3

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

NEEA?INUeEA OAOssIA ?INOENEAA?AIA

OAeE
611.12-013+611:577.95:616.12

OEUeO?ANO?OEOO?I? AEA?AAEAIOE

AIAeIE?EIII? OOIEOe?? NA?Oess O?AAAOIEO

A II?I? OA IAOIEIA??

14.03.09.- a?noieia?y, oeeoieia?y, aia??ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeeca?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai eaai?aoi?iiai oeaio?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noa/aiei Ethaeieea
Ieaenaiae??aia, caa?aeoth/a eaai?aoi???th aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai eaai?aoi?iiai oeaio?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eieii?eoeaa
Aiae??e Einoyioeiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?noieia?? Iaaee/iiai
?inoeoooo Oe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? ia?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iaethe A?eoi? ?aaiiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a a?noieia??, oeeoieia?? oa
aia??ieia??, i. Oa?iii?eue

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 21 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, 252057, Oe?a?ia, i.Ee?a-57,
i?.Ia?aiiae, 34, ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion, aoae. N 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, 252057, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Ciieia?/ia, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.A.*a?eania

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a aeathoue i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui na?oea ia? aenieiaoaeoeaio ai?iiiaeueio nenoaio
?aaoeyoe?? ye ooieoe?? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie, oae ? i?aeo?eiaiiy
caaaeueiiai aiiainoaco i?aai?cio. ? aaaii? aeieace ooieoe?iioaaiiy a
na?oe? aeanii? aiaeie?eiii?, ia?ae?eiii? oa aooie?eiii? ai?iiiaeueieo
nenoai. Aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny inoaii?i /anii aea/aiith ?iaioe
oeaieiii? ai?iiiaeueii? nenoaie na?oey, i?iaeoeo ae?yeueiino? yei?
ia?aaena?aeiee iao??eo?aoe/iee iaioeae (IIOI), neioaco?oueny a
i?iea?ae? ia?aaena?aeue oa aooie na?oey.

Ii?oieia?/iei aea?aaeaioii aiaeie?eiii? ai?iiiaeueii? nenoaie na?oey ?
niaoeeo?/i? ia?aaena?aei? a?aioee, aia?oa iienai? a 1956 ?ioe? E?oai.
?icoeo?iaea o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee a?aioe, a naia oa, ui aiie i?noyoue
ia?aaena?aeiee iao??eo?aoe/iee iaioeae [De Bold A.I. et al., 1981],
aaaaoi a /iio aeicaieeea i?iynieoe ?ieue na?oey ye aiaeie?eiiiai i?aaio,
yeee i?e aeiiiiic? oeueiai ai?iiio cae?enith? ?aaoeyoe?th ?yaeo aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ooieoe?e a i?aai?ci? oeyoii aca?iiae?? c iaeaaaeeea?oeie
?aaoeyoi?ieie nenoaiaie: ?ai?i-aia?ioaicei-?ai?i-aeueaeinoa?iiiaith,
neiiaoiaae?aiaeiaith, eae?e?a?i-e?i?iiaith [Aeaenaaiei E.I., I?aoiae/
A.I, 1987; Iinoiia A.TH., 1987; Iieaaiei A.A., Iaaeth/aiei A.A., 1990;
Lang L.E. et al., 1985; Needleman Ph. et al. , 1985; De Bold A. et al. ,
1991; Tummala P. et al., 1992 Anderson S., Vora J.P., 1995; Hirata Y.
et al.,1995; Komers R., 1996; Zietse R. et al., 1997; Chattington P.D.
et al., 1998].

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy aiaeie?eiii? oa ia?ae?eiii?
ai?iiiaeueieo nenoai a na?oe? aoei aeyaeaiiy i?iea?ae?aeueii?
?ai?i-aia?ioaiceaii? nenoaie, a oaeiae caeaoiino? aiaeioae?th
ei?iia?ieo noaeei ? aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na?oey neioacoaaoe
oe?eee ?yae aaciaeoeaieo ?a/iaei.

I?e ee?i?/ieo aei?iaiaoaaiiyo aoei iieacaii, ui an? o? o?c?ieia?/i?
aoaeoe IIOI, ye? aeyaeai? a aeine?aeao ia oaa?eiao, niinoa??aathoueny ?
o ethaeeie [Eaioai I., AEaia AE., 1986]. Oiio aeai? i?i
oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? i?iyae aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? i?iea?aea na?oey a o?ei-
oa iioiaaiac? aeiiiiiaeooue ?ice?eoe ia o?eueee iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ?
aoaeiae no?oeoo?, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca oeth ooieoe?th, aea e
ni?eyoeiooue e?auiio ?icoi?iith oeo ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i, ye?
iiaeooue aooe iane?aeeii iioeiaeaeaiiy na?oeaaeo i?ioeeo?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a ?aieao aaeocaai? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai eaai?aoi?iiai oeaio?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo IIC Oe?a?ie ii oai?: “Aea/eoe no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a oiiaao eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic??”, iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194EI20877.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe — anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino?
noaio oa ci?i oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aea?aaeaio?a aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe??
na?oey a o?ei-, iioiaaiac? o?aaaoieo oa i?e aeayeeo iaoieia?/ieo noaiao.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe noai ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe (ii?oieia?/iiai aea?aaeaioa
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey) a o?eiaaiaoe/iiio ?yaeo o?aaaoieo ca
aeaieie oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai oa noa?aieia?/iiai aiae?co.

2. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo ci?i ia?aaena?aeieo
a?aioe a iioiaaiac? uo?a.

3. Aecia/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aea?aaeaio?a aiaeie?eiii?
ooieoe?? na?oey a oiiaao na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaoieia?? a ee?i?oe?
(a?iaeaeaiee aeaoaeo i?aeoeoii/eiai? ia?aai?iaeee, oneeaaeiaiee
a?ia?oaic??th o iaeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao) oa aenia?eiaio? (eaaaiaaa
a?ia?oaic?y, aaaaeaiiy iiia?aaeieea neioaco ieneaeo acioo (NO) —
L-a?a?ieio a oiiaao a?ia?oieanoa?eiai??).

4. Aeaoe ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ci?i ii?oieia?/ieo aea?aaeaio?a
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a o?ei-, iioiaaiac? o?aaaoieo oa i?e
iaoieia??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy a ?iaio?
?noi?e/iiai oa aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?aeoiae?a, iiaeeeainoae
o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? oa i?eioeei?a ii?oiiao?e/iiai
aiae?co iaoa??aeo aeicaieeei io?eiaoe i?eioeeiiai iia? aeai?, ye?
?noioii aeiiiaiththoue oa ?icaeaathoue oyaeaiiy i?i nae?aoi?io ooieoe?th
na?oey:

Aia?oa anoaiiaeai? ?ici??i? oa e?euee?ni? iniaeeaino? o?ueio oei?a
ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ciei noaae?yi nae?aoi?iiai
oeeeeo, o ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo.

Aia?oa aea/ai? ci?ie ?ici???a, oi?ie ? ia?a?iciiae?e a?aioe a
iioiaaiac? uo?a, ui aeicaiey? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iai?aaeaiiy i?ieeaino?
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey ia ??cieo aoaiao ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
?icaeoeo.

C’yniaaiee noai oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aea?aaeaio?a aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe??
na?oey (ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a) i?e ee?i?/i?e oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?ia?oaic??.

I?aaenoaaeai? aeieace ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a ? ia?a?iciiae?e oei?a a?aioe
a oiiaao canoinoaaiiy L-a?a?i?io ye iiia?aaeieea neioaco ieneaeo acioo
(NO) a oiiaao a?ia?oieanoa?eiai??.

Anoaiiaeai? iciaee ?aeai?ooeyoe??, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai
ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe a iioiaaiac?, a oaeiae a oiiaao ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia?? na?oey.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiai oa ii?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co o?eiaaiaoe/iiai,
iioiaaiaoe/iiai, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ? a?iin?eiiai iaoa??aeo
i?aaenoaaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy i?i oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aea?aaeaioe
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a ii?i? ? iaoieia??; ioa?aeoa?eciaaii yaeua
?aeai?ooeyoe?? ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe a o?ei-, iioiaaiac? oa i?e
iaoieia??; c’yniaaii ? e?euee?nii aecia/aii caeiiii??iino?
ia?a?iciiae?eo a?aioe a iioiaaiac? oa i?e iaoieia??. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe i?aaenoaaeythoue iiaeeea?noue iiooeo iiaeo cania?a
i?io?eaeoeee ? e?eoaaiiy a?ia?oaic?? a iaeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a o/aiaiio i?ioean?
ia eaoaae?ao a?noieia??, oeeoieia?? oa aia??ieia??, ii?iaeueii? ?
iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia??, ea?ae?ieia??, aiaeie?eiieia??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, aeeiiai? aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? oa ii?oiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaia noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea, aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aenia?eiaioe ii iiaeaethaaiith
a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?? o e?ie?a oa aaaaeaiiy ia ?? oii? L-a?a?i?io aaoi?ii
i?iaaaeaii ni?eueii c i?a?ia?oieeaie a?aeae?eo o?c?ieia?? e?iaiia?ao
?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie (ea??aiee /e-ei?.
IAI Oe?a?ie A.O.Naaa/a.)*

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia III c’?cae? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a oa oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a O?N? (*a?i?aoe?, 1990 ?.); iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?eiaia-iea yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee a iaaeeoeeia” (Ee?a,
1992 ?.); i?aeaoc?anueeiio neiiic?oi?, i?enay/aiiio 30-??//th IAeEOe
IIO (Ee?a, 1992 ?.); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
ii?oieia??” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994 ?.); III eiioa?aioe?? anioe?aoe??
na?oeaai-noaeeiieo o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1995 ?.); iaoeiaiio
neiiic?oi? “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu ii?oieiaee na?aeoea” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1996 ?.); ae?ci?e nan?? Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe iaoe?i-iaeueiiai
i?ia?ano (Oa?iii?eue, 1997 ?.); eiioa?aioe?? “Ii?oieia?y – aaoa?eia???
? iaaeeoeei?” (A.Oea?eaa,1998 ?.); 3-?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eii-oa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeeoeeie” (Ee?a, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 12
?ia?o, ?c ieo 3 noaoo? a i?io?eueieo aeo?iaeao.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??aeo ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icae?eo
?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icae?eo aiae?co ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(225, ?c ieo 191 — ?iicaiieo). ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 152 noi??ieao,
aeeth/a? 5 oaaeeoeue, ?ethno?iaaia 47 ?enoieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee eoni/ee i?iea?aea ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a o?eiaaiaoe/iiai ?yaeo. Aea/aii i?iea?ae ?ea (Pisces):
ei?ii

______________________________________

* Aaoi? ue?i aaey/ia ni?a?ia?oieeai iacaaiiai a?aeae?eo ca iino?eio
oaaao ? aeiiiiiao o ni?eueieo aeine?aeao.

(Cyprinus carpio) — 5; caiiiaiaeieo (Amphibia): ica?ia aeaaa (Rana
ridibunda) — 5; ?aioee?e (Reptilia): yu??ea (Lacerta agilis L.) — 3,
/a?aiaoa (Testudo g.) — 2; ioao?a (Aves): aeiiaoiy eo?ea (Gallus
domesticus) — 5; nnaaoe?a (Mammalia): uo? e?i?? A?noa? (Rattus w. ) — 5.
Onueiai aeine?aeaeaii 25 i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo. Aea/ai? ??ci?
?aa?iie na?oey — ia?aaena?aey ? oeoii/ee.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy noaiiaeaiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aea?aaeaio?a
aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a iioiaaiac? aeine?aeaeoaaeiny i?aaa
ia?aaena?aey ? i?aaee oeoii/ie a?ae 15-oe eaai?aoi?ieo uo??a o
??ciiiai?oi? ia??iaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo: 20-oe aeiaiaee
aia??ii, 1-ii, 7-ie, 30-oe aeiaiaee ? 6-oe i?ny/iee uo?.

Aeey aea/aiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae na?oey, iia’ycaieo ?c eiai
aiaeie?eiiith ooieoe??th, ? aecia/aiiy aeayeeo ?aeai?ooeyoe?eieo iciae
o?eiaaiaco a iaoieia?? aeine?aeaeaii i?iea?ae i?e aeayeeo
na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiiyo. Aea/ai? a?iioaoe i?aaiai aooea
na?oey oai?eo, ye? no?aaeaeaee a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie na?oey. Oe? ia’?eoe
io?eioaaee a Ee?anueeiio IAe? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? o??o?a??, aea oai??
i?ioiaeeee iaiao?aeia caaaeueiiee?i?/ia oa niaoe?aeueia ianoaaeaiiy
(AEA, OEA, OCAe, aiaeiaaneoey?ia ciiaeoaaiiy, a?io?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aac?a e?ia? e ?i.). Iaoa??ae ocyoee a?ae 9 oai?eo c a?iaeaeaieie
aeaoaeoaie i?aeoeoii/eiai? ia?aai?iaeee, oneeaaeiaieie a?ia?oaic??th o
iaeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao ??ciiiai?oieo a?eiaeo a?oi (a?ae 6 i?nyoe?a aei
1 ?ieo, a?ae 1,5 aei 4 ?ie?a, a?ae 4 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa) ii 3 o eiaei?e
a?oi?. Eiio?ieai neoaeea iaoa??ae a?ae 3-o oai?eo c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie
na?oey aac eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic??.

Aenia?eiaioaeueio a?oio oaa?ei neeaaeaee niaaee c eaaaiaaith
a?ia?oaic??th, iiaeaethaaiiy yei? cae?enithaaee oeyoii i?e?iaiaie?caoe??
noaeei eaaaiue aaoa?iaaiieie a?eo?ioeeoaie (5-8 ie/ea 50% noniaic??
a?aeieoeo eo?y/eo a?eo?ioeeo?a ia o?c?ieia?/iiio ?ic/ei?). Aea/ai? i?aaa
ia?aaena?aey ? i?aaee oeoii/ie na?oey 5-oe niaae /a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a i?ney
ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo oa 3-o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?y iiaeaethaaeany ia 3-o e?ieeeao
ii?iaee oeioeeea oeyoii aaaaeaiiy ia i?ioyc? 4 i?nyoe?a /a?ac ciiae
uiaeiy 0,2 a ?ic/eiaiiai a niiyoieeia?e ie?? oieanoa?eio ia 1 ea iane
oaa?eie. ?ioo a?oio neeaaeaee 3 oaa?eie, ye? e??i aoa?iaaiii? ae??oe
iaea?aeoaaee eiaeiee aeaiue i?ioyaii 4 i?nyoe?a aioo??oiueiaaiii 25
ia/ea L-a?a?i?io (o??ia “Sigma”, NOA). E??i oiai aeine?aeaeoaaeany
a?oia a?aa??eiiai eiio?ieth (3 oaa?eie). Aiae?coaaany i?iea?ae i?aaiai
ia?aaena?aey.

Iaoa??ae o?enoaaee a 1% ?ic/ei? /ioe?ueioieeno ini?th ca Eieo?eueaeii
i?ioyaii aeaio aiaeei ia oieiae?. Ia’?eoe ciaaiaeithaaee a aoaiie?
c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe??, a aoeaoii? ? caeeaaee a noi?o aiiio c
a?aeae?oii ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith noaiith [Ea?oio A.ss., 1984].
Oeueo?aoiie? c??ce iaea?aeoaaee ia oeueo?aoiiao LKB ? Reichert,
eiio?anooaaee ?o 2% ?ic/eiii o?ai?eaoeaoaoo ia 70% aoaiie? i?ioyaii
oa oeeo?aoii naeioeth ? iio?i aea/aee a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii?
AIA-100A?, AI-125E. C iaoith e?euee?nii? ioe?iee ci?i ia?aaena?aeieo
a?aioe na?oey o o?ei-, iioiaaiac? ? i?e aeayeeo iaoieia?/ieo noaiao
i?iea?aea, canoiniaaiee iaoiae ii?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co, a iniiao yeiai
iieeaaeai? i?eioeeie noa?aiiao??? [Aaeaaeue, 1970; Aaoaiaeeeia, 1979,
1980, 1984]. Ii?oiiao?e/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie «I?aaiaea» ia
iai?aaaoiiaoe/iiio i?eno?i? ia?iaee a?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue. Aecia/ai?
oae? iieacieee ye ia?eiao?, ieiua, oaeoi? oi?ie niaoeeo?/ieo
ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe I, II ? III oei?a, a oaeiae ?oi? a?aenioeiaa
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Ii eiaeiiio ?c ia?ae?/aieo iieaciee?a aecia/aeenue
na?aaei? cia/aiiy aaee/eie, na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy,
iioeaea na?aaeiuei?, eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? oa eiao?oe??io oi/iino?
aecia/aiiy na?aaeiuei? ie?aii aeey eiaeii? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaa?eie.
E?euee?noue a?aioe i?ae?aoiaoaaeanue ia 10 noaiaea?oieo o?aaiaioao
ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a aeey eiaeiiai ia’?eoo. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaeanue a?aeiia?aeii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ye?
i?noyoueny a iin?aieeao c iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee [O?aao A.TH., 1964;
Eaeei A.A., 1973]. Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaeinue ca
aeiiiiiaith ia?aiao?e/iiai e?eoa??th Nouethaeaioa. Ii – a?iioaca i?i
a?aenooi?noue eiia??ieo ?ica?aeiinoae i?ae ii??aiyeueieie na?aaei?ie
a?aeoeeyeany i?e ? 0,05.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i?iea?aea na?oey a o?eiaaiac?

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui o i?iea?ae? an?o aea/aieo iaie
i?aaenoaaiee?a o?eiaaiaoe/iiai ?yaeo o?aaaoieo i?enooi? nei?i/oaaeuei?
i?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue niaoeeo?/i? nae?aoi?i? a?aioee, a?aeii? a
e?oa?aoo?? ye ia?aaena?aei? [B.Kisch, 1956]. O ?ea, aio?a?e, ?aioee?e
oa ioao?a oae? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe aeyaeythoueny ? a ia?aaena?aeyo, ? a
oeoii/eao, aea ia?aaaaeia ?o a?eueo?noue cina?aaeaeaia a ia?aaena?aeyo.
O nnaaoe?a, aeeth/ath/e ethaeeio, a?aioee a ii?i? aeyaeythoueny o?eueee
a ia?aaena?aeyo ? aooeao na?oey.

E?euee?noue a?aioe a ee?oeiao aa??th? — aeaye? c ieo iathoue cia/io
e?euee?noue a?aioe, oiae? ye ?io? i?noyoue iiiaeeiie? a?aioee. A?aioee
?ici?uai? ii on?e oeeoiieaci? ee?oeie: i?ae i?io?a?eeaie, a
i?aena?eieaiaeuei?e cii?, aea a?eueoa ?o /anoeia ciaoiaeeoueny a cii?
eiiieaeno Aieueaeae?.

Ca oeueo?ano?oeoo?iith i?aai?caoe??th na?aae iiioeyoe?? a?aioe iiaeia
aeae?eeoe o?e oeie. Ia?oee oei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith aeaeo?iiiith
u?euei?noth ? aiiiaaieciaaiei iao?eenii, yeee ioi/aiee iaia?aiith
? aeaeo?iiiii?ici?ei iaaeieiiaia?aiiei ia?aeeii. A?aioee ae?oaiai
oeio i?noyoue iaio aeaeo?iiiiu?eueiee iao?een, iathoue iaia?aio,
i?ioa iaaeieiiaia?aiiue ia?aeie i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e. A?aioee o?aoueiai
oeio i?noyoue iaea?eueo aeaeo?iiiii?ici?ee iao?een, ciai?oiy iaia?aia
a ieo a?aenooiy. Oe? oeie a?aioe a?aeia?aaeathoue iine?aeiai? noaae??
nae?aoe?? ai?iiio (IIOI). Ia?oee oei ie a?aeiineii aei iieiaeeo a?aioe,
ui noi?ioaaeeny. Ae?oaee — oea c??e? no?oeoo?e, o?ao?e oei — a?aioee, ui
aeeooiaeothoue, oiaoi oae?, ui aeaiaeyoueny c ee?oeie oeyoii aeeooc??.

E?euee?nia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?ueio oei?a a?aioe o ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo ia? nai? aeaeia? iniaeeaino? (oaae.1) ?,
eiia??ii, iiaea a?aeia?aaeaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ioean?a neioaco,
iaeiie/aiiy ? aeaaaeaiiy iaioeaeo c ee?oeie.

Oaaeeoey 1

Noa?aieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a

o ??ciiiai?oieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo

Aeae

oaa?eie Oeie a?aioe Ia?aaena?aey Oeoii/ieNa?aaeiy ieiua,

10-2 iei2 Oaeoi? oi?ie E-noue a?aioeNa?aaeiy ieiua,

10-2 iei2Oaeoi? oi?ieE-noue a?aioe % Aani-ethoia%Aani-ethoia Ea?i I
2,14? 0,25 0,85? 0,02172,53? 0,240,81? 0,0119 II 1,89?
0,180,79?0,0147462,93?0,350,87?0,015234III1,94?0,290,83?0,01362,24?0,500
,75?0,0129AEaaa
I2,31?0,090,86?0,01302,48?0,200,91?0,0110II1,99?0,100,82?0,01303472,26?0
,300,91?0,014397III1,78?0,070,79?-,01401,69?0,110,79?0,0247ssu??eaI1,93?
0,200,75?0,03551,66?0,370,81?0,0448II2,11?0,210,89?0,0122513,94?0,070,91
?0,021918III2,34?0,440,79?0,05231,58?0,250,89?0,0433O?eoiiI1,78?0,210,85
?0,02491,47?0,090,92?0,0158II1,63?0,220,85?0,0333631,46?0,160,92?0,01423
3III3,16?0,650,91?0,0218—*a?aiaoaI1,40?0,130,74?0,05452,66?0,430,78?0,
0957II1,48?0,210,73?0,0629382,84?0,580,93?0,011414III1.50?0,240,81?0,032
63,38?0,240,93?0,0229Eo?eaI2,89?0,160,89?0,02262,04?0,200,85?0,0424II2,3
2?0,320,89?0,0127412,59?0,310,88?0,013528III2.15?0,130,91?0,01471,76?0,2
40,90?-,0141Uo?I1,89?0,160,89?0,0227—II2,72?0,360,89?0,012941—III1.9
5?0,170,91?0,0144—NiaaeaI2,09?0,150,90?0,0218—II2,59?0,260,91?0,0135
61—III1.78
?0,110,89?0,0146—E?ie?eI3,27?0,200,89?0,0221—II2,98?0,210,89?0,01387
8—III2,76?0,200,91?0,0141—

sse aeaeii ?c a?noia?aie (?en.), o ?ea, aeaa, ioao?a ? nnaaoe?a ia?oee
oei a?aioe neeaaea? i?eaeecii iaeio o?aoeio an??? iiioeyoe??,
oiae? ye a?aenioeiaa

EA?I

AEAAA

ssU??EA

O?EOII

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NIAAEA

UO?

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0000000000?en. ?iciiae?e I, II ? III oei?a (a %) niaoeeo?/ieo
ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ia?aaena?aeue ? oeoii/e?a
na?oey o ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo

ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai oei?a o ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
o?aaaoieo aeaui ??ciyoueny. Aeii?ioaaiiy ae?oaiai oeio a?aioe a
ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ?eae na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?o
iaeiie/aiiy o oeueiai i?aaenoaaieea. O ioao?a ? nnaaoe?a i?ioeane
iaeiie/aiiy ? aeaaaeaiiy a?aioe i?eaeecii caaeainiaai?. O i?aaenoaaiee?a
?aioee?e — yu??ee, o?eoiia ? /a?aiaoe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao
ia?aaaaeathoue a?aioee ? oeio. E?euee?noue aea a?aioe o ee?oei?
iacia/ia, i?e/iio, /anoi a?aioee ? oeio niinoa??aathoueny a
i?aena?eieaiaeuei?e cii?. Oiio iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a ?aioee?e ii?yae
?c aeeooc??th IIOI aeaaaeaiiy oeueiai iaioeaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ? oeyoii
aecioeeoico. A?aeiinii aaniethoii? e?eueeino? a?aioe iaiao?aeii
a?aei?oeoe, ui oi/a e?euee?noue ?o aa??th?, aea nooo?ai oeae iieaciee
ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo. Aeaui ie?aii
noi?oue eean caiiiaiaeieo, aea e?euee?noue a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao
a??ia?aeii a?eueoa (iaeaea a 6-7 ?ac?a), i?ae a ?ioeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
o?aaaoieo.

O aiaeioae?? e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei a on?o aea/aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
o?aaaoieo niinoa??aathoueny a?aioee oeio Aaeaaey-Iaeeaaea ? a?aioee
ie?oaei? oi?ie ii nai?e no?oeoo?? iiae?ai? aei ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe.

I?eioeeiiao iiae?ai?noue no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? a?aioe o aeaeaei
noiy/eo o o?eiaaiaoe/iiio ?yaeo o?aaaoieo iiaeia iiynieoe yaeuaie
ia?aeae?cio, ui iia’ycai? c caaaeueiei iioiaeaeaiiyi ? ooieoe?iiaeueiei
i?ecia/aiiyi. A?aei?iiino? a o?eaaeino? oa ni?aa?aeiioaii? ??cieo oac
nae?aoi?iiai oeeeeo ? i?iyaii aeeaa?aaioiiai ?icaeoeo. I/aaeaeii,
aeaaa, yea i?enoiniaaia ? aei aiaeiiai, ? aei iacaiiiai ?nioaaiiy,
iio?aao? i?aeaeuaii? aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey.

Ii??aiyeuei? ii?oieia?/i? aeai? ia?aeiiothoue oaeiae e o oiio, ui
o?eiaaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeaia ?aeiino?oeoe?y oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio
e?iaiia?ao, iia’ycaia c ia?aoiaeii a?ae aeaieaia?iiai aei o?ueio- ?
aeae? — aei /ioe?ueioeaia?iiai na?oey, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith
aaiiaeeiai?ee, i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? a
ia?aaena?aeyo, aea eiioeaio?o?oueny i?iaeoeoe?y niaoeeo?/ieo
ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe. ?icaeoie /ioe?ueioeaia?iiai na?oey o o?aaaoieo
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo a i?aaiio ia?aaena?ae? a ii??aiyii? c
aaiiciei na?oeai ?ea, ui o naith /a?ao iicia/a?oueny ia i?ioeanao
neioaco ? aeaaaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe, ye? i?noyoue
IIOI. Iiaeeeai, ui naia ci?ie aaiiaeeiai?ee iaoiiaeththoue oa, ui
ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe oeoii/e?a ia?anoathoue neioacoaaoe ia?aaena?aei?
a?aioee.

Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui ci?ia na?aaeiaeua ?nioaaiiy, iaa?oue oaea
?aaeeeaeueia ye aeo?ae ?c aiaee ia nooo, ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia
no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a
o?aaaoieo, a ci?ith? ?o e?euee?nia i?aaenoaaieoeoai ? ia?a?iciiae?e ii
oeiao, oiaoi, i?ioeane nae?aoe?? IIOI.

Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aea?aaeaioe aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a iioiaaiac?

A i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco uo??a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue
ia?aaena?aei? a?aioee, i?enooi? o aooeao, ia?aaena?aeyo ? oeoii/eao. O
iinoiaoaeueiiio iioiaaiac? aiie aeyaeythoueny o?eueee o aooeao ?
ia?aaena?aeyo. sse ? o o?eiaaiac?, o ??ciiiai?oi? ia??iaee iioiaaiaco
na?aae ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e oeie.

O 20-aeiaiaiai aia??iia ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? a
ia?aaena?aeyo, ? oeoii/eao i?noeoue niaoeeo?/i? ia?aaena?aei? a?aioee
an?o o?ueio oei?a. Ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe iathoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue a?aioe,
na?aae yeeo a?eueoa i?ae 50% neeaaeathoue a?aioee II oeio (oaae.2).
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaao i?ioean?a iaeiie/aiiy i?iai?iiio a ee?oeiao.

Oaaeeoey 2

Noa?aieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a

uo??a a iioiaaiac?

Oa?i?i niinoa?aaeaiueOeie a?aioeIa?aaena?aey Oeoii/ie Na?aaeiy ieiua,

10-2 iei2Oaeoi? oi?ie E-noue a?aioeNa?aaeiy ieiuaaeue,

10-2 iei2Oaeoi? oi?ie E-noue a?aioe%Aani-ethoia%Aani-ethoia 20-
aeiaiaee I2,39?0,200,87?0,0113 1,99? 0,35 0,83? 0,02 4aia??ii
II2,52?0,110,85?0,01521762,89?0,170,82?0,0164
118uo?aIII1,90?0,09*0,81?0,01352,03?0,150,82?0,02321-ii aeiaiaee
I2,43?0,270,85?0,048—uo?II4,05?0,43*,x0,91?0,0139119—III3,56?0,24*,x0
,91?0,0153—7-ie
aeiaiaeeI2,69?0,180,92?0,0145—uo?II4,07?0,56*0,91?0,022020
—III2,69?0,42*,x0,93?0,0135—1-ii i?ny/iee
I——uo?II5,23?0,050,91?0,0125201—III3,90?0,190,87?0,0175—6-oe
i?ny/iee
I1,89?0,160,89?0,0227—uo?II2,72?0,36*,x0,89?0,012941—III1,95?0,17×0,
91?0,0144—

O 1-ii aeiaiaiai uo?a ee?oeie c? niaoeeo?/ieie a?aioeaie aeyaeythoueny
aaea o?eueee a ia?aaena?aeyo. A ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ciaioo?oueny
caaaeueia /enei

a?aioe ? nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny e?euee?noue a?aioe III oeio, oiaoi
a?aioe, ui aeeooiaeothoue. Ca?a?no?iaaia iaie ??cea aea?eueiaiiy
a?aioe ?c ee?oei a?aeaoaa?oueny a ia??iae, eiee i?aeaeuo?oueny oene o
aaeeeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao, a ii?? oieo e?ia? oa oene o iaeiio eie?
nooo?ai cieaeo?oueny [Aieeiaa I.A., Iaea?neee I.E., 1976]. Ca?aeii
aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e a?aeiii, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y IIOI a ia?oocao? ia? i?yio
caeaaei?noue a?ae oeneo o i?aaiio ia?aaena?ae? [Ruskoaho H. et al.,
1986; Burnett J. et al., 1989], a i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ai?iiio, ui
oee?eoeth? a e?ia?, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi /enea a?aioe ? iaaiaee
[Choi K. C. et al., 1994; Baralis G. et al., 1997; Wu S. Q. et al.,
1998]. Oiio iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui nooo?aa ciaioaiiy i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy
e?eueeino? ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ia?aaena?aeue ?
iiaia ?o cieeiaiiy ?c ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a oeoii/e?a iia’ycaia ia c? ci?iaie
oeneo o iaeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao, a nei??oa iiaea aooe iane?aeeii ?ioeo
oaeoi??a, oaeeo ye i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo o aaeeeiio eie? e?iaiia?ao aai
no?ano, yeiai cacia? i?aai?ci i?ae /an ia?iaeaeaiiy.

*- eiiia??ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei iiia?aaeiueiai oeio a?aioe (?< 0,0) O - eiiia??ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei aiaeia?/iiai iieacieea o iiia?aaei?e oa?i?i niinoa?aaeaiue (?< 0,0) A ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao 7-ie aeiaiaiai uo?a ia?aaaaeathoue a?aioee I oeio ia a?aei?io a?ae i?iea?aea aia??iiaeueieo ? 1-aeiaiaeo uo?yo, aea ?o iiioeyoe?y i?i?iaeueia (oaae.2). A?aeiia?aeii cieaeaia e?euee?noue a?aioe II (20%) ? III (35%) oei?a. Oea aea? i?aenoaao aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui o 7-ie aeiaiaiai uo?a ?noioii ?ioaineo?eiaai? i?ioeane a?aioeiooai?aiiy. O oie aea /an aeinoaoiuei aaeeeee a?aenioie III oeio a?aioe na?ae/eoue i?i aeoeaia aeaaaeaiiy IIOI ?c ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a. Iai?yiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiio iiaea aooe noaoenoe/ii cia/eia ciaioaiiy ?ici???a a?aioe III oeio o ii??aiyii? c oaeeie o 1-aeiaiaiai uo?a, i?e oiio, ui ?ici??e a?aioe I ? II oeio ia ci?iththoueny (oaae.2). O 30-oe aeiaiaiai uo?a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe c ia?aaena?aeieie niaoeeo?/ieie a?aioeaie noaiiaeyoue a?eueo?noue ee?oei, a e?euee?noue a?aioe cia/ii aeua, i?ae a iiia?aaei? oa?i?ie niinoa?aaeaiue. A?aenooi?noue a?aioe I oeio, oae caaieo “iieiaeeo” (oaae.2), oaeaeoa ca ana iia'ycaia ia c i?eieiaiiyi ?oiueiai neioaco, a, nei??oa, iaoiiaeaia iano?eueee oaeaeeei ia?aoiaeii a?aioe o II ? III oei, a ca'yceo c ?ioaineaiei aeaaaeaiiyi IIOI ?c ee?oeie, ui ie ia anoeaa?ii ?o ca?a?no?oaaoe. ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy /enea a?aioe o ea?ae?iieioeeoao 30-aeiaiaiai uo?a, i/aaeaeii, iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaii noaiiaeaiiyi ?o na/inoaoaai? nenoaie ? ?icaeoeii ?ai?i-aia?ioaicei-aeueaeinoa?iiiai? nenoaie [Sasayama S., 1994]. *a?ac iaeei i?nyoeue uo?e noathoue noaoaaic??eeie. O 6-oe i?ny/iiai uo?a ia?aaaaeathoue ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe c ia?aaena?aeieie niaoeeo?/ieie a?aioeaie. I?eaeecia ??aiiaaaa e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?aioe, ui oi?iothoueny (I oei) ? iaeiie/othoueny (II oei), c? no?oeoo?aie, ui aeeooiaeothoue (III oei) (oaae.2), aea? i?aenoaao i?eionoeoe, ui o noaoaaic??eiai uo?a i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy ? iaeiie/aiiy a?aioe caaeainiaai? c i?ioeanaie aeaaaeaiiy IIOI ?c ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a. An? o?e oeie niaoeeo?/ieo ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe 6-oe i?ny/ieo uo??a iaio? ca ?ici??aie o ii??aiyii? c oaeeie o iieiaeeo oaa?ei (1, 7, 30 aeiae) ? noaoenoe/ii iiae?ai? aei a?aioe o 20-oe aeiaiaeo aia??ii?a (oaae.2). I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/i? eieeaaiiy ?ici??ieo iieaciee?a a?aioe, a on? aeine?aeaeoaai? ia??iaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo uo?a caa??aa?oueny iaeia caeiiii??i?noue - iaea?eueoeie ca ?ici??aie caeeoathoueny a?aioee II oeio. Ioaea, e?euee?nia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oei?a ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia??iaeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? a?aeaeca?eaeth? ci?io aiaeie?eiii? aeoeaiino? na?oey. A i?ioean? ?icaeoeo na?oey ia aeayeeo aoaiao aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy i?iea?aea aeyaeythoueny ?aeai?ooeyoe?ei? iciaee i?iaeoeoe?? ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe. I?e iiaiiio a?aeie?aieai? i?aaiai ? e?aiai na?oey aei 1 aeiae i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy a oeoii/eao nae?aoe?y ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe i?eieiy?oueny. Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy aeao?i?oeaiiai oeio e?iaiia?ao o nnaaoe?a a?eueo ?ai? iciaee aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey cieeathoue, cai?ithth/enue o?eiaaiaoe/ii a?eueo i?ci?ie, ui, eiia??ii, a?aeia?aaea? aaeaioaoe?th aei oeo iniaeeainoae aaiiaeeiai?ee, ye? aeanoea? o?aaaoiei, ui iathoue aeaa eiea e?iaiia?ao . Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aiaeie?eiio ooieoe?th na?oey i?e na?oeaai-noaeeii?e iaoieia??. Aenia?eiaioaeueia eaaaiaaa a?ia?oaic?y o niaae ca?aeii o?c?ieia?/ieo ? ii?oieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ?icaeaa?oueny /a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a i?ney i?e?iaiaie?caoe?? noaeei eaaaiue aaoa?iaaiieie a?eo?ioeeoaie [E?a/eianeee A.A. e ae?., 1983]. A ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao i?aaiai aooea ? i?aaiai ia?aaena?aey iine?aeiaii niinoa??aathoueny oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ci?ie ye i?enoinoaaeueii-eiiiainaoi?iiai, oae ? aeeno?io?/ii-aeano?oeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ia oii? oeeo ci?i a oeeoiieaci? ia?aaena?aeieo ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a aeyaey?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe. Oe? a?aioee a eiio?ieuei?e ? aeine?aei?e a?oiao iathoue ni?euei? ?ene a aoaeia? ? na?aae ieo iiaeia aeae?eeoe 3 oeie. Ae?aiao? a?aioe ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o eieae?caoe??, a??ia?aeii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny o aeine?aeieo oa eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei ? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 90 aei 350 ii. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy I, II ? III oei?a a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao eiio?ieueii? a?oie aei??aith? 19:46:35 % a?aeiia?aeii, oiae? ye o oaa?ei c eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th e?euee?noue a?aioe I oeio ciaioaia aei 6%, a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?aioe II ? III oei?a aei??aith? 1:1 (i?eaeecii ii 47% eiaeiiai oeio). sseui i?eeiyoe oi/eo ci?o, ui iayai?noue ??cieo oei?a a?aioe a?aeia?aaea? ??ci? noaae?? neioaco ? nae?aoe?? IIOI, oi iaci?ii?noue a?aenioeiaiai ai?noo a?aioe II ? III oei?a o oaa?ei c eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th aeicaiey? aeoiaoe i?i iiaeeeaa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a e?ia iac??eeo oi?i i?iai?iiio aai ci?io oeyo?a /e ?ioaineaiino? nae?aoe?? - c ?ioiai aieo. A aiaeioae?? aaiii?e?inoaeei i?iea?aea i?aaiai aooea ? i?aaiai ia?aaena?aey o aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei i?e ?icaeoeo eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic?? niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?aioey?ieo ooai?aiue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueieie. Oe? a?aioee iathoue ??ciiiai?oio oeueo?ano?oeoo?o, oi?io ? ?ici??e. Aeaye? c ieo ca aoaeiaith iiae?ai? aei ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? ia aeyaeythoueny o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei. A oeoii/eao oaa?ei c eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th c’yaeythoueny ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue ia?aaena?aei? niaoeeo?/i? a?aioee. ?o e?euee?noue iacia/ia, na?aae ieo ia?aaaaeathoue a?aioee I oeio, aeaui iaioa - II oeio ? i?aeoe/ii ia aeyaeythoueny a?aioee III oeio. O oai?eo c aeaoaeoii i?aeoeoii/eiai? ia?aai?iaeee, oneeaaeiaii? eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th, a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao aeyaeai? an? o?e oeie a?aioe. A?aenioeiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?aioe a oe?e a?oi? aeine?aeaeaiue ia? ae?aaeaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ?icoiaeaeaiiy. A?eueo noeeuei? aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?iceeaeo a?aioee I oeio. O ??ciiiai?oieo oai?eo ?o e?euee?noue eieeaa?oueny a?ae 5 aei 26% (oaae.3). O oai?eo aac eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic?? ia niinoa??aa?oueny iano?eueee ae?aaeaiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?iceeaeo ii a?aenioeiaiio ai?noo a?aioe I, II ? III oei?a (oaae.4). A?aioee ? oeio o inoaii?o neeaaeathoue iaeio o?aoeio, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeia?a ae?aaeai? i?ioeane neioaco iaioeaeo. O oai?eo ?c eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th e?euee?noue a?aioe I oeio iacia/ia, oiae? ye a?aioee III oeio neeaaeathoue ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue (oaae. 3), ui na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaia aeaaaeaiiy IIOI. Oaaeeoey 3 Noa?aieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a oai?eo ?c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie na?oey, oneeaaeiaieie eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th Oei a?aioe Oai?? Na?aaeiy ieiua (10-2 iei2) Aeiaaeeia eiioo??a (iei) Oaeoi? oi?ie E?e-noue a?aioe (%) I A-ei A-ei A-a E-a 4,68 ? 1,60 3,45 ? 0,36 5,15 ? 0,50 3,47 ? 0,30 0,81 ? 0,11 0,77 ? 0,06 0,84 ? 0,03 0,70 ? 0,02 0,84 ? 0,08 0,76 ? 0,06 0,77 ? 0,10 0,85 ? 0,03 3 14 5 23 II A-ei A-ei A-a E-a 3,23 ? 0,20 2,40 ? 0,20 4,87 ? 0,50 4,26 ? 0,30 0,69 ? 0,02 0,79 ? 0,04 0,83 ? 0,04 0,77 ? 0,02 0,82 ? 0,03 0,53 ? 0,04 0,86 ? 0,04 0,86 ? 0,04 32 34 47,5 39 III A-ei A-ei A-a E-a 2,63 ? 0,10 2,28 ? 0,10 3,53 ? 0,30 3,15 ? 0,20 0,69 ? 0,01 0,71 ? 0,02 0,76 ? 0,02 0,71 ? 0,01 0,69 ? 0,03 0,59 ? 0,04 0,77 ? 0,05 0,77 ? 0,03 65 52 47,5 38 Oaaeeoey 4 Noa?aieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a oai?eo ?c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie na?oey aac eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic?? Oei a?aioe Oai?? Na?aaeiy ieiua (10-2 iei2) Aeiaaeeia eiioo??a (iei) Oaeoi? oi?ie E?e-noue a?aioe (%) I Ae-ee A-aa C-ei3,27 ? 0,20 2,76 ? 0,20 2,98 ? 0,21 0,68 ? 0,02 0,68 ? 0,01 0,69 ? 0,02 0,87 ? 0,02 0,73 ? 0,03 0,77 ? 0,02 22 31 28 II Ae-ee A-aa C-ei4,34 ? 0,30 2,94 ? 0,20 3,60 ? 0,30 0,77 ? 0,02 0,72 ? 0,02 0,72 ? 0,02 0,89 ? 0,01 0,70 ? 0,04 0,82 ? 0,02 38 24 41 III Ae-ee A-aa C-ei3,59 ? 0,30 2,60 ? 0,10 3,07 ? 0,20 0,73 ? 0,02 0,70 ? 0,01 0,68 ? 0,02 0,81 ? 0,03 0,67 ? 0,02 0,81 ? 0,03 40 45 31 A aiaeioae?? on?o eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oai?eo c eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th niinoa??aa?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe ??cii? no?oeoo?e. Aeaye? aiaeia?/i? o?eueoeyi Aaeaaey-Iaeaaea, ?io? iaaaaeothoue ia?aaena?aei? a?aioee. Inoaii? iathoue ??ciiiai?oio oi?io - a?ae ie?oaei? aei iai?aaeeueii?. Aeyaeaii a?aioee, ui cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny oi?iith e oeueo?ano?oeoo?iith i?aai?caoe??th a?ae iienaieo aeua. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie ?ici??aie ? aeiiaiai? o?a?eey?iei ai?noii. O?eaaea aaaaeaiiy iiia?aaeieea a?ineioaco NO L-a?a?i?io ia oii? a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?? i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aiaeie?eiii? ai?iiiaeueii? aeoeaiino?, ii?oieia?/iei i?iyaii /iai aoei ca?eueoaiiy e?euee?nieo ? ?ici??ieo iieaciee?a niaoeeo?/ieo ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe (oaae.5). A?aenooi?noue ?noioieo a?aei?iiinoae o oa?aeoa?? ?iciiae?eo a?aioe ii oeiao i?e caaaeueiiio ca?eueoaii? ?oiueiai e?euee?niiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy neioaco ? nae?aoe?? IIOI ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /enea ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a c ia?aaena?aeieie a?aioeaie. Aeyaeaiiy a?aioe, oeueo?ano?oeoo?a yeeo iiae?aia aei ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe I oeio, o ?ioa?noeoe?eiiio i?inoi?? oa aiaeioae?? i?e?inoaeei iiaea aeacoaaoe ia a?ia?nae?aoe?th iaioeaeo ? i?e?aeiaiiy aei aeeooc?eiiai aeaaaeaiiy ai?iiio i?ioeano aecioeeoico aeic??eeo a?aioe. I?aeaeuaiiy /enea nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe a aiaeioae?? i?e?inoaeei na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy ia?ae?eiii? ai?iiiaeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? a oiiaao ae?? L-a?a?i?io. . Oaaeeoey 5 Noa?aieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ia?aaena?aeue e?ie?a o eiio?ie?, i?e a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?? oa a oiiaao aieeao L-a?a?i?io A?oia niinoa?aaeaiue Oei a?aioe Na?aaeiy ieiua (10-2 iei2) Aeiaaeeia eiioo??a (iei)Oaeoi? oi?ie E?e-noue A?aioe (%) Eiio?ieue I 3,27 ? 0,20 0,81 ? 0,070,89 ? 0,0121N=98II2,98 ? 0,210,79 ? 0,080,91 ? 0,0241III2,76 ? 0,200,73 ? 0,120,87 ? 0,0238A?ia?oiean- I3,54 ? 1,170,67 ? 0,110,88 ? 0,047Oa?eiaieyII5,71 ? 0,520,85 ? 0,040,91 ? 0,0154N=57III4,40 ? 0,300,76 ? 0,020,90 ? 0,0139I?ae aieeaii I4,88 ? 0,660,80 ? 0,020,93 ? 0,0110L-a?a?i?ioII5,66 ? 0,390,83 ? 0,020,92 ? 0,0147N= 169III5,06 ? 0,270,77 ? 0,050,93 ? 0,0143 Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe i?e aeayeeo na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiiyo, iia’ycaieo c i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo ye a iaeiio, oae ? aaeeeiio eieao e?iaiia?ao, na?ae/eoue i?i ?o i?ieea?noue ? iiaeeea?noue ni?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ?o nae?aoe?th. AENIIAEE 1. Ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue aiaeie?eiiiai ? ia?ae?eiiiai eiiiiiaio?a ai?iiiaeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? na?oey aecia/a?oueny noaiii ?o oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aea?aaeaio?a - ia?aaena?aeieo niaoeeo?/ieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe aiaeioae?ioeeo?a i?e?inoaeei - a oiiaao iaoieia?? oa o o?eiaaiaoe/iiio eiioaeno?. 2. O ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaaoieo (?eae, caiiiaiaei?, ?aioee?e, ioao?a oa nnaaoe?a) a i?iea?ae? i?enooi? aiaeie?eii? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue niaoeeo?/i? a?aioee o?ueio oei?a, oeueo?ano?oeoo?a yeeo a?aeia?aaeo? iine?aeiai? noaae?? neioaco ? nae?aoe?? ai?iiio, a ?oi? e?euee?nia i?aaenoaaieoeoai aa??th? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo o?aaaoieo. 3. O ?ea, aio?a?e, ?aioee?e oa ioao?a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe c? niaoeeo?/ieie ia?aaena?aeieie a?aioeaie aeyaeai? a on?o a?aeae?eao na?oey, aea a?eueo?noue ?o cina?aaeaeaia a ia?aaena?aeyo. A?aenioeiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a a?aioe a ee?oeiao na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaao i?ioean?a neioaco ? iaeiie/aiiy iaae aeaaaeaiiyi iaioeae?a. Aeiyoeii ? ioaoe, o yeeo aeii?iothoue i?ioeane aeaaaeaiiy ia?aaena?aeiiai iao??eo?aoe/iiai iaioeaeo. O nnaaoe?a (uo?, niaaea, e??eue) aiaeie?eii? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe aeyaeythoueny o?eueee a i?iea?ae? aooie ? ia?aaena?aeue, a e?euee?nia ia?aaaaa a?aioe III oeio aeaco? ia aeoeai?noue i?ioean?a aeaaaeaiiy ai?iiio. 4. O i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo uo?a aiaeie?eii? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue ia?aaena?aei? a?aioee, i?enooi? o aooeao, ia?aaena?aeyo ? oeoii/eao. Ia i?ioyc? iinoiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco aiie aeyaeythoueny o?eueee o aooeao ? ia?aaena?aeyo. Ci?ie ?ici???a, oi?ie ? ia?a?iciiae?e a?aioe a iioiaaiac? uo?a na?ae/aoue i?i i?ieea?noue aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey ia ??cieo aoaiao ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo 5. ?icaeoie eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic?? a aenia?eiaio? aeeeeea? aeoeaaoe?th neioaco ? nae?aoe?? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoaie i?aaiai aooea ? i?aaiai ia?aaena?aey IIOI, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiino? aiaeioae?th noaeei i?iea?aea. 6. O oai?eo c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie na?oey (aeaoaeo i?aeoeoii/eiai? ia?aai?iaeee), oneeaaeiaieie eaaaiaaith a?ia?oaic??th, a aiaeie?eiieo ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao aeyaeaia aaoa?iaaii?noue ?ici???a ? no?oeoo?e a?aioe, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaoaaiiy ?o ia ??cieo noaae?yo neioaco ? nae?aoe??. I?enooi?noue o ?ioa?noeoe?eiiio i?inoi?? oa a aiaeioae?? i?e?inoaeei a?aioe, oeueo?anooeoo?a yeeo iiae?aia aei ia?aaena?aeieo, aeaco? ia a?ia?nae?aoe?th iaioeaeo ? aeoeaaoe?th i?ioeano aecioeeoico aeic??eeo a?aioe ii?yae ?c aeeoociei aeaaaeaiiyi ai?iiio. 7. O?eaaea aaaaeaiiy iiia?aaeieea neioaco ieneaeo acioo (NO) - L-a?a?ieio ia oii? a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy oeaieiii? ai?iiiaeueii? aeoeaiino? o i?iea?ae?, ui i?iyaey?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ? ?ici???a niaoeeo?/ieo ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe oa na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy neioaco ? nae?aoe?? ia?aaena?aeiiai iao??eo?aoe/iiai iaioeaeo. Ca?eueoaiiy /enea nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe a aiaeioae?? i?e?inoaeei iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i iineeaiiy ia?ae?eiii? ai?iiiaeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? a oiiaao ae?? L-a?a?i?io. 8. A o?ei-, iioiaaiac? oa a oiiaao na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaoieia?? a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao o?aaaoieo a?aeaoaathoueny aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaai? ?aeai?ooeyoe??, ui i?iyaeythoueny iayai?noth a?aioe ia o?eueee a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ia?aaena?aeue ? aooie, aea e oeoii/eao na?oey. NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Neea?inueea O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey a oiiaao eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic??//A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. - Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a.- 1999.- N3.- N.70 -74. 2. Noa/aiei E.I., Naaa/ A.O., Oea/aiei I.I., Neea?inueea O.?., Aiae???iei O.A. Aieea L-a?a?i?io ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?o ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ia?aaena?aeue ca oiia aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?ia?oieanoa?eiai??// O?c?ieia?/iee aeo?iae. - 1999.- O.45, N1-2.- N.72-78. 3. Neea?inueea O.?., Einoeinueeee A.A., Noa/aiei E.I., Eoooe?aaa O.I., Eicae A.?. Aei ieoaiiy ?aaeoeaiino? aiaeioae?th e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a iiia?a/ii-nioaanoiai i'yco // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. - Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a. - 1999.- N5.- N.68-71. 4. Noa/aiei E.I., Neea?inueea O.?., Aiae???iei O.A. Ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ci?i nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiino? a i?iea?ae? niaae c o?ii?/ieie ianiaoeeo?/ieie caoai?thaaiiyie eaaaiue // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998, Aei. 6.- *. 2.- N.211-213. 5. Noa/aiei E.I., Aiae???iei O.A., Eoooe?aaa O.I., Neea?inueea O.?. Ii?oieia?/i? aniaeoe aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey // Iaoea ? ina?oa: Ca.iaoe.i?.- Ee?a, 1997.- N.244-248. 6. Neeaeineay O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iay i?aaiecaoeey i?aaena?aeiuo a?aioe a ieiea?aea iecoeo iicaiii/iuo //Aeooaeueiua aii?inu ii?oieiaee na?aeoea: Ca. iaoe.i?.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1996.- N. 114 - 115. 7. Noa/aiei E.A., Naaa/ A.O., Oea/aiei I.I., Aeea?iaa A.A., Aiae?aaiei O.A., Eooou?aaa O.I., Neeaeineay O.?. No?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe i?aaena?aeiuo a?aioe i?e aicaeaenoaee i?aaeoanoaaiieea aeineioaca NO L-a?aeieia // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??: Ca. iaoe. i?. II Iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiia?ano aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie. – Eoaainuee, 1998. - N.227. 8. Neeaeineay O.?., Aiae?aaiei O.A., Noa/aiei E.A. Yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ea?aeeiieioeeoia na?aeoea e?un a iioiaaiaca//Iaoeia? caienee c ieoaiue iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, o?i??, aa?a??? oa no/anieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy: Iao. ae?cii? nan?? OAIII.- Oa?iii?eue, 1997. 9. Aiae?aaiei O.A., Noa/aiei E.A., Eaci?eoaiy A.A., Neeaeineay O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe nae?aoi?iie ooieoeee yiaeioaeey aaii-iee?ininoaeia na?oea o aieueiuo n aeaoaeoii iaaeaeaeoaei/eiaie ia?aai?iaeee //III eiio. annioeeaoeee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo oe?o?aia Oe?aeiu: Oac.aeiee.- Eeaa, 1995. - N.6. 10. Noa/aiei E.A., ssoeaiei A.I., Eooou?aaa O.I., Eicae A.E., Neeaeineay O.?. I?eiaiaiea noa?aiiao?ee a yeaeo?iiiiiee?ineiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo // I?iaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiie eaai/ii-ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe: Oac. aeiee.- Eeaa, 1992.- N. 55-56. 11. Aiae?aaiei O.A., ssoeaiei A.I., Noa/aiei E.A., Neeaeineay O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a i?aaena?aeiuo a?aioe i?e yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeia?oaicee iaeiai e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey // I?eiaiaiea yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee a iaaeeoeeia: Iao. eiio.- Eeaa, 1992.- N.4. 12. Eaaae E.N., Noa/aiei E.A., Aiae?aaiei O.A., NeeaeineayO.?. ?aeaieooeyoeeiiiua i?eciaee a yiaeioaeee e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia ieiea?aea iicaiii/iuo //Aeooaeueiua aii?inu ii?oieiaee: Oac. aeiee. III nueacaea aiaoiiia, aenoieiaia, yia?eieiaia e oiiia?aoiaiaoiiia ONN?.- *a?iiaoeu, 1990.- N.113. AIIOAOe?? Neea?inueea O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aea?aaeaioe aiaeie?eiii? ooieoe?? na?oey o?aaaoieo a ii?i? oa iaoieia??.- ?oeiien. Aeeca?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.09.- a?noieia?y, oeeoieia?y, aia??ieia?y. Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999 ?. Caoeuathoueny 12 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ye? ai?uothoue ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy noaio oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aea?aaeaio?a aiaeie?eiiiai ? ia?ae?eiiiai eiiiiiaio?a ai?iiiaeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? na?oey - ia?aaena?aeieo niaoeeo?/ieo a?aioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a i?e?inoaeei - o o?ei-, iioiaaiaoe/iiio eiioaeno? oa a oiiaao iaoieia??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe na?oey o?aaaoieo i?noyoue niaoeeo?/i? a?aioee o?ueio oei?a, oeueo?ano?oeoo?a yeeo a?aeia?aaea? iine?aeiai? noaae?? neioaco ? nae?aoe?? ia?aaena?aeiiai iao??eo?aoe/iiai iaioeaeo, a ?oi? e?euee?nia i?aaenoaaieoeoai aa??th? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo o?aaaoieo. ??ci? ia??iaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo uo?a a?ae??ciythoueny aeoeai?noth nae?aoi?ieo ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a. O aia??ii?a ia?aaaaeathoue i?ioeane iaeiie/aiiy a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao, ia??iae ia?iaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nooo?aei iineeaiiyi aeaaaeaiiy IIOI ?c ee?oei, o 7-aeiaiaeo oaa?ei ia?aaaaeathoue i?ioeane neioaco, o noaoaaic??eeo uo??a i?ioeane neioaco, iaeiie/aiiy oa aeaaaeaiiy IIOI naaeainiaai?. ?icaeoie eaaaiaai? a?ia?oaic?? o oai?eo c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie na?oey oa a aenia?eiaio? aeeeeea? ci?ie a neioac? ? nae?aoe?? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoaie i?aaiai aooea ? i?aaiai ia?aaena?aey IIOI, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiino? aiaeioae?th noaeei i?iea?aea. O?eaaea aaaaeaiiy iiia?aaeieea a?ineioaco NO L-a?a?ieio ia oii? a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ? ?ici???a niaoeeo?/ieo ia?aaena?aeieo a?aioe a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao oa nae?aoi?ieo a?aioe a aiaeioae?? i?e?inoaeei, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy aiaeie?eiii? ? ia?ae?eiii? ai?iiiaeueii? aeoeaiino? a i?iea?ae?. A o?ei-, iioiaaiac? oa a oiiaao na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaoieia?? a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao o?aaaoieo a?aeaoaathoueny iciaee ?aeai?ooeyoe??, ui i?iyaeythoueny iayai?noth a?aioe ia o?eueee a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ia?aaena?aeue ? aooie, aea e oeoii/e?a na?oey. Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aaaoi?, ia?ana?aei? niaoeeo?/i? a?aioee, nae?aoi?i? a?aioee aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, o?eiaaiac, iioiaaiac, eaaaiaaa a?ia?oaic?y, a?ia?oieanoa?eiai?y, L-a?a?i?i, aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y, noa?aieia?/iee aiae?c. Neeaeineay O.?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua yeaeaaeaiou yiaeie?eiiie ooieoeee na?aeoea iicaiii/iuo a ii?ia e iaoieiaee.- ?oeiienue. Aeenca?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.09.- aenoieiaey, oeeoieiaey, yia?eieiaey. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei.A.A.Aiaiiieueoea IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 ?. Caueuathony 12 iao/iuo ?aaio, eioi?ua niaea?aeao ?acoeueoaou eco/aiey ninoiyiey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iuo yeaeaaeaioia yiaeie?eiiiai e ia?ae?eiiiai eiiiiiaioia ai?iiiaeueiie ?aaoeyoeee na?aeoea - i?aaena?aeiuo niaoeeoe/aneeo a?aioe ea?aeeiieioeeoia e yiaeioaeeioeeoia iee?ininoaeia - a oeei-, iioiaaiaoe/aneii eiioaenoa e a oneiaeyo iaoieiaee. N i?eiaiaieai oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai e noa?aieiae/aneiai aiaeeca eco/ai ieiea?ae i?aaena?aeee e aeaeoaei/eia na?aeoea o ?acee/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oeeiaaiaoe/aneiai ?yaea: ?ua (ea?i); caiiiaiaeiuo (ica?iay eyaooea); ?aioeeee (yua?eoea, o?eoii, /a?aiaoa); ioeoe (aeiiaoiyy eo?eoea); ieaeiieoathueo (e?una, e?ieee, niaaea). Aeey auyniaiey noaiiaeaiey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iuo yeaeaaeaioia yiaeie?eiiie ooieoeee na?aeoea a iioiaaiaca eco/ai ieiea?ae i?aaena?aeee e aeaeoaei/eia na?aeoea eaai?aoi?iuo e?un a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey: 20-oe nooi/iue yia?eii, 1-ii, 7-ie, 30-oe nooi/iay e 6-oe iany/iay e?una. Aeey eco/aiey eiiiainaoi?iuo aiciiaeiinoae na?aeoea, naycaiiuo n aai yiaeie?eiiie ooieoeeae, e enneaaeiaaiey ?aeaieooeyoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia oeeiaaiaca a iaoieiaee enneaaeiaai ieiea?ae i?e iaeioi?uo na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaieyo. Eco/aiu aeiioaou i?aaiai ooea na?aeoea aieueiuo n a?iaeaeaiiui aeaoaeoii iaaeaeaeoaei/eiaie ia?aai?iaeee, ineiaeiaiiui aeia?oaiceae a iaeii e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey; i?aaia i?aaena?aeea e i?aaue aeaeoaei/ae niaae n yenia?eiaioaeueiie eaai/iie aeia?oaiceae; i?aaia i?aaena?aeea e?ieeeia ii?iaee oeioeeea a oneiaeyo yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeia?oieanoa?eiaiee e iinea aaaaeaiey i?aaeoanoaaiieea aeineioaca ieneaea acioa L-a?aeieia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ea?aeeiieioeeou na?aeoea iicaiii/iuo niaea?aeao niaoeeoe/aneea a?aioeu o?ao oeiia. Ia?aue oei oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie yeaeo?iiiie ieioiinoueth e aiiiaaiece?iaaiiui iao?eenii, eioi?ue ie?oaeai iaia?aiie e yeaeo?iiiii?ic?a/iui ieieiiaia?aiiui iaiaeeii. A?aioeu aoi?iai oeia niaea?aeao iaiaa yeaeo?iiiiieioiue iao?een, eiatho iaia?aio, ieieiiaia?aiiue iaiaeie i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao. A?aioeu o?aoueaai oeia niaea?aeao iaeaieaa yeaeo?iiiii?ic?a/iue iao?eena aac iaia?aiu. Ia?aue oei – yoi iieiaeua aiiaue noi?ie?iaaiiua a?aioeu, aoi?ie - c?aeua no?oeoo?u, a o?aoee oei - a?aioeu, eioi?ua aeeoooiaee?otho, oi anoue oaeea, eioi?ua auaiaeyony ec eeaoee iooai aeeooocee. I?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea o?ao oeiia a?aioe o ?acee/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iicaiii/iuo eiaao aeaeiaua iniaaiiinoe e ioia?aaeaao iineaaeiaaoaeueiua noaaeee neioaca e iaeiieaiey e auaaaeaiey i?aaena?aeiiai iao?eeo?aoe/aneiai iaioeaea (IIOI), a eo eiee/anoaaiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aa?uee?oao a caaeneiinoe io aeaeiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iicaiii/iuo. O ?ua (ea?i), aioeaee (eyaooea), ?aioeeee (yua?eoea, o?eoii, /a?aiaoa) e ioeoe (eo?eoea) ea?aeeiieioeeou ni niaoeeoe/aneeie i?aaena?aeiuie a?aioeaie auyaeythony ai anao ioaeaeao na?aeoea, ii aieueoeinoai eo nin?aaeioi/aii a i?aaena?aeeyo. I?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea ?aciuo oeiia a?aioe a eeaoeao yoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aiaeaaeaiee i?ioeannia neioaca e iaeiieaiey iaae auaaaeaieai iaioeaea. Eneeth/aieai yaeythony ioeoeu, o eioi?ua aeiieie?otho i?ioeannu auaaaeaiey IIOI. O ieaeiieoathueo (e?una, niaaea, e?ieee) yiaeie?eiiua ea?aeeiieioeeou iaaethaeathony oieueei a ieiea?aea ooae e i?aaena?aeee, a i?aiaeaaeaiea a?aioe III oeia oeacuaaao ia aeoeaiinoue i?ioeannia auaaaeaiey ai?iiia. I?eioeeieaeueiia noiaenoai no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee a?aioe aeaeaei noiyueo a oeeiaaiaoe/aneii ?yaeo iicaiii/iuo iiaeii iauynieoue yaeaieyie ia?aeeaeecia, eioi?ua naycaiiu n iauei i?ienoiaeaeaieai e ooieoeeiiaeueiui iacia/aieai. Ioee/ey a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e niioiioaiee ?acee/iuo oac nae?aoi?iiai oeeeea yaeythony i?iyaeaieai aeeaa?aaioiiai ?acaeoey. A i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea ?acaeoey e?unu yiaeie?eiiua ea?aeeiieioeeou, eioi?ua niaea?aeao i?aaena?aeiua a?aioeu, i?enoonoaotho a ooeao, i?aaena?aeeyo e aeaeoaei/eao. A iinoiaoaeueiii iioiaaiaca iie auyaeythony oieueei a ooeao e i?aaena?aeeyo. ?aciua ia?eiaeu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey e?unu ioee/athony nae?aoi?iie aeoeaiinoueth na?aeoea: o yia?eiiia i?aaaee?otho i?ioeannu iaeiieaiey a?aioe a ea?aeeiieioeeoao; ia?eiae ?iaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony nouanoaaiiui oneeaieai auaaaeaiey IIOI ec eeaoie; o 7-nooi/iuo aeeaioiuo i?aiaeaaeatho i?ioeannu neioaca; o iieiaic?aeuo e?un i?ioeannu neioaca, iaeiieaiey e auaaaeaiey IIOI naaeaine?iaaiu.. ?acaeoea eaai/iie aeia?oaicee o aieueiuo n a?iaeaeaiiuie ii?ieaie na?aeoea e a yenia?eiaioa aucuaaao eciaiaiey a neioaca e nae?aoeee ea?aeeiieioeeoaie i?aaiai ooea e i?aaiai i?aaena?aeey IIOI, a oaeaea iiauoaiey nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiinoe yiaeioaeey ninoaeia ieiea?aea. Aeeeoaeueiia aaaaeaiea i?aaeoanoaaiieea aeineioaca ieneaea acioa (NO) L-a?aeieia ia oiia aeia?oieanoa?eiaiee i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa e ?acia?ia niaoeeoe/aneeo i?aaena?aeiuo a?aioe a ea?aeeiieioeeoao, nae?aoi?iuo a?aioe a yiaeioaeee iee?ininoaeia, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oneeaiee yiaeie?eiiie e ia?ae?eiiie ai?iiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe a ieiea?aea. A iioiaaiaca e a oneiaeyo na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaee a ea?aeeiieioeeoao iicaiii/iuo iaaethaeathony i?eciaee ?aeaieooeyoeee, /oi i?iyaeyaony iaee/eai a?aioe ia oieueei a ea?aeeiieioeeoao i?aaena?aeee e ooae, ii e o aeaeoaei/eao na?aeoea. Eeth/aaua neiaa: iicaiii/iua, i?aaena?aeiua niaoeeoe/aneea a?aioeu, nae?aoi?iua a?aioeu yiaeioaeeioeeoia, oeeiaaiac, iioiaaiac, eaai/iay aeia?oaicey, aeia?oieanoa?eiaiey, L-a?aeiei, yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, noa?aieiae/aneee aiaeec. Skybinska T.R. Ultrastructural equivalents of an endocrine function of vertebrata`s heart in norm and pathology. The manuscript. The dissertation for the degree of candidate of biological sciences on a speciality 14.03.09- histology, cytology, embriology. Bogomolets` National Medical University Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv 1999. 12 scientific works containing results of studying a condition of ultrastructural equivalentsof endocrine and paracrine components of hormonal regulation of endocrine function of heart - atrium specific granules in cardiomyocytes and microvessel endotheliocytes, in philogenetic, ontogenetic context and pathologic conditions are defended. It is identified that three types of specific granules are contained in cardiomyocytes. Ultra structure of that granules shows continuous phases of synthesis and secretion of ANP and reveals that their number depends on vertebrata`s species. Different phases of rat ontogenesis differ by heart secretory activity. Accumulation of granules prevails in embryos. Period of birth characterised by intensification of ANP excretion. Synthesis is amplificated in 7 days-aged animals. Adult animals have well balanced synthesis, accumulation and excretion. Development of pulmonary hypertension in patients with congenital heart defects and in experiment results in changes of synthesis and secretion of ANP by cardiomyocytes of right auricula and right atrium and also elevation of secretory activity of myocardial vessels endothelium. Prolonged use of NO-biosynthesis precursor – L-arginin (when there are hyperholesterinemy present) leads to increase of specific atrium granules in cardiomyocytes and secretory granules in microvessels endothelium in number and size. This indicates increase of endocrine and paracrine hormonal activity in myocardium. Genetically determined recapitulations, which are manifested by granules not only in cardiomyocytes of auriculae and atriums but also, of ventriculars persist in philo-, ontogenesis and in cardiopulmonary patholgy. Key word: vertebrate, atrium specific granules, endothelial granules, philogenesis, ontogenesis, pulmonary hypertension, hyperholesterinemy, L-arginin, electron microscopy, stereology

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