eaiaooe ?acaeaaao, enneaaeoy oaiiiai no?aoa e iiiuoee
ecaaaeaoue aai.

Oieio, ii Eaiaooe, ia?acoao no?ao i?eeiniiaaiey. Ianna aiaeia
eieeaeoeaiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai, aea/aiea e ianna n?iaeie ecia/aeueiiio
aea/aieth ecaaaeoueny io ninoiyiey naiinoe, i?aacieoe naiiai naay a
iaeii eieeaeoeaiii aeaeaiee.

A ?aaioa aiaeece?othony ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua eiioeaioeee, iuoathueany
?ane?uoue nouiinoue iaiaoeeiai oaoecia, niiinoaaeythony ?acee/iua
iaoiaeieiae/aneea eiino?oeoeee, nicaeaiiua oai?aoeeaie ?aciuo oeie
(ia?eneci, iaio?aeaeeci, O?aieoo?oneay oeiea e ae?.), aeey iauyniaiey
yoiai neiaeiiai oaiiiaia.

Iniiaiua eaeae nioeeieiaia O?aieoo?oneie oeieu iann aianee aaaeioth
ei??aeoeao a ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie iunee. Iie iieacaee eeethci?iinoue
aa?u a iinoaiaiiue i?ia?ann ?acoia a enoi?ee. Aanniciaoaeueiia,
e??aoeeiiaeueiia ne?uaaaony ca ?aoeeiiaeueiinoueth iieeoe/aneeo
onoaiiaeaiee e nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia. I?eioeei ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe,
naea?aeeaathuee oaioe/aneea oaiaeaioeee a iauanoaa, yooaeoeaai iiea
auiieiythony ii?aaeae?iiua oneiaey e niioaaonoaothuea neeu aeaenoaotho a
yoii iai?aaeaiee. Ineoieiaey iann iniaaiii ino?i iinoaaeea aii?in i
aeanoe e??aoeeiiaeueiiai a enoi?e/aneeo niauoeyo, iieacaea, /oi
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey ?acee/iuo noa? iauanoaa ioithaeue
ia i?eaaea e auoaniaieth e??aoeeiiaeueiiai ec /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, /oi
oaoie/aneia ainiiaenoai iaae i?e?iaeie iia?aaeeei ?acaeoea ii?aeueiuo
nee e aeooaaiuo ea/anoa eiaeeaeaea.

Auieane noeoee e??aoeeiiaeueiiai a nioeeaeueioth aeeciue, niaeanii
ineoieiaee iann, naycai n i?eoaaeoeie a aeaeaeaiea aieueoeie
/aeiaa/aneeie iannaie. Eiioeuen e aeanoe noae enoiaeeoue ia ec
ia?aciaaiiie yeeou, a ec aeooiaii ionoaeie iannu.

Ana aieueoea nioeeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey, ?aaiethoeee ieoathony
e??aoeeiiaeueiie yia?aeae, eioi?oth au?aaaouaaao ianna. Iaeiaei, oieueei
oaoeci naeaeae e??aoeeiiaeueiia i?eioeeiii naiae iieeoeee e eaeaieiaee.
A yoii caeeth/aaony aai i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea io eiiioienoe/aneie
eaeaieiaee. Ia?eneci iuoaeny i?aaeeiaeeoue iannai ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiia
ie?iaicc?aiea, a eioi?ii cia/eoaeueiia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue iaoea e
iao/iie oaoiieiaee. Aieaa oiai naii ie?iaicc?aiea iauyaeyeinue iaoeie.
E??aoeeiiaeueiia auei caaeaeiooi ca a?aieoeu iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a e
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie /oi-oi a?iaea iaaieueoiai iaaei?acoiaiey.

Naienoaaiiia aa?iiaeneie i?inaauaiiinoe oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi ieo
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiiio enoi?e/aneiio i?ioeiio aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?u, /oi ii yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiui yoaiii a ?acaeoee aa?iiaeneiai
/aeiaa/anoaa, ieacaeinue ianiioaaonoaothuei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oieia, ianna, aiaeaeue, aeanoue, aa?iaaiea,
eieeaeoeaiia iiaaaeaiea, oaoeci.

Tokareva V.I. The leader and mass. Sociology of crowd from G. Le Bon up
to E. Canetti.

The dissertation for an academic degree of the candidate of sociological
sciences on a speciality 22.00.01. — theory and history of sociology. —
Institute of Sociology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is the manuscript devoted the analysis of the authority
relations in the sociological concepts of the theorists of a mass
society. In research the conceptual models and basic concepts of
sociology of mass, types of mutual relation the leader — mass are
submitted.

In ideas of the founders of sociology of crowd the problem about
presence of superindividual consciousness having the empirical
characteristics is isolated. The rational interpretation of such concept
shows its place in the mechanism of social interaction. Offered typology
of ideas and faith of crowd allows to open its internal pulses. The key
to understanding of idea becoming a majoring of mental life of crowd, is
in sphere of religious life. In ideology the type faith is formed, in
which “knowledge” is identified with “faith”.

In work the various social concepts trying to open essence of a German
fascism are analysed, the various methodological designs created by the
theorists of different schools (marxism, neofreudism, Frankfurt school
etc.) for an explanation of this difficult phenomenon are compared.

Key words: crowd, mass, leader, authority, faith, collective behaviour,
fascism.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 99. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ion.

Aa?i?oo?a “Times ET”.

Oi.-ae?oe. A?e. 1,28. Iae.-aeae. A?e. 1,2. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

Cai. Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii NI “?ioa?oaoiiae?oe”, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aeieo??anueea, 30

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