EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 347.2/3:339.727.22(417,43).

NAIA?AE IEAENAIAe? NICIIIAE*

OeEAIEUeII-I?AAIAI ANIAEOE ?AAOETHAAIIss OA ACA?IIIAI CAOENOO IIICAIIEO
IIAANOEOeIE IA I?AEOEOeI OE?A?IE, OAI?UEIE, IIEUeUI OA NEIAA**EIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: . 12.00.03 -Oeeaieueia i?aai i oeeaieueiee i?ioean;
niiaeia i?aai; iiaeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai.

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

Eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe.

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eoci?oeiaa
Iaoae?y Naiai?aia, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eooeue
Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/, i?ioani? I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao
?i.A.Noaoaieea.

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oeoea ?iiai Aiaaeaiiae/, aeioeaio
Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Caoeono a?aeaoaeaoueny «8» aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.06. Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i.Ee?a, 33, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 4 na?iiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? O.A.Aiaeia?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. No?oeoo?ia
ia?aaoaeiaa aeiiiiiee Oe?a?ie iio?aao? aeaaaeaii?, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? i aiaeii/an aoaeoeaii? iiaanoeoeieii? iieioeee. sse
naiae/eoue naioiaee aeinaiae, a aeiiiii/iiio aeeooi eiaeii? e?a?ie
iiaanoeoei? ? aeiiiioth/ei oaeoi?ii nioeiaeueiiaeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo,
aiie ni?eythoue caaacia/aiith iioaa?aoei? iaoeiiiaeueii? aeiiiiiee
Oe?a?ie o naioiaee aeiiiii/iee i?inoi?. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia
aeaiaeia aaiiieioe/ia ?icoaooaaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?? i?e?iaeii ?ano?ne,
iaoeiaee iioaioeiae, iayaiinoue eaaeioieiaaieo eaae?ia, ui?i/ii ianyae
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie a Oe?a?ii, ii?iaiyii c e?a?iaie Noiaeii? oa?iie,
o 3-7 ?acia iaioi. Oiio eeth/iaei ieoaiiyi caieueoaiiy i?eoieo eaiioaeo
a Oe?a?io ? noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai i?aaiaiai eeiiaoo aeey caeo/aiiy
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie. Ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie a Oai?ueii, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eii naiae/eoue, ui aiie, ia
aiaeiiio aiae Oe?a?ie, ia?oeie na?aae iinonioeiaeinoe/ieo e?a?i
?icii/aee noai?aiiy i?aaiai? aace aeey caeo/aiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie. I ye ianeiaeie — a aeiiiiieo Oai?ueie ca?oaiaeii iiaanoi?e
aeeaee iiiaae 15 ie?ae. aeiea?ia NOA. Ae?oaa iinoea na?aae iacaaieo
e?a?i c ia?aoiaeiith aeiiiiieith, ca ianyaii i?yieo iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie, iiniea Iieueua. Aacia?a/ii, ui i?aaiaee ?aaeei
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi a Oe?a?ii iio?aao? aeiei?iiiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy, ineieueee iaeii?th c i?e/ei iacaaeiaieueiiai noaio
caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo a aeiiiiieo Oe?a?ie ? aiaenooiinoue
i?aaeiaoieo oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeieo i?aaiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue. Aiaeii/an
aiaeic iayaieo aio/eciyieo ioaeieaoeie iieaco?, ui aiie a iniiaiiio
i?enay/aii ia?aaaaeii aeiiiiiei-oiiainiaei aniaeoai iiaanoeoeieii?
iieioeee. Noiniaii ae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie, oi
caeaaieueoiai a ioaeieaoeiyo aenaioeth?oueny aocueea eiei iacaaieo
i?iaeai i aiie ia ioiieththoue onueiai niaeo?a i?aaiaiaeiinei acaaaei
i oeeaieueieo cie?aia. Aaaiiee aianie o oai?ith i iaoiaeieiaith
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie a Oe?a?ii
aianee A.I.Einnae oa A.A.Iiaeue/aiei. ?icii aniaeoe i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie aiaeicoaaeeny a ?iaioao I.I.Aeaiea,
A.N.Eioeaae/a, A.A.Ia?anaaee, I.?.Eiaaiei. Iaeiae /eiaei i?iaeai, a naia
aea/aiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie,
th?eaee/ieo aa?aioie caoenoo i?aa iiaanoi?a ua caeeoa?oueny iica oaaaith
aio/eciyieo o/aieo. Oiio iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea oei??
i?iaeaiaoeee iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia noai oa ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace
o oeie noa?i, a ioaea e ia oi?ioaaiiy noaaieueiiai iaanoeoeieiiai
eeiiaoo. Ua aeinoaoiuei ia aenaioeaii oeeaieueii-i?aaiaee noaoon
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia, aei/i?iio iiaei?e?inoa ye oi?ie caeieniaiiy
iiaanoeoeie, oeeaieueii-i?aaiaa i?e?iaea eiioeanieieo aeiaiai?ia, oaiae
i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei?, aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) i?i niieueio
iiaanoeoeieio aeiyeueiinoue. Ae?ae iaiaoiaeiei ? c’ynoaaiiy nooi oaeeo
iaaeoeiiia?ieo oi?i iiaanooaaiiy, ye eioeaicieii aeiaiai?e, aeiaiai?e
o?ai/aeceiao, eiceiao, eiinaeoeiao oa iioeo iiaeia?iaeii aeciaieo oi?i
iiaanooaaiiy. Iaeaea ia aeineiaeaeoaaeenue ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio
iiaanoeoeie o niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao, nenoaie
th?eaee/ieo aa?aioie caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iiaanoi?ia, iaoaiicio
o?ainoa?oo i?eaooeia, aeeaiaeaiaeia, aaeiiiino?aoeaieo i?ioeaaeo?
aeiioneo eaiioaeo oa ii?yaeeo ae?ioaiiy iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia.
Aaaeeeainoue aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe coiiaeth?oueny ua e oei, ui Oe?a?ia
oeeaea aeainoi?iiii Oaiaee i?i caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie, i?aaiai iieiaeaiiy yeeo noiniaii aca?iiiai caoenoo
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia iio?aaothoue a?oioiaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy c iaoith
iiaeaeueoi? oiioieaoei? oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i iiaanoeoeieiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ocaiaeaeaiiy ?o c ii?iaie iiaeia?iaeiiai ioaei/iiai i
i?eaaoiiai i?aaa. Ie?aneaii /eiieee e iaoiiaeee aeai? oaie aeena?oaoei?,
?? aeooaeueiinoue.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe ? noa?a i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie,
Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie. I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ?
oeeaieueii-i?aaiai aiaeiineie oa i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiaiai
iaoaiicio caeo/aiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie caaeey noai?aiiy i?eaaaeeaiai
iiaanoeoeieiiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?ii.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoeieii? i?aoei ? iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoaiicio i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie, a naia
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiai noaoono iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia ca caeiiiaeaanoaii
Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui, Neiaa//eie, a oaeiae ?ice?eooy niaoeeoiee
oeeaieueiii?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi e
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/ii? a?aoiaioaoei? oa ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo i?iiiceoeie uiaei iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy oa
oiioieaoei? iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oey iaoa i coiiaeth?
ae?ioaiiy oaeeo aieiaieo caaaeaiue: — ooi/iaiiy iniiaieo iiiyoue i
eaoaai?ie oeeaieueieo i?aaiaiaeiinei, ui aeieeathoue i?e caeieniaiii
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi; — caeieniaiiy ii?iaiyeueiiai aiaeico
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa nenoai
th?eaee/ieo aa?aioie caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia
aiaeiiaiaeii aei caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui, Neiaa//eie
oa aeainoi?iiiio Oaiae i?i caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno iiaanoeoeie, a
oaeiae ?ice?eooy niaoeeoiee iiaeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie; — iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aaiaiai iaoaiicio caeo/aiiy
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie aeey oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaaeeaiai iiaanoeoeieiiai
na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?ii; — aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae oa nooiinoi
i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiaeo oi?i iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi c o/anoth
iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa a i?aaiaiio iiei Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa
Neiaa//eie; — aea/aiiy niaoeeoiee oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo ?aaeeiia o
niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao; — aiaeic ca?oaiaeiiai
aeinaiaeo uiaei aeiioneo iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo, nenoaie i?aoa?aioeie oa
caeiiiaeaa/eo caai?ii ia caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie; — ?ic?iaea
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie noiniaii oaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi. Iaoiaeieiai/ia oa
oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy noaa aeiaeaeoe/iee iaoiae iiciaiiy
noniieueieo aiaeiinei, yaeu, i?ioeania, ii?aeiaiee ic nenoaiiei aiaeicii
i?aaiaeo iiiyoue i eaoaai?ie, a oaeiae ii?iaiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/iee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee, eiie?aoii-nioeiieiai/iee oa
iioi iino?oiaioe iaoeiaiai aiaeico. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith
aeineiaeaeaiiy oa c?iaeaieo o aeena?oaoei? aeniiaeia iineoaeeee i?aoei
aio/eciyieo i ca?oaiaeieo aaoi?ia, cie?aia I.Aeaiea, Ae.Aia?iai?,
A.Aiaaoe?ueiaa, I.Aiaoneaanueeiai, A.Ai/a?iaa, N.A?aoony,
I.Aicianainueei?, A.Aoanueeiai, I.Aeca?e, A.Aeiaaa?oa, A.Aeici?oeaaa,
A.Aeiiaa?iaa, I.Aei?iiiii?, A.Eaaaeeiia, A.Ei?aoeueeiai, A.Einnaea,
I.E?oaeiai?, I.Eoci?oeiai?, A.Eaiaeao, N.Eaaaae?aa, A.Eioeaae/a,
E.Eoioea, A.Eooey, A.Ioniyee, ?.Iaaaiaoueyioea, E.Iaeeiai?,
A.Iiaeoeueeiai, A.Iiaeue/aiea, A.Ii?eoea, A.Iaeaia?/oea, A.Ia?anaaee,
I.Iiaeii?eai?e, I.Ieaoiiiai?, A.I?iinueei?, I.Iooeiia, A.Nae?eaeiaa,
I.Naieethoiii?, A.Oaaeeiye, ?.Oaeoiii?, A.Oaoiaca?iaa, TH.THiaoaaa. A
i?ioeani ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoeiai i?aoei ca?oaiaeieo a/aieo o
aaeoci i?aaa oa aeiiiiiee: Ai?aeiia Aeae.Aeaenaiaea?a, Aeaeaoo?i
A.Aaeea, A.Aieaaia, O.A.Aioea?a, E?inoioa?a A?ienoieueia, A?eiia
Aieniia, I.Aaei, I.Ai?ueeiai, A.Aoaeaea, Ae.Ethoaeao, N.A.Eaaiaia,
I.Eaa?a, A.I?eiaa, E.?eaioeoei, ss.Noa?iiue, Oai Oe *oiaa, TH?aaia
Oinna, Aeaeiia Oa?aeoa, E.Oaoeiaa?a, Oieueyia O.Oa?ia oa iioeo
aeineiaeieeia. Iioi?iaoeieiith aacith aeey aeena?oaoei? noaee
iioaeieiaaii aio/eciyii oa ca?oaiaeii noaoenoe/ii aeaii, a oiio /enei
iaoa?iaee Aea?aeaaiiai eiiioaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, Iiiinoa?noaa
ciaiioiueiaeiiiii/ieo ca’yceia i oi?aiaei Oe?a?ie, Ainiee Aa?oiaiiai
Noaeo Oe?a?ie, Cai?iee ioioeieieo aeieoiaioia Aeuiai A?aio?aaeiiai noaeo
Oe?a?ie, iaoa?iaee aeiyeueiinoi aei/i?iio oi?i oa ainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?enoa c o/anoth iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa. Ii?iaoeaiith aacith
aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee iiaanoeoeieii caeiie aea?aeaa NIAe, Oai?ueie,
Iieueui, Neiaa//eie, caeiie i?i ainiiaea?nueei oiaa?enoaa oa
Oi?aiaaeueii Eiaeaene oeeo e?a?i, iiaeia?iaeii-i?aaiai aeieoiaioe:
Oaiaee i?i caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno iiaanoeoeie iiae Oe?a?iith oa
e?a?iaie Noiaeii? oa?iie, a oaeiae Iueth-Ei?enueea Eiiaaioeiy i?i
aeciaiiy i aeeiiaiiy iiicaiieo a?aio?aaeieo ?ioaiue, oa?iiaenueea
Eiiaaioeiy i?i ciaiioiueiaeiiiii/iee a?aio?aae, Aaoeiaoiinueea
Eiiaaioeiy i?i ii?yaeie ae?ioaiiy iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia iiae
aea?aeaaaie e iiicaiieie iniaaie, Naoeuenueea Eiiaaioeiy i?i canioaaiiy
Aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai Aaaionoaa c aa?aioie iiaanoeoeie oa ii. O
aeena?oaoeieiie i?aoei aeei?enoaii iaoa?iaee ocaaaeueiaiue noaeiai?
i?aeoeee, cie?aia, Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie oa Aeuiai a?aio?aaeiiai
noaeo Oe?a?ie. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa ?
iaeiei c ia?oeo a Oe?a?ii eiiieaeniei ii?iaiyeueii-i?aaiaei
aeineiaeaeaiiyi oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie
ia i?aeoeoei Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooiii iniiaii oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy i
?aeiiaiaeaoei?, yei ? ?acoeueoaoii aeaniiai iaoeiaiai iiooeo
aeena?oaioa:

1. ?ice?eaa?oueny niaoeeoiea i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi o niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao, yea iieyaa? o
cai?iaaaeaeaiii: — iieueaiaiai ?aaeeio aaacaiiy i aeaacaiiy oiaa?ia oa
e iioeo i?aaeiaoia o ?aci iaaeaiiy NAC i?aaiaiai noaoono niaoeiaeueii?
ieoii? ciie oa aaethoii-oiiainiaiai iaoaiicio ia canaaeao aeei?enoaiiy
eiiaa?oiaaii? aaethoe ye caniao ?ic?aooieia o iaaeao ieoii? ciie i o
aiaeiineiao iiae ?? noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi, a oiio
/enei — iiicaiieie; — niaoeeoi/ieo iniaeeainoae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa iaaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aa?aioie aeey noa’?eoia
niaoeiaeueii? (aieueii?) aeiiiii/ii? ciie; — niaoeiaeueiiai
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi o i?ii?eoaoieo
aeaeao aeiiiii/ii? aeiyeueiinoi ia oa?eoi?iyo i?ii?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
oa niaoeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi uiaei ?aaeicaoei?
iiaanoeoeieieo i?iaeoia o i?ii?eoaoieo aeaeao aeiiiii/ii? aeiyeueiinoi.
2. Iaa?oioiaothoueny iiiyooy, aeaee oa ianyae oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo
aa?aioie, yei iaaeathoueny aeey caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia ca iaoeiiiaeueiei iiaanoeoeieiei caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie,
Oai?ueie, Iieueui, Neiaa//eie oa aiaeiiaiaeii aeainoi?iiiii Oaiaeai
i?i caioi/aiiy i aca?iiee caoeno iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie.

3. I?iiiio?oueny cae?iieoe aeiaeaoeiao aa?aioith aeey iiicaiiiai
iiaanoi?a, (aeieaoa eiiiainaoei? ca caeoee, caiiaeiyii aianeiaeie
aieie aai iioiai ai?iiiai eiioeieoo, aaaaeaiiy iaaecae/aeiiai noaio,
caai?ooaiue, a?iiaaeyinueeeo aacii?yaeeia e iioeo iiaeiaieo iiaeie ia
oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie) oa aecia/eoe aeaea?aei oei?? eiiiainaoei?.

4. Iiaea?oueny eeaneoieaoeiy iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia ca e?eoa?i?i
i?aaeiaoiiai i noa’?eoiiai neeaaeo oa iaa?oioiao?oueny
iiaeaiaeii/inoue nii?ia iiae iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ii i aea?aeaaith noaeai
caaaeueii? th?enaeeeoei? Oe?a?ie, a anio iioeo — ca aeai?ii noi?ii, o
oiio /enei o?aoaenueeei noaeai ca ei?aeiiii, yeui iioa ae?ioaiiy oeeo
nii?ia ia ia?aaeaa/aia iiaeia?iaeiei aeiaiai?ii.

5. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiaoiaeiinoue canoinoaaiiy a Oe?a?ii aeey iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia ciioaiiai i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio, yeee ia? ii?aeioaaoe
iaoeiiiaeueiee ic niaoeiaeueiei i?aaiaei ?aaeeiii iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeiaeaoeiai aa?aioi? aeey iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia, caeaaeii aiae ia’?eoo iiaanooaaiiy oa ianyao iiaanoeoeie,
iiaeaoeiai oa ieoii iieueae.

6. A?aoiaioo?oueny i?iiiceoeiy i?i canoinoaaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio
caeiiiaeaanoai oaeeo ia?niaeoeaieo iaaeoeiiia?ieo oi?i caeo/aiiy
iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo, yei aeoeaii cai?iaaaeaeothoueny a iiaanoeoeieiie
i?aeoeoei Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie, — caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie
ia iiaenoaai aeiaiai?ia eiceiao, o?ai/aeceiao, iaaeaiiy eiinaeoeiaiaeo
iineoa, a oaeiae oaiae i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei? i?e ?ic?iaoei i
inai?iii i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia.

7. Aecia/athoueny iiai oeeaieueii-i?aaiai caoiaee, ?aaeicaoeiy yeeo
caiiaiaaoeia aeaacaiith ca iaaei Oe?a?ie aeioiaeia, aeeaiaeaiaeia oa
iioeo eiooia, iaea?aeaieo ca?oaiaeiei iiaanoi?ii. 8. ?ice?eaa?oueny,
ca aeiiiiiaith i?iaaaeaiiai ii?iaiyeueiiai aiaeico, oeeaieueii-i?aaiaee
noaoon aei/i?iueiai iiaei?e?inoaa oa iioeao?oueny iaiaoiaeiinoue
anoaiiaeaiiy ?icii?o iiicaiii? iiaanoeoei?, yea ia? aooe aianaia aei
noaoooiiai oiiaeo.

9. Aeiaiaeeoueny aeioeieueiinoue aiaeiiae aiae canoinoaaiiy a
iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie eaoaai?i? «ii?aeueia oeiaea» oa
caiiie ?? «iaiaeiiaa oeiaea».

Ia iniiai aeuaiaaaaeaieo iieiaeaiue, o aeena?oaoei? noi?ioeueiaaii
eiie?aoii i?iiiceoei? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, a naia:

1. Caiinoue inioth/iai iaaeii?ii aeaoaeiciaaiiai ia?aeieo aeaeia oa oi?i
caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie aeacaoe, ui iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie ?
ani aeaee iaeiiaeo oa iioaeaeooaeueieo oeiiiinoae, a oaeiae i?aaa ia
ieo, yei aeeaaeathoueny iiicaiieie iiaanoi?aie a aoaeue-yei ia’?eoe i
aeaee iiaei?e?iieoeueei? oa iioi? aeiyeueiinoi, ia caai?iiaii
caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie. 2. Aeeo/eoe c iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiio aaeeaaiiy
oaeeo aeiiiiiei-i?aaiaeo eaoaai?ie, ye «/anoeiaa o/anoue o
iiaei?e?inoaao», «iiaei?e?inoai c iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie»,
«iiaei?e?inoai, ui iiaiinoth iaeaaeeoue iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai»,
caiiieaoe ?o ?aeeiei oiioieiaaiei iiiyooyi «oiaa?enoai, iioi aeaee
th?eaee/ieo inia c o/anoth iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa».

3. Cae?iieoe iieiaeaiiy, ui aa?oinoue onio aeaeia iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie
iiaeiia aecia/aoeny i iiaeoaa?aeaeoaaoeny ia i?ioeaaeo?aie oa
caeiiiaeaanoaii e?a?ie-iiaanoi?a, ye oea anoaiiaeaii /eiiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii, a i?ioeaaeo?aie oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie.

4. Ia?aaeaa/eoe a iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiii i?aaiao ii?io uiaei
iaciiiiinoi oiia aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) i?i niieueio iiaanoeoeieio
aeiyeueiinoue, eiioeanieieo aeiaiai?ia oa oaiae i?i ?iciiaeie
i?iaeoeoei? i ia oi aeiaaeee, yeui a iiaeaeueoiio caeiiiaeaanoaii
Oe?a?ie aoaeooue cai?iaaaeaeoaaoeny oiiae, yei iiai?oothoue i?aaiaa
noaiiaeua noa’?eoia aai iaiaaeothoue ?o i?aaa; oiaiiaeeeaeoe
iaeiinoi?iiith ciiio inoioieo oiia iacaaieo aeiaiai?ia.

5. A iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiii noi?ioethaaoe caaaeueii oiiae
iiaei?e?iieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi ca?oaiaeieo iiaanoi?ia i th?eaee/ieo
inia c iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie o niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo
ciiao, cie?aia iaaeaiiy noa’?eoai NAC iieueaiaiai ?aaeeio
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa iniaeeaiai ieoiiai ?aaeeio.

6. Onoaiiaeoe, ui i?eioniai aeeo/aiiy aeaniinoi iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia
aeiioneathoueny eeoa ia iiaenoaai caeiio aai, ye aeiyoie, — ca ?ioaiiyi
Eaaiiaoo Iiiino?ia Oe?a?ie.

7. O /eiiiio iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiii Oe?a?ie ie?aiith i?aaiaith ii?iith
aecia/eoe iniiaii iaia’ycee iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a.

8. Aeeth/eoe a eiei iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia i a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, yei
iinoieii i?iaeeaathoue ca ?? iaaeaie.

9. Caeiiiaeaa/i anoaiiaeoe iiiiiaeueiee ianya iiicaiii? iiaanoeoei? a
noaoooiiio oiiaei ainiiaea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa /e iioi? th?eaee/ii? iniae
c o/anoth iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa, a oaeiae i?e caeieniaiii iiaanoeoeie ia
iniiai aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) i?i niieueio iiaanoeoeieio
aeiyeueiinoue.

10. O aeiaeaoeo aei iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiio Oe?a?ie aecia/eoe aeey
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia ia?aeie i?ii?eoaoieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa aeaeia aeiiiii/ii? aeiyeueiinoi e ie?aneeoe ia?aeie
caai?iiaieo ia’?eoia iiaanooaaiiy oa aeaeia ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, eiai
?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? o iiaeeeainoi aeei?enoaiiy aeniiaeia oa i?iiiceoeie
aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai iaoaiicio ?aaoethaaiiy iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi, oi?ioaaiiy aieueo ni?eyoeeaiai iiaanoeoeieiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey caeo/aiiy a aeiiiiieo Oe?a?ie iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie,
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiai caoenoo iioa?ania ca?oaiaeiiai iiaanoi?a.
Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe, yei aacothoueny ia aeinaiaei e?a?i
Noiaeii? oa?iie, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii o iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo
i?iaeai caoenoo i?aaa aeaniinoi iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia ia oa?eoi?i?
i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie, i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie o
niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao, iiaeaioiaoei oiioieiaaieo
i?aaiaeo i?eioeeiia iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c iaoith eiai
aa?iiiicaoei? c iiaeia?iaeieie aeiaiai?aie.

?aeiiaiaeaoei?, yei iinoyoueny a ?iaioi, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii aeey
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy Caeiiia Oe?a?ie, cie?aia oaeeo, ye: «I?i
?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy», «I?i ainiiaea?nueei oiaa?enoaa», «I?i
aeaniinoue», «I?i oeiiii iaia?e i oiiaeiao ai?aeo», «I?i
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaei?e?inoa», Caiaeueiee Eiaeaen Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae i?e
iiaeaioiaoei caeiiia Oe?a?ie «I?i eiioeani?», «I?i oaiaee i?i ?iciiaeie
i?iaeoeoei?», «I?i iioaeaeooaeueio aeaniinoue», «I?i th?eaee/ii
iniae», «I?i oaiaee c oeiiieie iaia?aie», «I?i aeciaiiy i aeeiiaiiy
?ioaiue iiicaiieo noaeia oa a?aio?aaeia». Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaioiaoei iiae?o/ieeia, iaa/aeueieo
iiniaieeia aeey nooaeaioia th?eaee/ieo aocia oa oaeoeueoaoia, a oaeiae
i?e aeeeaaeaiii niaoeeo?nia «I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi», «Iniaeeainoi i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie
ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie», «I?aaiaee ?aaeei
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie o aieueieo aeiiiii/ieo ciiao».

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a «I?aeoe/iiio
iiniaieeo aeey aeaiooaoia oa aieia ?aae», aeaeaiiai c oiiainiaith
aeiiiiiaith Aaaionoaa NOA c iiaeia?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo (USAID), ui
aoiaeeoue aei aaeiiiino?aoeaii? no?oeoo?e ?aaee Iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue oa iaiiiia (IREX). Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.
Aeena?oaoeiy ? naiinoieiith, caaa?oaiith iaoeiaith ?iaioith.
Noi?ioeueiaaii a iie oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoei?,
i?iiiceoei? iaea?aeaii aaoi?ii o ?acoeueoaoi ii?aoethaaiiy i a?oioiaiiai
aiaeico aeecueei o?ueionio iaoeiaeo i ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeaea?ae,
iiaeia?iaeieo oaiae oa eiiaaioeie o oeie noa?i, i?aeoeee aeiyeueiinoi
iiaei?e?inoa c iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie. Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia
aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy iaaiai?thaaeany ia eaoaae?i oeeaieueiiai
i?aaa th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaa?neoaoo (1999?.) oa eaoaae?i oeeaieueiiai i?aaa Ee?anueeiai
oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (1999?.). Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy oa
?acoeueoaoe aoee aeaieioaii ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo o aeiiiaiaeyo
«Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee noaoon Caea?iaooy o neeaaei *aoineiaa//eie»
(i.Eioeoea, Neiaa//eia, 1996?.) oa «Aeooaeueii ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
Caea?iaooy o neeaaei *aoineiaa//eie» (i.Eioeoea, Neiaa//eia, 1998?.), a
oaeiae aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaioiaoei c o/anoth aaoi?a iaeaoo
ii?iaoeaieo aeoia «I?i niaoeiaeueio aeiiiii/io ciio «Caea?iaooy» oa «I?i
niaoeiaeueiee ?aaeei iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi o Caea?iaonueeie
iaeanoi» (aaoi? aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo iiaeaiaeii/i? ?iai/i? a?oie ii
iiaeaioiaoei aeieoiaioia, iia’ycaieo ic noai?aiiyi ciie). Aeena?oaio
a?aa o/anoue o ?iaioi iaoeiaii?aeoe/iiai naiiia?o «I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi a Oe?a?ii» (i.Ee?a, 1997?.), aea aenooiea
o aeeneoni?. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny aaoi?ii i?e aeeeaaeaiii iaa/aeueiiai eo?no «I?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi» ia th?eaee/iiio oaeoeueoaoi
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo. Ioaeieaoei?.

Iniiaii oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy i aeniiaee aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii o
oanoe iaoeiaeo noaooyo: aeai — a th?eaee/ieo aeo?iaeao, o?e — a
cai?ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa iaoa?iaeao eiioa?aioeie, iaeia — a
i?aeoe/iiio «Iiniaieeo aeey aeaiooaoia oa aieia ?aae». No?oeoo?a
aeena?oaoei? aecia/aia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Ciino
aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaiee ia 178 noi?iieao. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic
anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia, ui aeeth/athoue ainii iiae?icaeieia, aeniiaeo,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae (291 iaeiaioaaiiy).

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O Anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue ia?aii? oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy,
eiai oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aecia/a?oueny iaoa i caaaeaiiy,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ai?iaaoeiy oa ioaeieaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeththoueny iniiaii oai?aoe/ii e iaoiaeieiai/ii iieiaeaiiy, yei
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. ?icaeie ia?oee «Ii?iaiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiaeic
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie,
Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie» i?enay/aii aeineiaeaeaiith i?aaiaiai
?aaeeio iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa i?aaiaiai noaoono iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia.
O iiae?icaeiei ia?oiio «Iiicaiii iiaanoeoei?: oeeaieueii-i?aaiaa
nooiinoue oa ?o aeaee» aenaioeththoueny iniiaii aoaie ?icaeoeo
iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa noaiiaeaiiy eiai a Oe?a?ii, Oai?ueii,
Iieueui i Neiaa//eii, i?aaiaa i?e?iaea iiaanoeoeie, yei
iiina?aaeeiaothoue oe?iea eiei oeeaieueieo i?aaiaiaeiinei. Iaia’yceiaith
iciaeith iiiyooy «iiicaiia iiaanoeoeiy» ? iayaiinoue i?aaiaiai ca’yceo
iiae iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ii i aeeaaeaiei eaiioaeii, iiaeoa, o aeiaaeeo
ao?aoe oaeiai ca’yceo, i?eieiythoueny iiaanoeoeieii i?aai-aiaeiineie.
A?aoiaioo?oueny iiaeeeainoue caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie oaeiae i o aaethoi
Oe?a?ie i?e oiiai io?eiaiiy ?? aiae i?iaeaaeo eiiaa?oiaaii? aaethoe
oiiaiiaaaeaiiio aaieo, a oiio /enei i?e ?aiiaanoeoeiyo o aoaeue-yeee
ia’?eo iiaanooaaiiy. A ?iaioi iaa?oioiao?oueny aeioeieueiinoue aiaeiiae
aiae iaaeii?iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy caeiiiaeaaoeai aeaeia oa oi?i
caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie i i?iiiio?oueny ia?aaeaa/eoe a caeiii
eeoa iniiaii i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiai oi?ie iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi —
ainiiaea?nueei oiaa?enoaa, iioi aeaee th?eaee/ieo inia, a yeeo
caniiaieeaie aai o/anieeaie iiaeooue aooe iiicaiii iiaanoi?e.
Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ii?ooaeueii iiaanoeoei?, aaoi? aeaco?, ui i?iaeaae ia
oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie iiicaiieo oeiiieo iaia?ia ia ? aeaeii iiaanooaaiiy.
C iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiiiiieicio i?iiiio?oueny ia?aaeaa/eoe a
iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiii Oe?a?ie ii?io iaiaaeaiiai i?eaeaaiiy iiicaiiei
iiaanoi?ii eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoeie a iioeo aeoeiiia?ieo oiaa?enoaao,
a oaeiae oa, ui iiicaiiee iiaanoi? iiaea aooe aeanieeii eeoa iiaiieo
aeoeie. Aeaco?oueny, ui oeiiii iaia?e ? ia’?eoii oeeaieueieo i?aa,
oiio aiie caoeuathoueny a noaeiaiio ii?yaeeo oeyoii aeciaiiy oeeo i?aa
oa noyaiaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo noi. Aeineiaeaeo?oueny oaeee aeae
iiaanooaaiiy, ye ia?aaea/a aoaeue-yeeo i?aa iioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniinoi
ye /anoee iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a aei noaoooiiai oiiaeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
oiaa?enoaa. Cacia/a?oueny oaeiae, ui iiae aianaiiyi iioaeaeooaeueii?
aeaniinoi neiae ?icoiioe ia?aaea/o aei noaoooiiai oiiaeo th?eaee/ii?
iniae iaeiiaeo i?aa ia aeei?enoaiiy ia’?eoia iioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniinoi
ia ieo, a ia naieo ia’?eoia. Aeaeieythoueny iciaee oaeiai
niaoeeoi/iiai iaiaoa?iaeueiiai ia’?eoo, ye «iio-oao», i i?iiiio?oueny
ioi?ieyoe ia?aaea/o i?aa ia eiai aeei?enoaiiy oeyoii oeeaaeaiiy
eioeaicieieo oaiae, aeiaiai?ia o?ai/aeceiao. Aiaeicothoueny
iniaeeainoi caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie o aeaeyaei a?ioiaeo aeiia
oa i?aaa ia aeiiae aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?ieo ciaia’ycaiue, i?aa ia
caeieniaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi, iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeioeieueiinoue i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oii? ioeiiee aa?oinoi i?aa
iioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniinoi, a oaeiae aeacaieo aeiia oa i?aa ca
i?ioeaaeo?ith ia e?a?ie-iiaanoi?a, a i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie. I?iiiio?oueny
aianoe aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai
iiaanooaaiiy». O iiae?icaeiei ae?oaiio «Oeeaieueii-i?aaiaee noaoon
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia» aeineiaeaeothoueny ?icii i?aaiai ?aaeeie, yei
iaaeathoueny i?eeiath/eie e?a?iaie iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai.
Iaaieioo?oueny, ui i?ioean aeeaaeaiiy iiaanoeoeie ca/iia? oe?iea eiei
oeeaieueieo i?aaiaiaeiinei, oiio aecia/aiiy eiea noa’?eoia ia?
cia/aiiy i?aaianoaiiaethth/iai oaeoo — aecia? /e ia aecia? ?o
iiaanoi?aie i?eeiath/a e?a?ia. Aeena?oaio ei?ioei coieiy?oueny ia
oa?aeoa?enoeoei aeaeia noa’?eoia, yei iaeaaeaoue aei eiea iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie oa e?a?i Noiaeii? oa?iie,
iaaiaeyoueny aeayei aiaeiiiiinoi uiaei aeciaiiy ?o oaeeie,
iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui ianya i?aaicaeaoiinoi iiicaiii? th?eaee/ii?
iniae cae?iieth?oueny a ?? iniaenoiio noaoooi. Caa?iaii oaaao, ui
oe?a?inueeee caeiiiaeaaaoeue cia/ii caocea eiei noa’?eoia
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi, aeeo/eaoe c ?o /enea a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, yei
iinoieii i?iaeeaathoue ca iaaeaie aea?aeaae, oiio i?iiiio?oueny
aeciaaaoe iiaanoi?aie ia eeoa iiicaioeia, aea e a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, yei
ia iathoue iinoieiiai iinoey i?iaeeaaiiy ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie.
Aeineiaeaeoth/e i?aaiaee noaoon iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia, aaoi? aeieoia
aei aeniiaeo, ui a ocaaaeueithth/iio ieaii inio? o?e iniiaieo oeie
i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia: a) iaaeaiiy iiaanoi?o
iiaeaoeiaeo, ieoieo oa iioeo i?eaiea?a; a) anoaiiaeaiiy
iaoeiiiaeueiiai ?aaeeio iiaanoeoeieii? oa iioi? ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi; a) canoinoaaiiy ciioaiiai ?aaeeio. Iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeioeieueiinoue iaaeaiiy iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie
ciioaiiai ?aaeeio, yeee ae ii?aeioaaa iaoeiiiaeueiee ?aaeei ic
niaoeiaeueiei i?aaiaei ?aaeeiii iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi i
ia?aaeaa/aa ae iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo, aaethoieo oa ieoieo iieuea,
aeiaeaoeiaeo aa?aioie aeey iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia caeaaeii aiae ia’?eoo
iiaanooaaiiy i ianyao iiaanoeoeie. Caeiaoaa/ aeoeaioo? ia iaiaoiaeiinoi
cae?iieaiiy a iiaanoeoeieiiio caeiii i?aa i iaia’yceia iiicaiiiai
iiaanoi?a, yei aeieeathoue ia iiaenoaai caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie i yei
aecia/athoue ianya eiai i?aaiaei?caeaoiinoi. Aeena?oaio iiaenoiiao?
iiae?icaeie aiaeiiaiaeieie aeniiaeaie oa aiineoue i?iiiceoei? i?i
aianaiiy ciii i aeiiiaiaiue aei iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiio Oe?a?ie, yei a
caaacia/eee noaaieueiinoue i?aaiaiai noaoono iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a. O
iiae?icaeiei o?aoueiio «I?aaiaee ?aaeei iiaanoeoeie o niaoeiaeueieo
(aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao» aeineiaeaeo?oueny iecea i?iaeai, yei
aeieeathoue i?e caeieniaiii iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi o
niaoeiaeueieo aeiiiii/ieo ciiao. Aiie aiaeicothoueny c iaoith aieueo
aeeaieiai i?iieeiaiiy a nooiinoue oeeaieueiii?aaiaeo aiaeiinei,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey no/aniiai aoaio caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo oeyoii
?aaeicaoei? iiaanoeoeieieo i?iaeoia o i?ii?eoaoieo aeaeao, aaeocyo
aeiiiii/ii? aeiyeueiinoi oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoeiaeueieo ?aaeeiia
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi o niaoeiaeueieo aeiiiii/ieo ciiao. Aaoi?
aenaioeth? iiaeia?iaeiee aeinaiae uiaei i?aaiaeo canaae ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aieueieo aeiiiii/ieo cii, cie?aia a Oai?ueii oa Iieueui, cina?aaeaeo?
oaaao ia inoaiiio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeoao i?i niaoeiaeueii aeiiiii/ii
ciie «Caea?iaooy», «Acia», «Aeiiaoeuee», «Neaaooe/», «Neaao»,
«ssai?ia» oa i?i niaoeiaeueii ?aaeeie iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi a
Eoaainueeie, Aeiiaoeueeie i Caea?iaonueeie iaeanoyo. O ?iaioi ie?aneaii
niaoeeoieo oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo ?aaeeiia iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie caeaaeii
aiae oeiia aeiiiii/ieo cii oa ia’?eoia iiaanooaaiiy. Aea?oueny caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea i’youeio i?aaiaeo ?aaeeiia o niaoeiaeueieo aeiiiii/ieo
ciiao. A?aoiaioo?oueny aeioeieueiinoue oi?ioaaiiy aaethoii-oiiainiaiai
iaoaiicio o niaoeiaeueiie ieoiie ciii ia canaaeao aeei?enoaiiy
eiiaa?oiaaii? aaethoe ye caniao ?ic?aooieo o iaaeao ieoii? ciie i o
aiaeiineiao iiae ?? noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi, a oiio
/enei — iiicaiieie. Iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui a iniiai ye ciaiioiio, oae i
aioo?ioiio aiaeiinei iiae noa’?eoaie ciie eaaeeoue oeeaieueiii?aaiaee
aeiaiai?, ui iniaeeainoth oeeo aeiaiai?ieo i?aaiaiaeiinei ?
aaaaoiiaiioiinoue oi?i aeaniinoi, iayaiinoue ?icieo
i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiaeo oi?i iiaei?e?iieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi oa
aeaeaaoaaiiy i?aaiaie aeaaee i iinoeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?aaiai
oi?aaeiiiy ciiaie nai?o i?aaiii/iinoae aeanieea ia iaeii, caieth,
ia’?eoe iio?ano?oeoo?e oiui. Ineieueee a Oe?a?ii iiaeiaia aeaeaaoaaiiy
i?aaiii/iinoae aeanieea a i?aeoeoei ia iaei iinoey, oiio oea ia
?aaoethaaeinue caeiiiaeaanoaii. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui
ocaaaeueithth/eie iciaeaie aeey anio oeiia aeiiiii/ieo cii ?
niaoeiaeueiee ?aaeei ainiiaea?nueei? oa iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi,
ianya i?aoa?aioeie i iieuea, ii?yaeie canoinoaaiiy i aei?
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, nenoaia th?eaee/ieo aa?aioie caoenoo aeaniinoi
noa’?eoia ciie, ?aaeei ia’?eoia aea?aeaaii? i eiioiaeueii? aeaniinoi oa
i??a?oiy oeeaieueieo oa iioeo i?aaiaiaeiinei. I?iiiio?oueny aeiiiaieoe
?icaeie VI Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy»
ie?aiith noaooath 251, a yeie cae?iieoe caaaeueii oiiae iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi o niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao. ?acii ic
oeei aeena?oaio aiineoue eiie?aoii i?iiiceoei? uiaei ciii i aeiiiaiaiue
aei iiaeaoeiaiai, ieoiiai, aaethoiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa Caeiio Oe?a?ie
«I?i caaaeueii canaaee noai?aiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy niaoeiaeueieo
(aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo cii». ?icaeie ae?oaee «Oi?ie caeieniaiiy
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa
Neiaa//eie» i?enay/aiee aiaeico iniiaieo oa iiaeo, ia ie?aneaieo ua
caeiiii oi?i aeeaaeaiiy eaiioaeo. O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei «Iiaei?e?inoai
c iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie — iniiaia oi?ia caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie» aeineiaeaeo?oueny i?aaiaee noaoon iiaei?e?inoa, ui
noai?ththoueny iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ii niieueii c oe?a?inueeeie
th?eaee/ieie i oice/ieie iniaaie. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iiiyooy
«niieueia iiaei?e?inoai» oaieoei a oeeaieueiee iaia o ia?iiae, eiee a
e?a?ii aoei aiaenooi? caeiiiaeaanoai i?i ainiiaea?nueei oiaa?enoaa,
oiio oe?a?inueeee caeiiiaeaaaoeue a/anii aiaeiiaeany aiae oaei?
i?aaiai? eiino?oeoei?. I?iiiio?oueny aaanoe ?aeeia oiioieiaaia iiiyooy
noiniaii caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie o oi?iao /anoeiai? o/anoi o
iiaei?e?inoaao, i?eaeaaiiy /anoee aeith/eo, noai?aiiy /e i?eaeaaiiy
aeith/eo iiaei?e?inoa, ui iiaiinoth iaeaaeaoue iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai —
«ainiiaea?nueei oiaa?enoaa, iioi aeaee th?eaee/ieo inia c o/anoth
iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa». Aeena?oaio aeieeaaeii oa?aeoa?eco? /ioe?e
i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiai oi?ie caeieniaiiy iiaei?e?iieoeueei?
aeiyeueiinoi, iia’ycaii? ic noai?aiiyi th?eaee/ii? iniae, i?aaiaee
noaoon yeeo aecia/a?oueny caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie. Aiaeic oeeo oi?i
iiaei?e?iieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi naiae/eoue, ui iaeiioe?aiioith c ieo ?
noai?aiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa c o/anoth iiicaiiiai noa’?eoa. O
?iaioi aiaeicothoueny iniaeeainoi onoaiia/eo aeieoiaioia ainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?enoa c o/anoth iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a ia aeinaiaei Oai?ueie, Iieueui
oa Neiaa//eie, a?aoiaioo?oueny, ui onoaiia/ee aeiaiai?, ye
oeeaieueii-i?aaiaa oaiaea, ? iniiaiei caniiaieoeueeei aeoii, a noaooo
— eiai i?eiaeaaeiinoth. Iaaieioo?oueny ia iaiaoiaeiinoi ia?aaeaa/aoe a
Noaoooi iiaei?e?inoa c iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie ie?aio ii?io i?i oa, ui
a ia?iiae aei? Onoaiia/iai aeiaiai?o eiai o/anieee ia iathoue i?aaa
aeiaaaoe iiaa?iaiiy nai?o aeeaaeia, aianaieo aei noaoooiiai oiiaeo.
Ie?aii ?ice?eaa?oueny i?aaiaee noaoon iiaei?e?inoa, ui iiaiinoth
iaeaaeaoue iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai, noai?aiiy yeeo ia i?aeoeoei ?
aeineoue iioe?aiei. Iaaiaeyoueny iciaee oieiaeia oa i?aaenoaaieoeoa, yei
ia ? oi?iith caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie, ia aiaeiiio aiae aei/i?iio oi?i.
Aecia/a?oueny th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea aei/i?iuei? oi?ie, yea iieyaa?, a
oiio, ui aiia aenooia? a ciaiioiio i aioo?ioiio i?aaiaiaeiineiao: ii
aiaeiioaiith aei iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a ye aeanieea eiooia i iaeia i ii
aiaeiioaiith aei aio/eciyieo th?eaee/ieo inia ye naiinoieiee noa’?eo
iiaei?e?iieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi. Caiaene aeieeaa?, ui aei/i?i?
iiaei?e?inoai iana naiinoieio iaeiiao aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue ca
iaaeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue o iaaeao cae?iieaiiai iaeia, eiooia, yei ? a
eiai ?icii?yaeaeaiii, a a ?aci iaaeinoaoiinoi inoaiiio — noaneaeia?io
aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue iana eiai caniiaiee, yeui iioi oiiae iaeiiai?
aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi ia ia?aaeaa/aii onoaiia/eie aeieoiaioaie.
A?aoiaioo?oueny iaiaoiaeiinoue caeiiiaeaa/iai a?aaoethaaiiy i?aaiaiai
noaoono aei/i?iio iiaei?e?inoa oa aeiaiaeeoueny iaiaoiaeiinoue
anoaiiaeaiiy iiiiiaeueiiai ianyao iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo o eiai
noaoooiiio oiiaei. Iiae?icaeie caeii/o?oueny i?iiiceoei?th i?i aianaiiy
aiaeiiaiaeieo ciii aei iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. O
iiae?icaeiei ae?oaiio «Iiaanoeoeieiee aeiaiai? (eiio?aeo) ye
oeeaieueiii?aaiaa oi?ia caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo» aeineiaeaeo?oueny
i?aaiaa i?e?iaea aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) i?i niieueio iiaanoeoeieio
aeiyeueiinoue, ia iia’ycaio ic noai?aiiyi th?eaee/ii? iniae.
Iaaieioo?oueny, ui iniaeeainoth aeacaii? oi?ie caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie
? aiaenooiinoue niaoeiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ?aaoeth? niaoeeoieo
aeiaiai?ieo aiaeiinei o oeie noa?i, ui aeiaiai? (eiio?aeo) ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith iineoue oeeaieinoe/iee oa?aeoa?. Aiaeii/an cacia/a?oueny, ui,
a ii?iaiyiii c aioo?ioiiie oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeie oa
ciaiioiueiaeiiiii/ieie oaiaeaie, iiaanoeoeieiee aeiaiai? (eiio?aeo) ia?
nooo?ai aiaeiiiiinoi. Aeineiaeaeoth/e niaoeeoieo aeacaieo aeiaiai?ia
(eiio?aeoia), aaoi? aeaeiey? aeayei ?o oa?aeoa?ii iniaeeainoi.
Aeena?oaio iiaenoiiao?, ui iiaanoeoeieiee aeiaiai? (eiio?aeo) ?
«eiiaiiiaaiei» aeiaiai?ii iiae eiai o/anieeaie i?i niieueio
iiaanoeoeieio aeiyeueiinoue, o iueiio oinii ii?aeiothoueny iaeiiai
i?aaiai ca’ycee c i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiaeie. Iiaee?aneaii, ui, ia
aiaeiiio aiae oeeaieueiii?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o i?i noiinio aeiyeueiinoue, a
yeiio noi?iie iathoue niieueio ainiiaea?nueeo iaoo, aeey aeinyaiaiiy
yei? aiie i ciaia’ycothoueny niieueii aeiyoe, a iiaanoeoeieiiio
aeiaiai?i (eiio?aeoi) eiaeia ic noi?ii ia? i?ioeeaaeio iaoo: iiicaiiee
iiaanoi? — io?eioaaoe aeeaiaeaiaee, i?eaooie (aeioiaee) aiae aeeaaeaiiy
eaiioaeo, iaieiaeioe ?eieii, a ae?oaa noi?iia — iiiaeoe oaoiieiai?,
ae?ioeoe ainiiaea?nueeo caaea/o oiui. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa, ui a
iiaanoeoeieiie aeiyeueiinoi iaaaeueiith ? i?iaeaia noaaieueiinoi oiia
oeeaaeaieo aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia), ia iiaenoaai yeeo iiii?oo?oueny
eaiioae. I?iaeaia oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii
Oe?a?ie oea ieoaiiy ia a?aaoeueiaaii. C aeaiith iaoith i?iiiio?oueny
noaooth 23 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy»
aeiiiaieoe ii?iith, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea oaeo oiiao. O aeena?oaoei?
aeaeieythoueny iiai aeaee iiaanoeoeieieo aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia), yei
i?yii ia ie?aneaii a Caeiii Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai
iiaanooaaiiy», aea eiio ia noia?a/aoue. Cie?aia, oea aeiaiai?e
o?ai/aeceiao, i?i iaaeaiiy eiinaeoeiaiaeo iineoa, i?i eiceia,
iiaeeii?eia oiui. Ia iiaenoaai i?aaiai? aenia?oece iiaanoeoeieieo
aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia), ca?a?no?iaaieo o Caea?iaonueeie iaeanoi,
aecia/a?oueny ia?aeie inoioieo oiia uiaei ?o ciinoo. Aaoi? a?aoiaioo?
aeioeieueiinoue aiaeiiae aiae caeai? iiaoi?ii? aaeiiiino?aoeaii?
i?ioeaaeo?e ?a?no?aoei? iiaanoeoeieieo aeiaiai?ia. Aeena?oaio
coieiy?oueny i ia oeeaieueiii?aaiaeo ieoaiiyo, iia’ycaieo ic aaacaiiyi
iaeia a Oe?a?io c iaoith iiaanooaaiiy ia iiaenoaai aeiaiai?ia
(eiio?aeoia), c iaeeaaeaiiyi eiai ieoii, i?eieiaiiyi iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi, iiiaeaoeoaaiiyi ia?aceaeaioia, oiiaaie ?aaeicaoei?
i?iaeoeoei? (?iaio, iineoa), ae?iaeaii? a ?acoeueoaoi niieueii?
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi. O o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei «Iioi oi?ie
ni?yioaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie i iai?yiee ?o caeo/aiiy»
aeineiaeaeothoueny th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea eiioeanieieo aeiaiai?ia oa oaiae
i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei?, i?aaiai ieoaiiy o/anoi iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia o
i?eaaoecaoei? aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, noai?aiiy eiia?oeieieo aaieia c
iiicaiiei eaiioaeii oa iioi oi?ie caeo/aiiy iiaanoeoeie. Cie?aia
iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui niaoeeoi/iee oa?aeoa? eiioeanieieo aeiaiai?ia
coiiaeth?oueny eiai i?aaeiaoii — iaaeaiiyi iaae? o ei?enooaaiiy oa ?o
noa’?eoiei neeaaeii. Caeiaoaa/ cacia/a?, ui ca nai?th i?e?iaeith
eiioeanieiee aeiaiai? ? oeeaieueiii?aaiaei, o iueiio ii?aeiothoueny
ioaei/ii-i?aaiai i i?eaaoii-i?aaiai aeaiaioe. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa,
ui /eiiee iiaanoeoeieiee caeii ia iinoeoue iieiaeaiiy uiaei caai?iie
iaeiinoi?iiiuei? ciiie oiia eiioeanieiiai aeiaiai?o, a oea ia ni?ey?
noaaieueiinoi i?aaiaiaeiinei, oiio aaoi? i?iiiio? aeiiiaieoe noaooth
22 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy» /anoeiith
ae?oaith oaeiai ciinoo: «:Iaeiinoi?iiii ciiie oiia eiioeanieiiai
aeiaiai?o ia aeiioneathoueny, yeui iioa ia iaoiiaeaia a aeiaiai?i».
Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa i ia oaeo iniaeeainoue eiioeanieiiai aeiaiai?o, ye
noai?aiiy ia eiai iiaenoaai th?eaee/ii? iniae, iniiaiei aeaeii
aeiyeueiinoi yei? ? ?ic?iaea oa inai?iiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia. Ie?aia
oaaaa i?eaeiey?oueny caeo/aiith iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie ia iiaenoaai
oaiae i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei?, yei ? iaeiei ic aeaeia eiioeanieiiai
aeiaiai?o. Oaiaea i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei? — oea oeeaieueii-i?aaiaee
aeiaiai?, ca yeei aea?aeaaa (aai oiiaiiaaaeaiee iath i?aai) iaaea?
iiicaiiiio iiaanoi?o ia ieaoiie iniiai i ia anoaiiaeaiee no?ie
aeeeth/ia i?aai ia iiooe, ?icaiaeeo oa aeaeiaoaaiiy ei?enieo eiiaeei,
a iiaanoi? ciaia’yco?oueny i?iaanoe aecia/aii ?iaioe ca naie ?aooiie i
ia naie ?ecee. Aeena?oaio ?ice?eaa? ciino oaiaee, inoioii ?? oiiae. O
ca’yceo c iaa?aaoeueiaaiinoth cacia/aieo i?aaiaiaeiinei i?iiiio?oueny
i?enei?eoe i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i oaiaee i?i ?iciiaeie
i?iaeoeoei?» oa ia?aaeaa/eoe niaoeiaeueiee ?icaeie o aeith/iio Caeiii
Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy» aai a Eiaeaeni Oe?a?ie «I?i
iaae?a». Aiaeico?oueny oaea ia?niaeoeaia oi?ia caeo/aiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie, ye ia?aaea/a iaeia a ei?enooaaiiy ia iiaenoaai aeiaiai?o
eiceiao. Iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui eiceia ?aaoeth? neeaaeiee eiiieaen
iaeiiaeo i?aaiaiaeiinei, yeee ioiieth? aeiaiai? i?i eoiiaeth-i?iaeaae
ia’?eoa eiceiao, nai eiceia — iiae iiicaiiith eiceiaiaith eiiiaii?th,
oi?iith i ei?enooaa/ai iaeia, aeiaiai? ia oaoii/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaeia,
ui ia?aaea?oueny a eiceia, aeiaiai? no?aooaaiiy ia’?eoa eiceiao, oiio
a aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia eiceia ? aaaaoinoi?iiiueith oaiaeith. Aeena?oaio
oi?ea?oueny i ieoaiue, yei iia’ycaii c i?aaii ia caieth. C iaeyaeo ia
oea aeiaiaeeoueny aeioeieueiinoue aianaiiy aei Caiaeueiiai Eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, ciii i aeiiiaiaiue, yeeie neiae ia?aaeaa/eoe iaaeaiiy iiaanoi?o
i?aaa aeaniinoi ia caiaeueio aeieyieo, aea ?iciiuaii i?eaaoeciaaiee
ia’?eo, i?iaeaae iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai ia?ooiiiai iaeia ?acii ic
caiaeueiith aeieyieith, ye oea anoaiiaeaii i?e i?eaaoecaoei?
aaoicai?aaieo noaioeie. Uia caiey ia ia?aoai?eeanue ia i?aaeiao
niaeoeyoei?, i?iiiio?oueny a caiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoai aecia/eoe no?ie,
i?ioyaii yeiai ia aeiionea?oueny aiae/oaeaiiy i?eaaoeciaaieo caiaeueieo
aeieyiie, aai cae?iieoe ii?yaeie, i?e yeiio iiaoi?ia aiae/oaeaiiy
iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ii caiaeueii? aeieyiee iiaeeeaa eeoa ia ei?enoue
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie /e ia ei?enoue i?aaiia iinoeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. O
?iaioi aiaeicothoueny iniaeeainoi noai?aiiy eiia?oeieieo aaieia c
o/anoth iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo, caeieniaiiy no?aoiai? aeiyeueiinoi.
I?iiiio?oueny aeeo/eoe ic Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i no?aooaaiiy» iaiaaeaiiy
iiicaiii? /anoee o noaoooiiio oiiaei no?aoiaeea. Ia aeoieo caeiaoaa/a,
yeiiiaa oaeaeoa i?e?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei Naoeuenueei? Eiiaaioei? 1985?.
caaacia/eoue no?aooaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie aiae iaeiia?oeieieo
?eceeia. Aeoeaioo?oueny ia iniaeeainoyo o/anoi iiicaiieo th?eaee/ieo
inia o iiaeaea?aeaaieo i?iieneiaioiiainiaeo a?oiao a Oe?a?ii. Oea iiaea
?icaeyaeaoeny ia?niaeoeaiith oi?iith caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo
eeoa ca oiiae aianaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo ciii aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i
i?iieneiai-oiiainiai a?oie a Oe?a?ii» noiniaii aeeo/aiiy iaiaaeoaaeueieo
i?aaiaeo ii?i oa ni?iuaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaieo i?ioeaaeo? i?e ?o
noai?aiii. O aeena?oaoei? cacia/a?oueny, ui iaeii?th ic aeciaieo
iiaeia?iaeiith i?aeoeeith oi?i iiaanooaaiiy ? o?ai/aeceia.
Iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui oiiae aeei?enoaiiy aeeeth/ieo i?aa, aeieiai?
?aiooaoei? i eiia?oeieiiai aeinaiaeo, yei iaeaaeaoue iiicaiiiio
iiaanoi?o, iaoiiaeththoueny a oeeaieueii-i?aaiaiio aeiaiai?i
o?ai/aeceiao. Aa?oinoue iaiaoa?iaeueieo aeoeaia ioeiith?oueny o
eiiaa?oiaaiie aaethoi. A oie aea /an caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia
iaa?aaoeueiaaiinoue aeacaieo i?aaiaiaeiinei, a oiio i?e aeieeiaiii
oeeaieueieo i?aa i iaia’yceia iaiaoiaeii ea?oaaoeny caaaeueieie
iieiaeaiiyie Oeeaieueiiai Eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie uiaei oaiae oa
ciaia’ycaeueiiai i?aaa, c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiio.
Aiaecia/a?oueny, ui a Oe?a?ii ia inio? i?aaiai? ioi?iie oi?iiaeo
iaeiaioaaiue, oi/a eiaeia th?eaee/ia iniaa ia? i?aai ia
iiaeeaiaeoaeicaoeith nai?? aeiyeueiinoi i aieiaeiiiy aeeeth/iei i?aaii
ia eiai aeei?enoaiiy. Aeaei aaoi? oi?ea?oueny iiaeeeainoi iaaeaiiy
iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ii eiinaeoeiaiaeo iineoa, noai?aiiy eiinaeoeiaiaeo
oi?i c iiaiei iiicaiiei eaiioaeii. Aiaeicoth/e niaoeiaeueii aeaea?aea,
iiaanoeoeieia caeiiiaeaanoai e?a?i NIAe, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa
Neiaa//eie, aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aeith/a caeiiiaeaanoai
Oe?a?ie aeiionea? caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie o oi?iao, yei ia
ia?aaeaa/aii a Caeiiao Oe?a?ie «I?i iiaanoeoeieio aeiyeueiinoue» oa «I?i
?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy». C iaeyaeo ia oea a?aoiaioo?oueny
i?iiiceoeiy i?i canoinoaaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoai aeacaieo
iaaeoeiiia?ieo oi?i caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo. A ?iaioi
ii?ooo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i iaaeii?ia ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy caeiiiaeaaoeai aeaeia
oa oi?i caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icaiaeiinoae o
oeoia/aiii i?aaiaiai noaoono iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia. Aaoi? a?aoiaioo?
aeioeieueiinoue aeeeaaeaiiy noaooi 3 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei
iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy» a iiaie ?aaeaeoei?. ?icaeie o?aoie
«Caaacia/aiiy caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia a Oe?a?ii, Oai?ueii, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eii» i?enay/aii
aeineiaeaeaiith niiniaia caoenoo iiicaiii? aeaniinoi ia oa?eoi?i?
Oe?a?ie oa iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia, yei aeieeathoue o
?acoeueoaoi caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi. O iiae?icaeiei
ia?oiio «Oeeaieueii-i?aaiai aa?aioi? caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa
i?aa iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia» iniiaio oaaao i?eaeieaii ieoaiiyi
iiaeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo caniaia caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie,
ia?aaeaa/aieo o aeainoi?iiiio Oaiaeao i?i caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee
caoeno iiaanoeoeie. Aeaeieythoueny oa aiaeicothoueny oinoue aca?iieo
ciaia’ycaiue, yei acyee ia naaa Aeiaiai?ii Noi?iie uiaei iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie i iiaanoi?ia. Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia iaocaiaeaeaiinoue ii?i
iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiio Oe?a?ie i?i aeaeaaoaaiiy i?aaa ia i?eeiyooy
?ioaiue noiniaii ?aeaiceoei? iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie i?aaiai, yei
oiiaiiaaaeaii ia oea Eaaiiaoii Iiiino?ia Oe?a?ie c ii?iaie aeainoi?iiiio
Oaiae, caiaeii c yeeie i?eioniai caoiaee uiaei aeaniinoi iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia aeiioneathoueny eeoa ia iiaenoaai caeiiia i eeoa i?e
aeio?eiaiii aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/aieo oiia. C iaeyaeo ia oea
i?iiiio?oueny noaooth 9 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai
iiaanooaaiiy» aeeeanoe a iiaie ?aaeaeoei?. Aeineiaeaeoth/e i?iaeaie
noaaieueiinoi i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio, yeee iaaea?oueny iiicaiiei iiaanoi?ai
ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui noaeinoue
iiia?aaeiueiai i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio aeey iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a i?ioyaii
aeanyoe ?ieia aa?aioo?oueny caeiiii eeoa oiaei, eiee niaoeiaeueiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie i?i iiicaiii iiaanoeoei? aoaeooue ciiithaaoeny
aa?aioi? ?o caoenoo, oiaoi oi, ui cacia/aii a ?icaeiei II Caeiio «I?i
?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy». ?icaeyaeath/e iaoaiici caaacia/aiiy
iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia, aeineiaeiee aeaeiey? oa
oa?aeoa?eco? i?aaiai niiniae caoenoo oeeo i?aa. Caeiaoaa/ aiaeico?
oeeaieueii-i?aaiai aa?aioi? caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa i?aa
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia. Cie?aia, oea noino?oueny eiiiainaoei? i
aiaeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeia, i?eieiaiiy iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi,
ia?aeaco i?eaooeia, aeioiaeia oa iioeo eiooia, iaea?aeaieo aianeiaeie
caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie. O aeena?oaoei? ii?ooothoueny
ieoaiiy, yei aeieeathoue o aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? iiicaiieie iiaanoi?aie
i?aa ia aiaeoeiaeoaaiiy ii?aeueii? (iaiaeiiai?) oeiaee. Aecia/a?oueny,
ui oaea i?aai inio? iacaeaaeii aiae iayaiinoi niaoeiaeueiiai caeiio i?i
oea, ui noaooy 4401 OeE Oe?a?ie ia iinoeoue aoaeue-yeeo iaiaaeaiue uiaei
?? canoinoaaiiy, ui oeeaieueii-i?aaiaee iinoeooo aiaeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiaeiyii? oeiaee aaco?oueny ia canaaeao aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi a
iiaiiio ianyci. Iiae?icaeie caeii/o?oueny i?iiiceoeiyie uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy ciinoo noaoae 10 i 12 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei
iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy», yei i?enay/aii caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa
iiaanoi?ia. Cie?aia, i?iiiio?oueny ia?aaeaa/eoe oaeee niinia caoenoo
aeaniinoi iiicaiiiai iiaanoi?a, ye aeieaoa eiiiainaoei? ca caeoee,
caiiaeiyii aianeiaeie ai?iieo eiioeieoia, aaaaeaiiy iaaecae/aeiiai
noaio, caai?ooaiue, a?iiaaeyinueeeo aacii?yaeeia oa iioeo iiaeiaieo
aeie. Iiae?icaeie ae?oaee «Noaeiaee caoeno iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo
iiaanoi?ia» i?enay/aii aeineiaeaeaiith i?aaeiaoo iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia
oa iaoaiicio noaeiaiai caoenoo, ia yeiio aaco?oueny ?aaeicaoeiy anio
iioeo th?eaee/ieo aa?aioie, ia?aaeaa/aieo iiaanoeoeieiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii. Caeiaoaa/ i?e oeueiio caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui Caeii
Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy» ia ?ice?eaa? ciinoo
iiiyooy «iiaanoeoeieii nii?e» oa ia aecia/a? /ioei th?enaeeeoei? noaeia,
yei eiiiaoaioii ?o ae?iooaaoe. Aeineiaeaeoth/e aeainoi?iiii Oaiaee i?i
caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno iiaanoeoeie, aaoi? aeena?oaoei? ?iaeoue
aeniiaie, ui aiie aeineoue oe?iei oeoia/aoue i?aaeiao iiaanoeoeieieo
nii?ia i aiaeiinyoue aei ieo oaeoe/ii aoaeue-yeee nii?, ui aeieea? ia
iiaenoaai caeieniaiiy iiaanoeoeie. Naia oae oeoia/eoue i?aaeiao nii?o
Aaoeiaoiinueea Eiiaaioeiy 1965?. «I?i ii?yaeie ae?ioaiiy
iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia iiae aea?aeaaaie oa iiicaiieie iiaanoi?aie».
Aiaeicoth/e ciino ?aeeii? noaooi 26 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aaeei
iiicaiiiai iiaanooaaiiy», yea cae?iieth? ii?yaeie ?icaeyaeo nii?ia o
ii?aeiaiii c iioeie ii?iaie caeiio, aeena?oaio eeaneoieo? ani
iiaanoeoeieii nii?e ca e?eoa?i?i i?aaeiaoiiai i noa’?eoiiai neeaaeo ia
aeai eaoaai?i?. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneoieaoeiy
iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia iaiaoiaeia aeey aecia/aiiy th?enaeeeoei? noaeia,
eiiiaoaioieo ?icaeyiooe i ae?ioeoe nii?. Ie?aii i?eaeiey?oueny oaaaa
/e ia iaeneeaaeiioie i?iaeaii, yea iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi ?ioaiue
iiaeia?iaeieo a?aio?aaeieo noaeia. Aeena?oaio ei?ioei coieiy?oueny ia
i?aaiaeo ieoaiiyo, ui aeieeathoue ia noaaei? i?eioniaiai aeeiiaiiy
oeeo ?ioaiue. Aaoi? caoaaaeo?, ui ii?yaeie aeciaiiy oa aeeiiaiiy
iiicaiieo a?aio?aaeieo ?ioaiue o aeith/iio OeIE Oe?a?ie acaaaei ia
a?aaoeueiaaiee, oiio i?eeiyooy niaoeiaeueiiai caeiio Oe?a?ie c oeeo
ieoaiue ni?eyei a iiaeaeuaiith iiaeia?iaeiiai aaoi?eoaoo Oe?a?ie.
Ocaaaeueithth/e iniiaii aeniiaee iiae?icaeieo, aeena?oaio aea?
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy «iiaanoeoeieiee nii?» oa i?iiiio? aeiiiaieoe OeIE
Oe?a?ie oa A?aio?aaeii-i?ioeanoaeueiee Eiaeaen Oe?a?ie iieiaeaiiyie, yei
a cae?iieee i?athaeeoeieio neeo ?ioaiue iiaeia?iaeieo o?aoaenueeeo
noaeia. Aeniiaee. O caeeth/iie /anoeii noi?ioeueiaaii iaeaieueo
caaaeueii aeniiaee, io?eiaii aaoi?ii: niieueia iiaanoeoeieia
aeiyeueiinoue ia iiaenoaai oeeaieueiii?aaiaeo aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia)
/eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii ia a?aaoeueiaaia; niiniae caoenoo iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie oa iaeiiaeo i?aa iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia iio?aaothoue
anoaiiaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiaeo iaoaiiciia aeey ?o ?aaeicaoei?;
caeiiiaeaaaoeue iiaeiai i?eaeieeoe aieueoa oaaae noaaieueiinoi
iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aaiaiio a?aaoethaaiith
iaaeoeiiia?ieo oi?i caeo/aiiy eaiioaeo; i?aaiaee ?aaeei iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie o niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao iio?aao?
niaoeiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy; a iniiai aecia/aiiy
th?enaeeeoei? eiiiaoaioieo noaeia eaaeeoue i?aaeiaoiee e?eoa?ie oa
noa’?eoiee neeaae noi?ii iiaanoeoeieieo nii?ia; i?eeiath/a e?a?ia ia?
noi?ioaaoe i?ici?o nenoaio aeiioneo eaiioaeo; i?aaiaee ?aaeei iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie a Oe?a?ii iiaeiai ocaiaeaeoaaoenue eiioeaiooaeueii c
i?aaiaeie ?aaeeiaie, yei ia?aaeaa/aii aeainoi?iiiiie Oaiaeaie i?i
caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno iiaanoeoeie. Aiinyoueny i?iiiceoei? oa
?aeiiaiaeaoei?, yei ni?yiiaaii ia iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iiaanoeoeieiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa caaacia/aiiy caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia.

Ii oaii aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii oaei i?aoei:

1. Naia?ae I.N. I?aaiaee noaoon iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie a Oe?a?ii //
Iaoeiaee ainiee *a?iiaaoeueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo: Na?iy i?aaiciaanoai. —
*a?iiaoei, 1996. — Aeione 1. — N.265-270 (0,25 ae?oe. a?e.).

2. Naia?ae I.N. Aeayei i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie a Oe?a?ii // I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai e i?aai. —
1997. — ue7. — N.34-37 (0,2 ae?oe. a?e.).

3. Naia?ae I.N. Aei/i?ii iiaei?e?inoaa — ye oi?ia caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ue3. — N.25-28. (0,2 ae?oe.
a?e.).

4. Naia?ae I.N. Aeiyeueiinoue i?aaiia iinoeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ii
caeo/aiith iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie // Aeiaiaeiee aeey aeaiooaoia oa aieia
?aae. — Oaeai?iae, 1996. — N.169-174 (0,25 ae?oe. a?e.).

5. Naia?ae I.N. Iiaanoeoei?: i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy, i?iaeaie i
ia?niaeoeae // Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei? 3-4 aeiaoiy 1996. —
Oaeai?iae, Oe?a?ia — Eioeoea, Neiaa//eia. — Oaeai?iae, 1997. — N.42-47
(0,25 ae?oe. a?e.).

6. Naia?ae I.N. Aa?aioi? oa aca?iiee caoeno iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie ii
caeiiiaeaanoao Oe?a?ie oa Neiaa//eie // Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei?
1617 eaioiy 1998. — Oaeai?iae, Oe?a?ia — Eioeoea, Neiaa//eia. —
Oaeai?iae, 1998. — N.51-59 (0,3 ae?oe. a?e.). 3

Naia?ae I.N. Oeeaieueii-i?aaiai aniaeoe ?aaoethaaiiy oa aca?iiiai
caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie ia i?aeoeoei Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa
Neiaa//eie. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 12.00.03 — oeeaieueia
i?aai i oeeaieueiee i?ioean; niiaeia i?aai; iiaeia?iaeia i?eaaoia
i?aai. — Ee?anueeee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a, 1999.
I?iaiaeeoueny ii?iaiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiaeic i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, Oai?ueie, Iieueui oa Neiaa//eie.
Aeineiaeaeothoueny oeeaieueii-i?aaiai aniaeoe ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo
iiaanoeoeie oa i?iaeaie aca?iiiai caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iiaanoi?ia.
Aiaeicothoueny nenoaia aeiioneo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie, i?aaiaee noaoon
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia, i?aaiaee ?aaeei iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie,
iniaeeainoi i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie o
niaoeiaeueieo (aieueieo) aeiiiii/ieo ciiao. ?ice?eaathoueny aeaee oa
oi?ie caeieniaiiy iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie, i?aaiaee noaoon iiaei?e?inoa c
iiicaiieie iiaanoeoeiyie, aei/i?iio iiaei?e?inoa, niaoeeoiea niieueii?
iiaanoeoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi ia iiaenoaai aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia).
?icaeyaeathoueny oaei iaaeoeiiia?ii oi?ie caeo/aiiy iiicaiiiai eaiioaeo,
ye eiceia, o?ai/aeceia, eiinaeoeia, eiioeanieii aeiaiai?e oa oaiaee
i?i ?iciiaeie i?iaeoeoei?. Aeineiaeaeothoueny ciino oeeaieueii-i?aaiaeo
aa?aioie i niiniae caoenoo iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie oa iaeiiaeo i?aa
iiicaiieo iiaanoi?ia. Aecia/athoueny iniiaii i?aaiai eaoaai?i? o oeie
noa?i — iiicaiii iiaanoeoei?, noa’?eoe i ia’?eoe iiaanoeoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi, iiaanoeoeieii nii?e. Aiaeico?oueny ciino aeainoi?iiiio
iiaeaea?aeaaieo Oaiae Oe?a?ie i?i caioi/aiiy oa aca?iiee caoeno
iiicaiieo iiaanoeoeie. Iaa?oioiaothoueny i?iiiceoei? i ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ii
aaeineiiaeaiith /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i iiicaiii iiaanoeoei?.

Iiicaiiee iiaanoi?, iiicaiia iiaanoeoeiy, ia’?eo iiaanooaaiiy,
iiaanoeoeieiee nii?, iiaanoeoeieia aeiyeueiinoue, iiaanoeoeieia
ciaia’ycaiiy, iiaanoeoeieiee i?iaeo, aeainoi?iiiy Oaiaea.

Naia?ae A.N. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua aniaeou ?aaoee?iaaiey e acaeiiie
caueou eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a i?aeoeea Oe?aeiu, Aaia?ee, Iieueoe e
Neiaaeee. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.03. —
a?aaeaeaineia i?aai e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann; naiaeiia i?aai;
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia /anoiia i?aai. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei. — Eeaa, 1999. Aeaaony n?aaieoaeueii-i?aaiaie aiaeec i?aaiaiai
?aaeeia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Oe?aeiu, Aaia?ee,
Iieueoe e Neiaaeee. Ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua eaoaai?ee a aeaiiie iaeanoe
— eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee, noauaeou e iauaeou eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaanoeoeeiiiua nii?u, eiaanoeoeeiiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa.
Enneaaeothony a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua aniaeou ?aaoee?iaaiey e i?iaeaiu
acaeiiie caueou eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa eiaanoi?ia.
Aiaeece?othony nenoaia aeiionea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, i?aaiaie noaoon
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia a Oe?aeia, eo i?aaa, auaeaeythony
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua iaycaiiinoe, eioi?ua aicieeatho o eiino?aiiuo
noauaeoia ia iniiaa inouanoaeaiey eiaanoeoeee. Enneaaeothony
iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a niaoeeaeueiuo
(naiaiaeiuo) yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao, nouiinoue a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiioiioaiee
iaaeaeo noauaeoaie ciiu, niaoeeoeea oi?ie?iaaiey aaethoiioeiainiaiai
iaoaiecia a ciia. ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua aeaeu aeiaeaiey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a iauaeou eiaanoe?iaaiey e oi?iu inouanoaeaiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Inaauathony aii?inu i?aaiaiai noaoona
i?aaei?eyoee nicaeaiiuo a oi?ia oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa, aei/a?ieo
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, a oaeaea ia?niaeoeaiua
iaaeoeeiia?iua oi?iu i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, eae eeceia,
o?ai/aeceia, eiinaeoeia, eiioeanney, niaeaoaiey i ?acaeaea i?iaeoeoeee
i?e ?ac?aaioea e inaiaiee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Aiaeece?othony
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu niaianoiie eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iniiaa
aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia), aeiaiai?u ia inouanoaeaiee eiaanoeoeee ia
oa??eoi?ee niaoeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii, i ?aaeecaoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a i?ei?eoaoiuo aeaeao yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ia oa??eoi?eyo i?ei?eoaoiiai ?acaeoey.
?anniao?eaathony i?aaiaua aii?inu aaica eiouanoaa a Oe?aeio n oeaeueth
eiaanoe?iaaiey ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia) ioiineoaeueii
iaeiaeaiey aai iioeeiie, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia?aceaeaioia, oneiaee
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), eioi?ay i?iecaaaeaia a
?acoeueoaoa niaianoiie eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Inaauathony
iniaaiiinoe nicaeaiey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii,
inouanoaeaiey no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, o/anoey eiino?aiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe a iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo i?iiuoeaiii-oeiainiauo
a?oiiao. Enneaaeothony niaea?aeaiea, aeaeu, i?aaeaeu
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo aa?aioee e niiniau caueou eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee,
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia ioiineoaeueii eiiiainaoeee a
neo/aa ?aeaeceoeee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e eiuo i?eioaeeoaeueiuo
ia?, aiciauaiey oua?aa, oiouaiiie auaiaeu e ii?aeueiiai a?aaea,
i?e/eiaiiiai a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaee, aacaeayoaeueiinoe eee
iaiaaeeaaeauaai auiieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, eo aeieaeiinoiuie
eeoeaie iaycaiiinoae, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu.
?ane?uaaaony nouiinoue aa?aioee a neo/aa eciaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
i?ae?auaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aiao?eaoeee i?eaueae,
aeioiaeia e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aiaeece?othony iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaua niiniau caueou
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e i?aa eiaanoi?ia, eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aiu
aeaonoi?iiieie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie Niaeaoaieyie Oe?aeiu i noeioee?iaaiee e
acaeiiie caueoa eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. I?iaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo nii?ia ii e?eoa?eth i?aaeiaoiiai e noauaeoiiai ninoaaa,
ii?aaeaeyaony th?enaeeeoeey noaeia, eioi?ua i?aaiii/iu ?anniao?eaaoue
eiaanoeoeeiiiua nii?u, inaauathony aii?inu th?enaeeeoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo a?aeo?aaeiuo noaeia ii caueoa eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia,
i?eciaiey e auiieiaiey eo ?aoaiee ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.

Eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?, eiino?aiiay eiaanoeoeey, iauaeo eiaanoe?iaaiey,
eiaanoeoeeiiiue nii?, eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?iaeo, eiaanoeoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, eiaanoeoeeiiiia iaycaoaeuenoai, aeaonoi?iiiaa
Niaeaoaiea.

Semerak O.S. Civil-legal aspects of the regulation and mutual protection
of foreign investments according to the practice of Ukraine, Hungary,
Poland and Slovakia. — A manuscript. Thesis on the competition for
the scientific degree of a Candidate of Law in speciality 12.00.03 —
civil law and civil process; family law; international private law.-
Kiev Taras Shevchenko University — Kiev, 1999. Comparative-legal
analysis of the law regulations of foreign investments according to the
legislations of Ukraine, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia is carried out.
Civil-legal aspects of the regulation of foreign investments and the
problems of mutual protection of the rights of property of the
investors are investigated. The system of admission of foreign
investments, legal status of foreign investors, legal procedure of
foreign investments, the peculiarities of legal control of foreign
investments in special (free) economic zones are analysed. The types and
forms of realization of foreign investments, legal status of the
enterprises with foreign investments, daughter enterprises, the
peculiarities of cooperative investment activity on the basis of the
agreements (contracts) are considered. Unincorporated forms of
realization of foreign capital such as leasing, franchising, consulting,
concessive agreements as to the division of production are reviewed.
The essence of civil-legal guarantees and means of protection of
foreign investments and rights of property of foreign investors are
studied. Basic categories of law in this field: foreign investments,
the subjects and objects of the investment activity, investment
disputes are determined.The essence of bilateral intergovernmental
Agreements of Ukraine about the incouragement and mutual protection of
foreign investments is analysed. Propositions and recomendations as to
perfection of current legislation on foreign investments are
substantiated.

Foreign investor, foreign investment, the object of the investment,
investment dispute, investment activity, investment liability,
investment project, bilateral agreement.

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