?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE

AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

ssno?aaiaa Aaeaioeia sse?aia

OAeE 37.026:37.015

OI?AAE?IIss I?CIAAAEUeIITH Ae?ssEUeI?NOTH

O*I?A NOA?OEO EEAN?A CAAAEUeIIINA?OI?O OE?E

(CA IAOA??AEAIE AEA*AIIss AOIAI?OA?IEO AeENOeEIE?I)

13.00.01– oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a

1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: I?EOIAeUeEI Ieeiea ?ee?/, aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oi?aae?iiy ? nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: CssCTHI ?aai Aiae??eiae/, aeieoi? o?einionueeeo
iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie;

INO?IAA?OIAA Iaae?y Ieoaee?aia, eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.452.03 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252014, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aano?iiia, 9

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee
AII Oe?a?ie (252014, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aano?iiia, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee i?ioani? I.I.Eaaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth noa?oieeaniee?a o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo coiiaeaia no?aoaa?/iith iaoith
?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, yea aecia/aia aea?aeaaiith
iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith “Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)”, iio?aaith
iino?eiiai aeooiaiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? a oiiaao
aeaiie?aoe/iiai oa aoiaiiiai noni?euenoaa, ci???ioiaaiiai ia aenie?
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?. Aaaeeea?noue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oe???
i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny oaeiae a?aenooi?noth iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
naiino?eiei i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? i?iaeaia oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo, a oaeiae iio?aaaie
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, o ye?e ia ciaoiaeyoue ?aae?caoe?? ye caaaeueia
oai??y oi?aae?iiy, oae ? caaaeueia oai??y i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa
i?ciaaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ui iicia/a?oueny ia i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? ye o/i?a, oae ? a/eoae?a. Nooue i?iaeaie cai?iiiiiaaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? oa i?aeoe/i?e
ai?iaaoe?? i?eioeei?a, niinia?a, i?eeii?a oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth noa?oieeaniee?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i
aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo ia eiioeaiooaeueieo canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai,
ae?yeuei?niiai oa aen?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiae?a, aecia/aii? nenoaiii?
noeoiiino? oiia, ye? caaacia/aoue ?icaeoie aeooiaii? noa?e iniaenoino? o
aoiai?oa?ii-ina?oiueiio i?ioean?.

Oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a ? iaei??th c
iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai iaaeaaia?ee oa iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??. Oe?e
i?iaeai? i?enay/ai? ye oai?aoe/i?, oae ? i?aeoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ia?aeieo a/aieo oa i?aeoee?a: TH.E.Aaaainueeiai, E.?.Aiaeiae/,
A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa, ?.A.Cycthia, A.N.Einothea, A.?.Eiciai?, N.E.?oa?iooaeia,
I.O.Oaeec?ii?, A.?.Uoe?ii? oa ?i. Aiaeii/an ?c caaaeueieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
aeeaeaeoe/iiio caaacia/aiith oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy
(A.?.Aiiaea?), aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
(N.O.Aii/a?aiei), iioeaaoe?? iaa/aiiy (I.?.Aeaen??aa), aeoea?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? (A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, I.?.I?aeeanenoee,
?.O.Oaaei?aiei), iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaiiio iaa/aiith (?.N.sseeiainueea).
I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia canaaeao
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai i?aeoiaeo, no?oeoo?a oa eiiiiiaioe i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noaee
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiue ?.I.A?eica?oeaaa, I.A.Ee?e/oea, A.N.Eiaca?y,
A.?.Eoaiaiai, ?.?.Iaoaeoey, I.A.Ie/eaei oa ?i. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ?icaeyaeo
oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a ye aeeiiaiiy oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy ooieoe?e noa’?eo?a iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano ia? i?noea o
i?aoeyo A.I.Aaciaeueea, A.I.Aiaaeaiiai?, I.A. Aoa??y,
TH.A.Eiia?aeaanueeiai, I.?.I?eoiaeueea, I.ss.Naa/aiei oa ?ioeo.

Oeiiiinoue aeuacacia/aieo aeineiaeaeaiue iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie
i???ioothoue ia noa’?eoiinoue iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia,
?icaeyaeathoue aeiaeaeoe/io aca?iiaeith ciaiioiio oa aioo?ioiio oaeoi?ia
o i?ioeani iaa/aiiy, aeae?eythoue oaei iciaee noa’?eoa iiciaiiy, ye
noi?iiaaiinoue iiciaaaeueieo iio?aa, iioeaia, iioa?ania, onaiaeiieaiiy;
i?iiiiothoue caniae oi?aaeiiiy, ui caaacia/othoue aeoeaiinoue
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi oeiey?ia, ni?eythoue iaieiae?iith
nioeiaeueieie, aeeaeaeoe/ieie oa ineoieiai/ieie iaoiaeaie oi?aaeiiiy.

Aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae oa i?aeoe/iiai aeinaiaeo aenaioeth?
i?iaeaio, yea a aniaeoi aoiaiioa?ecaoeii inaioe, aeciaiiy o/iy noa’?eoii
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiinoi: iaeiie/aii
oai?aoe/ii caeiaooee iaaeaaiai/ii? iaoee a oi?aaeiiii iiciaaaeueiith
aeiyeueiinoth oeiey?ia ia ioiieththoue niaoeeoiee iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o aea/aiii aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeieii.

Aeai? oaie aeena?oaoei? “Oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia
noa?oeo eeania caaaeueiiinaioiio oeie (ca iaoa?iaeaie aea/aiiy
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i)” coiiaeaiee iaiaoiaeiinoth ae?ioaiiy iaeii?? c
aeooaeueieo i?iaeai inaioe a Oe?a?ii – iiaeianaiiy ?iaiy oi?aaeiinueei?
aeiyeueiinoi iaaeaaiaia i iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia, iioeaaoei?
oa yeinoi ciaiue c i?aaeiaoia aoiaiioa?ieo iaoe ye /eiieeia ?icaeoeo
aeooiaii? noa?e iniaenoinoi.

Ia?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy ca’ycaiee c ieaiii
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe oaeoeueoaoo nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae aaeocaaith
i?ia?aiith “Oi?aae?iiy no/aniei iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?i caeeaaeii”.

Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy: aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i
aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe eiai
ci?noiaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? eiiiiiaioe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, iaoiaee oa caniae canoinoaaiiy no/anieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e o aoiai?oa?ii-ina?oiueiio i?ioean?.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei iaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee aecia/aii oaei caaaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/eoe ia“?eo, i?aaeiao, e?eoa?i? oa iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oa
iioeiaeueiinoi oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o
i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeieii.

2. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aai?eoe iaoaiicie
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi oa oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ??
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oa iioeiaeueiinoue.

3. ?ic?iaeoe aeiaaiinoe/iee iino?oiaioa?ie iiiioi?eiao iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia.

4. Ie?aneeoe niiniae oa i?eeiie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
o/iia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a aoiaiioa?iiai oeeeeo.

5. Iiaeaiooaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aeey ea?iaieeia oa a/eoaeia
caaaeueiiinaioiio oeie uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o aoiaiioa?ii-ina?oiueiio
i?ioean?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiii i
eiie?aoecaoei? nooiinoi iaoe, ciinoo, no?oeoo?e iiiyoue “ia’?eo oa
i?aaeiao”, “i?iaeoeo oa ?acoeueoao”, “iioeiicoth/i oaeoi?e oa i?eeiie”
oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia o aaeoc? aoiai?oa?ii?
ina?oe; aia?oa iiaeaii ae?aaiinoe/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e iii?oi?eiao
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo; ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie aea/aiiy ci?noo oa iniiaieo oiia ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey o
cae?eniaii? oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e; noai?aii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aii nenoaiii-oe?eueiao i?ia?aio oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a i?e aea/aii? aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ea??aiee?a oe?e, a/eoae?a ?
i?aai?caoi??a ina?oe uiaei noai?aiiy oiia aeey caaacia/aiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ?acoeueoaoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i. Aiie
aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ae?iaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?ae?aa?iiaeueii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy no/anieie
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie ina?oe” (Caii??aeaey, 1996 ?.),
noai?aiiy Iieiaeaiiy i?i iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee eiiieaen o CINO ?30
i.Caii??aeaey.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao ? 32, 49, 51, a aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oeieao Eai?inueeiai oa Oi?oeoeueeiai ?aeii?a i.Caii??aeaey, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny eiie?aoieie aeieoiaioaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iaea?aeaiii iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoia
aecia/a?oueny noai?aiiyi ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai eiiieaeno
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai caeeaaeo oa ?ic?iaeaiiyi nenoaiii-oeieueiaii
i?ia?aie iioeiicaoeii oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia
noa?oeo eeania o aoiaiioa?iie inaioi.

Aeinaiae ?iaioe aaoi?a ocaaaeueiaiee Caii?icueeei iaeaniei iinoeoooii
aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoaeia, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei oeaio?ii i?e Caii?icueeiio
iinueeoi,Eaiiinueeei ?aeiiiei aiaeaeieii inaioe i.Caii?iaeaey.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii?eethaeiaii ia i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Ineoieia?/ia iaoea ? no/aniee caeeaae ina?oe” (Caii??aeaey, 1994 ?.),
“Oi?aae?iiy no/anieie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie a nenoai? ina?oe”
(Caii??aeaey, 1996 ?.), “Noai?aiiy ?i?aeaeo no/aniiai caeeaaeo ina?oe”
(Caii??aeaey, 1997 ?.), a oaeiae iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee oaeoeueoaoo nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? oa eaoaae?e oi?aae?iiy ? nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1996, 1997 ?.?.), ia can?aeaii?
a/aii? ?aaee Caii??cueeiai iaeaniiai ?inoeoooo aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a
(1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o noaoo? a aeo?iae?
“??aeia oeiea” (1997 ?., ?6), o?ueio ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa iaeaniiai ?inoeoooo
aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a (1997, 1998 ?.?.), iaoa??aeao i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e o i. Caii??aeae? (1994, 1996, 1997
?.?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 268
iaeiaioaaiue, iaeiiai aeiaeaoeo ia 14 noi??ieao. Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe
noaiiaeoue 197 noi??iie (156 noi??iie – iniiaia /anoeia), yea i?noeoue 3
noaie, 13 oaaeeoeue, 2 ae?aa?aie ia 14 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii ia’?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeai? oa aeooaeueiinoue oaie, aecia/aii iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/io cia/ouinoue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei “Oai?aoe/ii oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii iniiae
aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia” iiaea?oueny inoi?e/iee iaeyae ?icaeoeo iaeae oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia, caeieniaii aiaeic no/anieo
eiioeaioeie oi?aaeiiiy o iaaeaaiai/iiio i?ioeani, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao oa iaoo i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy
aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao oa iaoo oi?aae?iiy,
?ice?eoi nooi?noue iiiyoue “?acoeueoao oa i?iaeoeo” i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o aoiai?oa?ii-ina?oiueiio i?ioean?, ?ice?eoi ci?no, oiiae,
niiniae oa i?eeiie oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth
noa?oieeaniee?a.

O i?ioeani ?icaeoeo iaeae oi?aaeiiiy a iaaeaaia?oei oiiaii iiaeia
aeaeieeoe aeaeieueea aoaiia. Ia?oee aoai iia’ycaiee ic a/aiiyi
E.Aa?aa?oa i?i aaaeeeainoue o?aooaaiiy ii?iao naiaeiiinoi aeey
iaoaiaoe/iiai ia/eneaiiy ineoi/ieo i?ioeania, yea aiaeia?aei aaeeeo
?ieue o oi?ioaaiii aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeaaiaiee oa ineoieiai?, noaei
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith oaeeo iaaeaaiai/ieo i?eioeeiia ye iineiaeiaiinoue,
nenoaiiinoue oiui.

Ae?oaee ia?iiae iia’ycaiee ic ?icaeoeii iaeae oeieiciaanoaa (60-oi ?iee
XX noieiooy) oa iioaineaiei ?icai?oaiiyi ?iaio o aaeoci eiaa?iaoeee e
aeei?enoaiiyi ?? iaeae o iaaeaaiaioei, cie?aia a i?iaeaiiiio oa
i?ia?aiiaaiiio iaa/aiii (A.I.Aaciaeueei, I.I.Iaoiooia, I.O.Oaeeciia,
I.E.Oeoiie?ia oa iioi).

O?aoie ia?iiae aa?a naie ii/aoie a na?aaeeii niiaeanyoeo ?ieia.
Iaoeiaoeyi oeueiai /ano aeanoeaa aieueo oe?iea oeoia/aiiy oi?aaeiiiy ye
aeeiaii/iiai i?ioeano ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai. Iiiioiee aieea ia ?icaeoie
?aeae oi?aae?iiy o iaaeaaia?oe? caeienieee ?iaioe c oi?aaeiiiy
iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii (A.I.No?aceeicii), c iioeiicaoei?
(TH.E.Aaaainueeee), aeoeaicaoei?, iioe-aaoei? iaa/aiiy oa iiaaaeiiee
(I.I.Aeaen??aa, A.I.Uoeiia), ineoieiai/iiai aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi
(TH.I.Eoethoeii, A.N.Nooianueea, ?.O.Oaeo?ia), aeooaeueiinoue yeeo
caa?iaa?oueny e ieii.

O ?iaioao 80-o ?ieia ?ic?iaeythoueny i?iaeaie oi?aaeiiiy inaioith,
caaaeueiiinaioiueith oeieith a oeieiio oa ie?aieie ?? iiae?icaeieaie oa
i?ioeanaie (A.I.Aiaaeaiiaa, A.I.Aiiaea?, A.E.Ao?ye, TH.A.Aaneeue?a,
O.Aaiia oa iioi).

O ieiioiie /an ?icaeaa?oueny ooieoeiiiaeueiee iiaeoiae aei oi?aaeiiiy,
caeienith?oueny iiooe ?iaa?iaioieo iciae oa aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
oi?aaeiiiy, aiaecia/a?oueny oeieani?yiiaaiinoue ye aieiaia ?iaa?iaioia
iciaea oi?aaeiiiy (E.A.Ioaeuenii, I.I.Iioaoiee, I.I.O?aoueyeia,
A.A.Oieiiia oa iioi). Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eaeieythoueny iiooeai oeyoia
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano (A.I.Aa?oiea, I.I.??ueiiii,
A.I.Caaayciinueeee, A.A.Eicaeia) oa i?aeoeoei oi?aaeiiiy aeiyeueiinoth
iaaeaaiaia oa o/iia (A.N.Eiaca?, I.A.Eiia?aeaanueeee, I.I.I?eoiaeueei,
O.I.Oaiiaa, ?.I.ssiao?a). Oi?aaeiiiy eieaeoeaieie oi?iaie ?iaioe o/iia
noaei ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy I.I.Ceiiuei?, I.E.Eaaa?aeiaa,
A.A.Eeoaeai?iaenueeii, I.A.Eyoiaeoeueeiai, I.ss.Naa/aiei, I.I.Uaoiiiia,
oa iioeo. Aeooaeueiioith i?iaeaiith nueiaiaeaiiy noa?
iniaenoinii-i?i?ioiaaiee iiaeoiae aei oi?aaeiiiy iaaeaaiai/ieie
nenoaiaie oa i?ioeanaie.

A inoaiii ?iee c’yaeeiny aaaaoi oai?ie, iniaeeai ca ei?aeiiii, ui
iaiaaathoueny iiynieoe oaiiiai oi?aaeiiiy iao/iiiyi oa iaa/aiiyi: oai?iy
ineoieiai/ieo iiaeaeae iaa/aiiy (G.Nuthall, I.Snook), iiaeaeue
oi?aaeiiiy iiaaaeiieith ?LAOI, ?ic?iaeaia a Ieiiienueeiio oiiaa?neoaoi,
iiaeaeue iaa/aiiy oeyoii aiaee?eooy (o aio/eciyiie eioa?aoo?i
aecia/a?oueny ye i?iaeaiia iaa/aiiy), iiaeaeue iaa/aiiy ca i?eioeeiii
caaeainiaaieo iiioe?aoea oa iioi.

Aiaeic iaaeaaiai/ii? eioa?aoo?e oa i?aeoeee aeyaey?, ui ia no/aniiio
aoaii ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
oeiey?ia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i aaeueiothoue
aeaeieueea oaiaeaioeie. Ii-ia?oa, oaoiie?aoe/ia ni?yiiaaiinoue
noniieuenoaa acaaaei oa inaioe cie?aia o iiia?aaeii aeanyoe?i//y
coiiaeea iiooee o aaeoci oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia
caeaaieueoiai ia iaoa?iaei aeenoeeieii i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo. Ii-ae?oaa,
i?ioean aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ?icaeyaea?oueny c oi/ee ci?o
caaaeueii? oai?i? oi?aaeiiiy aac o?aooaaiiy niaoeeoiee iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia o oeie aaeoci. Ii-o?ao?, inio? oaiaeaioeiy iaiaaeaiiy
niaoeeoieith ciinoo oa ooieoeie aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i o inaioiueiio
i?ioeani oa ?icaeyaeo iiciaiiy aeooiaieo oeiiiinoae iica caaaeueiith
oai?i?th oi?aaeiiiy.

?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia o
i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i iiaeeeaa c iiceoeie
oieinionueeeo i?eioeeiia aeiaeaeoe/ii? ceaaiaee caaaeueiiai oa
niaoeeoi/iiai o iaaeaaiai/iiio i?ioeani. Iiciaaaeueia aeiyeueiinoue
o/iia o aea/aiii aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ? ia?o ca ana i?ioean, yeee
ia? niieueia ei?iiiy ic caaaeueiei i?ioeanii iiciaiiy oa aiaeaoaa?oueny
caiaeii ic caaaeueieie caeiiiii?iinoyie ineoi/ieo i?ioeania oa
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi. Aea niaoeeo?eith ci?noo aeenoeeie?i
aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo ? nenoaia oa ???a?o?y caaaeueiiethaenueeeo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo oa nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, /ei ? a?aecia/a?oueny
niaoeeo?ea ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa oa iaoe i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.
Ia’?eoii i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a o aaeoc?
aoiai?oa?iiai ina?oiueiai i?ioeano ? aeooiaiee na?o Ethaeeie, i?aaeiaoii
– a?aeiioaiiy, noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei ?aeaaeueieo aai iaoa??aeueieo
ia’?eo?a ioi/oth/i? ae?eniino?. Iaoith i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ?
canai?iiy nenoaie oa ???a?o?? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa
nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, ye? o?aineththoue o ina?oi?e i?ioean
aeenoeeie?ie aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo. ?acoeueoaoii i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, oaeei /eiii, ? oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia ciaiue, oi?iiy
oa iaae/ee cae?enithaaoe ioe?ii? ae?? uiaei i?aaeiao?a, yaeu, i?ioean?a,
niinia?a aeeooy, ?aeaae?a ethaeeie o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? aiioe oa o
no/aniino?. Aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe??-?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??
iniaenoino? ? iaiao?aeiei, aea iaaeinoaoi?i aieiae?iiy
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaiith nenoaiith ciaiue, nooo?ai aaaeeeaei ? ia?ao?ae
ciaiue o ia?aeiiaiiy, ai?iue oa iaae/ie – o iianyeaeaiio iiaaae?ieo.
I?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i
iiaeiia aooe i?iaeoeoeaiith, oiaoi aanoe aei ci?i o ii?aeueii-aieueia?e,
?ioaeaeooaeuei?e, aiioe?eii-/ooo?a?e noa?ao iniaenoino?.

C iiceoe?e aen?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo iaoith oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo
? noai?aiiy nenoaiii? noeoiiino? oiia aeey ?ioa??i?ecaoe??
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae,
oi?ioaaiiy oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaii? neoaie iniaenoino? o/iy, ia’?eoii –
i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a, ni?yiiaaia ia canai?iiy oe?iiinoae
ethaenoaa, iaoe??, noni?euenoaa, a i?aaeiaoii – ?icaeoie aeooiaii? noa?e
iniaenoino?.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui aeoiaeieie eiiiiiaioaie iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi
aenooiathoue aeniieiai/ii ciaiiy, niaoeeoi/ii aei?, iioeaaoeieii,
eiaieoeaii oa iia?aoeaii oaeoi?e, yei neeaaeathoue iniaenoinii-aeiyeueio
no?oeoo?o caeieniaiiy iaoe aeiyeueiinoi, ie ?icaeyaea?ii iniiaii
no?oeoo?ii eiiiiiaioe oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ye
i?ioeanoaeueii ooieoei?, ui caaacia/othoue iiceoeaio ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue
ineoi/ii-iiciaaaeueieo i?ioeania, iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano,
aoiaiinoe/io ni?yiiaaiinoue iniaenoinii-i?i?ioiaaiiai ina?oiueiai
i?ioeano (noaia 1).

Oea aeaei iai ciiao aecia/eoe iniiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee no?oeoo?ieo
eiiiiiaioia oi?aaeiinueei? oa iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi, aeyaeoe ?o
iiaeeeainoi a aoiaiicaoei? iaaeaaiai/ii? aca?iiaei? a/eoaeia oa o/iia, a
oaeiae oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iaaeaaiai/ii oiiae caaacia/aiiy
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai iiaeoiaeo aei iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia,
ni?yiiaaii? ia ?ioa??i?ecaoe?th caaaeueii-ethaenueeeo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa
nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, oi?ioaaiiy oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaii? nenoaie
iniaenoino?. Aei ieo aiaeianaii: aaeaeaaoiinoue iiaeaei oi?aaeiiiy
eiie?aoiiio noaio noa“?eoa iiciaiiy; aaeiaeiinoue oi?aaeiiiy, oiaoi
aecia/aiiy iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-iniaenoinieo iniaeeainoae noa“?eoa iiciaiiy,
yei ? nooo?aeie aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiciaaaeueieo oeieae, ia oieueee
iaeaeeae/eo, aea e ia?niaeoeaieo, aiaeaeaeaieo; aeeiaii/ienoue
oi?aaeiiiy ye ooi/iaiiy i?iaeoo, iiaeaei, i?ia?aie oi?aaeiinueeeo aeie,
eiiiiiaioia oa iiaeoeia, yei a ieo caeeaaeaii, o i?ioeani iaeiie/aiiy
iioi?iaoei? i?i i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaathoueny.

Aeey cae?niaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoeoeaiith i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth
o/i?a ii?yae ic iaia’yceiaei iiiiioiii oi?aaeiinueeeo aiiiue
(aeiaaiinoe/ieo, eiino?oeoeaieo, i?aaiicaoeieieo, eiioiieaoeaieo,
aiaeioeei-aeeaeaeoe/ieo) a/eoaeue aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i iiaeiai
aieiaeioe niaoeeoi/ieie aiiiiyie: aiaecia/aoe o ciinoi aoiaiioa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaii iiaeoei, i?inoi?iai oa /aniai iaaei, a
yeeo ?icai?oa?oueny iiciaaaeueia aeiyeueiinoue o/iia uiaei ?o canai?iiy,
caeienithaaoe aeiaaiinoeeo no?oeoo?e oa i??a?oi? oeiiiinii? nenoaie
iniaenoinoi o/iy, aiaenoaaeoaaoe ii?aeueii-i?aeoe/io aeiyeueiinoue
o/iia, o yeie aeyaey?oueny oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia iniaenoinoi;
caeienithaaoe iiiioi?eia iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia c iiceoeie
aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo oa o ia?ic?eaiie ?aeiinoi i?ioeano,
?acoeueoaoia ? i?iaeoeoia oei?? aeiyeueiinoi; caeienithaaoe ?aoeaenith
aeanii? nenoaie oa i??a?oi? oeiiiinoae oa iioaioeiaeo aieeaia
oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaii? no?oeoo?e aeanii? iniaenoinoi ia oeiiiinii
i?i?ioaoei? o/iia.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei “Aeineiaeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa c
iioeiicaoeii i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeacieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiaiioa?iiai oeeeeo”
aecia/aii e?eoa?i? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi ia a?oioi
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai iiaeoiaeo aei noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aoiaiinoe/ii
ni?yiiaaii? iniaenoinoi; ?ic?iaeaii nenoaiii-oeieueiao i?ia?aio
iioeiicaoeii i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy.

Iaoa oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieyaaea o ?ic?iaeaiii oa ai?iaaoei?
nenoaiii-oeieueiai? i?ia?aie iioeiicaoei? oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith
aeiyeueiinoth o/iia, noeioethaaiii i?ioanieii? oa ineoieiai/ii?
aioiaiinoi a/eoaeia aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i aei caeieniaiiy oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoith noa?oieeanieeia ia canaaeao
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia,
niiioeaiii a/eoaeia aei ieneaaeiyeueiinoi oa oi?aaeiinueei? aeiyeueiinoi
ia a?oioi o?einionueeeo i?eioeeiia aeiaeiaiai? ceaaiaee oa iaa?oaiiy
ieneaiiy aiae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai. A i?ioeani iaaeaaiai/iiai
aenia?eiaioo ae?iooaaeenue oaei caaaeaiiy:

1. Iiaioaaiiy a/eoaeyie oai?i?th oi?aaeiiiy ia canaaeao
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai, aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia oa
i?ia?aiii-oeieueiaiai oi?aaeiiiy.

2. Aeooaeicaoeiy iniaenoiniii oa i?ioanieii? caeaoiinoi aei caeieniaiiy
oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia.

3. ?icaeoie caaaeueieo oa niaoeeoi/ieo oi?aaeiinueeeo aiiiue a/eoaeia
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie.

4. Iaieiaeiiiy a/eoaeyie eiiieaeniith iaoiaeeeith iiiioi?eiao
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani
aea/aiiy aeenoeeieii aoiaiioa?iiai oeeeeo.

5. Caeo/aiiy a/eoaeia aei ?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaoei? nenoaiii-oeieueiai?
i?ia?aie iioeiicaoei? i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia.

Aenia?eiaio caeienithaaany ca nenoaiii-oeieueiaith i?ia?aiith,
?ic?iaeaiith ca iiaeoiaeaie aei i?ia?aiii-oeieueiaiai oi?aaeiiiy
iaaeaaiai/ieie nenoaiaie A.N.Eaca?aaa oa I.I.Iioaoieea, a oaeiae ca
eiioeaioei?th ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano I.A.Ee?e/oea oa I.I.Eiaa?ieea. ?ic?iaeaia iaie
nenoaiii-oeieueiaa i?ia?aia cae?enithaaeany ca oaeeie aoaiaie:
eiiieaenia aeiaaiinoeea iayaiiai noaio i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia noa?oeo eeania o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i ca aecia/aieie e?eoa?iyie; inieneaiiy eiioeaioei? oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa`?eoiiai,
aeiyeueiiniiai oa aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia; iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia,
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia oa i?aeoe/ia iiaeaioiaea a/eoaeia aei
caeieniaiiy oi?aaeiiiy ca aecia/aiith eiioeaioei?th;
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ia i?iaeooaaiiy a/eoaeyie i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy;
iiaeaethaaiiy iioeiicoth/eo oaeoi?ia oa i?eeiiia oi?aaeiiiy; noai?aiiy
iaeaaeueii? iiaeaei a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i, neeaaeaiiy o
i?ioeani naiiaiaeico oa naii?aoeaeni? iiaeeaiaeoaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ineoioiciieiai/ieo, iniaenoinieo oa oi?aaeiinueeeo yeinoae, aecia/aiiy
oi?aaeiinueeeo caniaia eiiiainaoei? oeo yeinoae, yeeo ia aenoa/a?
a/eoaeth; ?aaeicaoeiy i?ia?aie o aaciina?aaeiie oi?aaeiinueeie
aeiyeueiinoi a/eoaeia; iiiioi?eia aeeiaiiee ciii i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia; ei?aeoeiy oi?aaeiinueei? aeiyeueiinoi
a/eoaeia oa iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia; iiaenoieiaa aeiaaiinoeea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia, aecia/aiiy oeyoia
ianooiiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy.

A?oiooth/enue ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa
aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia, ca i?eioeeiaie iaiaoiaeiinoi oa aeinoaoiinoi
ie aeaeiey?ii oaei e?eoa?i? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi
noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i:

1. Caeaoiinoue o/iia aei naiiaeaoa?iiiaoei?, naiiaeooaeicaoei?
iniaenoinieo caeiaiinoae, aei iiooeia oa ?aaeicaoei? iieeeeaiue.

2. Noa’?eoia aeoeaiinoue (nioeiaeueia, oai?/a, iaaeneooaoeaia,
naiiea?iaaia).

C. Aeniieiai/ii ciaiiy: i?i inioaaiiy oeiiiinoae, ?o nenoaio oa
i??a?oith, aieiaeiiiy iiiyooyie, ui iathoue aeniieiai/iee ciino (ye
caaaeueieie, oae i nooi i?aaeiaoieie), eoeueoo?ieiai/iei ciinoii
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i; ciaiiy nioeiieoeueoo?ieo ia’?eoia
caaaeueiiethaenueei? oa iaoeiiiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

4. Iiciaaaeueii-ioeiiia aeiyeueiinoue: caeaoiinoue aei caeieniaiiy
oeieaoai?aiiy iaoe aeiyeueiinoi, aieiaeiiiy niiniaaie
ioeiiii-i?aaeiaoieo aeie, iiaoaeiaa ioeiiieo iiiyoue oa noaeaeaiue,
aeeaa?aaioiinoue ieneaiiy.

5. Ni?yiiaaiinoue iniaenoinoi: oeiiiiniee ciino aeeoo?ai? iaea?,
iaeaaeo, aeioeaio?eci aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi.

6. Ii?aeueii-i?aeoe/ia aeiyeueiinoue: noaaeaiiy aei ethaeeie ye aei
aeui? oeiiiinoi aoooy, iayaiinoue iio?aae o naiiaaeineiiaeaiii,
i?iaeoeoeaia aeooiaia aeiyeueiinoue.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia ca
aecia/aieie e?eoa?iyie i?iaiaeeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaenii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? aeiaaiinoeee. Oiiaii aoei aecia/aii i’youe
?iaiia i?iaeoeoeaiinoi: aenieee, aeinoaoiie, iecueeee, iaeaea ia
aeyaeaiee, ia aeyaeaiee cianii. Aei a?oie o/iia c aenieith
i?iaeoeoeaiinoth ie aiaeiineee oeo, o eiai a iiaiie ii?i aoei aeyaeaii
5-6 e?eoa?i?a ca eiiieaeniith aeiaaiinoeeith, aei aeinoaoiueiai ?iaiy ie
aiaeiineee o/iia, o yeeo o iiaiie ii?i aeyaeaii – 4-5 e?eoa?i?a, aei
iecueeiai ?iaiy 2-3, aei iaeaea ia aeyaeaiiai – 1-2, aei cianii aei
aeyaeaiiai – 1-0.

Ia iiaenoaai aiaeico a?oioiaieo iiaeoiaeia no/anii? oai?i? oa i?aeoeee
oi?aaeiiiy, iaaeaaiaiee, ineoieiai?, nioeiieiai?, a oaeiae
aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeinaiaeo oa iiiiaaoeieieo inaioiio
oaoiieiaie aecia/athoueny oaei ooiaeaiaioaeueii i?eioeeie oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i: i?eioeei noa’?eoiinoi, oeieani?yiiaaii?
aeiyeueiinoi, nieneiai? ?aaoeyoei? aeiyeueiinoi, nenoaiiinoi oa
ia?eoaoiinoi oi?aaeiiiy.

Aeey ?aaeicaoei? i?ia?aie aoei noai?aii ?iai/o a?oio a/eoaeia.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aie caeienithaaeiny ca aeacaieie aeua aoaiaie.

Aea/aiiy oai?i? oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia
caeienithaaeiny o i?ioeani caiyoue iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai naiiia?o
“Oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o
aoiaiioa?ii-inaioiueiio i?ioeani”, yeee ia? i?aeoeei-i?i?ioiaaio
ni?yiiaaiinoue (c 50 aiaeei caiyoue naiiia?o 42 aiaeeie aoei aiaeaaaeaii
ia i?aeoe/ii caiyooy, o oiio /enei 20 aiaeei – ia aeoeaii
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iaoiaee iaa/aiiy, 12 aiaeei – ia i?aeoe/ia
ii?aoeueiaoaaiiy iaaooeo oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue aaciina?aaeiuei a
inaioiueiio i?ioeani). I?ia?aia naiiia?o neeaaeaeany ic nenoaie
ciinoiaieo iiaeoeia, eiaeai c yeeo iinoea o niai ocaaaeueithth/ee oa
eiio?ieueii-?aoeaeneaiee aoaie, o i?ioeani yeeo ae?iaeyany iaaiee
i?iaeoeo eieaeoeaii? oa iiaeeaiaeoaeueii? ieneaaeiyeueiinoi a/eoaeia
(iaoiaeeea iiiioi?eiao ciii i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi
o/iia, i?iaeo oi?aaeiiiy, iao?eoei iioeiicoth/eo niiniaia oa i?eeiiia
oi?aaeiiiy oiui). O ?iaioi c a/eoaeyie aoei aeei?enoaii aeoeaii
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iaoiaee iaa/aiiy: i?iaeaiiee
?aoeaeneaii-?icaeaaeueiee iieieia, iiaeaethaaiiy, aeiyeueiinii-aeieiai
oa ?ieueiai ia?e, oaao?aeicaoeiy, neooaoeaiee o?aiiia, ui aeaei
aeaeieueea iiceoeaieo aoaeoia: a) aeooaeicoaaeeny oai?/i iiaeeeainoi
eiaeiiai a/eoaey aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie a inieneaiii iniaenoinieo,
i?ioanieieo, ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ieo oa oi?aaeiinueeeo i?iaeai; a)
aiaeaoaaeiny i?aeoe/ia canai?iiy aeoeaieo nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo
iaoiaeia iaa/aiiy, yei a/eoaei ii/aee aeoeaii canoiniaoaaoe
aaciina?aaeiuei o i?ioeani oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia; a) iaaoee cia/ouinoi oaei oeiiiinoi iiaeiniaenoiniiai
oa i?ioanieiiai niieeoaaiiy ye oe?ioa iiaeyaeia, aiiiiy ?icoiioe oa
iiaaaeaoe oi/eo ci?o iioiai, oiea?aioiinoue oiui.

Ianooiiei aoaiii ?aaeicaoei? nenoaiii-oeieueiai? i?ia?aie iioeiicaoei?
i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o
i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i aoei ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ia
i?iaeooaaiiy. O i?ioeani i?iaeooaaiiy caeienithaaeany ieneaaeiyeueiinoue
a/eoaeia ca i?eioeeiaie aeiaeiaiai? caiaee oa iaa?oaiiy ieneaiiy aiae
aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai, noai?thaaany ?aeeiee
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iee i?inoi?, o yeiio ia? aiaeaoaaoeny
iioa?ii?ecaoeiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo, iaoeiiiaeueieo, nioeiaeueieo
oeiiiinoae oa oi?ioaaoeny iniaenoinia nenoaia oa i??a?oiy oeiiiinoae. Ia
aoaii i?iaeooaaiiy aecia/aeeny niieueii aei? a/eoaeia oa o/iia oa
?ica’ycoaaeeny aeaeieueea caaaeaiue: a) iiaioaaiiy a/eoaeyie
i?iaeooaaiiyi ye i?ioeanii aeiaeaeoe/ii? aca?iiaei? oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue
oa eiie?aoieo oi?aaeiinueeeo aeie; a) onaiaeiieaiiy a/eoaeyie aeoo
i?iaeooaaiiy ye niiniao oi?aaeiiiy, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aeinyaiaiiy oeieae
oi?aaeiiiy oa oeieae iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/i?a ca iaaieie
aoaiaie, aecia/aieie o /ani oa i?inoi?i; a) aaeineiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo
oi?aaeiinueeeo aiiiue (i?iaiicoaaiiy,eiino?othaaiiy) oa niaoeeoi/ieo
oi?aaeiinueeeo aiiiue a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i (aecia/aiiy o
ciinoi aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaieo iiaeoeia,
i?inoi?iaeo oa /aniaeo iaae, a yeeo ?icai?oa?oueny iiciaaaeueia
aeiyeueiinoue o/iia uiaei ?o canai?iiy); a) i?aeoe/ia canai?iiy
a/eoaeyie no?oeoo?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iiai i?iaeoo oa aeai?eoio eiai
noai?aiiy. Caaaeueia no?oeoo?a i?iaeoia, a oaeiae aoaie caeieniaiiy
i?iaeooaaiiy ?ic?iaeai? ca iiaeoiaeaie I.A.Ee?e/oea oa I.I.Eiaa?ieea aei
nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano.

Eaeaiaea?ii-oaiaoe/ia ieaioaaiiy iiaeii?yaeeiao?oueny eiaioei i?ioeano
oi?aaeiiiy, aecia/aiiai nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iei i?iaeoii. Nooo?aeie
iciaeaie iaoiai iiaeoiaeo aei eaeaiaea?ii-oaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy ?
eiino?othaaiiy a/eoaeai i?ia?aiiiai iaoa?iaeo ca oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaieie
iiaeoeyie, i?iaiicoaaiiy iaiaoiaeieo aeie o/iia, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
iathoue aooe iioa?iaeiciaaii iaaii oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaii iiaeoei,
aecia/aiiy aoaiia, no?ieia oa niiniaia caeieniaiiy iiiioi?eiao
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia, a oaeiae iiaeaiiy eiai
?acoeueoaoia o/iyi.

I?iaeooaaiiy noeaia?ith iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy ye
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aeoo aca?iiaei? a/eoaey oa o/iia o eiie?aoii
aecia/aiiio /ani oa i?inoi?i ni?yiiaaia ia aecia/aiiy oi?aaeiinueeeo
aeie a/eoaey oa i?iaiicoaaiiy aeie o/iia, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ia? aooe
aeinyaiooa iaoa iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy. I?iaeo noeaia?ith neeaaea?oueny ia
iniiai eaeaiaea?ii-oaiaoe/iiai ieaio oa ia?aaeaa/a? nenoaiio
?aaeicaoeith cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ye iaeiiai ic niiniaia ?ica’ycaiiy
noia?a/iinoi iiae oyaeaiiyi iaaeaaiaa i?i aeoiaeiee noai o/iia oa
iayaiei noaiii o/iia.

Nooiaiue ?aaeicaoei? noeaia?ith aai aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaa/aeueiiai
caiyooy caeaaeeoue ia oieueee aiae yeinoi i?iaeoo, aea e aiae aiiiiy
a/eoaey aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eeiie oi?aaeiiiy o eiie?aoiie iaaeaaiai/iie
neooaoei?, yea o aaciina?aaeiueiio iaaeaaiai/iiio i?ioeani caeaaeeoue
a?ae aaaaoueio ?oeiiaieo oaeoi?ia. Oaoiieiaicaoeiy i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy
iiaeeeaa ca oiiae aecia/aiiy iaoiaeaie aeno?aiieyoei? oa iiaeaethaaiiy
iniiaieo oeiia iaaeaaiai/ieo neooaoeie, iiaeeeaeo ia?aoeiaeaeath/eo
aieeaia ia i?ioean oi?aaeiiiy oa iiaeeeaeo oi?aaeiinueeeo i?eeiiia
ciyooy oeeo ia?aoeiaeaeath/eo aieeaia. O i?ioeani eieaeoeaii?
ieneaaeiyeueiinoi ia a?oioi aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? eioa?aoo?e,
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeinaiaeo a/eoaeia aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i oa aiaeico
aeanii? i?aeoe/ii? aeiyeueiinoi a/eoaeyie aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aoei
caeieniaii iiaeaethaaiiy iioeiicoth/eo oaeoi?ia oa i?eeiiia oi?aaeiiiy
ia iniiaieo aoaiao iiciaaaeueiii aeiyeueiinoi o/iia oa ca iniiaieie
oeiaie iaaeaaiai/ieo neooaoeie. I?iaeoeoii iiaeaethaaiiy noaee iao?eoei
i?eeiiia oi?aaeiiiy, yei iioeiicothoue iiciaaaeueio aeiyeueiinoue o/iia
o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Ia iaioa cia/aiiy iathoue a oi?aaeiiii iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia ? noeoieii aieeae, yei ia iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe
cacaeaeaaiaeue oa ia yei ia caaaeaee iioe?ththoueny aeno?aiieyoeieii
iaoiaee oi?aaeiiiy. O oeeo aeiaaeeao iinoa? i?iaeaia iaaei oi?aaeiiiy,
yea aecia/a?oueny iaoith iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia oa iaoith
oi?aaeiinueeiai i?ioeano. Ia oeie iiaenoaai e caeieniththoueny
oi?aaeiinueei aei?: aai aeei?enoaiiy aioo?ioiueiai iioaioeiaeo neooaoei?
oa ni?yiiaoaaiiy ?? ia aeinyaiaiiy aecia/aieo oeieae aai ciyooy ??
aeaeiino?oeoeaieo aieeaia. O iaia?aaeaa/aiie iaaeaaiai/iie neooaoei?
ae?ioaeueiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue ineoioiciieiai/ii, iniaenoinii, oa
oi?aaeiinueei yeinoi a/eoaey, onaiaeiieaiiy a/eoaeai aeanieo
iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae. O i?ioeani neeaaeaiiy iaeaaeueii?
iiaeaei a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i (aeey /iai ie aeei?enoaee
iieooaaeueiee eeno Eeiiaia, iiaeeoiei-aaio ea?oo iniaenoinoi oa
noaiaea?oeciaaio iaoiaeeeo neeaaeaiiy aeieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ea?iaieea),
eiaeai a/eoaeue aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aecia/aa nooiiiue iayaiinoi oa
?icaeiooinoi oi?? /e iioi? yeinoi o aeaniie iniaenoinoi, oiaoi
aiaeaoaaeany ?aoeaeniy uiaei iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-iniaenoinii? niaoeeoiee
oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia.

Oaeei /eiii, o i?ioeani oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ia aeaiiio aoaii
?aaeicaoei? nenoaiii-oeieueiai? i?ia?aie iioeiicaoeii i?ioeano
oi?aaeiiiy aoei noai?aii oaoiieiai/iee iaeao, yeee iinoeoue o niai
iiaeaeenoeeieiia?iee i?iaeo oi?aaeiiiy, i?iaeo oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith
aeiyeueiinoth o/iia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy eiie?aoii? aoiaiioa?ii?
aeenoeeie?ie, eaeaiaea?ii-oaiaoe/iee ieai, neeaaeaiee ca ciinoiaieie
oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaieie iiaeoeyie, noeaia?i? iaa/aeueieo caiyoue,
iao?eoei iioeiicoth/eo i?eeiiia oi?aaeiiiy, aeai?eoi ieneaaeiyeueiinoi
a/eoaey iiae /an iiaeaioiaee aei iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy.

?ic?iaeaii iaoa?iaee noaee oaoiieiai/iith iniiaith caeieniaiiy a/eoaeyie
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia c iiceoeie nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa
aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeo?eiee iiae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ciii a oi?aaeiiii
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i iieacaee, ui aianeiaeie oai?aoe/ii?,
i?ioanieii? oa ineoieiai/ii? iiaeaioiaee, ieneaaeiyeueiinoi a/eoaeia o
i?ioeani ?ic?iaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy oi?aaeiinueei-oaoiieiai/iiai iaeaoo
ciiieeiny niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae ciaiioieie oa aioo?ioieie oaeoi?aie
i?ioanieiiai iioaioeiaeo ?icaeoeo a ii?iaiyiii c aeaieie eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo a aie iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae aioo?ioiii neooaoeieiei oaeoi?ai,
ui caeieniththoue aieea ia ciiie a oi?aaeiiii. Ii?iaiyiiy ?acoeueoaoia
aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeo?eiee iiae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ciii a oi?aaeiiii
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ia aoaiao eiinoaooth/iai oa
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iiaea?oueny a aeiaa?aii 1.

Ae?aa?aia 1

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeo?eiee i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ci?i

a oi?aae?ii? i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a

Iiiioi?eia aeeiaiiee ciii i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi
noa?oieeanieeia ia?aaeaa/aany a onio oeiao i?iaeoia oa caeienithaaany o
aeaeieueea aoaiia. Iiaeaeenoeeieiia?iei ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iei i?iaeoii
aoei aecia/aii eiio?ieueii aoaie oa iiaeeeaoi?e ciii eiio?ieueiaaieo
aeanoeainoae: noi?iiaaiinoue o noa?oieeanieeia nenoaie aeniieiai/ieo
ciaiue; ae?aaeaiiy noa“?eoii? aeoeaiino? o/iia; ciaioaiiy a?oie o/iia,
ui ia aeeoa?aioe?ththoue iniaenoinio nenoaio oeiiiinoae; nooiaiue
naiiaeaoa?iiiaoei? iniaenoinoi noa?oieeanieeia; noi?iiaaiinoue
iiciaaaeueii-ioeiiieo iia?aoeie; aiiiiy ia?aiineoe ioeiiii noaeaeaiiy ia
ioeiieo aeeoo?aeo yaeu; iiceoeaia aeeiaiiea ciii ca aniia e?eoa?iyie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ia ocaaaeueithth/iio aoai? ?ae?caoe?? i?iaeoo.

Ia aoaii ei?aeoei? iaeaieueo i?iaeoeoeaiei aoei aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee
neooaoeaiiai o?aiiiao: iaeyae aiaeaicaieno iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy iaaiiai
a/eoaey aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie oa aenia?oia ioeiiea eieaaaie
oi?aaeiinueeeo aeie a/eoaey. Eiaeia iaaeaaiai/ia neooaoeiy i?ia?aaaeany
o aeaeieueeio iiaeeeaeo aa??aioao ?? ?icaeoeo. A/eoaeue, iaa/aeueia
caiyooy yeiai aoei cai?iiiiiaaii aeey neooaoeaiiai o?aiiiao,
caeienithaaa naiiaiaeic oa naiiei?aeoeith aeanii? oi?aaeiinueei?
aeiyeueiinoi.

?acoeueoaoeaiinoue oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aecia/aeany oeyoii
cae?eniaiiy iiaenoieiai? aeiaaiinoeee i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia noa?oeo eeania aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e.

?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia ia aoaii eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo oa iiaenoieiai?
aeiaaiinoeee iiney caeii/aiiy oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iaaiaeeii a
oaaeeoei 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ae?aaiinooaaiiy

i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a

o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i

??ai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ?acoeueoaoe
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai

aenia?eiaioo

E?euee?noue o/i?a % E?euee?noue o/i?a %

Aenieee ??aaiue 4 2% 20 12%

Aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue 94 47% 113 65%

Iecueeee ??aaiue 18 34% 36 18%

Iaeaea ia aeyaeaiee 22 11% 4 3%

Cian?i ia aeyaeaiee 12 6% 3 2%

?acii 200 100% 176 100%

Ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia aeiaaiinoeee i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ia aoaiao eiinoaooth/iai oa oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaio?a naiae/eoue, ui ia 28% caieueoeeanue eieueeinoue o/iia ic
aenieei oa aeinoaoiii ?iaiyie i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi.

Ca ie?aieie iieacieeaie aoei aeyaeaii oaei ?acoeueoaoe (o aeoaeeao aeey
ii?iaiyiiy iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo):
aenieee ?iaaiue naiiaeaoa?iiiaoei? aeyaeee 27% o/iia (17%), na?aaeiie
?iaaiue – 51% (34%), iecueeee ?iaaiue – 22% (49%); aioo?ioiie “eieon
eiio?ieth” – 66% (43%); aeoeaiinoue, ui niiioea?oueny cciaii – 19%
(45%), aieueiaa aeoeaiinoue – 15% (12%), nioeiaeueia aeoeaiinoue – 16%
(12%), iiiaaeii?iaoeaia aeoeaiinoue – 10% (9%); oai?/a aeoeaiinoue – 5%
(5%); naiiea?iaaia aeoeaiinoue – 12% (4%), aeoeaiinoue, ia aeyaeaia
cianii 1% (4%).

Ciiie a?oi o/iia ca nooiaiai oeiiiinii? aeeoa?aioe?aoei? iaaaaeaii o
oaaeeoei 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ci?ie o ni?aa?aeiioaii? a?oi noa?oieeaniee?a

ca nooiaiai oe?ii?nii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??

A?oie ca nooiaiai

aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? Eiinoaooth/ee

aenia?eiaio Oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio

THiaee (11 ee.) Ae?a/aoa (11 ee.) THiaee (11 ee.) Ae?a/aoa (11 ee.)

Aeinoaoiuei noi?iiaaiee iaoai?ci aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. 36% 38% 54% 55%

Ii/aoeiaa noaae?y oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. 24% 29% 26% 27%

Iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaaia no?oeoo?a oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e 40% CC% 20% 18%

?iaaiue noi?iiaaiinoi caaaeueiieiai/ieo ?icoiiaeo aeie, ui
aeineiaeaeoaaany ca iaoiaeeeith oeieueiiai oanoo ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo
(OO??), ca noaoanoii “Aiaeiai?” neeaa 86% nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai
ii?iaoeao (ia aoaii eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo na?aaeiie iieaciee
neeaaeaa 63%); ca noaoanoii “Eeaneoieaoei?” – 83% (50%), ca noaoanoii
“Ocaaaeueiaiiy” na?aaeiie iieaciee neeaa 61% (23%). Ciaioeeeny a?oie c
iiiaaeii?iaoeaiith aa?aneaiinoth (aei 17% o thiaeia oa 8% o aeia/ao),
iiaeaeueeany eieueeinoue o/iia ic iioeaaoei?th ia aeinyaiaiiy oniioo
(aei 65% o thiaeia oa 57% o aeia/ao), ciiieeany eieueeinoue o/iia ic
aenieei ?iaiai o?eaiaeiinoi (ia aoaii oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo oey a?oia
neeaaeaea 36% aeineiaeaeoaaieo, ia aoaii eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo –
53% ), aeueo?oinoe/ia iiaaaeiiea ca oeaeith Oa?ia?a aecia/aia o 36%
noa?oieeanieeia (ia aoaii eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo – o 29%).

Iaeaieueo iiceoeaii ciiieeeny iieacieee ca e?eoa?iyie “Aeniieiai/ii
ciaiiy” oa “Iiciaaaeueii-ioeiiia aeiyeueiinoue”. Oiia?eueieeeny
iiceoeaii ciiie o ii?aeueii-i?aeoe/iie aeiyeueiinoi, ui /anoeiai
iiynith?oueny aiaenooiinoth o iaaeao oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo i?iaeoo
aoiaiioa?ecaoei? inaioiueiai i?ioeano, yeee ioiieth? anth iaaeaaiai/io
nenoaio oeiee.

Ii?iaiyiiy yeinieo oa eieueeinieo iieacieeia, iaea?aeaieo ia aoaiao
eiinoaooth/iai oa oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioia, aeyaeei, ui caeieniaiiy
oi?aaeiiiy ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa
aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia ? iaeiei c aieiaieo /eiieeia, ui ni?ey?
?icaeoeo naiiaeaoa?iiiaoei?, noa’?eoii? aeoeaiinoi, oi?ioaaiith nenoaie
aeniieiai/ieo ciaiue, ?icaeoeo iiciaaaeueii-ioeiiii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia,
ciiiai o nenoaii oeiiiinieo i?i?ioaoeie o/iia.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia, ineoieiai/ia oa i?ioanieia iiaeaioiaea a/eoaeia aei
caeieniaiiy oi?aaeiiiy ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai
oa aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia, iniaenoa o/anoue eiaeiiai a/eoaey
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie o ?ic?iaeaiii oaoiieiai? oi?aaeiiiy
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy
aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i oa oi?ioaaiii oi?aaeiinueei-oaoiieiai/iiai
iaeaoo, ?aoeaeniy uiaei iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-iniaenoinii? niaoeeoiee
oi?aaeiiiy, aecia/aiiy eiaeiei a/eoaeai caniaia eiiiainaoei? neaaeeo
ineoioiciieiai/ieo, iniaenoinieo oa oi?aaeiinueeeo yeinoae ni?eyee
iiaeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia noa?oeo
eeania.

I?iaaaeaia aeineiaeaeaiiy aeaei iiaenoaae c?iaeoe oae? caaaeuei?
aeniiaee:

1. Ciinoii iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia noa?oeo eeania o i?ioeani
aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ? oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia ciaiue,
yea iinoeoue o niai caaaeueiiethaenueei, iaoeiiiaeueii oa nioeiaeueii
oeiiiinoi oa ii?ie, o i?ioeani iioa??i?ecaoei? yeeo neeaaea?oueny
iniaenoinia oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia o/iia.

2. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi noa?oieeanieeia o
i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ia ae/a?io?oueny canai?iiyi
o/iyie oai?ie, oaeoia, i?aaee, niiniaia aeie. Oea aaaaoiaeii?iee
oaiiiai, noooth yeiai ? iaaii ciiie aeooiaii? noa?e noa’?eoa iiciaiiy,
oiio iaoith oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ? noai?aiiy
nenoaiii? noeoiiinoi oiia aeey ?icaeoeo aeooiaii? noa?e iniaenoinoi,
oeiiiinieo i?i?ioaoeie o/iia-noa?oieeanieeia ia a?oioi iioa?ii?ecaoei?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo, iaoeiiiaeueieo, nioeiaeueieo oeiiiinoae, yei
o?aineththoue a inaioiie i?ioean aoiaiioa?ii aeenoeeie?ie.

3. A?oioiaieie i?eioeeiaie oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ? i?eioeeie
noa’?eoiinoi, oeieani?yiiaaiiinoi, nieneiai? ?aaoeyoei? iiciaaaeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi, nenoaiiinoi oa ia?eoaoiinoi oi?aaeiiiy, yei ?aaeicothoueny
a inaioiueiio i?ioeani ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai
oa aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia.

4. Aeniieiai/iee iiaeoiae aei oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth
noa?oieeanieeia o aoiaiioa?ii-inaioiueiio i?ioeani noai?th? nenoaiio
noeoiiinoue oiia aeey i?iaeoeoeaii? iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia.

5. Aei?aei /eiieeii iioeiicaoei? i?ioeano oi?aaeiiiy i?iaeoeoeaiith
iiciaaaeueiith aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ? eiino?oeoeaii-iiaeaethth/a
aeiyeueiinoue a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i o i?ioeani caeieniaiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ia
i?iaeooaaiiy, yea a?oioo?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoao ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii?
aeiaaiinoeee, iaaeeaea? i?ia?aiiaaii oi?aaeiinueei aei? a/eoaey aei
iayaiiai noaio noa’?eoa iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi ia iniiai ?ica’ycaiiy
noia?a/iinoi iiae ia?niaeoeaieie oa iia?aoeaieie oeieyie, aecia/aii?
aoaiia, niieueieo aeie a/eoaey oa o/iia, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy
oeieae oi?aaeiiiy oa oeieae iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi.
Iiaeaeenoeeieiia?iee i?iaeo noai?th? ?aeeiee i?inoi? aeey ?icaeoeo
aeooiaii? noa?e iniaenoinoi oa caeieniaiiy o/iyie i?iaeoeoeaii?
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i.

6. Iiiioi?eia i?iaeoeoeaiinoi iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia o
i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i caeieniththoueny ye
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiaiiee ciii o aeooiaiie noa?i iniaenoinoi ca
aecia/aieie eiio?ieueiaaieie aoaiaie, iiaeeeaoi?aie ciii eiio?ieueiaaieo
aeanoeainoae oa caniaaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, ooieoei?
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo a oi?aaeiiii iioe?ththoueny ia oieueee ia aecia/aiiy
?acoeueoaoia iaa/aiiy, aea e ia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano oa i?iaeoeoia
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi noa?oieeanieeia ca i?eioeeiaie
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai iiaeoiaeo.

7. O eiie?aoiie iaaeaaiai/iie neooaoei? oi?aaeiinueea aeiyeueiinoue
a/eoaey oa iiciaaaeueia aeiyeueiinoue o/iia iiaeeyaathoue aieeaai
?oeiiaieo oaeoi?ia. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oeiia iaaeaaiai/ieo neooaoeie
aeicaiey? oaoiieiaicoaaoe i?ioean oi?aaeiiiy ia iniiai iaoiaeia
aeno?aiieyoei? oa iiaeaethaaiiy. Noeoieii aieeae ia i?ioean oi?aaeiiiy
oa iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi o/iia iiaeooue aooe ciyoi aai aeei?enoaii
aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaaii? iaoe ca iaaieo oi?aaeiinueeeo aeie, yei
caeaaeaoue aiae ineoioiciieiai/ieo, iniaenoinieo oa oi?aaeiinueeeo
yeinoae a/eoaey. Ca oeeo oiia ae?ioaeueiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
onaiaeiieaiiy a/eoaeai aeanieo neeueieo oa neaaeeo yeinoae, yei
neeaaeathoue iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-iniaenoinio niaoeeoieo oi?aaeiiiy,
aecia/aiiy caniaia eiiiainaoei? neaaeeo noi?ii aeanii? iniaenoinoi aai
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai iioaioeiaeo ineoioiciieiai/ieo,
iniaenoinieo oa oi?aaeiinueeeo yeinoae o ?aci aeieeiaiiy iaia?aaeaa/aii?
iaaeaaiai/ii? neooaoei?, yea caa?iaeo? aeinyaiaiith iaoe iaa/aeueiiai
caiyooy.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeineiaeieoeueei? ?iaioe na?ae/aoue, ui
aioiaiinoue a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i aei oi?aaeiiiy ia canaaeao
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia ?
aei?aei /eiieeii caeieniaiiy i?iaeoeoeaii? iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi
o/iia o i?ioeani aea/aiiy aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i.

?ic?iaeaiee o i?ioeani aeineiaeaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ii-oi?aaeiinueeee
“iaeao” iiaea ciaeoe nai? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o ?iaioi i?aaeiaoieo
eaoaae?, iaoiaee/ieo ia’?aeiaiue, a/eoaeia aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Aeeiiaia aeena?oaoeieia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? anio aniaeoia
i?iaeaie. Iiaeaeueoiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy caneoaiaothoue, ia iaoo
aeoieo, oi?ioaaiiy ca ciinoii iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai oeiiiinii-ii?iaoeaieo
iiaeoeia, aieueo aeaoaeueia oaoiieiaicaoeiy oi?aaeiinueei? aeiyeueiinoi
a/eoaey aoiaiioa?ieo aeenoeeie?i, aianaiiy ei?aeoea o oai?aoe/io oa
i?aeoe/io iiaeaioiaeo nooaeaioia aoiaiioa?ieo oaeoeueoaoia aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia aei caeieniaiiy oi?aaeiiiy iiciaaaeueiith
aeiyeueiinoth o/iia ia canaaeao nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, aeiyeueiiniiai oa
aeniieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia.

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? aiaeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioaeieaoeiyo
aaoi?a:

1. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Ia oeyoo aei noa’?eoiinoi //?iaeia oeiea, 1997, ?6.
– N. 27-29.

2. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. I?ioanieia noaiiaeaiiy iaaeaaiaia oeiee-eiiieaeno ye
oiiaa ?aaeicaoei? iaia?a?aii? inaioe o/iia //I?ioanieia noaiiaeaiiy
iaaeaaiai/ieo i?aoeiaieeia: Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue //Ca iaoa?iaeaie
iaae?aaiiiaeueiii iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioeie 25-26 eenoiiaaea
1997?. Iaoe.?aaeaeoi?e: ?.I.Iaaethoaieia, A.I.Neniaa, – Caii?iaeaey:
Caii?icueeee iaeaniee iinoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoaeia. – 1997. – Aei.5.
– N. 138-146.

3. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Iniaeeaino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a noa?oeo
eean?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe //Iiaa ia?aaeeaia/
Aeueiaiao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo Caii??cueeiai ?aa?iio. –
Caii??aeaey: ?A “Oaiaeai-O”. – 1998. – Aei.7. – N. 28-34.

4. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Nenoaiii-oe?eueiaa i?ia?aia iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano
oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth noa?oieeaniee?a o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe / Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?: Ca.iaoe.i?. – Caii??aeaey:
Caii??cueeee ?inoeooo aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a. – 1998. – Aei.8. – N.
228-235.

5. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Ineoieiai/ia neoaeaa oeiee-eiiieaeno ye
iieiooieoeiiiaeueia no?oeoo?a //Ineoieiai/ia neoaeaa a nenoaii inaioe:
i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae. Iaoa?iaee iiae?aaiiiaeueii? eiioa?aioei?
“Ineoieiai/ia iaoea i no/aniee caeeaae inaioe. – 2.1 – Caii?iaeaey,
1994. – N. 88-92 (?in.iiaith)

6. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Iaaeaaiai/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy o nenoaii
aioo?ioeieueiiai oi?aaeiiiy. //Iaoa?iaee iiae?aaiiiaeueii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? “Oi?aaeiiiy no/anieie
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie a nenoaii inaioe”. – Caii?iaeaey, 1996.
– N. 106-109.

7. ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iaoaiicie oi?aaeiiiy
aca?iiaei?th eieaeoeaiiai oa iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai //Iaoa?iaee
iiae?aaiiiaeueiii iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? “Noai?aiiy iiiaeaeo
no/aniiai caeeaaeo inaioe” – Caii?iaeaey, 1997. – N. 300-302.

ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a noa?oeo
eean?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e (ca iaoa??aeaie aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998 ?.

?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith ci?noo oa iniiaieo oiia cae?eniaiiy
oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaiaaia nenoaiii-oe?eueiaa i?ia?aia iioei?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ia canaaeao
nenoaiii-noa’?eoiiai, ae?yeuei?niiai oa aen?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiae?a,
aecia/aii e?eoa??? oa iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, ?ic?iaeaii ae?aaiinoe/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e iii?oi?eiao
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoeoeaiith i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth,
i?ciaaaeueii-ioe?iia ae?yeuei?noue, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeooaaiiy,
iii?oi?eia.

ssno?aaiaa A.ss. Oi?aaeaiea iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth o/aueony
noa?oeo eeannia iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie (ia iaoa?eaea eco/aiey
aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998 a.

?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth niaea?aeaiey e iniiaiuo oneiaee
inouanoaeaiey oi?aaeaiey iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth o/aueony
noa?oeo eeannia a i?ioeanna eco/aiey aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei.
Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e yenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iae?iaaia
nenoaiii-oeaeaaay i?ia?aiia iioeiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe o/eoaey
aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei ia iniiaa nenoaiii-noauaeoiiai,
aeayoaeueiinoiiai e aeneieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaeia, ii?aaeaeaiu e?eoa?ee e
iieacaoaee i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony,
?ac?aaioai aeeaaiinoe/aneee eino?oiaioa?ee iiieoi?eiaa i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe noa?oaeeannieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoeoeaiie iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, iiciaaa-oaeueii-ioeaii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea, iiieoi?eia.

Valentina Yastrebova. The direction of cognition activity of the senior
pupils of the secondary schools (on material of the humanities). –
Manuscript.

The dissertation for a candidate’s degree of pedagogical sciences,
speciality 13.00.01. – theory and history of pedagogics. – The Institute
of Pedagogics of the Ukranian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, Kiev,
1998.

The work is dedicated to the research of the contents and main
conditions of realization of the direction of cognition activity of the
senior pupils in the process of studying humanities. The system-purpose
programme of optimisation of humanitarian teacher’s activity on basis of
the system-subjective active, axiological approaches is theoretically
grounded and experimentally approved. The criterions and indexes of
efficiency of the cognition activity of the pupils are defined;
diagnostic instruments of monitoring productivity of cognition activity
of senior pupils has been worked out.

Key words: the direction of effective cognition activity,
cognition-appreciation activity, psychology-pedagogical project,
monitoring.

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