I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe

?iai? I. E. Ooieea

OAeE 616.33/.34-002.44-089

NA?OEE*IEE AAeOA?Ae A?EOI?IAE*

AEA?? IAOIAeO E?EOAAIIss IA?OI?AOEAII? AE?ACEE OEOIEA OA
AeAAIAAeOessOEIAEI? EEOEE

14.01.03 — o??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?enueeiai-iaaee/iiio ?inoeooo?

Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? II Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ooo/aiei Ieeiea
?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? noiiaoieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

IIC Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?aaec?oianueeee
Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? oa ii?eiai? oai?iae

Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?iai? I. E. Ooieea

IIC Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Aaaaieia Aaiiaae?e Aeieo?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aini?oaeueii? o??o?a??

Eoaainueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.I.Ai?ueeiai

IIC Oe?a?ie (eaoaae?a aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ? 2).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» aa?aniy i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.02 i?e

Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea

IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?

Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea

(i. Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «27» na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiae. iaae. iaoe, aeioeaio Aaicaeye I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae?aceiaa oai?iaa – iaeia c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo
caoai?thaaiue aioo??oi?o i?aai?a. ?? aeyaeythoue o 6–10% aei?ineiai
ianaeaiiy (TH. N. Iaeia oa ni?aaao., 1994; A. O. Caeoeaa oa ni?aaao.,
1995; I. I. Eocei oa ni?aaao., 1997). O NOA /anoioa ae?aceiai? oai?iae
noaiiaeoue 3 ia 1000 ianaeaiiy, a A?ei?on? oa Iieaeia? – 5,4, a Oe?a?i?
– 7,5 (I. I. Ei?ieaa, 1996).

Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? aenieiaoaeoeaieo
i?ioeae?aceiaeo i?aia?ao?a ni?eyei ciaioaiith /anoioe aeeiiaiiy ieaiiaeo
iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo ae?aceiai? oai?iae, i?ioa /anoioa oneeaaeiaieo
oi?i, ui aeiaaathoue cae?eniaiiy iaa?aeeeaaeiiai iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy,
ia ia? oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy (I. I. Iaea?iaa oa ni?aaao., 1995; K.
Koh oa ni?aaao., 1992; R. Sacco oa ni?aaao., 1995).

C eiaeieo 100 iaoe??io?a a ia?oee ??e i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aaiico 4–5
aeiooaii iia?othoue aiane?aeie aeieeiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue (A. A. Oaiooeei,
1995).

O 3–30% iaoe??io?a c ae?aceiaith oai?iaith aeieea? ia?oi?aoe?y ae?acee,
yea a no?oeoo?? aino?eo o??o?a?/ieo caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie neeaaea? 1,6 – 3,4% (E. E. Aa/aa, 1992; A. A. Eo?uaei oa
ni?aaao., 1992; I. E. Euoeei oa ni?aaao., 1992; A. I. Ei?yeei, 1996; M.
S. Barry oa ni?aaao., 1996).

?aeeiei iaae?eiei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee ? aeeiiaiiy
iaa?aeeeaaeiiai iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, i?ioa uiaei aeai?o iaoiaeo oa
ianyao iia?aoe?? ?aeeii? aeoiee na?aae o??o?a?a iaia?. Aeaye? aaoi?e
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao iae?aoeai?e iia?aoe?? – caoeaaiith ia?oi?aoeaiiai
ioai?o, a oiio /ene? eaia?ineii?/iiio, c ianooiiei i?iaaaeaiiyi eo?no
i?ioeae?aceiai? oa?ai?? (A. I. Ceiaae/ oa ni?aaao., 1989; H. H. Sigman
oa ni?aaao., 1992; G. T. Sunderland oa ni?aaao., 1992; J. Tschudi oa
ni?aaao., 1994). A oie aea /an ?acoeueoaoe /eneaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue
na?ae/aoue i?i aeineoue aenieo /anoioo aeieeiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue i?ney
oaei? iia?aoe?? oa ?aoeeaeea?a caoai?thaaiiy. A?aenooiy iiaeeea?noue
a?noieia?/ii? aa?eo?eaoe?? ia?aeiii–ae?aceiaeo oi?i ?aeo oeoieo (E. A.
Iiaeeia oa ni?aaao., 1991; A. A. Ieueoaiaoeeee oa ni?aaao., 1991; I. A.
Iaeno?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997; A. E. Iai/e/ oa ni?aaao., 1994). Aeaye?
aeine?aeieee i?iiiiothoue ye iaia’yceiaee eiiiiiaio iia?aoe?? aeaeaeaiiy
ae?aceiaiai noano?aoo (A. A. Eaaiaea, 1993; A. O. Caeoeaa oa ni?aaao.,
1995; A. I. Ei?ioeee oa ni?aaao., 1996). Oea aeicaiey? c’?aeiaoe
iaci?iai? no?iee oeoiea aai aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee (AeIE), aeaeaeeoe
ae?eyiee ?oaoeaai–ae?aceiai? aeaoi?iaoe??, cae?enieoe ?aa?c?th caaeiuei?
no?iee AeIE. I?ioa i?e aen?/aii? ae?acee a oiiaao ia?eoii?oo iiaeeeai
aeieeiaiiy iani?iiiaeiino? oa?a aianoiiica (TH. A. Aaa?ueyiia oa
ni?aaao., 1994). Aeinoia??ieo aeaieo i?i iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy oaeiai
ao?o/aiiy a ??ci? ia??iaee caoai?thaaiiy iaia?. Aeai? ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a iia?aoe?e c aen?/aiiyi ae?acee ? aac oaeiai a
e?oa?aoo?? aena?oeai? iaaeinoaoiuei.

I?e a?noieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aia?ao?a ae?acee o 70–80% oai?eo
aeyaeythoue iciaee, oa?aeoa?i? aeey o?ii?/ii? ae?acee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iaaeinoaoith aoaeoeai?noue ?ai?oa i?iaaaeaii? eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai?? (A.
I. Naoeoeaae/, 1987, A. A. Eo?uaei oa ni?aaao., 1992;). Aaeeeee
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e –
?acaeoe?? oeoiea ? aaaioii??, aeiiiaiaii? i?ei?i– aai
aeoiaeaiiieanoeeith. Aieeaath/e ia oaeoi?e oeueoea?iaaiaco, oe?
ao?o/aiiy caaacia/othoue a?aei?iiee oa aeia?ee ?acoeueoao o 78 – 94%
iaoe??io?a. I?ioa ?o canoinoaaiiy iaiaaeaia /aniaei oaeoi?ii 6–8 aiae c
iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? (ss. A. Aia? oa ni?aaao., 1992; I. I. Eeeiaiei,
1994; A. O. *a?iionia oa ni?aaao., 1996; R. Sacco oa ni?aaao., 1995).

Iaeiei c iniiaieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia aea?? iaoiaeo iia?aoe??,
? iayai?noue ia?eoii?oo. Aeai? e?oa?aoo?e i?i oa?aeoa? i?e?ioei?e,
oyaee?noue aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??, ae?aaeai?noue caiaeueieo ci?i
i/a?aaeie, /anoioo ? oyaee?noue ?iceaae?a aaiiaeeiai?ee a ??ci? no?iee
a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??, noia?a/eea?.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith iioei?caoe?? o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa AeIE.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei
oaiaoe/iiai ieaio IAe? Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai–iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ia
1993–1998 ??. «Noai caei?ia’y iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie ? ?ic?iaea
e?eoaaeueii–i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iie?auaiiy
?acoeueoao?a iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith
oeoiea ? AeIE oeyoii ?ic?iaee iieacaiue oa aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaaiaoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy oiia
?o iiaeeeaiai aeeiiaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??ooaaee
ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o iaoiii?oieia?/ieo ci?i oeaiei ia?oi?aoeaii?
ae?acee, ia???oaeueii? oa a?noea?aeueii? i/a?aaeie a ??ci? no?iee a?ae
iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??.

2. I?iaaaeaiiy aaeoa??ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aenoaeaoo /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie c aecia/aiiyi e?eueeino? ? neeaaeo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

3. Aecia/aiiy oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??, ui aeieea? o ??ci?
no?iee a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? ae?acee, a oaeiae ?? aieeao ia /anoioo
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? eaoaeuei?noue.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anoioe ? oyaeeino? ?iceaae?a aaiiaeeiai?ee, ui
aeieeathoue a ia??iae ia?aeiiiai oieo, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea eiiieaeno
caoiae?a, i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo i?ae /an ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee
aeicaieeoue noaa?e?coaaoe iieacieee aaiiaeeiai?ee oa ciaioeoe nooi?iue
iia?aoe?eiiai ?eceeo.

5. Aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aei aeeiiaiiy iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaieo
iaoiae?a iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue c iaeyaeo ia oyaee?noue ia?eoii?oo ?
?iceaae?a aaiiaeeiai?ee.

6. Aiae?c aaciina?aaei?o oa a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iia?aoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea ? AeIE c
aeei?enoaiiyi oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo ? ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aii oa?aeoa? caiaeueieo
ci?i ia???oaeueii? oa a?noea?aeueii? i/a?aaeie a ??ci? no?iee a?ae
iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??. Anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? oa /anoioe i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? eaoaeueiino?.
Ioe?iai? /anoioa ? oyaee?noue ii?ooaiue aaiiaeeiai?ee, ye? aeieeathoue a
ia??iae oieo. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aaeineiiaeaii
o??o?a?/io oaeoeeo e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa
AeIE. Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e a no?iee
aei 10 aiae a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??. Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ?
iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e iacaeaaeii a?ae
no?ie?a, ui ieioee c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??, ? oyaeeino? ia?eoii?oo.
?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei aeeiiaiiy oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo ? ?aaeeeaeueieo
iia?aoe?e o oai?eo, ui ia?aaoaathoue o noai? oieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaa?oioiaaia
aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e a no?iee aei 10 aiae
a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??, ui aeicaiey? oieeiooe o iiaeaeueoiio
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeae?aceiaiai e?eoaaiiy, caaacia/o? o?oaeiao
?aaa?e?oaoe?th oai?eo.

Aeaeaeaiiy ae?aceiaiai noano?aoo ye iaia’yceiaa oiiaa iia?aoeaiiai
ao?o/aiiy ni?ey? iie?auaiith ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo.

Aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa AeIE aeicaieeoue ciaioeoe /anoioo
aeieeiaiiy ?aoeeaeea?a caoai?thaaiiy, i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeaiue ?
eaoaeuei?noue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia
eaoaae?? a?enueeiai? o??o?a?? A?enueeiai–iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo oa ia
eaoaae?? o??o?a?? noiiaoieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. I. Aiaiiieueoey. I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo o??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue Ee?anueei?
i?nueei? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae (EIEEOIAe) oa
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 15 i. Ee?aa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ocaaaeueiaii aeai? e?oa?aoo?e i?i iaoiaee
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea ? AeIE.
I?iaiae?ciaaii a?o?aiee iaoa??ae, ui i?noeoue 304 ?noi??? oai?iae,
a?aecia/ai? i?e/eie iacaaeia?eueiiai ?acoeueoaoo iia?aoe?e. Aea/aii
ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae 212 oai?eo. I?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Naiino?eii aeeiiai? 36 iia?aoe?e, i?ae /an
aeeiiaiiy 132 iia?aoe?e a?aa o/anoue ye ia?oee anenoaio. Aeeiiai?
ee?i?ei–eaai?aoi?i?, a?noieia?/i? oa aaeoa??ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aa?ao ia?eoii?oo i?e ia?oi?aoe?? ae?acee. ?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei
aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo ? oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e, aecia/ai?
oiiae aeey ?o iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee ? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ? iaaiai?ai? ia ?? Eiia?an? o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie
“?aiiaa ?ioaeoe?y” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.), can?aeaii? Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
o??o?a?a i. Ee?aa (1998 ?.), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao Oe?a?inueei?
a?enueeiai–iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? (Ee?a, 1997–1999 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? 6 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, o
oiio /ene? a ia??iaee/ieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo – 4, o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
?ia?o – 2. Io?eiaiee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 137 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, aeeth/a? anooi, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?e «Iaoa??aee oa
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy», 3 ?icae?ee aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy,
aeniiaee, nienie e?oa?aoo?e (215 aeaea?ae, a oiio /ene? 148 – c Oe?a?ie
oa aea?aeaa NIAe). A ?iaioo aeeth/aii 15 oaaeeoeue oa 13 ?ethno?aoe?e
(a?ao?ee, i?e?ioioia?ao??).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aeina?ae
e?eoaaiiy 212 oai?eo, o oiio /ene? c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea –
65, AeIE – 147, iia?iaaieo o EIEEOIAe o 1991–1994 ??. *ieia?e?a aoei187
(88,2%), ae?iie 25 (11,8%). A?e oai?eo a?ae 17 aei 87 ?ie?a. O?eaae?noue
?nioaaiiy ae?aceiai? oai?iae a?ae 1 i?n aei 30 ?ie?a. O 36,8% oai?eo a
aiaiiac? aeaieo i?i iayai?noue ae?acee ia aoei.

Caeaaeii a?ae ianyao aeae?eythoue aea? a?oie iia?aoe?e: ?aaeeeaeuei? –
?acaeoe?y oeoiea, aaaioii?y oa iae?aoeai? – caoeaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaiiai
ioai?o (F. Gonzalez oa ni?aaao., 1989). Iaie cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eaiiy ua
o?aouei? a?oie – oiiaii–?aaeeeaeuei? iia?aoe?? – aen?/aiiy ae?acee
oeoiea aai AeIE c ianooiiith ieanoeeith aeaoaeoo.

Oai?? c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa AeIE aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia
o?e a?oie: 80 iaoe??ioai (? a?oia) cae?eniai? oiiaii–?aaeeeaeuei?
iia?aoe??; 82 (?? a?oia) – ?aaeeeaeuei?; 50 (??? a?oia) – iae?aoeaia
iia?aoe?y caoeaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaiiai ioai?o. Ca noaooth, a?eii ?
oyaee?noth ia?eoii?oo ? ? ??? a?oie aoee ni?anoaai?, iieacieee
?ai?acaioaoeai?.

Ae?aaiinoeea ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee aacoaaeany ia aeaieo aiaiiaco,
ee?i?/ieo, ?aioaaiieia?/ieo, oa aiaeineii?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Ee?i?/iee aiae?c ?iceaae?a aaiiaeeiai?ee, a oaeiae ia?aaeiia?aoe?eio
i?aeaioiaeo oai?eo, yeeo aini?oae?coaaee a noai? oieo, cae?enithaaee
ni?eueii c caa?aeoth/ei eaoaae?e aianoac?ieia?? oa ?ioaineaii? oa?ai??
Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I. E. Ooieea
IIC Oe?a?ie i?io. ?. I. Oeaiae.

Aaeoa??ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aenoaeaoo /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie i?iaiaeeee
c aeei?enoaiiyi o?iae?eieaaiai na?aaeiaeua, oeoe?iaiai aoeueeiio ?
e?ia’yiiai aaa?o iaoiaeii naeoi?aeueiiai iin?ao. Aeeiioaaee
aaeoa??ineii?th iaoeaiiai iaoa??aeo, iiaeaeueoo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, aecia/aee ?o e?euee?noue.

I?iaaaeai? iaoiii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aaiaio?a ia?oi?aoeaii?
ae?acee, ia???oaeueii? oa a?noea?aeueii? i/a?aaeie i?aaiai
i?aeia/?ieiaiai caaeeaeaiiy ? iaeiai oaco, iaea?aeaieo i?ae /an
?ic’?aeaiiy niaeie, a oaeiae c ae?eyiie, aea anoaiiaethaaee ae?aiaae?.

Oiaoi/ee oeaiei o?enoaaee o 10% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io,
iciaaiaeithaaee a nie?oao c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? ? caeeaaee a
ia?ao?i. Aeaioiaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith i?e?ioii?a IN–2 (Oe?a?ia) ? SM 2000
R (Leica, I?ia//eia) c??ce oa?aoaaee aaiaoienee?iii oa aiceiii. Aiae?c
oa oioiaeieoiaiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
i?e?ineiio DM RB (Leica, I?ia//eia).

Ooieoe?th eeneioiooai?aiiy aea/aee oeyoii aecia/aiiy ?I neeciai?
iaieiiee oeoiea ca iaoiaeii ?. TH. Eeia?a (1968), aeine?aeaeoaaee
aacaeueio ? noeioeueiaaio nae?aoe?th ia oii? aaaaeaiiy iaioaaano?eio.
Aeey aiae?co a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy canoiniaoaaee
aieaooaaiiy oa ee?i?/ia ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo (aiaoeaoi?ii ? a
noaoe?iia??). Aoaeoeai?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ioe?ithaaee ca
e?eoa??yie Visick.

Aea/aii a?o?aiee iaoa??ae, ui aeeth/aa 304 ?noi??? oai?iae iaoe??io?a,
iia?iaaieo c i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoe?? ae?acee oeoiea oa AeIE a EIEEOIAe
(1987–1991 ??.). *anoioo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue oa eaoaeuei?noue
aiae?coaaee, aa?o/e aei oaaae oyaee?noue aiaeioieneeico, aeyaeaiiai ia
iiiaio aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe??.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a cae?eniaia ca aeiiiiiaith
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e c aeei?enoaiiyi t–e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa,
e?eoa??th (2 I??niia c ioe?ieith o?niioe ca’yceo ca eiao?oe??ioii
ei?aeyoe?? rA ? o?aiaeiaiai aiae?co ca iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a.

Ee?i?ei–ii?oieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeuei?o

? oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea
? aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee

I?iaaaeai? iaoiii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy 31 niinoa?aaeaiiy
ia?oi?aoe?? ae?acee oeoiea oa 131 – ae?acee AeIE. ?ici??e ae?acee
noaiiaeee a?ae 0,7 aei 2 ni, ia?oi?aoeaiiai ioai?o – a?ae 0,3 aei 1,6
ni. I?ae /an a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeia oa e?a?a aen?/aieo
ae?aceiaeo aeaoaeo?a a on?o niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeyaeai? iciaee, oa?aeoa?i?
aeey o?ii?/ii? ae?acee: o?aaeaiiy oeaiei, ui iioe?thaaeinue ia aeeaie?
oa?e no?iee oeoiea aai AeIE, ?ic?inoaiiy a?aioeyoe?eii–?oaoeiai?
oeaieie, ieiua yei? ia?aaeuoaaea aaee/eio ae?aceiaiai aeaoaeoo. A
no?ioe? ae?aceiaiai aeaoaeoo niinoa??aaee iciaee oyaeeiai ii?ooaiiy
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe??, aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie i’yciai? iaieiiee. O iaaeieeoi?e
neecia?e iaieiioe? aeyaeyee iciaee a?iceaiiai ia??oeueoea?iciiai
aano?eoo ? aeoiaeai?oo c ae?aaeaieie aeeno?io?/ieie ci?iaie
iie?iaii–yieiaiai ai?oae?th oa ia?aaoaeiaith caeicenoiai aia?aoo.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i o?eaae?noue ia?aa?ao ae?aceiai? oai?iae
aei aeieeiaiiy ia?oi?aoe?? ? iaaoaeoeai?noue ?ai?oa i?iaaaeaii?
eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai??, ui iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy
?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e o oaeeo oai?eo. Aeyaeaiiy a no?ieao ae?aceiaiai
aeaoaeoo caiaeueii–aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i c ii?ooaiiyi i?e?ioee?eoeyoe??
oeaiei i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aaeeuei?noue oaeoeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia iaia’yceiaa
aeaeaeaiiy ae?aceiaiai noano?aoo.

O 42 oai?eo aeine?aeaeai? a?iioaoe i/a?aaeie, iaea?aeai? i?ae /an
?ic’?aeiaiiy niaeie ? c ae?eyiie, aea aoee anoaiiaeai? ae?aiaae?.
Niinoa?aaeaiiy ?iciiae?eai? ca /anii c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? aei
o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy: aei 6 aiae – 12, a?ae 6 aei 10 aiae – 12, a?ae
10 aei 24 aiae – 10, iiiaae 24 aiae – 8.

O no?iee aei 6 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? o a?noea?aeuei?e oa
ia???oaeuei?e i/a?aaei? niinoa??aaee ii/aoeia? iciaee ii?ooaiiy
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe??: ia?aoe/ia iiaiie??a’y, iaaooaiiy ? aeaneaaiaoe?th
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, neaai ae?aaeaio caiaeueio ?io?eueo?aoe?th.

O no?iee aei 10 aiae a?aei?/aee ia?inoaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ieo ?
caiaeueieo ci?i, iiyao ie?aieo aiaieu iaoa?oaaiue o?a?eio ia iiaa?oi?
i/a?aaeie, ui a?aeiia?aeaei iciaeai na?iciiai aai na?icii–o?a?eiiciiai
ia?eoii?oo. O iiaeaeueoiio caiaeueia ?io?eueo?aoe?y aoea cia/ii
ae?aaeaia, iioe?thaaeanue ia aeeaie? oa?e i/a?aaeie ? oeaieie, ui
i?aeeyaathoue. ?? iiaa?oiy ae?eoa nooe?eueiei oa?ii o?a?eiicii–ai?eieo
ian.

Ca aeaieie a?noieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?iioao?a i/a?aaeie aeyaeaia
i?yia caeaaei?noue i?ae o?eaae?noth ia?eoii?oo ? ae?aaeai?noth
caiaeueieo ci?i i/a?aaeie. sseui o?eaae?noue i?ioeano iaioa ye 10 aiae,
a 95,8% niinoa?aaeaiue aeyaeyee na?iciee /e na?icii–o?a?eiiciee
ia?eoii?o c iii??ii ae?aaeaiei o?aaeaiiyi iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a i/a?aaeie,
ii?ooaiiyi i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? o aeaeyae? ia?aoe/iiai iiaiie??a’y ? noaco
a noaeeiao iaeiai ae?aiao?a. Ae?aaeai? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie niinoa??aaee o
no?iee iiiaae 10 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??. Aiie i?iyaeyeenue
caiaeueieie oa aeano?oeoeaieie ci?iaie a aeeaieeo oa?ao i/a?aaeie,
ii?ooaiiyi i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? a noaeeiao na?aaeiueiai oa aaeeeiai
ae?aiao?a, iioe?aiiyi caiaeaiiy ia iaaeieeoi? oeaieie. A ia?o? aiaeeie
caoai?thaaiiy aeueoa?aoe?y i/a?aaeie aoea coiiaeaia o?i?/iith ae??th
ai?noo oeoiea ? AeIE.

O oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa AeIE aea?? iaoiaeo
e?eoaaiiy ? eiai iane?aeee aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeaoue a?ae aeaeo
i?e?ioei?e ? oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? (E. A. A?thoei oa
ni?aaao., 1989; A. A. Eociaoeia oa ni?aaao., 1993; P. Du Plessis oa
ni?aaao., 1993).

O 26 oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea ? 46 – AeIE i?iaaaeai?
aaeoa??ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aenoaeaoo /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie c
e?euee?niei ? ye?niei aiae?cii neeaaeo i?e?ioei?e. O 89,2%
niinoa?aaeaiue a?aecia/aee aa?iai? (a?aiiiceoeai? ? a?aiiaaaoeai?)
i?e?ii?aai?cie, ia?aaaaeii noao?ei– oa no?aioieiee, aioa?iaaeoa???.
*anoioa aeyaeaiiy ie?aieo ?iae?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a noaiiaeea: aa?iaieo
no?aioieie?a – 16,2%, noao?eieie?a –24,3%, i?e?ieie?a – 5,4%,
aioa?iaaeoa??e – 24,3%, inaaaeiiiiaae – 2,7%, aiaa?iaieo no?aioieie?a –
10,8%, a?ea?a – 16,2%. O 46,8% niinoa?aaeaiue a?aei?/ai? anioe?aoe??
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. O i?ci?o noaae?yo, ii/eiath/e c 10 aiae a?ae iiiaioo
ia?oi?aoe??, ca?eueooaaeanue /anoea a?aiiaaaoeaieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a,
c’yaeyeeny aiaa?iae, ui iiaea aooe ni?e/eiaia ?o o?aineieaoe??th c
aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a eeoa/ieeo.

sseui iia?aoe?th aeeiioaaee a no?iee aei 6 aiae a?ae iiiaioo
ia?oi?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?cie ia aeyaeyee o 78,7% oai?eo, aei 10 aiae – o
44,4%. E?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a 1 ie aenoaeaoo noaiiaeea: a no?iee
aei 6 aiae – 102 – 103, aei 10 aiae – 102 – 103, a?ae 10 aei 24 aiae –
103 – 105, a?ae 24 aei 48 aiae – 105 – 108.

Iai?ee?ioe? iia?aoe??, i?ney iiaoi?ii? naiaoe?? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie c
aeei?enoaiiyi 8–10 e 0,02% ?ic/eio oei?aaeneaeeio a?aetheiiaoo,
?acoeueoaoe aaeoa??ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oae?: a a?oi?
iia?iaaieo o no?iee aei 10 aiae a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?cie
aeyaeai? a 1 (5,9%) oai?iai, a?ae 10 aei 24 aiae – o 6 (46,1%), iiiaae
24 aiae – a on?o. I?e oeueiio e?euee?noue i?e?iaieo o?e ia ia?aaeuoaaea
102 – 103 a 1 ie aenoaeaoo.

O oeo aea oai?eo ia?aae iia?aoe??th aiae?coaaee oyaee?noue aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe??, ca eeaneo?eaoe??th A. E. Ainoeuaaa oa ni?aaaoi??a (1986).
Aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? io?eiaiiy aeaiieo i?i oyaee?noue
aiaeioieneeico aei iiiaioo iia?aoe?? oa ae?ae iaiaaeai?noue o /an?, ie
aianee aeaye? ci?ie a e?eoa??? ioe?iee: cai?noue aeiaiaiai ae?o?aco
aei??thaaee iiaiaeeiiee ae?o?ac, ia i?iaiaeeee ia?aiaoe?eiee oano, ia
aecia/aee i?ioaie?oe/io aeoeai?noue ne?iaaoee e?ia?, ci?ieee ?ioa?aaee
eiioeaio?aoe?? iaioeae?a na?aaeiuei? iieaeoey?ii? iane (INII) ca?aeii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yi A. A. ?yaoeaaa oa ni?aaao., (1990), (oaae. 1).

Ca aeaieie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui a no?iee aei 10
aiaeei c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? o 72,2% oai?eo iciaee aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? a?aenooi?, o 27,8% – aeyaeaia ?ioieneeaoe?y ? nooi?iy; o
no?iee a?ae 10 aei 24 aiae ?ioieneeaoe?y ? nooi?iy a?aecia/aia o 64,3%
oai?eo, ?? nooi?iy – o 35,7%; o no?iee a?ae 24 aei 48 aiae ?? nooi?iy –
o 71,4%, ??? nooi?iy – o 28,6%.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ia /anoioo
aeieeiaiiy i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? eaoaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiee
?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c 304 ?noi??e oai?iae iaoe??io?a, iia?iaaieo c
i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoe?? ae?acee oeoiea oa AeIE a EIEEOIAe o 1987–1991 ??.
Aiae?c /anoioe i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? eaoaeueiino? i?iaiaeeee,
aa?o/e aei oaaae oyaee?noue aiaeioieneeico. Caaaeueia /anoioa
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue noaiiaeea 19,7%, o oiio /ene? i?ney
oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e – 16,4%, ?aaeeeaeueieo – 15%.
I?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue 6,6%.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ie anoaiiaeee neeueiee i?yiee
ca’ycie i?ae oyaee?noth aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ? /anoioith
oneeaaeiaiue. I?e ai?ieneiaoe?? iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a iaea?aeaii
ooieoe?th o aeaeyae? iie?iiio ??? nooiaiy:

Yx = b – 11x + 15×2 – 3×3 (P = 0,99),

aea o – nooiaiue oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??; o – /anoioa
oneeaaeiaiue.

Oaaeeoey 1

E?eoa??? ioe?iee nooiaiy oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??

E?eoa??? Nooi?iue oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??

ioe?iee ? ?? ???

*anoioa ioeueno ca 1 oa Aei 110 110 – 130 Iiiaae 130

*anoioa aeeoaiiy ca 1 oa Aei 22 23 – 30 Iiiaae 30

Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? OeIN

Eaaea

aeoi??y Caaaeueiiaai?noue, ineoiiioi?ia caoaeaeaiiy ?ioieneea-oe?eiee
aeae???e

Caaa?aeaiiy oe??e Ii?iaeueia Ae?aea Caieenoa,

ae?ioe?aiic,

a?ia?ai?y

Ia?enoaeueoeea eeoa/ieeo Ie’yaa A?aenooiy A?aenooiy

Ae?o?ac, ie/aiae Iiiaae 40 30 – 40 Iaioa 30

INII, oi. iae.,

o ii?i? – (0,240 ( 0,47) oi. iae. 0,200 – 0,400 0,400 – 0,600 Iiiaae
0,600

Ai?no na/iaeie o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? iiieue/e, o ii?i? –

(6,64 ( 0,47) iiieue/e 7,47 ( 0,52 10,1 ( 0,69 16,34 ( 1,8

Eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe??, (o ii?i? – 1) Iaioa 3 3 – 6 Iiiaae
6

Ca aeaieie ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co /anoioe oneeaaeiaiue a eiaei?e a?oi?
noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia ??cieoey aoea a?aenooiy o iaoe??io?a aac iciae
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? oa c aiaeiaaiiith ?ioieneeaoe??th ? nooiaiy (?
> 0,05). Aeinoia??iee aieea ianyao iia?aoe?? ia /anoioo oneeaaeiaiue ia
anoaiiaeaiee. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui oyaee?noue aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye ia’?eoeaiee e?eoa??e ioe?iee
oyaeeino? noaio oai?eo ? i?iaiico ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

E?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea ? aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei?
eeoee, aini?oae?ciaaieo o noai? oieo

A ia??iae oieo (E. E. Iaeia?e, 1988) – aei 6 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??
– aini?oae?ciaai? 155 (73,1%) oai?eo, o 13 (8,4%) c ieo niinoa??aaee
ee?i?/i? iciaee oieo: ae?ae?noue oe??e ? neeciaeo iaieiiie, ae?aaeaiee
aieue a aeeaio?, cieaeaiiy nenoie?/iiai a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo (AO) aei
(85 ( 5) ii ?o. no., ioeueniaiai oeneo – aei (20 ( 5) ii ?o. no.,
oao?ea?ae?th ioeuen (110 ( 4 ca 1 oa), ciaioaiiy ia’?io na/iaeae?eaiiy
ieae/a 0,5 ie/oa, oieiaee ?iaeaen 1,17 ( 0,1.

Aei oe??? a?oie aeeth/ai? 9 iaoe??io?a c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith
oeoiea ? 4 – AeIE (/ieia?e?a – 11, ae?iie – 2). A?e oai?eo a?ae 30 aei
79 ?ie?a. O 10 iaoe??io?a aeyaeai? noiooi? o?ii?/i? caoai?thaaiiy:
?oai?/ia oai?iaa na?oey – o 4, a?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa, oee?ic ia/?iee,
oeoe?iaee ae?aaao, aio?caia eaaaiue, na/ieai’yia oai?iaa, o?ii?/iee
aaiaoeo – ii 1 niinoa?aaeaiith.

Eiiieaen ia?aaeiia?aoe?eieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo ? e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a
aeeth/aa i?iaaaeaiiy aioo??oiueiaaiii? ?iooc?eii? oa?ai?? a ia’?i? 12
ie/ea iane o?ea – aeey eiiiainaoe?? ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai aeao?oeeoo
aioo??oiueinoaeeiiiai ia’?io ??aeeie, a oaeiae oaiiiaio naeaano?aoe??
??aeeie a cii? o?aaeaiiy. Aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeacaieo ao?ao ? ei?aeoe??
?iceaae?a aaiiaeeiai?ee aeei?enoiaoaaee ?cioii?/iee ?ic/ei iao??th
oei?eaeo aai ?ic/ei ?eiaa?a. Aeey oaeaeei? ii?iae?caoe?? AO, a oaeiae
onoiaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ieo ?iceaae?a, ia ii/aoeo oace ?iooc?eii?
oa?ai?? aaiaeeee a?ia?oii?/iee (5–7,5%) ?ic/ei iao??th oei?eaeo a
ii?aeiaii? c ?ic/eiii aeaeno?aio o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:1 a ia’?i? 2 ie/ea
iane o?ea ca iaoiaeii «ie?aiaieai?/ii? ?anonoeeoaoe?? e?iaiia?ao» (G.
Kreienbuhl P., 1993). Ioe?ithth/e oeth a?oio oai?eo ye a?oio c
i?aeaeuaiei ?eceeii aeieeiaiiy ai?eii–caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue, aei
iia?aoe?? c iaeyaeo ia aeai? aaeoa??ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeii?aciai i?ecia/aee iao?ii?oeei a aeic? 200 ia o aeaeyae?
aioo??oiueiaaiii? ?iooc??. Aoaeoeai?noue ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee
ioe?ithaaee ca e?eoa??yie, iaaaaeaieie a oaae. 2.

Iaoe??ioai, aini?oae?ciaaiei o noai? oieo, cae?enithaaee ?aaeeeaeuei?
oa oiiaii–?aaeeeaeuei? iia?aoe??. Aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii? iia?aoe??
aaaaeaee iiae-eeaei, yeui i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii?
i?aeaioiaee i?ioyaii 60–90 oa aaeaaaeiny aeaanoe oai?eo c oieo ca
e?eoa??yie, iaaaaeaieie a oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ci?ie iieaciee?a aaiiaeeiai?ee o oai?eo o noai? oieo aei ? i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee

Ia??iae

aeine?aeaeaiiy Noaiaea?oi?

a?aeoeeaiiy

Iieacieee i?ney aini?oa-e?caoe?? ia?aae

ii/aoieii iia?aoe?? ??cieoe? na?aaei?o cia/aiue

((o1 – (o2)

Ioeuen ca 1 oa 110(1,8 90(2,3 2,920

Nenoie?/iee AO, ii ?o. no. 85(1,96 113,9(2,03 2,829

Ioeueniaee oene, ii ?o. no. 21,2(3,6 40,4(1,97 4,118

Oeaio?aeueiee aaiiciee oene, ii aiae. no. 37,6(6,7 65,1(6,02 8,994

Ae?o?ac, ie ca 1 oa Aei 0,5 Iiiaae 0,5 –

Oieiaee ?iaeaen 1,3(0,06 0,8(0,001 0,067

Aeiionoeiee a?e oai?eo aei 60 ?ie?a. I?e caa?aaeaii? aaiiaeeiai?/ieo
iieaciee?a ia ??ai? aeua aeacaieo iaae, a oaeiae ?o eaa?eueiino? i?ae
/an aeeiiaiiy o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy cae?enithaaee oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueio
iia?aoe?th. ?aaeeeaeuei? iia?aoe?? aeeiiai? o 7 (53,8%),
oiiaii–?aaeeeaeuei? – o 6 (46,2%) oai?eo.

Aea?? iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea

? aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee

Iaoiae iia?aoe?? iae?aee c iaeyaeo ia a?e oai?iai, o?eaae?noue
ae?aceiaiai aiaiiaco, ae?aaeai?noue ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i o ae?acoe? oa
iaaeieeoi?o oeaieiao, iioe?ai?noue oa ae?aaeai?noue ia?eoii?oo, noai
aaiiaeeiai?ee, oyaee?noue noiooiuei? iaoieia??.

Iieacaiiyie aei canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo
ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee AeIE aaaaeaee:

1. Ia?oi?aoe?th o?ii?/ii? ae?acee c ae?aaeaiei ia??oeueoea?iciei
caiaeaiiyi.

2. Ii?aeiaiiy ia?oi?aoe?? oa e?iaioa/?.

3. Ii?aeiaiiy ia?oi?aoe?? ? noaiico ai?ioa?y aai AeIE.

4. Ii?aeiaiiy ia?oi?aoe?? ? iaiao?aoe?? ae?acee.

5. Iayai?noue /eneaiieo ae?acie.

6. A?ia?oei?a?ae??th, aeyaeaio i?ae /an ?io?aiia?aoe?eii? ?I–iao???, c
iieacieeii noeioeueiaaii? nae?aoe?? 0,9–2,0.

7. Iayai?noue ae?aceiaiai aiaiiaco aai aeaieo i?i a?ia?oei?a?ae??th aei
iia?aoe??.

I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii? iia?aoe?? aeio?eioaaeenue oaeeo
o??o?a?/ieo i?eioeei?a: iaia’yceiaa aen?/aiiy ae?acee c ?aa?c??th
caaeiuei? no?iee AeIE, caa?aaeaiiy aai a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ai?ioa?y,
onoiaiiy ?oaoeaai–ae?aceiai? aeaoi?iaoe??, aeeiiaiiy aaaioii??. I?e
aeai?? iaoiaeo aaaioii?? a?aeaeaaaee ia?aaaao naeaeoeai?e i?ieneiaeuei?e
aaaioii?? (NIA). I?ioeiieacaiiyie aei aeeiiaiiy NIA aaaaeaee iioe?aiee
niaeeiaee i?ioean o ae?eyioe? iaeiai naeueieea, iaee??iiy III–IV
nooiaiy. ?acaeoe?th oeoiea aeeiioaaee ca iayaiino? aeaeiiiainiaaiiai
noaiico aeoiaeo c oeoiea c aeeeaoaoe??th eiai no?iee, ooaoey?iiai
noaiico aiioee AeIE.

I?e ia?oi?aoeai?e ae?acoe? oeoiea iieacaiiyie aei ?aaeeeaeueii?
iia?aoe?? aaaaeaee:

1. Ia?oi?aoe?th o?ii?/ii? eaeueicii? ae?acee.

2. I?eiouaiiy i?i iayai?noue iae?ai?caoe?? ae?acee.

3. Ii?aeiaiiy ia?oi?aoe?? ? e?iaioa/?.

4. Iayai?noue /eneaiieo ae?acie.

5. Iayai?noue oeacaiue a aiaiiac? ia ia?oi?aoe?th aai e?iaioa/o.

Iia?aoe??th aeai?o aaaaeaee ?acaeoe?th oeoiea. Aea?? niiniao ao?o/aiiy
caeaaeaa a?ae eieae?caoe?? ae?acee ? ae?aaeaiino? ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i o
aano?iaeoiaeaiaeuei?e cii?. Ia?aaaao iaaeaaaee ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ca
A?eue?io–? c oi?ioaaiiyi aianoiiica e?iaoeue a e?iaoeue. Ca a?aenooiino?
?oaoeaai–ae?aceiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ei?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ciie ?
eieae?caoe?? aeenoaeueiiai e?ath ae?acee ia iaioa i?ae ia 4–5 ni a?ae
ai?ioa?y aaaaeaee ca iiaeeeaa canoinoaaiiy iia?aoe?? Iae? – Oae?iiaa.
I?ae /an ?acaeoe?? oeoiea ca A?eue?io–?? aeey iie?ioaiiy aaaeoaoi?ii?
ooieoe?? eoeueo? oeoiea iaeeaaeaee caiaiaeiaee iiia?a/iee
aano?iaioa?iaianoiiic ia ei?ioe?e iaoe?.

Oiiaaie aeey aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii? iia?aoe?? c i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoeaii?
ae?acee oeoiea ? AeIE aaaaeaee:

1. No?ie a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? aei aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?? ia a?eueoa 10
aiae.

2. Iayai?noue aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ? nooiaiy, aai ?? a?aenooi?noue,
ui aecia/aee ca aeaieie ee?i?/ieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

3. Noaa?euei? iieacieee aaiiaeeiai?ee.

4. A?e oai?eo aei 60 ?ie?a.

5. A?aenooi?noue oyaeei? noiooiuei? iaoieia?? o noaae?? noa– aai
aeaeiiiai-naoe??, i?i ui na?ae/eea aoaeoeai?noue ei?aeoe?? ?iceaae?a
iai?io ?a/iaei oa aaiiaeeiai?ee.

Iieacaiiyie aei oiiaii– ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo
ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea ? AeIE aaaaeaee:

1. Ia?oi?aoe?th ae?acee o oai?eo iieiaeiai a?eo ca a?aenooiino?
ae?aceiaiai aiaiiaco oa ?io?aiia?aoe?eieo iciae o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy, a
oaeiae iayai?noue a?ii– aai ii?iioei?a?ae???.

2. *an c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? aei aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?? iiiaae 10 aiae.

3. Iayai?noue ee?i?/ieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo iciae aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??
?? – ??? nooiy.

4. Ianoaa?euei?noue iieaciee?a aaiiaeeiai?ee.

5. Iayai?noue oyaeei? noiooiuei? iaoieia??, a noaae?? noa– aai
aeaeiiainaoe??, i?i ui na?ae/eea iaaoaeoeai?noue ei?eaoaaiiy ii?ooaiue
iai?io ?a/iaei oa aaiiaeeiai?ee.

6. A?e oai?eo iiiaae 60 ?ie?a.

C ia?oeo aei?a i?ney aeeiiaiiy oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueii? iia?aoe??
i?iaiaeeee i?ioeae?aceiao oa?ai?th c aeei?enoaiiyi oeeiaoeaeeio a aeic?
2 ie 10% ?ic/eio aioo??oiueiaaiii e?aiaeueii aea?/? ia aeiao i?ioyaii
3–4 ae?a, o iiaeaeueoiio i?ecia/aee oaaeaoiaai? i?aia?aoe.

Ea?oth/enue iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy, iae?aoeai? iia?aoe??
aeeiioaaee ca oeie ae iieacaiiyie, ui e oiiaii–?aaeeeaeuei?.

Aaciina?aaei? oa a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy
ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea oa aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee

I?iaiae?ciaaii aaciina?aaei? oa a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy 212 oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea ? AeIE. ?aii?
i?neyiia?aoe?ei? oneeaaeiaiiy aeieeee o 34 (16%) oai?eo. Caaaeueia
i?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue noaiiaeea 5,2%. Caeaaeii a?ae ianyao
iia?aoe?? aaciina?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee oae? (oaae. 3).

Iaea?eueo /anoi oneeaaeiaiiy aeyaeyee i?ney iae?aoeaii? iia?aoe??
caoeaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaiiai ioai?o. Ine?eueee ? ? ??? a?oie ca a?eii,
noaooth, oyaee?noth ia?eoii?oo oa /anoioith noiooiuei? iaoieia?? aoee
?ai?acaioaoeai?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui canoinoaaiiy
oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e ye aeueoa?iaoeae iae?aoeaiei ni?ey?
iie?auaiith ?acoeueoao?a iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ? ia coiiaeth?
ca?eueoaiiy iia?aoe?eiiai ?eceeo.

Oaaeeoey 3

Aaciina?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oai?eo i?ney aeeiiaiiy

oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo, ?aaeeeaeueieo ? iae?aoeaieo iia?aoe?e

Ianya E?euee?noue Oneeaaeiaiiy Eaoaeuei?noue

iia?aoe?? oai?eo aan. % aan. %

Oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueia 80 13 16,3 5 6,3

?aaeeeaeueia 82 12 14,6 2 2,4

Iae?aoeaia 50 9 18 4 8

?acii… 212 34 16 11 5,2

?icoe?aiiy iieacaiue aei aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e ia
ni?e/eieei ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe oneeaaeiaiue ? eaoaeueiino? a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

O no?iee a?ae 6 i?n aei 5 ?ie?a i?ney o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ianoaaeai?
179 (84,4%) iaoe??io?a, o oiio /ene?: i?ney iia?aoe?? c i?eaiaeo
ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea – 56, AeIE – 123.

I?ney oiiaii–?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e aeeiiaieo c i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoeaii?
ae?acee oeoiea, a?aei?iiee oa aeia?ee ?acoeueoao a?aei?/aiee o 44,4%
iaoe??io?a, i?ney ?aaeeeaeueieo – o 92,5%, i?ney iae?aoeaieo – o 33,3%.
I?e ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?c? /anoioe a?aei?iiiai oa aeia?iai ?acoeueoaoo
anoaiiaeaia noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia ??cieoey o oai?eo ?? ? ? a?oiaie (?
< 0,025), a oaeiae ?? ? ??? a?oi (? < 0,005), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea. ?aoeeaeea ae?acee aeiee o 20 oai?eo, o oiio /ene? a ? a?oi? – o 7 (38,9%), a ??? a?oi? – o 13 (54,2%). I?e e?eoaaii? ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?aceeAeIE a?aei?iiee oa aeia?ee ?acoeueoao i?ney aen?/aiiy ae?acee a?aecia/aiee o 37,5% iaoe??io?a, i?ney i?ei?icaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e, aeiiiaiaieo aaaioii??th – o 92,2%, i?ney caoeaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaiiai ioai?o – o 18,8%. I?e noaoenoe/iiio aiae?c? aeyaeaia aeinoia??ia ??cieoey /anoioe a?aei?iiiai oa aeia?iai ?acoeueoaoo o oai?eo ?? oa ? a?oi (? < 0,001), a oaeiae ?? oa ??? a?oi (? < 0,001), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e i?e ia?oi?aoeai?e ae?acoe? AeIE. I?e ii??aiyii? ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ? oa ??? a?oi noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??io ??cieoeth niinoa??aaee i?ioyaii 1 ?ieo i?ney iia?aoe?? (? < 0,05), o iiaeaeueoiio ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe iia?aoe?e o iaoe??io?a ? a?oie aoee e?aueie, ?aoeeaeea caoai?thaaiiy niinoa??aaee ??aeoa, aea noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? iieaciee?a ia aoei. AENIIAEE 1. I?ae /an a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aia?ao?a i/a?aaeie anoaiiaeaii i?yio caeaaei?noue o?eaaeino? ?nioaaiiy ia?eoii?oo ? oyaee?noth caiaeueii–aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i i/a?aaeie. O no?iee aei 10 aiae a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? o 95,8% niinoa?aaeaiue aeyaeai? iciaee na?iciiai aai na?icii–o?a?eiiciiai ia?eoii?oo. 2. I?ioyaii 10 aiae c iiiaoo ia?oi?aoe?? i?ae /an aaeoa??ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o 44,4% oai?eo i?e?ii?aai?cie ia aeyaeai?, o 55,6% – e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ia ia?aaeuoaaea e?eoe/iiai ??aiy – 102 – 103 a 1 ie aenoaeaoo. O 89,2% niinoa?aaeaiue aeyaeyee aa?iai? i?e?ii?aai?cie, ia?aaaaeii noao?ei– oa no?aioieiee. 3. O no?iee aei 10 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? o 72,2% oai?eo iciae aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ia aoei, o 27,8% – aeyaeyee aiaeiaaiio ?inoieneeaoe?th ? nooiaiy; a?ae 10 aei 24 aiae – aiaeiaaiio ?ioieneeaoe?th ? nooiaiy niinoa??aaee o 64,3% oai?eo, ?? nooiaiy – o 35,7%; i?ci?oa i?ae /a?ac 24 aiae – aiaeiaaiia ?ioieneeaoe?y ?? nooiaiy aeyaeaia o 71,4%, ??? nooiaiy – o 28,6% oai?eo. 4. ?acoeueoaoe ee?i?/ieo, a?noieia?/ieo oa aaeoa??ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/eee i?i oa, ui ia??iae aei 10 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? ? ni?eyoeeaei aeey aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueiiai ao?o/aiiy. 5. Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee aeicaieeei aeeiiaoe ?aaeeeaeueio iia?aoe?th o 45,6% oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith AeIE ? o 23,1% – c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea. Iaia’yceiaei aoaiii iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ne?ae aaaaeaoe aeaeaeaiiy ae?aceiaiai noano?aoo, ui aeicaiey? iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo aac i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iia?aoe?eiiai ?eceeo. 6. A ia??iae aei 6 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe?? 8,4% oai?eo aoee aini?oae?ciaai? o noai? oieo. Canoinoaaiiy o eiiieaen? i?ioeoieiaeo caoiae?a iaoiaeo “ie?aiaieai?/ii? ?anonoe?oaoe??” e?iaiia?ao aeicaieeei aeeiiaoe ?aaeeeaeueio iia?aoe?th o 53,8% oeeo oai?eo. 7. Canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e aeicaieeei ciaioeoe /anoioo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, io?eiaoe a?aei?iiee oa aeia?ee ?acoeueoao a no?iee aei 5 ?ie?a o 92,9% oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith oeoiea oa o 92,2% – c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith AeIE. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Ooo/aiei I. ?., Neiiaoeueeee A. ?., Na?oee/iee A. A.. Canoinoaaiiy a?aeno?i/aii? naeaeoeaii? i?ieneiaeueii? aaaioii?? a e?eoaaii? ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee o oai?eo c ?iceeoei ia?eoii?oii // Ee?i. o??o?a?y. – 1997. – ? 9–10. – N. 12. 2. Ooo/aiei I. ?., Eeeiaiei I. I., Neiiaoeueeee A. ?., Na?oee/iee A. A.. I?ei?icaa??aath/? oa i?ei?ia?aeiiai? iia?aoe?? a o??o?a?? ia?oi?aoeaii? i?ei?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ae?acee // Ee?i. o??o?a?y. – 1997. – ? 9–10. – N. 91. 3. Ooo/aiei I. E., Oeaiae E. I., Naaoee/iue Y. A., Neiiaoeeee A. E., Nieiiei A. A., Eunaiei A. I. Iniaaiiinoe ea/aiey aieueiuo n ia?oi?aoeaiie ycaie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee a ia?eiaea ia?ae/iiai oiea // Ee?i. o??o?a?y. – 1998. – ? 9–10. – N. 88–89. 4. Ooo/aiei I. ?., ?iuei A. A., Eeeiaiei I. I., Eenaiei A. I., Neiiaoeueeee A. ?., Nieiiei A. A., Na?oee/iee A. A. E?eoaaiiy i?ei?iaeoiaeaiaeueii? ae?acee, oneeaaeiaii? ia?oi?aoe??th // Ee?i. o??o?a?y. – 1998. – ? 9–10. – N. 26–27. 5. Iao. ? 12467A, Oe?a?ie UA. A61A17/00. Niin?a ?aaeeeaeueiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee i?e ai?eiiio ia?eoii?o? a oiene/i?e oac? / Ooo/aiei I. ?., Neiiaoeueeee A. ?., Na?oee/iee A. A. oa ?i. – Cayae. 07.06.96; Iioae. 28.02.97; Athe. – 1997. – ? 1. – N. 30. 6. Ooo/aiei I. ?., Neiiaoeueeee A. ?., ?iuei A. A., Cia?anueeee I. ?., Na?oee/iee A. A., Aaa?e A. I. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa ee?i?/i? aniaeoe ?ioiiei?aeoe?? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo // ?? Eiia?. o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie «?aiiaa ?ioaeoe?y». – Ee?a – Aeiiaoeuee: Ee?i. o??o?a?y, 1998. – N. 73–74. 7. Ooo/aiei I. E., Neiiaoeueeee A. E., Naaoee/iue Y. A., Aoeaaiei A. I. Eciaiaiea iee?ioei?u a?thoiie iieinoe a caaeneiinoe io aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eoiieoa i?e ia?oi?aoeaiie ieei?iaeoiaeaiaeueiie ycaa // II Eiia?. o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie «?aiiaa ?ioaeoe?y». – Ee?a – Aeiiaoeuee: Ee?i. o??o?a?y, 1998. – N. 74–75. AIIOAOe?ss Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea oa aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee. Aecia/aiee oa?aeoa? caiaeueii–aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i ia???oaeueii? ? a?noea?aeueii? i/a?aaeie a ??ci? no?iee a?ae iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??. Anoaiiaeaiee aieea oyaeeino? aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ia /anoioo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue oa eaoaeuei?noue. I?iaaaeaii e?euee?niee ? ye?niee aiae?c i?e?ioei?e aenoaeaoo /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. Aeine?aeaeai? /anoioa ? oyaee?noue ii?ooaiue aaiiaeeiai?ee. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a cai?iiiiiaai? caniae oaeineiiaeaiiy o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ia?oi?aoeaiith ae?aceith. Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e o no?iee aei 10 aiae c iiiaioo ia?oi?aoe??. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue iaia’yceiaiai aeaeaeaiiy ae?aceiaiai noano?aoo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?oi?aoeaia ae?acea, oeoiie, aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea eeoea, ia?eoii?o, oie, o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy. AIIIOAOeEss Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia aii?inai oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey ycaaiiie aieacie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, ineiaeiaiiuo ia?oi?aoeeae. A aa iniiao iieiaeai iiuo ea/aiey 65 aieueiuo n ia?oi?aoeaiie ycaie aeaeoaeea e 147 – n ia?oi?aoeaiie ycaie aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, iia?e?iaaiiuo a Eeaaneie ai?iaeneie eeeie/aneie aieueieoea nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue, a oaeaea aeaiiua ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiaeeca 304 enoi?ee aieacie. Aeeaaiinoeea ia?oi?aoeaiie ycau iniiauaaeanue ia aeaiiuo aiaiiaca, eeeie/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey, ?aioaaiineiiee e ?aioaaiia?aoee i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe, oea?iaano?iaeoiaeaiineiiee. A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu nia?aiaiiua eeeie/aneea, aenoieiae/aneea, aaeoa?eieiae/aneea e eaai?aoi?iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey. Ioaeaeaiiue ?acoeueoao oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey aieueiuo eco/ai a n?iee io 6 ian aei 5 eao n eniieueciaaieai aieaoe?iaaiey, aiaoeaoi?iiai e noaoeeiia?iiai ianeaaeiaaiey. A caaeneiinoe io iauaia, iia?aoeee auee ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e a?oiiu. Oneiaii–?aaeeeaeueiua (I a?oiia) – enna/aiea ycau aeaeoaeea eee aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee n iineaaeothuae ieanoeeie aeaoaeoa. ?aaeeeaeueiua (II a?oiia) – ?acaeoeey aeaeoaeea eee aaaioiiey, aeiiieiaiiay enna/aieai ycau n aeoiaeaii– eee ieei?iieanoeeie. Iaeeeaoeaiua (??? a?oiia) – caoeaaiea ia?oi?aoeaiiai ioaa?noey. I?iaaaeaii aenoieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea ?acaoee?iaaiiuo oeaiae ia?oi?aoeaiie ycau. Ai anao iaaethaeaieyo auee auyaeaiu i?eciaee, iaoiaiiiiie/iua aeey o?iie/aneie ycau. I?e enneaaeiaaiee aeiioaoia ia?eaoaeueiie e aenoea?aeueiie a?thoeiu, iieo/aiiuo ai a?aiy iia?aoeee ec iiaeia/aii/iiai oaeoaeaiey e iaeanoe iaeiai oaca, onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eoiieoa e oyaeanoe ainiaeeoaeueii–aeano?oeoeaiuo eciaiaiee a?thoeiu. A n?iee aei 10 / n iiiaioa ia?oi?aoeee o 95,8% aieueiuo auyaeaiu eciaiaiey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey na?iciiai eee na?icii–oea?eiiciiai ia?eoiieoa. I?iaaaeai eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec iee?ioei?u yennoaeaoa a?thoiie iieinoe. O 44,4% iaoeeaioia, iia?e?iaaiiuo a n?iee aei 10 / n iiiaioa ia?oi?aoeee, iee?ii?aaieciu ia auyaeaiu, o 55,6% – eo eiee/anoai ia i?aauoaei 102–103 a 1 ie yennoaeaoa, i?aiaeaaeaee ay?iaiua noaoeei– e no?aioieieee, yioa?iaaeoa?ee. N oaaee/aieai aeeeoaeueiinoe nouanoaiaaiey ia?eoiieoa iee?iaiue niaeo? niauaeny a noi?iio i?aiaeaaeaiey a?aiio?eoeaoaeueiie iee?ioei?u e aiay?iaiuo aicaoaeeoaeae, iee?iaiia /enei oaaee/eaaeinue. N eniieueciaaieai eeeie/aneeo e eaai?aoi?iuo iieacaoaeae ioeaieaaee oyaeanoue yiaeiaaiiie eioieneeaoeee a ?aciua n?iee n iiiaioa ia?oi?aoeee. Ii?aaeaeaii aa aeeyiea ia /anoioo ineiaeiaiee a iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea e eaoaeueiinoue. Eco/aiu /anoioa e oyaeanoue ia?ooaiee aaiiaeeiaieee, aicieeathueo i?e ia?oi?aoeee ycau. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e iiiaaeaiee a a?thoioth iieinoue niaea?aeeiiai aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee o iaeioi?uo iaoeeaioia iieacaoaee aaiiaeeiaieee cia/eoaeueii nieaeaeenue aieioue aei aicieeiiaaiey oiea, /oi iaaethaeaee o 8,4% aieueiuo. I?aaeeiaeai eiiieaen i?aaeiia?aoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee aieueiuo n oieii, aeeth/athuee iaoiae «ieeaiaieaie/aneie ?anonoeeoaoeee» e?iaiia?auaiey. ?ac?aaioaiu e?eoa?ee, iicaieythuea onoaiiaeoue iaiaoiaeeiue iauai oe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa. Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu iieacaiey e ?aaeeeaeueiui e oneiaii–?aaeeeaeueiui aiaoaoaeuenoaai n o/aoii oyaeanoe ia?eoiieoa e ia?ooaiee aaiiaeeiaieee. Aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue auiieiaiey ?aaeeeaeueiie iia?aoeee a n?iee aei 10 / n iiiaioa ia?oi?aoeee. I?e ea/aiee ia?oi?aoeaiie ycau aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee ?aaeeeaeueiay iia?aoeey auiieiaia o 45,6% aieueiuo, ia?oi?aoeaiie ycau aeaeoaeea – o 23,1%. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeaeaiey ycaaiiiai noano?aoa, /oi iicaieyao inouanoaeoue ?aaeceth caaeiae noaiee aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee, ono?aieoue ?oaoeiai–ycaaiioth aeaoi?iaoeeth e noi?ie?iaaoue aianoiiic a i?aaeaeao iaeciaiaiiuo oeaiae. I?e n?aaiaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey aieueiuo I e III a?oii onoaiiaeaii, /oi enna/aiea ycau iicaieeei nieceoue /anoioo iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee e eaoaeueiinoue ia 1,7%. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?oi?aoeaiay ycaa, aeaeoaeie, aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiay eeoea, ia?eoiieo, oie, oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea. ABSTRACT The thesis is devoted to the problems of surgical treatment of perforated gastric and duodenal ulcer. The character of inflammatory–diestructive changes of parietal and vesceral peritoneum at various terms since the perforation moment was determined. The influence of endogenous intoxication severity on the frequency of postoperative complications and lethality was established. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of exudate microflora of peritoneal cavity was carried out. The frequency and severity of hemodynamics disorders were investigated. On the basis of obtained results the means of surgical tactics improvement for the treatment of patients with perforated ulcer were proposed. The possibility of radical operations performing at the terms up to 10 hours since the moment of perforation was proved. The necessity of obligatory removal of ulcer substrate was substantiated. Key words: ?erforated ulcer, stomach, duodenum, peritonitis, shoock, surgical treatment. PAGE 3

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