EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

Eiaeeaoeueeee Ieeiea Ia?’yiiae/

OAeE 340.0 (477)

Ooai?aiiy COI?, ?? aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci oa ae?yeuei?noue

(1918-1923 ??.)

12.00.01 ( oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Euea?a ( 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo?
?i. ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee ( *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe Eoeue/eoeueeee Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?aaia O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe ( *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe Eiieeaiei Ieaenaiae? Ethaeiiae/, i?ioani?,
canooiiee caa?aeoaa/a th?eaee/iiai a?aeae?eo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe E?naee/iee Aaneeue Iao?iae/, aeioeaio,
i?i?aeoi? Euea?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y ( Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.03 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290001, i.Euea?a, aoe.N?/iaeo
No??eueoe?a, 14 (cae can?aeaiue th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, aoae.409).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?aaia O?aiea (290005,
i.Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I.EINNAE

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa
?icaoaeiaa ?? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a aeaei iiaee iiooiao a
ia’?eoeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? eieenue caai?iiaieo oai c ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa eiai aea?aeaaiino?. Aaaeeeaa i?noea o oeueiio
aeine?aeaeaii? caeia? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaa iaoea, yea ia aeoieo aaaaoueio
a/aieo, io?eio? ye?nii iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey naiai ?icaeoeo. Iaei??th c?
noa? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa ae?yeuei?noue ?o caeiiiaeaa/eo ? aeeiiaa/eo
i?aai?a aeaaee. ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aea?aeaaioai?aiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue
e?eoe/ii ioe?ieoe no/aniee i?ioean ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa
oieeiooe iiieeie, ye? aoee aeiiouai? o iiia?aaei?e ia??iae. Oaeith, ua
ia iiai?noth aeine?aeaeaiith noi??ieith oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy,
? a?aeiiaeaiiy ia ii/aoeo XX no. oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaa i?ney ethoiaai?
?aaiethoe?? a ?in?? oa ?iciaaeo Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o??. Ia’?eoii
aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Aano?i-Oai?ueie,
aea 1 eenoiiaaea 1918?. aoei ooai?aii Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao. 13
eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. aea?aeaaa io?eiaea iacao Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia
?anioae?ea. 22 n?/iy 1919 ?. Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea
ia’?aeiaeany c Oe?a?inueeith Ia?iaeiith ?anioae?eith a ?aeeio
Oe?a?inueeo niai?io aea?aeaao.

Iniaeea?noue aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo
aoea iaoiiaeaia ?o iaeaea 150-??/iei ia?aaoaaiiyi a ?io?e
aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e nenoai?, i?ae oe?a?inuee? caie?, ui ciaoiaeeeenue o
neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Iacaaaeath/e ia nai? i?eaiiaeaia noaiiaeua,
oe?a?ioe? Aano?i-Oai?ueie aeei?enoaee, oi/ ? a iaiiaiiio ianyc?,
ia?aaaae ?a?iiaenueei? eiinoeoooe?eii? iiia?o??. Ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo eaaaeueii ae?yee oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i?, a?iiaaenuee? oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? i?aai?caoe??. Oe? no?oeoo?e i?iaiaeeee ?iaioo c
i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?iiai oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. C 1848 ?.
oe?a?ioe? a?aee o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo,
aaeeoeueeiai oa aoeiaeinueeiai e?aeiaeo naei?a. Iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. o
No?aei?e Aaee/ei? aia?oa ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aoei noai?aii eaaaeuei?
oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye? o nai?o i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao noaaeee
ca iaoo ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ona oea aeaei ciiao noai?eoe iao??ioe/io cao?aeiioe?a?inueeo iie?oe/io
oa eoeueoo?io ae?oo. Oaeoe/ii iaeaea o an?o no?oeoo?ao Aano?i-Oai?nueei?
aea?aeaae ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/iee ii??
iieuenueeeo oa ?oioinueeeo iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a, aoee i?aaenoaaieee
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Ia?aae ?iciaaeii Aano?i-Oai?ueie, aiaeia?/ii
?ioei ia?iaeai ?iia???, oe?a?ioe? aoee i?aeaioiaeai? aei ae?yeueiino? a
on?o aaeocyo aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. Iiaiooai?aia aea?aeaaa –
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea (aeae? COI?) – ca i?eeeaaeii
?ioeo ia?iae?a ?a?iie noai?eea aeani? caeiiiaeaa/? oa aeeiiaa/? i?aaie
aeaaee, i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie oa ca?iei? neee. Ia?eaiaioii COI?
Oe?a?inueeith Iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aaeith oa o?yaeii – Aea?aeaaiei
Nae?aoa??aoii – aoei i?eeiyoi ?yae caeii?a oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue, ye?
?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue on?o aaeocae aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy. E?i?y
iiaoaeiae aea?aeaae ia i?aaia?e iniia? aoea i?iaeiaaeaia ea??aieie
eieaie COI? ? i?ae /an Ceoee COI? ? OI?, yea ia?aaeaa/aea iinooiiao
oi?o?eaoe?th caeiiiaeaanoaa COI? ? OI? oa noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai
oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. I?ney ao?aoe oa?eoi???, ai?ioueaa ca
Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue aeeeth/ii aeeieiiaoe/ieie
iaoiaeaie. Ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie aoee noai?ai? caei?aeiii? oe?a?inuee?
o?yaeia? no?oeoo?e, ye? aei inoaiiueiai aeiy ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae aaee
aeeieiiaoe/io oa ii?iioai?/o ae?yeuei?noue. Ooiaeaiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio COI? (1918-1923??.)
i?iaiaeeoueny eiiieaenii ? aiii onoaa? i?iaaeeie ?noi?eei-i?aaiai?
iaoee, ui ? oaeoi?ii, yeee iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaii
oaeiae oei, ui o COI? aoea aeei?enoaia ?a?iiaenueea iiaeaeue iiaoaeiae
oa ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio, ui ? oe?eaaei aeey
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a o no/ani?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?, yea
i?iaieineea i?i naith ?ioaa?aoe?th a ?a?iiaenuee? no?oeoo?e.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: a) anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy,
no?oeoo?e oa ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio COI?; a) oi?ioethaaiiy
ia oe?e i?aenoaa? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao.

O aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe noaiiaeua cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o neeaae?
Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o??;

aeyaeoe iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ooai?aiiy COI?;

aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo;

i?iaiae?coaaoe caeiiioai?/?noue i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee COI? oa ??
cia/aiiy aeey ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio;

aena?oeeoe i?ioean ooai?aiiy ca?ieieo nee oa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a COI?
? ?o cia/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy i?aaiii?yaeeo oa iai?iiicaeaoiino?
aea?aeaae;

ioe?ieoe ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee COI? a ie?aieo aaeocyo
iie?oe/iiai, ainiiaea?nueeiai oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai aeeooy;

ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe caeiiiaeaa/o ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo COI? a “aecee?”;

noi?ioethaaoe aeniiaee i?i i?e/eie ao?aoe aea?aeaaiino? COI? oa cia/aiiy
oeueiai aoaio oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e oa
caaaeueiina?oia?e ?noi???.

Oaeoe/iee noai ?ic?iaee

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui oaia COI? aoea iaei??th c iaea?eueo iaaeanii
caai?iiaieo oai o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, oi ia’?eoeaia ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoei a?eueo, i?ae i?iaeaiaoe/ia. O iiae?ai?e neooaoe?? ciaoiaeeeany e
?noi?e/ia iaoea, ca aeiyoeii iaeiiaieeo oaiaeaioe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aea COI? cia?aaeaeanue ye “aioeaeaiie?aoe/ia, aioeia?iaeia aea?aeaaa oa
ai?ia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i COI? iiaeia iiae?eeoe
ia o?e ia??iaee: ia?oee – aeiai?iiee (aei II na?oiai? a?eie), yeee a
iniiaiiio aea/aee aeine?aeieee, ui aoee o/anieeaie oeeo iiae?e; ae?oaee
– i?neyai?iiee (?aaeyinueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo caei?aeiiieo a/aieo);
o?ao?e – no/aniee, yeee ?icii/aany c 1989 ?ieo. C ?noi?ee?a i?aaa o
ia?oee ia??iae iaae oe??th i?iaeaiith i?aoethaaee: E. Eaaeoeueeee
“?noi??y iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a 1848-1914.” (Euea?a,
1926); “Aaeeeee c?ea” (Euea?a, 1931); “?noi??y aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a c /an?a na?oiai? a?eie 1914-1918.” (Euea?a,
1928); I. *oaaoee “Aea?aeaaiee eaae ia Cao?aei?e iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee” (Euea?a, 1921); I. Eiceinueeee “Aaee/eia a ??
1918-1920” (A?aeaiue, 1922); A. Eo/aanueeee “Die Westukraine im Kampf
mit Polen und dem Bolschewismus in den Jahren 1918-1923” (Berlin 1934).
C ?noi?ee?a – I. A?ooaanueeee “Ia ii?ic? iiai? Oe?a?ie” O.1-3. (Ee?a,
1917); Ae. Aei?ioaiei “Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai? ieioea” (*.1,2. Euea?a,
1923); “?noi??y Oe?a?ie 1917-1923 ??.” (O. 1-3 Oaeai?iae, 1923-1930); ?.
E?ei’yeaae/, A. Aiaoaae/ oa ?i. “?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea”
(Euea?a, 1931) oa ?i. I?neyai?iiee ia??iae – I.Noao?a “Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia.
Ia?en ?noi??? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa ca?ieii? ? aeeieiiaoe/ii?
iai?iie 1918-1923 ??.” (O.1-4, Ne?aioii, 1959-1960); N.ss?ineaaei
“Aecaieueia ai?ioueaa ia Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o 1918-1923 ??.”
(O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1956); Aioeeeeiiaae?y oe?a?iiciaanoaa (Ia?eae-
Iueth-Ei?e,1970); TH. Neeaea “Ai?ioueaa o?oaeyueo No?aeii? Aaee/eie
i?ioe ?iicaiiiai iiiaaieaiiy” (Ee?a, 1973); “Oi?aeanoai ?noi?e/ii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?” (Euea?a, 1968) oa ?i.

No/aniee ia??iae ?ai?acaioothoue iaoeia? i?aoe? A. Eoeue/eoeueeiai,
iiiia?ao?y A.Oeueea ? I.A?a/a?aiea “Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia
?anioae?ea” (Eieiiey, 1993) oa i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a I. Eeoaeia ? E. Iaoiaiea
“?noi??y COI?” (Euea?a, 1995) ? N. Iaea?/oea “Oe?a?inueea ?anioae?ea
aaee/ai” (Euea?a, 1997) oa ?i.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean ooai?aiiy COI?, ae?yeuei?noue
aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio oa ii?iioai?/?noue caeiiiaeaa/eo ? aeeiiaa/eo
i?aai?a aeaaee.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?noi??? iie?oe/ieo oa i?aaiaeo a/aiue, ?noi???
i?aaiai? oa iie?oe/ii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie, oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa,
aea?aeaaiiai ? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo iaoe. O
?iaio? oaeiae aeei?enoaii caaaeueiiiaoeia? oa niaoe?aeueii-iaoeia?
iaoiaee: ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee; ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee; iaoiae
e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai aiae?co aeieoiaio?a; nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee;
ooieoe?iiaeueiee, eia?/iee oa ?io?.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee: a?o?ai? iaoa??aee
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i?no? Eueaia?, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
Euea?anueei? iaeano?, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe COI?, CIOI? oa OI?, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a a?o?aao ? a?ae?ioaeao i?no Ee?aa oa Eueaiaa. Cia/io
?ieue a aeine?aeaeaii? a?ae?a?aea ia??iaeeea 1918-1923 ?ie?a,
??ciiiai?oia ?noi?eei-i?aaiaa, ?noi?e/ia oa iiiia?ao?/ia e?oa?aoo?a,
niiaaaee o/aniee?a oeeo iiae?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy

O ?iaio? ia iniia? aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa, a?o?aiiai oa iiiia?ao?/iiai
iaoa??aeo eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean ooai?aiiy, caeiiioai?/?noue
oa i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio COI? ye a ia??iae
?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie (1918-1919 ??.), oae ? caiaeii
ca ?? iaaeaie a “aecee?” (1920-1923??.).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeco?oueny o
ianooiieo iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

– Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?ioean ooai?aiiy, no?oeoo?o oa ae?yeuei?noue aia?aoo
oaeeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia oa?eoi??? COI? ye
Eaie?anueea ?anioae?ea, Cao?aeiieaie?anueea ?anioae?ea, Aooeoeuenueea
?anioae?ea oa ?o a?aeiineie c i?aaiaie aeaaee COI?.

– Anoaiiaeaii, ui aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci COI?, iacaaaeath/e ia oyaeea
a?enueeiaa oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua aea?aeaae, caaacia/oaaa
?? ii?iaeueio aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue. Ioaea, ia ?nioaaei na?eicieo
aioo??oi?o i?e/ei ao?aoe iacaeaaeiino?.

– O COI? aoei ooai?aii aeaiie?aoe/io iie?oe/io nenoaio, o yeo aoiaeeee
oe?a?inuee? oa ?a?aenuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? e i?aai?caoe??.

– I?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie COI? aoee iaea?eueo i?ioan?eiith oa
eaae?o?eiaaiith eaieith aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ?, a oe?eiio, aeeiioaaee
iinoaaeai? ia?aae ieie caaaeaiiy.

– O COI? ia i?aaia?e iniia? aoea ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia ?aoi?ioaaiiy e
?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? oa i?eaaoii? ina?oe ? aa?aiooaaeinue iaa/aiiy
??aeiith iiaith i?aaenoaaieeai iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

– Ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeaaee COI? a “aecee?” a?aeaoaaeenue oaeiae ia
i?aaia?e oa aeaiie?aoe/i?e iniia?.

– Aeyaeaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a COI?, ye?
?aaeaiaiooaaee no?oeoo?o, eiiiaoaioe?th oa ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaiiai
iaoai?cio COI? ? ye? ia aoee aeioaia? a?aeiieie (caeii a?ae 10.02.1919
?ieo “I?i aeiaiaa /eai?a Oe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee”, caeii a?ae
11.02. 1919 ?ieo “I?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? iia?oiaeo oa ie?oaeieo
noaeae?a a oeea?eueieo ni?aaao”, caeii a?ae 10.03.1919 ?ieo “Cianaiiy
eiio?neaoe iaeia i?ae /an a?eie”, caeiie a?ae 18.03.1919 ?ieo “I?i
iicaoaaiiy ? iaoyaeoaaiiy a?eueoeo iin?einoae”, “oa “I?i aeaeaniaiiy
aaeeeeo oaaoey?ieo iin?einoae” caeii a?ae 14.02.1919 ?ieo “I?i iieaaoo
i?e ?nieoao o/eoae?a na?aaei?o oe?e”, caeii a?ae 15.04.1919 ?ieo “I?i
caai?iio /eiiinoae ye? iathoue ia oe?e? oaea?aiiaiiy aeeiiaiiy
caiaeueiiai caeiio”, Caeii Aeeeoaoi?a ?. Iao?ooaae/a a?ae 15.08.1919
?ieo “I?i a?aeneoaeeieio “;?ino?oeoe?y Aeeeoaoi?a a?ae 2.01.1920 ?ieo
“?ino?oeoe?y neoaeae aeaiaea?ia???”; ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo a?ae 24.12 1919 ?ieo “A ni?aa? caaaaeaiiy iino?eii?
eo?’??nueei? neoaeae i?e Aea?aeaai?i Nae?aoa??ao?”, a?ae 23.02.1919 ?ieo
“I?i niin?a neeaaeaiiy noaiiaeaaeo oa aaciina?aaeieo iaeaaeeoinoae” a?ae
11.02.1919 ?ieo “A ni?aa? i?eioniaiai ca?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa ?
ia?oe?a”,a?ae 17.02.1919 ?ieo “I?eiaeaaeiee eiiaiaeaio aeaiaea?ia??? ?
eiai noaeiaee ?aoa?aio”, a?ae 20.03.1919 ?ieo “I?i i?iaeiaaeaiiy
?a/aioe?a ia?aaeaaiaiiy”, a?ae 4.04.1919 ?ieo “A ni?aa? i?aeaeuaiiy
iiai??a aeaiaea?i?a ? ioaeae aac ?aia?a i?e aea?aeaai?e aeaiaea?ia???”
a?ae 1.04.1919 ?ieo “I?i canoaee nia?oe” oa “Iiyniaiiy aei ?icii?yaeeo
i?i aei?acia? noaee iaae oeea?eueieie”, a?ae 13.02.1919 ?ieo “A oe?ee
cainiio?aiiy aea?aeaai?? oaa?eee i?ia?aeueieo ie??a ne?ei iaoa??aeii”,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aeeeoaoi?a CIOI? a?ae 26.06.1919 ?ieo “I?i caai?iio
naiia?eueiiai ae?oeoaaiiy aac oeaico?e”, a?ae 25.07.1920 ?ieo “I?i
i?aai?caoe?th o?yaeo aeey aeeiioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeanoe a Cao?aeii
Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioaeeoe? a /an? o?eaaiiy iiaiiaeanoee
Aeeeoaoi?a”, oa a?ae 30.08.1920 ?ieo “Eieaa?y oiiaiiaaaeaieo
Aeeeoaoi?a”, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa
oa Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa a?ae 26.01.1919 ?ieo
“Ai?ii? /eieoueae in?a, iaiaia’yceiaeo aei a?enueeiai? neoaeae”,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa, Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa oa Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa caei?aeiiieo
ni?aa a?ae 16.02. 1919 “A ni?aa? ia?aionoie ? ianii?o?a aei iiaei?iae?
oeea?eueieo in?a”, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa
noae?aieoeoaa oa Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa ioae?/ieo ?ia?o a?ae
1.02.1919 ?ieo “A ni?aa? ioi?iie ia?ioe?a”, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa a?ae 22.04.1919 ?ieo “I?i iiai?oaaiiy
oaaa?ieoeoaa” oa “A ni?aa? ae??oaiiy aeeae?anueeeo aaoiiiiieo i?aa a
CIOI?” oa ?i.

– Aaaaeaii o iaoeiaee ia?a cia/io e?euee?noue a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, o
yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii ae?yeuei?noue COI? o ??cieo aaeocyo aea?aeaaiiai
aeeooy ? ye? ia aoee aeei?enoai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iieiaeaiiy, ye? iaa?oioiaaii o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa
aeniiaee, ye? c?iaeaii ia ?o iniia?, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia
nei?enoaoeny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? th?eaee/ieo oa ?ioeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, eo?n?a c i?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? oaeiae i?e
i?iaaaeaii? eaeoe?eii -i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, aiie aeeeaaeai? a iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa o
aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?
caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?” (II ?aa?iiaeueia eiioa?aioe?y Euea?a,
1996), “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?”
(III ?aa?iiaeueia eiioa?aioe?y Euea?a, 1997), “I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?” (IV ?aa?iiaeueia
eiioa?aioe?y Euea?a, 1998), I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y aei
80-??//y ooai?aiiy COI? (Euea?a, 1998).

No?oeoo?ii aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (6
i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, aeiaeaoeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, iaoa, i?aaeiao ? no?oeoo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ia, oai?aoe/ia, aeaea?aeueia aaca,
oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e?: “Noaiiaeua cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o neeaae?
Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o?? oa ooai?aiiy COI?” aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean
aoiaeaeaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo Aano??enueei?
iiia?o??. Aaoi? iieacaa iiceoeai? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoeeny a iie?oe/iiio,
?ae?a?eiiio oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ney
?oiueiai aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo Aano??enueei? ?iia???. Iniaeeai cia/ieo
oni?o?a oe?a?ioe? aeinyaee o 1848 ?ioe? i?ae /an ?aaiethoe??, yeo
no/anieee iaceaaee “aaniith ia?iae?a”, aea oe?a?ioe? ciiaee aeeoe ia
iie?oe/io a?aio, noai?eaoe iie?oe/io i?aai?caoe?th Aieiaio ?onueeo ?aaeo
c i?aaenoaaieoeoaaie ia i?noeyo. O 1848 ?ioe? oe?a?ioe? acyee o/anoue o
aeai?ao aei aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo, ui noaei ii/aoeii ia?eaiaioa?ecio
ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. O/anoue o neia’yinueeiio eiia?an? 1848 ?ioe? o
I?ac? iciaiaioaaea aeo?ae oe?a?ioe?a ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio. C ??cieo
i?e/ei Aieiaia ?onueea ?aaea naii?icionoeeanue o 1851 ?ioe?. *anoeia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? ?ic/a?oaaaoenue o iieiiio?euenuee?e
iiceoe?? aano??enueeiai o?yaeo, noai?eea i?i?in?enueeee ?oo, yeee
ae?noaa iacao “iineaio?euenoaa”. Nai?th ae?yeuei?noth iineaio?ee
caaaeaee cia/ii? oeiaee oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?ooia?.
Ia i?ioeaaao iineaio?eai aeiee ianiaee oe?a?inueeee iao??ioe/iee ?oo,
i?aaenoaaieee yeiai iaceaaee naaa “ia?iaeiaoeyie”. Ia?iaeiaoe? noai?eee
aeani? ae?oeiaai? i?aaie, a a 1868 ?ioe? oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa” oa o 1873
?ioe? ni?eueii c oe?a?ioeyie c Iaaeaei?i?yiueie noai?eee oiaa?enoai
?iai? Oaa/aiea (c 1892 ?ieo Iaoeiaa Oiaa?enoai ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea).

Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia iinooiiai noa? anaoe?a?inueeei iie?oe/iei oa
eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii. O Eueaia? ae?oeoaaee nai? oai?e aeaeaoi?
oe?a?inuee? ienueiaiieee oa a/ai?: A. Aioiiiae/, I. Eoe?o, I. Aia/ie, I.
A?ooaanueeee oa ?i.

O Aaee/ei? ooai?aii ia?o? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ?aaeeeaeueio,
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/io, nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io oa
o?enoeyinueei-noni?eueiee nithc, ye? noaaeee nai?ie i?ia?aiieie oe?eyie
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa aicc’?aeiaiiy an?o
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oa eoeueoo?ia aeeooy
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie i?ioiaeeei aiaeia?/ii aei aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a
Aaee/eie. Aaeeoeuee? oe?a?ioe? iaee aieea ia an? iie?oe/i? oa eoeueoo?i?
i?ioeane na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie. O Aoeiaei? i?ioyaii
1906-1907 ??. aoei ooai?aii iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/io, ?aaeeeaeueio oa
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io ia?o??. Ia Caea?iaoo? iie?oe/ia oa eoeueoo?ia
aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a ia?aaoaaei iaeaea i?ae iiaiei eiio?ieai oai?nueeiai
o?yaeo. ?nioaaee eeoa iineaio?euenuee? i?aai?caoe??.

Aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii oaeiae iania? ?ooe ca iie?auaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua, ye? aoee iioe?ai? na?aae
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy. Oaeiae iieacaii
aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc? ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e. Ia?aae I Na?oiaith a?eiith
oe?a?ioe? aaea iaee 5 aea?aeaaieo oa 15 i?eaaoieo a?iiac?e, iiiaae 3
oeny/? ia?iaeieo (ii/aoeiaeo) oe?e. O Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? aoei7
oe?a?inueeeo eaoaae?, aeoiaeeei 66 ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? oa 4 o A?aei? ? Aoaeaiaoo?. Aeoiaeeee aaeee? iaoeia? aeaeaiiy
“Caienee Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?i. O.Oaa/aiea”, i?aoe? I. A?ooaanueeiai
oa ?i.

O a?oaei? 1912 ?ieo ia?aae caa?icith ?a?iiaenueeiai a?enueeiaiai
eiioe?eoo an? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie e??i
iineaio?euenueeeo cayaeee, ui o ?ac? a?eie i?ae Aano?i-Oai?ueiith ?
?in??th ?oi? ?ioa?ane ni?acao/i? c ?ioa?anaie Aano?i-Oai?ueie. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeeea ? noai?aia 3 na?iiy 1914 ?ieo Aieiaia Oe?a?inueea ?aaea,
yea caa?ioeany aei ia?iaeo c a?aeicaith i?i iaa?? aeia?iaieueoe?a aei
oe?a?inueeiai i?ae?icae?eo aano??enueei? a?i??, yeee io?eiaa iacao
eaa?ii Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a. Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia ii/aeanue
aeey Aano?i-Oai?ueie iaaaeaei. ?in?enueea a?i?y caeiyea Aaee/eio ? aoea
coieiaia o?eueee a Ea?iaoao. Ia oa?eoi??? No?aeii? Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie
caeiyoeo ?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie ooieoe?iioaaei ie?aia Aaeeoeueea
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noai ia /ie? c a?enueeiaei aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii. I?ney
anooio a 1917 ?ioe? o a?eio NOA oa?ace Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie iinooiiai
noeeyeenue ia a?e e?a?i Aioaioe. ?iaey/e ni?iao a?yooaaoe iiia?o?th
oe?na? Ea?e I aeaeaa 16 aeiaoiy 1918 ?ieo Iai?oano i?i ia?aoai?aiiy
Aano?i-Oai?ueie o oaaea?aoeaio aea?aeaao. A oiiaao aeeaiei? aea?aeaaii?
e?ece Oe?a?inueea ia?eaiaionueea ?ai?acaioaoe?y, yea noaea
i?aaiianooiieoeath Aieiaii? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaee, neeeeaea cai?e an?o
oe?a?inueeeo aeaiooao?a aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo, aaeeoeueeiai oa
aoeiaeinueeiai e?aeiaeo naei?a, ?ieneiiaoo oa i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e.

Ia cai?ao, ye? ca aaaeeea?noth i?eeiyoeo ??oaiue io?eiaee iacao
Eiinoeooaioe, aoei ooai?aii Oe?a?inueeo Iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaeo ye aeuee
i?aaenoaaieoeueeee i?aai oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aano?i-Oai?nueei?
iiia?o??. Aieiaith OI ?aaee ia?aii ?. Iao?ooaae/a. Aeena?oaio aiae?co?
??oaiiy OI ?aaee oa oiai/anio noni?eueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th.

I?ney i?eeiyooy OI ?aaeith c ?i?oe?aoeae Oeaio?aeueiiai A?enueeiaiai
Eii?oaoo ??oaiiy i?i ca?ieia iianoaiiy, oe?a?inuee? a?enueeia? /anoeie
aano??enueei? a?i?? o i?/ c 31 aeiaoiy ia 1 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo
caoiieee aeaaeo a nai? ?oee. 1 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo OI ?aaea caa?ioeany
c ?yaeii a?aeica aei oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Aaoi? oaeiae iieacaa ai?ioueao ca a?aeiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia
Aoeiaei?, Caea?iaoo? oa Eaie?auei?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?y oa no?oeoo?a aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo
COI?” ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean ooai?aiiy oa caeiiiaeaa/a ae?yeuei?noue
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo COI?, noai?aiiy ca?ieieo nee oa i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Oeaio?aeuei? oa i?noeaa? i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy. Ceoea COI? ? OI?” aena?oeaii i?ioean
ooai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino? OI ?aaee. Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo, i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. 13 eenoiiaaea
1918 ?ieo OI ?aaea i?eeiyea “Oei/aniaee iniiaiee caeii i?i aea?aeaaio
naiino?ei?noue oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aoaoi? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o??”,
yeee aecia/aa eiinoeoooe?ei? iniiae iiaiooai?aii? aea?aeaae. Aoei
aecia/aii iacao aea?aeaae – Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea,
iniiae aea?aeaaiiai oa noni?eueiiai ono?ith, oa?eoi??th, aea?aeaai?
neiaiee. Aeena?oaioii aiae?cothoueny caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe COI?, ui noaee
i?aaiaith iniiaith aeey ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. “Oei/aniaee
caeii i?i aaei?i?no?aoe?th Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee,”
“I?i aeiiiaiaiiy OI ?aaee a?aeii?o/ieeaie oe?a?inueeeo iia?oiaeo ?
i?nueeeo i?aai?c?oe?e i?no”, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy “I?i aea?aeaao
aaei?i?no?aoe?th COI?”. Aeiiiaiaia i?ney eenoiiaaeiaeo aeai??a 1918 ?ieo
OI ?aaea a e?eueeino? 150 in?a c?a?aeanue ia ii/aoeo n?/iy 1919 ?ieo o
Noai?neaa?, aea i?eeiyea ?yae aaaeeeaeo aeey oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith
caeii?a: “I?i Aeae?e OI ?aaee”, “Aeiiiaithth/ee noaooo OI ?aaee”, “I?i
iacaeiai?noue /eai?a OI ?aaee” oa “Caeii i?i niin?a iiia?uaiiy caeii?a ?
?icii?yaeaeaiue”. Aaoi?, /a?ac aiae?c oeeo caeii?a, iieaco? ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoeeny o no?oeoo?? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee. Aoei ooai?aii Aeae?e OI
?aaee a e?eueeino? 9 in?a, a 10-ei eiai /eaiii noaa I?aceaeaio OI ?aaee.
Aeae?e aeeiioaaa ooieoe?? eieaa?aeueiiai aeaae aea?aeaae. Aeena?oaioii,
ia iniia? i?eeeaae?a c a?o?a?a, iieacaii i?ioean ooai?aiiy i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aaoi?
aeine?aeea no?oeoo?o, ooieoe?? ? caaaeaiiy ie?aieo Aea?aeaaieo
nae?aoa?noa oa i?ioean Ceoee COI? ? OI? a ?aeeio niai?io aea?aeaao .

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?y ca?ieieo nee” iieacaii ia iniia?
aiae?co ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a OI ?aaee, Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo oa
Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa i?ioean noai?aiiy ca?ieieo
nee COI? – Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei? A?i??.

C ia?oeo aei?a i?iaieioaiiy aea?aeaae COI? iieieeanue i?ae caa?icith
a?enueeiai? ?ioa?aaioe?? c aieo iiaiooai?aii? Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, yea
cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea ?? ca oa?eoi???th oa ianaeaiiyi. Iieueua oaeiae
io?eioaaea a?enueeiao oa o?iainiao aeiiiiiao c aieo O?aioe??. 13
eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa
a?enueeiaeo ni?aa caoaa?aeaeaii i?aai?caoe?eii-ooaoio no?oeoo?o ca?ieieo
nee COI?. Aiia aacoaaeanue ia caaaeueiiio a?enueeiaiio iaia’yceo ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiio i?eioeei? eiiieaeooaaiiy. Ia iniia? oeueiai
?icii?yaeaeaiiy oa?eoi??y aea?aeaae aoea iiae?eaia ia 3 a?enueeia?
iaeano? A – Euea?a, A – Oa?iii?eue, A – Noai?neaa oa 12 a?enueeiaeo
ie?oa?a. Aeia?euei? oa neaaii?aai?ciaai? no?oeoo?e Oe?a?inueei?
Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? ia iiaee aeeiioaaoe iinoaaeai? ia?aae a?i??th
caaaeaiiy. I?ney i?ecia/aiiy ia iinaaeo eiiaiaeoaa/a Oe?a?inueei?
Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? aaia?aea I.Iiaeyiiae/a – Iaaeaiea oa ia/aeueieea ooaao
?. Ieoeianueeiai, aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o a?i?? oeyoii
?? iiae?eo ia ei?ione oa a?eaaaee. O neeaae? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei?
A?i?? aoee oae? ?iaee oa aeaee a?enuee: i?oioa, e?iiioa, a?oeea??y,
aa?aoe?y, a?enueeiai-noaeia? i?aaie, aaoa?eia?ia neoaeaa, ?ioaiaeaoo?a
oa /anoeie oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy.

Aeena?oaio i?iaiae?coaaa ii?iaoeai? aeoe OI ?aaee, Aea?aeaaiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo oa Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa, ye? noaee
i?aaiaith iniiaith iiaoaeiae ca?ieieo nee. O ooieoe?? Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa aoiaeeei caaacia/aiiy a?i??
i?aeaioiaeaieie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ? iaoa??aeueieie caniaaie,
ica?i?iiyi oa ai?i?eianaie. Ia i?noeyo eiio i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue
ie?oaei? oa iia?oia? a?enueeia? eiiaiaee, i?aaiaa noaiiaeua yeeo aoei
aecia/aii ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa 3
a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo. Ia/aeueia Eiiaiaea Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? aeeiioaaea
ooieoe?? Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei ea?oaaa a?enueeiaeie
iia?aoe?yie oa cae?enithaaa oi?aae?iiy a?enueeiaeie no?oeoo?aie ia
o?iio? ? o oeeo.

??oaiiyi OI ?aaee a?ae 13 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi
Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa a?ae 5 a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo
aecia/aii iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a Oe?a?inueei?
Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? oa /eai?a ?o n?iae. Oaeiae aoei i?eeiyoi
?icii?yaeaeaiiy uiaei iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oeea?eueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? aoiaeeee aei ooaoo a?enueeiaiai a?aeiinoaa. O ca’yceo
c ?ioeyoe?eieie i?ioeanaie o aeaia ?icii?yaeaeaiiy iaiaeii?aciai
aiineeenue ci?ie. Ia i?aaia?e iniia? a COI? cae?enithaaeanue ?
iia?e?caoe?y aei a?i??. ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi a?ae 27 aa?aciy 1919 ?ieo aoei
aecia/aii ii?yaeie i?eciao ia a?enueeiao neoaeao oa a?aeno?i/eo a?ae
a?enueeiai? neoaeae, yea aoei aeiiiaiaii ?yaeii ?ioeo ?icii?yaeaeaiue.

I?ae /an *i?oe?anueei? ioaiceae (ianooio) o /a?ai? 1919 ?ieo, a?i?y
aeinyaea cia/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ? o?eueee a?aenooi?noue ca?i? oa
ai?i?eian?a ia aeaee ciiae ?icaeiooe oni?o. O oeae /an aoei i?iaaaeaia
/anoeiaa ?ai?aai?caoe?y a?i?? oa oeeiaeo neoaea. Noai?aii Cai?eey,
eiiaiaeo Aoaio A?i?? oa i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i ooai?aiiy aeaio iiaeo
ei?ion?a.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie COI?” ?icaeyiooi i?ioean
noai?aiiy i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a COI? (noaeiai-i?ieo?i?nueeeo,
a?enueeiai? thnoeoe??, aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia???). 21 eenoiiaaea 1918
?ieo OI ?aaea i?eeiyea caeii “I?i oei/aniao i?aai?caoe?th
noae?aieoeoaa”, ca yeei noai?aii nenoaio noaeiaeo i?aai?a COI?, ui
aeeth/aei iia?oiaee noae, ie?oaeiee noae oa Aeuee Noae COI?. Noaeii
iaeaeui? ?inoaioe?? iaa noaoe Iaeaeuee Noae COI? o Eueaia?. Ca?aeii
iinoaiiae OI ?aaee ia oa?eoi??? COI? i?iaeiaaeoaaei ae?yoe noa?a
aano??enueea caeiiiaeaanoai, yeui aiii ia noia?a/eei oe?eyi oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. Aiii noaei iaei??th c iniia caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? o
aea?aeaa?. On? noaeae? oa i?aoe?aieee noae?a ciaia’ycoaaeenue i?eeiyoe
i?enyao ia a??i?noue Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?.

Aeey io?eiaiiy iinaaee noaeae? iaiao?aeii aoei neeanoe ?nieo ia?aae
niaoe?aeueiith eii?n??th. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iayai?noue a?eueieo
noaeae?anueeeo iinaae iaiaeii?aciai ae?oeoaaeanue o i?an?. Aeey
cae?eniaiiy noaei/einoaa, o ca’yceo c ao?aoith noieeoe? aea?aeaae i.
Eueaiaa oa a?enueeiaeie ae?yie, aoei ooai?aii noaeia? naiaoe I?? oa II
?inoaioe??, ye? noai?thaaeenue ia i?noe? Iaeaeuiai oa Aeuiai Noae?a
COI?. Ooieoe?? caeioaa/aiiy aeeiioaaee i?aaie aea?aeaaii? i?ieo?aoo?e.
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo a?ae 18 a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo
aoei noai?aii no?oeoo?o i?aai?a i?ieo?aoo?e COI?, yeo iaa i/ieeoe
Aaia?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee i?ieo?i?. Ie?aiei ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa?noaa noae?aieoeoaa o?aaoeueiaoaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue iioa??aoo.
Iioa??one, ye? neeaee i?enyao ia a??i?noue aea?aeaa?, noaaaee
iioa??onaie COI?. Ae?yee oaeiae i?aaie aaeaieaoo?e. Aeena?oaioii
i?iaiae?ciaaii ? ?io? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe i?aai?a aeaaee, ui noaee
iniiaith noai?aiiy noaeiai? nenoaie COI?. O COI? ae?yee ? i?aaie
a?enueeiai? thnoeoe??. Ia?oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ii ?? noai?aiith i?eeiyoi
Aea?aeaaiei Nae?aoa??aoii 16 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo. Aiia neeaaeaeanue c
ie?oaeiiai a?enueeiaiai noaeo, iaeaniiai a?enueeiaiai noaeo oa Iaeaeuiai
a?enueeiaiai o?eaoiaeo. Ooieoe?? caeioaa/aiiy a ie?oaeieo noaeao
aeeiioaaa noaeiaee io?oea?, i?e iaeanieo noaeao -a?enueeiaee i?ieo?i?, a
i?e Iaeaeu?i a?enueeia?i o?eaoiae? – Aaia?aeueiee a?enueeiaee i?ieo?i?
aai eiai canooiiee. Aaia?aeueiiai a?enueeiaiai i?ieo?i?a, ye ?
Aaia?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai i?ieo?i?a i?ecia/aii ia aoei.

?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo a?ae 3 a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo
ooai?aii i?e eiaei?e ie?oaei?e eiiaiae? iieueia? noaee. O n?/i? 1919
?ieo aoei noai?aii iieueiaee noae Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee Aaeeoeueei? A?i??
oa iieueia? noaee a?oie “I?ai?/”, “I?aaeaiue” oa “Euea?a”. I?ney
?ai?aai?caoe?? a?i?? ooai?aii iieueia? noaee ?, ??, ??? ei?ionao oa
12-oe a?eaaaeao. Aaoi?ii ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao aiae?co?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue a?enueeiaeo noae?a ia ??cieo aoaiao
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? a?eie. I?ae /an ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?inueei?
Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? ia oa?eoi??th Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie ooai?aii
a?enueeiai-iieueia? noaee Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee Aaeeoeueei? A?i??,
iieueia? noaee I, II, III ei?ion?a, iieueiaee noae aeoeieo N?/iaeo
No??eueoe?a oa iieueiaee noae Aoaiii? iaeano? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei?
A?i??.

Cia/i? caneoae o aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? oa caaacia/aii? ii?yaeeo a
iia?oao e?ath iaeaaeaee aea?aeaai?e aeaiaea?ia???. ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi
Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa 16 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo
noai?aii ie?oaei? eiiaiaee aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia??? oa i?nuee? ?
n?euenuee? noaieoe? aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia???. Caeiiii OI ?aaee a?ae 15
ethoiai 1919 ?ieo aoei aianaii ci?ie o noa?a aano??enueea caeiiiaeaanoai
i?i aeaiaea?ia??th. Eaeo/e ca i?eeeaaeii aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i ?a?iie
aea?aeaaio aeaiaea?ia??th ia?aaeaii Aea?aeaaiiio nae?aoa?noao aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. A oe?eiio oa?eoi??y aea?aeaae iiae?eyeanue ia 23 a?aeae?eaiiy
aeaiaea?ia???, oaeiae ae?yea ia?iaeia i?e?oe?y, a a ie?aieo i?noao
a?aeae?ee ?a?aenueei? i?e?oe??. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
iieacaii ae?yeuei?noue ?yaeo ie?oaeieo eiiaiae aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia???
oa i?aee?aneaii cia/aiiy aeaiaea?ia??? aeey aaciaee aea?aeaae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue COI?”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny caeiiioai?/?noue Oe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee,
Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo, ie?aieo Aea?aeaaieo nae?aoa?noa, a oaeiae ?o
i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue c i?aai?caoe?? ??cieo aaeocae aea?aeaaiiai
aeeooy. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue COI? a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e aaeoc?” i?iaiae?ciaaii
caoiaee ia?eaiaioo, o?yaeo uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
aea?aeaae. Caeiiaie “I?i aeai?e aei Nieio Cao?aeii? iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee” ? “I?i neeeeaiiy Nieio Cao?aeii? iaeanoe
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee” aecia/aii ii?yaeie ia?aiiy, neeeeaiiy
oa ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo.

Aeai?e aei iiaiia?aiiai ia?eaiaioo iaee a?aeaooeny a /a?ai? 1919 ?ieo.
Aeena?oaioii aeaoaeueii aiae?cothoueny ie?ai? noaoo? oeeo caeii?a, a
oaeiae iieacaii aeaiie?aoe/i?noue aeai?/i? nenoaie COI?. Aaeeaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae a ??cieo aaeocyo aea?aeaaiiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeeooy aecia/aii caeiiii “I?i aaeeaaiiy iiae o aioo??oi?i oa ciai?oi?i
o?yaeoaaii? aeanoae ? o?yae?a, ioae?/ieo ?inoeooo?a ? aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa ia Cao?aei?e iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee”.

Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii ae?yeuei?noue oe?ieiai niaeo?o iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
COI?. Ii?yae ?c iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie o COI? ae?yee i?ioni?eee,
naeyinueei-?ia?oie/? nithce oa ?i.

On? iieuenuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? Aaee/eie
aoee i?ioeaieeaie Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iaei? ?a?aenuee? ia?o??
/anoeiai i?aeo?eioaaee oe?a?ioe?a, ?io? iieye?a. Oe?a?ioe?a a iniiaiiio
i?aeo?eioaaea n?ii?nonueea ia?o?y Aaee/eie, a oaeiae ?a?aenueea
Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaea ye i?aaenoaaieoeueeee i?aai ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy
Aaee/eie. Oe?a?inueea Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaea oa Aea?aeaaiee Nae?aoa??ao
i?eeiyee ?yae ??oaiue uiaei iie?oe/iiai ae??oaiiy ?a?aenueeiai ieoaiiy.
Aee?aeoeaaie Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo i?ae caa?icith e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? caai?iiyeanue aioenai?onueea aa?oaoe?y oa
i?iiaaaiaea. Ia ni?euei?e ia?aae? OI ?aaee oa i?aaenoaaiee?a ?a?aenueei?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i aeeth/aiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
?a?a?a aei aeai?/i? eii?n?? c i?aaii aei?aae/iai aieino.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue COI?
a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e aaeoc?” aeine?aeaeaii caeiiioai?/?noue oa
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaii? aeaaee COI? c i?aai?caoe??
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy. COI? iieieeanue o aaaeeiio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio noaiiaeu? aiane?aeie aaaaoi??/ii? a?eie ?
?ic?ooe. Ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeeeinue ia?aae caa?icith aieiaeo. Ia?oeie
??oaiiyie o?yaeo noaea iiiiiie?caoe?y i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy oa oiaa??a
ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino?. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia oe? caoiaee, neooaoe?y
caeeoeeanue e?eoe/iith. O oeae /an aeiiiiiao iiaeaea Aee?aeoi??y OI?,
yea i?eneaea 1299 aaaii?a c i?iaeoeoaie oa iaaeaea aaeeeo o?iainiao
i?aeo?eieo. Aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeaii i?eeeaaee c ??cieo a?o?aieo
aeaea?ae oa iiaeaii aiae?c caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ni?yiiaaieo, ia
noaa?e?caoe?th nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae.

Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue o aea?aeaa? caeeoaeinue caiaeueia
ieoaiiy oa eiai i?aaeeueia ae??oaiiy. Aiii iaaoaaei ia o?eueee
aeiiii?/iiai, aea ? iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy. Aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaaii
caeiie OI ?aaee “I?i aeaeaniaiiy aaeeeeo oaaoey?ieo iin?einoae”, “I?i
caiaeueio ?aoi?io” oa ?yae ?icii?yaeaeaiue Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo ?
Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa?noaa caiaeueieo ni?aa. I?eeiyooy caeiio “I?i
caiaeueio ?aoi?io” a?aeaoaaeiny o aeoaea aino??e aeeneon?? i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee. Caiaeueia ieoaiiy oe?iei
aeeneoooaaeinue oaeiae o i?an?. Ia i?eeiyooy caiaeueiiai caeiio aieeioea
? oiai/ania noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y. I?eeiyoee caeii iaa
eiii?ii?niee oa?aeoa?: eiio?neiaoaaeenue caie? aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a,
aeaniee?a, ye? c? ca?i?th a ?oeao aithaaee i?ioe Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
oa caie?, ye? ia?aaoaaee o aea?aeaai?e aeaniino? Aano?i-Oai?nueei?
iiia?o??. Caieath iaae?eyeenue o ia?oo /a?ao a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?
oe?a?inueei? a?i?? oa aaccaiaeuei? ? iaeicaiaeuei? naeyie. Caiaeueiee
caeii COI? cia/ii a?ae??ciyany a?ae caiaeueiiai caeiio Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee OI?, ca yeei aoei eiio?neiaaii ? ia?aaeaii o aeani?noue on?
iii?ueoeuee? oa oea?eiai? caie? aac aeeoio. Oaeiae aeine?aeaeaii
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa caoiaee ia?eaiaioo ? o?yaeo i?i a?aeaoaeiao
cieuaii? a?eiith e?a?ie, a?aeiiaeaiiy o?ainii?oo, i?iieneiaino?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue COI?
a aaeoc? ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, ioi?iie caei?ia’y oiui” aeine?aeaeaii
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeaaee o aeua caaaeaieo aaeocyo. C ia?oeo aei?a
?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae i?aaie aeaaee ianiai ia?aaiaeeee iieuenuee? oeiee ia
oe?a?inuee?. Aeoeaii i?aoethaaea o aaeoc? ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e ina?oiy
eii?n?y OI ?aaee. Aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaaii caeiie ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy,
ye? ?aaoethaaee ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a uiaei noai?aiiy
aeanii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie. Oea caeiie – “I?i iniiae oeaaeaeaiiy
oe?eueieoeoaa ia Cao?aei?e iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee”,
“I?i iieaao? i?e ?nieoao o/eoae?a na?aaei?o oe?e”, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy “A
ni?aa? i?eaaoieo oe?e” oa ?yae ?ioeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a. Aiane?aeie
i?eeiyoeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aoei a?aee?eoi 30 na?aaei?o oe?e, c ieo 20
a?iiac?e. A/eoae?a aeciaii aea?aeaaieie neoaeaiaoeyie oa i?enai?ii
neoaeaia? ?aiae. C aeicaieo i?aai?a aeaaee COI? i?iaeiaaeoaaee ae?yoe
iieuenuee? oa ?a?aenuee? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee. Ia a?euei? iinaaee
a/eoae?a iaieiooaaany eiieo?n o i?an?. Aeey iaoa??aeueii? i?aeo?eiee
a/eoae?a oa /eai?a ?oi?o n?iae i?eeiyoi ?yae caeii?a oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue
i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ieaoe. I?aaie aeaaee COI? aaeeoeee ?yae caoiae?a
uiaei i?aeo?eiee eoeueoo?e.

Ii?yae c ?ioeie i?iaeaiaie, ia?aae yeeie iieieeany COI?, caeeoaeanue
aaaeea ai?aeai?ieia?/ia neooaoe?y. Aaeeoeie caoiaeaie OI ?aaee oa
Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo aaeaeiny iaeo?ae?coaaoe ?? caa?iceea?
iane?aeee. Aeena?oaioii oaeiae iieacaia ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa COI? o ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo. Aaoi? aena?oeea
ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa COI? oa ?o ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
c aeeieiiao??th Aee?aeoi??? OI?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo a “aecee?”” i?iaiae?ciaaii
?noi?e/i?, iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ianoaaeie, ui i?ecaaee
aei ao?aoe oa?eoi??? CIOI?. Iieacai? iie?oe/i? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii CIOI? oa Aee?aeoi??? OI?. Ia?aae caa?icith cieuaiiy
aea?aeaae o /a?ai? 1919 ?ieo Aeae?e OI ?aaee oa Aea?aeaaiee Nae?aoa??ao
i?eeiyee ??oaiiy i?i i?iaieioaiiy ?.Iao?ooaae/a iiaiiaeaaeiei
Aeeeoaoi?ii, yeiio ia?aaeaaaeanue any iiaiioa oeea?eueii? oa a?enueeiai?
aeaaee.

Ooieoe?? o?yaeo aeeiioaaea eieaa?y oiiaiiaaaeaieo, ye? aoee iicaaaeai?
i?i?noa?nueei? naiino?eiino?, a aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? /eiiaiee?a aenieiai
?aiao. Aeena?oaioii iieacaii oaeiae a?enueeia? ae?? ia oa?eoi???
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie. Aiane?aeie oeeo a?enueeiaeo ae?e OAA
iieieeanue ia?aae caa?icith cieuaiiy. I?ney /iai eiiaiaeoaaiiy
i?aeienaei aeiaia?? i?i ia?ao?ae a?i?? aei neeaaeo a?i?? Aeai?e?ia, a
i?ci?oa a?eueoiaee?a. Aeeeoaoi? ?. Iao?ooaae/ ?c /eaiaie o?yaeo oa
ioi?iiith ae?oaa 16 eenoiiaaea 1919 ?ieo /a?ac ?oioi?th aei A?aeiy.

2 a?oaeiy 1919 ?ieo o?yaeiaa aeaeaaaoe?y Aee?aeoi??? OI? i?aeienaea
aeaeea?aoe?th, ca yeith a?aeiiaeyeanue a ei?enoue Iieueu? a?ae No?aeii?
Aaee/eie oa oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ia i?ai?/ a?ae ia?. Ia can?aeaii?
/eai?a OI ?aaee, ye? ia?aaoaaee o A?aei?, oa o?yaeo Aeeeoaoi?a 20
a?oaeiy 1919 ?ieo aoei i?aeaeaii e?eoeoe? ae?? /eaia Aee?aeoi??? N.
Iaoeth?e oa i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i neanoaaiiy aeoo Ceoee. E??i oiai,
a?aeeeeeaii i?aaenoaaiee?a CIOI? c ia’?aeiaii? oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe??
a Ia?eae? oa iiaa?iooi noa?o iacao COI?. ?ioeo ae?e ia aoei oiio, ui
iaeaeaa noa’?eoe Ceoee ia?anoaee ?nioaaoe a Oe?a?i? ye aea?aeaae.
Ia?aaoaath/e i?a?ieo a Ia?eae? oa Eiiaeii?, ?. Iao?ooaae/ iinooiiai
a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae o/ano? a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo ni?aaao, iiaa/eaoe
aacia?niaeoeai?noue ?o ae??oaiiy ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? oa
cina?aaeaeo?oueny aeeeth/ii ia aaeeoeueeeo. Iniiaith a ae?yeueiino? noaa
Nai- AEa?iainueeee aeiaia?? oa ??oaiiy e?a?i Aioaioe a?ae 25 /a?aiy 1919
?ieo i?i ieoiaoe?th cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. I?aaiaith iniiaith
ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo noaei ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aeeeoaoi?a COI? a?ae 25 eeiiy
1920 ?ieo “I?i i?aai?caoe?th o?yaeo aeey aeeiioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeanoe
o Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioaeeoe? a /an? o?eaaiiy
iiaiiaeanoee Aeeeoaoi?a”. O?yae Aeeeoaoi?a neeaaeaany c 4-o a?aeae?e?a.
I/iethaaee a?aeae?ee oiiaiiaaaeai? Aeeeoaoi?a. O ?icii?yaeaeaii?
?aaeaiaiooaaeenue an? i?aaa ? iaia’ycee /eai?a o?yaeo Aeeeoaoi?a. O?yae
Aeeeoaoi?a a?a aeoaea aeoeaio aeeieiiaoe/io ae?yeuei?noue oa i?iaiaeea
?iaioo c i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo /anoei, ui ciaoiaeeeenue
ia oa?eoi??? *aoineiaa//eie. Aeaeaaaoe?? COI? a?aee o/anoue o ??cieo
i?aeia?iaeieo ia?aaiai?ao, nan?yo, eiioa?aioe?yo. Iaei??th c ia?aiia
aeeieiiao?? COI? noaa, ?icaeyae ni?aae No?aeii? Aaee/eie ia nan?? E?ae
Iaoe?e a Ia?eae? o 1921 ?ioe?, aea aoei aeciaii iieuenueeo ieoiaoe?th
e?ath oa noaa?ai?oao e?a?i Aioaioe iaae No?aeiith Aaee/eiith. I?ney
oeueiai o?yae COI? i?aeaiooaaa ? iiaeaa ?aae? E?ae Iaoe?? ? ?aae? iine?a
Aioaioe i?iaeo eiinoeoooe?? COI? “I?iaeo iniia aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith
Aaeeoeueei? ?anioae?ee”. Aaoi? aiae?co? oeae i?iaeo, a oaeiae i?iaeo
eiinoeoooe?? /eaia OI ?aaee i?ioani?a i?aaa N.Aei?no?yinueeiai. Ci?ie
iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa a e?a?iao Aioaioe a?ae?a?aee iaaaoeaio ?ieue a
aeie? No?aeii? Aaee/eie. I?aaie aeaaee Iieueu?, i?eeiyaoe ?yae
i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo caeii?a, i?iaeiaaeoaaee aanoe e?i?th ia iiaio
ieoiaoe?th e?ath. Iieuenueeee naei 26 aa?aniy 1922 ?ieo ooaaeea caeii
i?i ai?aiaenueeo aaoiiii?th, ca yeei o Euea?anueeiio, Oa?iii?euenueeiio
oa Noai?neaanueeiio ai?aiaenoaao noai?thaaeenue ai?aiaenuee? naeieee.
Naeieee iiaee i?eeiaoe ae?oai?yaei? caeiie ye? aeiaaaee naieoe??
i?aceaeaioa aea?aeaae. Aea ? oey aaoiiii?y caeeoeeanue ia iaia??. I?ney
/iai eaeo/e iacono??/ iieuenueeei aeiiaai o aa?aci? 1923 ?ieo e?a?ie
Aioaioe ia?aaeaee No?aeio Aaee/eio Iieueu? aac aoaeue-yeeo
canoa?aaeaiue. O o?aai? 1923 ?ieo Aeeeoaoi? ?. Iao?ooaae/ ?icionoea
o?yae oa aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa COI?.

O aeniiaeao, ui caaa?oothoue ?iaioo, i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aee?aneaii cia/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo COI? aeey oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa c?iaeaii
i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio
no/anii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Iniiaieie aeniiaeaie ? oae?:

1. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oe?a?ioe?a, ui i?iaeeaaee o neeaae? ?in?enueei?
?iia??? oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy Aano?i-Oai?ueie, aeei?enoiaoth/e ia?aaaae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eiinoeoooe?eii? iiia?o??, io?eiaei cia/ii e?au?
oiiae aeey naiai iie?oe/iiai oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?icaeoeo. O
nai?io aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo oe?a?ioe? Aano?i-Oai?nueei?
iiia?o?? ia iinooiaeeny ?ioei ia?iaeai ?iia???, ye? noai?eee aeani?
aea?aeaae.

2. Iiceoeaiei o noai?aii? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aaiai? nenoaie
COI? noaei oa, ui aiia ia i?oea oeyoii ?aaiethoe?eieo, nioe?aeueieo
aenia?eiaio?a, cie?aia, ia aoei iiai?noth e?ea?aeiaaii noa?a
aano??enueea caeiiiaeaanoai, yea i?iaeiaaeoaaei ae?yoe, ine?eueee ia
noia?a/eei oe?eyi Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Oea noaei iaei??th c aa?aio?e
caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae, ine?eueee e?ea?aeaoe?y noa?iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? a?aenooi?noue iiaiai iiaee i?ecaanoe aei i?aaiaiai
i?a?e?cio oa aia?o?? a aea?aeaa? (ye oea iaei i?noea ia oa?eoi???
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie).

3. Ae?yeuei?noue OI ?aaee ? Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo a aeoaea aaaee?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? aea?aeaae ia caaaeaee aoea aoaeoeaiith
oa ae??aith. Oea iniaeeai noinoaaeinue ae??oaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy,
caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy oiaa?aie ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino? oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. Aei iaaeie?e?a ?iaioe aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo a aaeoc? ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy ne?ae oaeiae a?aeianoe
aeiaie? iioe?aia na?aae aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a eaciie?aaenoai,
oaaa?ieoeoai ? ceiaaeeaaiiy neoaeaiaei noaiiaeuai. I?aaie aeaaee ia
caaaeaee aaee c oeei ceii aoaeoeaio ai?ioueao.

4. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? iaaeie?ee oa i?i?aooiee, aea?aeaaiee aia?ao
COI? o oe?eiio aoa aeenoeeie?iiaaiee, eaae?o?eiaaiee oa
aenieii?aai?ciaaiee, i?i ui iaiaeii?aciai caaaeoaaee iie?oe/i? oa
a?enueeia? ae?y/? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie oa aeine?aeieee ?noi???
COI?. Iniiaith eiai ae?yeueiino? aoa aenieee iao??ioeci oa aea?oiai?noue
a ?i’y niai?ii? Oe?a?ie. Oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo COI?
a?aeaoaaeinue ia aeaiie?aoe/i?e iniia?; ia ?nioaaei aeiaeieo i?aaiaeo
aeo?a, ui iaiaaeoaaee a i?eeii ia aea?aeaaio neoaeao ca iaoe?iiaeueiith
oa ?ae?a?eiith iciaeaie.

5. Noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? noaei na?ae/aiiyi
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio COI? oa aenieiai iao??ioecio
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oe?a?inueea Aaeeoeueea A?i?y aoea eaae?iaith
a?i??th, ui aacoaaeanue ia caaaeueiiio a?enueeiaiio iaia’yceo oa
oa?eoi??aeueiiio i?eioeei? eiiieaeooaaiiy c on?ia a?enueeiaeie oa
oeeiaeie no?oeoo?aie. Aoae?aieoeoai a?i?? a?aeaoaaeiny oaeiae ia
i?aaia?e iniia?.

6. I?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie COI?, iniaeeai noaeia?, aoee iaea?eueo
i?ioan?eiith oa eaae?o?eiaaiith eaieith aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio. O
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aaiao i?aoethaaea cia/ia e?euee?noue i?aeaioiaeaieo
niaoe?ae?no?a ? aiie, a oe?eiio, aeeiiaee iinoaaeai? ia?aae ieie
caaaeaiiy.

7. O COI? aoei ooai?aii aeaiie?aoe/io iie?oe/io nenoaio, o ye?e oe?iei
i?aaenoaaeaii aanue niaeo? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenueeeo oa
i?ioni?eeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e. E??i oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, o iie?oe/io
nenoaio aoiaeeee ? ?a?aenuee? ia?o?? oa i?aai?caoe??. Caeiiiaeaanoai
COI? aa?aiooaaei oe?ieee ianya iie?oe/ieo i?aa ? naiaiae – ae?oeo,
neiaa, i?oeia?a ? cai??a, iaaeioi?eai?noue iniae oa ?i.

On? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe COI? caaacia/oaaee oe?ieo o/anoue iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaith oa aa?aiooaaee ?i iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i?
oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? i?aaa. Ca ii?ooaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ??aiii?aaiino?
ia?aaeaa/aeenue naieoe?? e?ei?iaeueiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa
aeenoeeie?ia?iiai oa?aeoa?o.

8. Cia/ieo oni?o?a i?aaie aeaaee COI? aeinyaee o aaeoc? ina?oe, aea ia
i?aaia?e iniia? aoei noai?aii aeanio nenoaio ii/aoeiai? oa na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe, a oiio /ene? i?eaaoii?. Ae?th/eie caeiiiaeaa/eie aeoaie COI?
aa?aiooaaeinue iaa/aiiy ??aeiith iiaith oaeiae i?aaenoaaieeai
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

9. Aeeieiiaoe/ia neoaeaa COI? i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy i?aai?a aeaaee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo i?aoethaaea ia ia aeineoue aenieiio ??ai?,
ia ui iaee aieea ye ia’?eoeai?, oae ? noa’?eoeai? /eiieee.
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueea aeeieiiao?y i?ia?aea iieuenuee?e noi?ii? ai?ioueao
ca aeciaiiy aea?aeaae ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Iayai?noue ia?aeaeueieo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa COI? ? OI? caaaeaei cia/ii? oeiaee
?i?aeaeo Oe?a?ie o na?o? oa o ?? ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue.

10. Ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeaaee i?ae /an i?iaieioaiiy I?aceaeaioa OI
?aaee ?. Iao?ooaae/a Aeeeoaoi?ii oa a ia??iae ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?yaeiaeo
no?oeoo? ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaaeanue oaeiae ia i?aaia?e oa
aeaiie?aoe/i?e iniia?. O?yae COI? a “aecee?”, ia?aaoaath/e o aeoaea
iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao, aeinya iaaieo oni?o?a a aeeieiiaoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? oa i?aaioai?/ino?.

11. A oe?eiio aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci COI?, iacaaaeath/e ia oyaeea
a?enueeiaa oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua aea?aeaae, caaacia/oaaa
?? ii?iaeueio aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue. Ioaea, ia ?nioaaei na?eicieo
aioo??oi?o i?e/ei ao?aoe iacaeaaeiino?. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ao?aoe
aea?aeaaiino? COI? noaea ciai?oiy aa?an?y iaaaaaoi neeuei?oeo ai?ia?a –
Iieueu? ? ?oioi??.

12. Ooai?aiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee
– noaei oaeoii aaee/aciiai i?aeia?iaeiiai oa aioo??oiuei-oe?a?inueeiai
cia/aiiy. Cia/ii c?inea iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue oe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy ? a??a o aeani? neee. ?nioaaiiy COI? noai?eei ?aaeueio aaco
aeey iaeaooiuei? ai?ioueae ca a?aeiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? niai?ii?
aea?aeaae.

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio no/anii? Oe?a?ie
aeena?oaio i?iiiio? ianooii? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee aa?oi canoinoaaoe aeina?ae COI?, aea an?
eaae?ia? ieoaiiy aoee cina?aaeaeai? a iniaiaiio a?aeae?e? Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa. A?i i?iaiaeea onth ?iaioo uiaei i?aeai?o
oa ?icnoaiiaee eaae??a o i?noeaaeo i?aaiao aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee. Ia?aeaeueieo no?oeoo?, o eiiiaoaioe?? yeeo ciaoiaeeeenue
eaae?ia? ieoaiiy, ia ?nioaaei. Oeae aeina?ae oaeiae aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoaoe o no/ani?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?, aea ?niothoue ia?aeaeuei?
no?oeoo?e Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a, o
eiiiaoaioe?? yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny eaae?ia? ieoaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aeaiie?aoeci o oi?ioaaii? noaeiaeo i?aai?a. TH?enoe,
ye? i?ney cae?i/aiiy oi?aa?neoaoo oa i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaia’yceiaiai
aeai??/iiai noaaeoaaiiy aeey io?eiaiiy iinaaee noaeae?, neeaaeaee ?nieo
ia?aae niaoe?aeueiith aecaiaiaoe?eiith eii?n??th, aei neeaaeo yei?
aoiaeeee i?ioani?e i?aaa, noaeae? oa aaeaieaoe. I?ecia/aiiy ia iinaaee
a?aeaoaaeinue ia eiieo?ni?e iniia?. Eiieo?n iaieiooaaany o caniaao
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oeae aeina?ae aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe aeey
?icoe?aiiy aeaiie?aoecio ? aeaniino? o oi?ioaaii? noaeiaeo i?aai?a
Oe?a?ie.

Aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? ?iaioe i?aai?a aaeaieaoo?e o COI? ae?yea
Aaeaieaonueea iaeaoa. Aei ?? iiaiiaaaeaiue aoiaeea oaeiae iaaeyae ca
aeio?eiaiiyi aaeaieaoaie ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ii?aeueieo
i?eioeei?a i?e cae?eniaii? nai?? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Ca ?o
ii?ooaiiy aiia iiaea caa?oaoenue aei aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a i?i iicaaaeaiiy
ie?aieo in?a aaeaieaonueei? e?oeaic??. Iiae?aio i?aeoeeo aa?oi aoei a
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ae?yeueiino? no/anii? oe?a?inueei? aaeaieaoo?e.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo

Eiaeeaoeueeee I.I. Noae ? noaei/einoai o COI?. // I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1997 ?ieo). – Euea?a, 1997. N. 117-120.

Eiaeeaoeueeee I.I. A?enueeiaa noaei/einoai o COI?. // I?aaiaa aea?aeaaa.
Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. E – 1998. Aeione 9. N. 424-429.

Eiaeeaoeueeee I.I. Ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia??? COI?. //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. E. – 1998 – ?5, N. 100-101.

Eiaeeaoeueeee I.I. Ooai?aiiy oa no?oeoo?a aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo COI?. –
Euea?a, 1998. 5,6 ae?oe. ae?.

Aiioaoe?y

Eiaeeaoeueeee I.I. Ooai?aiiy COI?, ?? aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci oa
ae?yeuei?noue

(1918-1923 ??.)

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01. – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa,
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue. – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia ooai?aiiy COI? oa
ae?yeuei?noue ?? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ia iniia? aiae?co
?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo oaeo?a, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a oa
aeieoiaio?a. Iniaeeaa oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe i?aai?a
aeaaee COI?, ye? aei nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy ia aoee cian?i, aai aoee
eeoa /anoeiai, ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. C?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i
ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio oa iiaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo COI? aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeaaee no/anii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci, aea?aeaaiee aia?ao, i?aaiioi?iii?
i?aaie, caeiiioai?/?noue, i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?aaiaa iniiaa.

Aiiioaoeey

Eiaueaoeeee I.I. Ia?aciaaiea COI?, aa ainoaea?noaaiiue iaoaieci e
aeayoaeueiinoue (1918-1923 aa.)

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01. – oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa,
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. – Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?iaeaia ia?aciaaiey COI? e aeayoaeueiinoue
aa ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia ia iniiaa aiaeeca enoi?eei-i?aaiauo
oaeoia, a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia e aeieoiaioia.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoai i?aaiia aeanoe COI?,
eioi?ua aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy ia yaeyeenue nianai eee auee oieueei
/anoe/ii iauaeoii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Naeaeaiu auaiaeu i
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia, e iiaeaiu
iao/ii-iainiiaaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii eniieueciaaiey iiuoa
COI? aeey oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aeanoe nia?aiaiiiai
Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiue iaoaieci, ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu, caeiiioai?/anoai, ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea,
i?aaiaay iniiaa.

Annotation

Kobyletskiy M. M. Formation of WUNR (Western Ukrainian National
Republic), its State Mechanism and Activity (1918-1923).

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences with
specialisation in 12.00.01. – Theory and History of State and Law,
History of Political and Legal Studies. – Ivan Franko Lviv State
University, Lviv, 1998.

In the dissertation there is studied the problem of formation of WUNR
and activity of its state mechanism on the basis of the analysis of
historical legal facts, archival materials, acts and documents.

The special attention is given to the acts of governmental bodies of
WUNR, which till present were not absolutely or were only partially
objects of scientific research. There were made conclusions on the
activity of state mechanism and there were given theoretically
substantiated recommendations concerning the use of experience of WUNR
for the improvement of activity of governmental bodies of the modern
Ukraine.

Key words: the state mechanism, State machinery, law-protecting bodies,
law making, local self-government, legal basis.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 20.11.98 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ae?oe (1.

Ae?oe ?ecia?ao?y. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e.1,25. Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1,2.

Oiiai.-oa?a. a?aea. 1,2. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ?1841.

AEI “AIN”. 290035, aoe. Eeiiaa aeay, 9.

Eiceinueeee I. Aaee/eia a ??. 1918-1920. – Iueth-Ei?e., 1970. –
N.45-46.

Ae?ei. – 1918 ?. – 17 eenoiiaaea.

A?noiee Aea?aeaaieo caeii?a ? ?icii?yaee?a Cao?aeii? Iaeanoe
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.- Aeione 1. – 31 n?/iy 1919 ?. –
N.2-3.

A?noiee Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa??aoo a?enueeiaeo ni?aa. – *.2 –
Oa?iii?eue, 14 a?oaeiy 1918. – N.5-6.

?aioaeeea. – 1919. – 4 ea?oiy.

A?noiee Aea?aeaaieo caeii?a ? ?icii?yaee?a Cao?aeii? iaeanoe
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioaeeee. – Aeione 3. – 2 aa?aciy 1919. –
N.12-13.

A?noiee Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa??aoo a?enueeiaeo ni?aa. – *.1. –
Oa?iii?eue., 1918. – 1 a?oaeiy. – N.1-2.

Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie o i. Eueaia?. – O
581. – Ii.1. – Ni?. 96. – A?e. 26-27.

Oe?a?inueeee i?aii?. – 1920. – 1 na?iiy.

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