EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

UOAAEEA Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE :001.8:37.

O?AINOI?IAOeIss INA?OE ssE ssAEUA

NO*ANII ? EOEUeOO?E (OIEINIONUeEEE AIAEIC)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.10. — o?einio?y ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe

EE?A — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

ea??aiee: I?eaoiaa Oaoyia Aeieo??aia,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio?? oa iaoiaeieia?? iaoee.

Io?oe?ei? aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

iiiiaioe: E?aiaiue Aaneeue A?eai?iae/,

aeaaeai?e, i?aceaeaio aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaae?a TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «28» a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 001. 17 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60,

aoae.328.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe?

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «27»eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

I.?. Ne?eiea

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaeiei ic iaeiioe?ai?oeo yaeu, yei iaaiai?ththoueny iaoeiaith
a?iiaaenuee?noth aaaaoueio e?a?i no/aniiai na?oo, ? oi ciiie, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny a no/aniie nenoaii ina?oe. Aaaeeeaee noaoon ina?oe o
nioeiaeueiiio iinooi? anaa?/ii a?aoiaioiaaiee a e?oa?aoo??. Oea
ni?e/eiy? ieeueio oaaao aei oeo i?iaeai, ye? inoaii?ie aeanyoee?ooyie
iaa?iiaaeaeothoueny aiane?aeie ona?aeiieaiiy oiai oaeoo, ui oniaaeeiaaii
a?ae ieioeiai ina?oii nenoaie cia/iith i??ith ia a?aeiia?aeathoue nai?ie
ianeiaeeaie aeiiaai noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aiaeic i?iaeai ina?oe
cae?enith?oueny i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo aaeocae iaoeiaiai ciaiiy
(ineoieiaaie ? iaaeaaiaaie, nioe?ieiaaie ? o?einioaie oiui), ??cieo
aa?noa ianaeaiiyie ? i?ioan?eieo a?oi.

Eiaeia c iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i ?icaeyaea? ina?oo, aeoiaey/e ?c aeanii?
niaoeeo?ee oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ii?eoaoieie aeey oieinionueeiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy noaee oaie, ui iia(ycaii c oi?ioaaiiyi iiaiai inaioiueiai
iaeaaeo, iiaeo oeiiiinoae oa oeieae inaioe, iiai? ia?aaeeaie inaioe.
Aiaeaoeiny oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iai?yieo — oieinioiy inaioe.

Cia/ia eieueeinoue iaoeiaeo aei?iaie, ui i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai inaioe,
iaoeieaii ia ni?eyiiy ea?aeeiaeueiei c?ooaiiyi a inioth/ie nenoaii
inaioe, (( ?aoi?ioaaiith. Aiae?c a?aeiia?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e aeicaieea
i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, naia ??ciiieaiia?noue
?aoi?iaoi?nueeeo coneeue, ianeii?aeeiiaai?noue iai?yie?a cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?iaeoia ia?aaoaeiae ina?oe ? na?ae/aiiyi oiai, ui iiee ui ia
aeinyaiooi caaaeueiii?eeiyoi( oi/ee ci?o ia i?e?iaeo i?ioieath/eo ciii o
no/aniie inaioi. A, c iioiai aieo, i naia ni?yiiaai?noue ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ina?oe ia?aaeaa/a? onaiaeiieaiiy nooiino? ciii ?nioth/i? nenoaie ina?oe.
A ca(yceo c oeei aeieeea iaiaoiaeiinoue a iaa?oioiaaiiio ?icoiiiii
nooiinoi o?ainoi?iaoeieieo i?ioeania, ui iathoue i?noea a inaioi ye
nioeiaeueiiio iinoeoooi. A naith /a?ao, aiaenooiinoue iaoeiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue uiaei aieeao eoeueoo?e ia inaioii i?ioeane ia ni?ey(
oi?ioaaiith nenoaie i?ia?aiieo

2

nioeiaeueieo caoiaeia, ui nai(i ?acoeueoaoii iaee a ?aoi?iaoeith
inaioe, aiaeiiaiaeio oei o?ainoi?iaoeieiei i?ioeanai, yei
aiaeaoaathoueny a no/aniie eoeueoo?i.

Iaeii/anii, iio?aao? a?eueo aeeaieiai inieneaiiy ieoaiiy, yeith i??ith
aeina?ae ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui iaa?iiaaeaeaiee a
?icaeiooeo e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? Aia?eee, iiaea aooe ei?eniei a
oiiaao no/anii( Oe?a?ie, yeui i?eeiyoe aei oaaae oaeo, ui i?iaeaia ciii
a ina?oi aeciaia ? oe?iei iaaiai?th?oueny a oeeo e?a(iao. Aeeeaaeai?
aeua i??eoaaiiy iaoiiaeththoue oaio, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Iaoith aeineiaeaeaiiy ( i?iaaaeaiiy aiaeico aieeao ciii, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny a no/aniie eoeueoo?i, ia o?ainoi?iaoeith iinoeoooo
inaioe.

Ic oeueiai aeieeaathoue ianooiii caaea/i:

1.I?iaanoe oieinionueeee aiaeic iniiaieo iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
no/anii( inaioe a aniaeoi aeyaeaiiy aca(iica(yceo iiae ciiiaie, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny a inaioi, oa ciiiaie a eoeueoo?i.

2.Aeyaeoe oa ocaaaeueieoe oeiei, ii?ie, ciino inaioe, yei
iaoiiaeththoue nain iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi.

3.Aecia/eoe iniiaii ooieoei( inaioe a eoeueoo?i.

4.I?iaanoe aiaeic eiioeaioeie e?ece eoeueoo?e, eio?a aaciina?aaeiuei
ia?aaeo( no/aniinoi, oa aecia/eoe (o aieea ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iinoeoooeiiiaeiciaaii( inaioe.

5.Noi?ioaaoe eiioeaioeith, yea a?aoiao( aca(iica(ycie o?ainoi?iaoeie a
inaioi i eoeueoo?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei( iieyaa( a oiio, ui a iie:

1.Aeyaeaii, ui o?aaeeoeieia oeoia/aiiy iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiiy no/anii(
inaioe caeienith(oueny ia?aaaaeii a eiioaenoi eiioeaioeie “e?eciaiai
noaio ooieoeie inaioe”, yei aiia aeeiio( a noniieueiiio aeeooi.
Noia?a/iinoi “ooieoeiaeicio” naiae/aoue i?i aiaenooiinoue a ?aoeaeniyo
noaio inaioe caaaeueiiaeciaieo oeieae oa ii?i, ui ni?ey( iioe?aiith
oyaeaiue i?i e?eco naino iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi.

2.Aeineiaeaeaii aniaeo eoeueoo?iiai inioaaiiy inaioe c o?aooaaiiyi
aeaio iniiaieo ?? ooieoeie: o?aineyoeieii? (ia?aaea/a

3

ii?i, oeiiiinoae, ciaiue, caa?aaeaiiy eoeueoo?ii( o?aaeeoei() oa
o?ainoi?iaoeieii? (noa?ith caeieniaiiy inaioiueiai i?ioeano ( aeooiaiee
naio ethaeeie (aeoeaiee eiiiiiaio(, ui caeeaaea( iiaeeeainoue oi?ioaaiiy
iiaiai ciaiiy, eoeueoo?ii( iiiiaaoei(). Oea aeicaieeei aeyaeoe, ui
ii?aeiaiiy aeaieo ooieoeie aiaeaoaa(oueny o oi?ii “iaia?aiiiai“ aoaeoo
(oa?iii cai?iiiiiaaii Aa?aaeaeith). Inaioa aiaeoai?th( oa ooai?th(
aoaeiie eoeueoo?e.

3.Caeieniaii aiaeic oeieae, ii?i, ciinoo inaioe, ui iaoiiaethaaee nain
iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi, oa iathoue inoi?e/iee oa?aeoa?. Aii aeyaea
caeaaeiinoue naino inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi aiae
iiia?aaeiio aoaiia eoeueoo?ii-inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. Ia no/aniiio aoaii
noniieueiiai iinooio aeaia caeaaeiinoue ao?a/a( nai( cia/aiiy ?acii ci
ciiiaie oiia nioeiaeueiiai aeeooy, oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo ia?niaeoea eoeueoo?iiai inioaaiiy.

4.Ia iniiai oieinionueeiai aiaeico eiioeaioeie e?ece eoeueoo?e eiioey
XIX — ia?oi( iieiaeie OO no. iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeeainoue ?icaeyaeo
o?ainoi?iaoei( inaioe a aeaio aniaeoao: 1)o eiioaenoi o?aineyoeieii(
ooieoei( inaioe — ye aeeeeeaio caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieie ciiiaie (e?eca
?aoeiiiaeueiiai ni?eeiyooy naioo i ooeeioa?ii-i?aeoe/iiai aiaeiioaiiy
aei iueiai oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo naioiaeyaeieo i?i(ioe?ia, aea
i?ii?eoao aiaeaea(oueny aeooiaiei eiiiiiaioai); 2)a eiioaenoi
o?ainoi?iaoeieii( ooieoei( — ye aeeeeeaio iiiiaaoeieieie i?ioeanaie a
naiie inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/iie aeiyeueiinoi.

Aca(iica(ycie iiae ciiiaie, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a no/aniie eoeueoo?i, oa
ciiiaie a no/aniie inaioi iaaoaa( oi?ie o?ainoi?iaoei( inaioe, yea
aoieth(oueny o ciiiao naino inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi: inaioa
noa( oi?iith noaiiaeaiiy iiai( ia?aaeeaie aeooiaii( eoeueoo?e.

5.Noi?ioeueiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii i?eaiiaeueio eiioeaioeith aecia/aiiy
o?ainoi?iaoeieieo i?ioeania o no/aniie inaioi ye oi?ie noaiiaeaiiy iiai(
ia?aaeeaie aeooiaii( eoeueoo?e. No/ania inaioa noa( cia?yaeaeyi
i?aeoe/iiai oai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoiieiai/iiai iioaioeiaeo noniieuenoaa,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iioaeaeooaeueiinoi a eoeueoo?o. Aeieea( iniaeeaa
neooaoeiy ia?niaeoeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaeaooiueiai noaio
inaioe, yea

4

iia(ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi iaeaaeo aaaeaii( eoeueoo?e ye eoeueoo?e
inaioiuei(. Oaeei /eiii, no/anii i?ioeane aenoaathoue iiao ia?aaeeaio
inaioiuei( eoeueoo?e ye iiia?aaeieea (a ia o?aineyoi?a) iiai( eoeueoo?e.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Nenoaia iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe oa ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ? i??i?eoaoiei
iai?yieii ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i?. Iniiai? no?aoaa?/i?
caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe aecia/ai? a Aea?aeaai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa”, Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy. Ia?aiee
iai?yiie aeineiaeaeaiiy iia(ycaiee c oaiith eaoaae?e oieinioi(
oa iaoiaeieiai( iaoee Ee(anueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? o?nii iia(ycaia c iniiaieie iai?yieaie, a yeeo
i?iaiaeyoueny iaoeia? iiooee a aeai?e aaeoc? iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A?aoiaoth/e iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie o a?o/eciyi?e
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, aeei?enoai? a ?iaio? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee oa
iaea?aeai? ca ?o aeiiiiiaith oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue neoaeeoe
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ciii o no/ani?e nenoaii
ina?oe. C?iaeai? a i?ioean? ?iaioe aeniiaee ni?yiiaai? ia oa, uia
ni?eyoe eiiieaeniei ? aaeocaaei ?ic?iaeai oa aea/aiith i?iaeai no/anii?
ina?oe ia o?eueee a iaaeao o?einio??, a e ia niaoe?aeueiiiaoeiaeo ??aiyo
(iaaeaaia?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo, nioe?ieia?/ieo, ineoieia?/ieo oiui).

Oaeoieia?/i? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoeeo?n?a c o?einio?? ina?oe aeey
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a, neooa/?a ?IE, eo?n?a c o?einionueei?
aio?iiieia??, ?noi??? eoeueoo?e, aeieia??; i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii? iaoiaeee oa ina?oi?o oaoiieia?e aeui? oa na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe.

Aaoi? niiae?aa?oueny, ui oey aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa noaia iiooiaoii aei
iiaeo ?ic?iaie, ie?aeieo aeeneon?e a noa?? iaaeaaia?ee, o?einio??
ina?oe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

?aea?, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno, iaaiai?thaaeeny o aenooiao ia

5

i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? oa aoiai?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e no/aniiai niaoe?ae?noa(
(Ee?a, 1994), ia “Aeiyo iaoee” o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O.Oaa/aiea (1996, 1997); ia i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao
ani??aio?a o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo EO o 1996-97 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe?.
Eiioeaioe?y, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?einio?? oa iaoiaeiei?? iaoee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 4 ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei
ianyaii aei 2 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia ci?noii, iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
iiae?eaieo ia ia?aa?aoe, iine?aeiai?noue yeeo a?aeiia?aea? aioo??oi?e
eia?oe? ?ice?eooy oaie, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 170 ae?oeiaaieo noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, c(yniaaii nooi?iue ??
?ic?iaeaiino?, aecia/a?oueny iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oi?ioeththoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe oa oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c iniiaieo iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiiy no/anii(
inaioe” c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo, i?aaenoaaeaieo a
e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoiae?a a ioe?ieao noaio no/anii? ina?oe ? cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?iaiic?a ?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo. Iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeey
oii?yaeeoaaiiy aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aenooia? aeciaia i?ecia/aiiy
ina?oi?o onoaiia — iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy.

?icae?e neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “I?iaeaia ci?noo ina?oe: /iio iaa/aoe?” oaaaa
cina?aaeaeaia ia oeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo noaio ina?oe, a

6

yeeo iniiaiith ?? i?iaeaiith aecia?oueny i?iaeaia ci?noo ina?oe
(I.A.Aooia, I.?.Ae?iaiioiae, I.I.Iaea?oeaaa, ?.A.Io?aoaaa,
A.I.Uaae?iaeoeueeee oa ?io?).

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui iacaaeiaieaiiy no/aniei noaiii ina?oe ye
nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii, iaa?oioiao?oueny, aeoiaey/e ?c aeciaiiy ??
i??i?eoaoii? ?ie? a cae?eniaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, oai?aii?
iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo noni?euenoaa. Aeiiae aei ina?oe, ye?
noaaeyoueny c iiceoe?e iio?aa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
aena?oeththoue iayai?noue cia/iiai a?aenoaaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe (ui
aecia/a?oueny iaai?ii aeenoeeie?i oa ianyaii ciaiue, ieie ioiiethaaieo)
a?ae “caieo?a /ano”, — iaaeinoaoiuei oaeaeei iiiiaith?oueny iiaeie
aeenoeeie?iaie, ia a?aeiia?aea? no/ani?e iaoeia?e ea?oei? ciaiue.

?ic?iaeaii oeiieiaicaoeith ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noiniaii ci?i ci?noo ina?oe:
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeiiiaiaiiy ia?ae?eo ina?oi?o aeenoeeie?i
iiaeie, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee iiaiio ??aith ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa,
oaoi?ee, iaoee (I.?.Aooia, A.I.Uaae?iaeoeueeee, A.Ae.Oaae??eia);
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iaiao?aeiino? aeieeanoe coneeue o oi?ioaaii?
iiaiai (aeieia?/iiai) na?oiaeyaeo (I.?.Ae?iaiioiae,
I.I.Iaea?oeaaa, ?.A.Io?aoaaa, A.?.Oeiea?oe oa ?i.), ui aeaei a ciiao
ciyoe i?ioenoaaeaiiy “ethaeeia-i?e?iaea” ? oaeei /eiii iaaeeceoe
ina?oo aei iaaaeueieo i?iaeai noni?eueiiai aeeooy. A ca(yceo c oeei
cia/i? iaae?? iieeaaeathony ia aoiai?oa?ecaoe?th ina?oe (C.Iaeueeiaa,
I.I.Aa?oeaaa), yea iieeeeaia o??aiiaaaeeoe i?e?iaeie/iiaoeia? oa
aoiai?oa?i? ciaiiy, iineeeoe ?ieue aoiai?oa?ieo ciaiue, ye? iaaoee
ae?oai?yaeiino? a oiiaao iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano OO a.
A?aeiia?aeaeth ia iia? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? iie?oe/i? ?aae??, ui
neeaeeny a Oe?a?i? oa e?a?iao eieeoiueiai N?N?, ? i?iiiceoe?( uiaei
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe (A.A.Iieyeia, A.A.Aiy?eioeaaa oa ?i.).

Aaaaoiiai?oi?noue i?iiiceoe?e, ui iia(ycai? ?c ?noioieie ci?iaie ci?noo
ina?oe, ?iaeoue aeooaeueiei ieoaiiy — ye ?aaeueii iiiaeoe ci?no ina?oe
i?e /aniaiio iaiaaeaii? iaa/aiiy.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “Iaa/aeuei? oaoiieia??: ye iaa/aoe?”
?icaeyaeathoueny i?iiiceoe??, ui iaoe?eai? ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai c?inoaiiy ci?noo ina?oe i?e eiai ?aaeueiiio

7

/aniaiio iaiaaeaii?.

sse aeniiaie cacia/a(oueny, ui a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aeo?ae aaa/a?oueny a
?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?ioaa?aeueieo eo?n?a oa i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo ca(yce?a
(A.I.Nie?iia, I.I.Oaeaeo?aa oa ?i.). ?o iaoith ? aca?iii?iieeiaiiy
ciaiue c ??cieo aeenoeeie?i ? ye iane?aeie — oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai ciaiiy c?
nai?ie aeanoeainoyie: eiioeaioe?y i?io?eueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ina?oe
ni?yiiaaia ia iiooe iaoiaee/iiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo ina?oe
(A.A.Aieoyinueeee, A.Ae.Aeaeca?, A.A.Aocaaa); ye oaoi?ei-iaoiaee/iee
can?a ci?ie o?aaeeoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a ina?o?
?icaeyaea?oueny eiii(thoa?ecaoe?y ina?oe (A.?.Eoaiaee, E.I.I?n?i/oe,
I.N.Iaaeaeea oa ?i.). Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny iiooeo iiaeo iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy (A.I.Aeaenthe, I.I.Aa?cee?i, I.?.Iaoiooia).

Ie?aiiai cao/aiiy ia oeyoo aei aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe iaaoea oaia “iiaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e” (I.Aaaiiaa, I.I.Aa?oea?aa, ?.I.Aieeia,
A.Caaaicaee?i, ?.Cycthi, A.Ooaeia, A.O.Oaoaeia oa ?i.). A no/anieo
oiiaao aiia iaaoaa? aeeneon?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui iaoiiaeaii noia?a/i?noth
i?ae onoaeaiith o?aaeeoe??th oaoiieia?ciaaieo iaaeaaia?e ?
oaiaeaioe??th a?aeiiae a?ae oaoiieia?caoe?? ye i?ia?aeii? ii?ie
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Aeooaeicaoeiy i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy: /iio ?
ye aeoiaoaaoo?” aiae?co?oueny e?oa?aoo?a, a ye?e aena?oeai?
i?iaeaie, ui noinothoueny ni?yioaaiiy aeoiaiiai aieeao iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano ? niinia?a eiai cae?eniaiiy (A.I.Aieei, E.?.Aeaieeaiei,
A.I.I?n?i/oe, A.N.Eooae, A.Ae.Oaae??eia oa ?i.). C?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui, aeciath/e ca ina?oith aeeeth/ia cia/aiiy ye /eiieea
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iaoeiaoe? i?aee?aneththoue iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
o?aaeeoe?eieo i??i?eoao?a oa ?aeaae?a ina?oe, ci?i(ioiaaieo ia
?ao?aineyoeith, aeaiie?aoe/iei c?ooaiiyi, yei a?aeaoaathoueny a
noni?eueiiio aeeoo? ia no/aniiio aoai?. Aeaeieaii iniiaii oeyoe
?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe a oeueiio iai?yieo. Iaeiei ic ieo ( iineeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioo ina?oe (I.I.Eiiiiaiei, I.O.Noaeueiaoiae/ oa
?i.). Aaoi?e iaaieioothoue ia iaiao?aeiino? a?aeiiaeoe ia?iaeio
eoeueoo?o, ina?oo, caeo/eoe oeieo aei

8

ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e, ui iia(ycaii c aeaiie?aoe/iei c?inoaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueiiai noni?euenoaa. Ia i?iaeaio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai a ina?oiueiio i?ioean?
caa?oathoue oaaao A.N.Eooae, A.A.E?aiiiue, A.Ae.Oaae??eia.

Iia? ?aae?? oaoiieia?/iiai noni?euenoaa ia iicaaaeee aeooaeueiino?
i?iaeaio aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?, ae??oaiiy yei? iia(ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi
iniaeeaeo yeinoae ethaeeie (naiiina?oa, ?i?oe?aoeaa, oai?/?noue). Oea
aeoea?co? iiooee a iai?yieo ia?aiieneaiiy noaiiaeaiiy na?oiaeyaeo
(A.Caaaicaee?i, A.?.Oeiea?oe) oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiooee iaaeaaia?a,
?aeaaeii yeeo ? naiaiaea aieaaeyaeaiiy ono?aie?iiy o/iy aei iaa/aiiy
(E.?iaeaea?n oa ?i.). ?icaeyae i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy, ui iinoaee ia?aae
no/aniith ina?oith a eiioaeno? e?eoeee o?aaeeoe?eieo ?aeaae?a ina?oe,
cana?ae/o? iacaaa?oai?noue oeueiai i?ioeano. A naia oey iacaaa?oai?noue
?noioii iia(ycaia c? ci?iaie noni?eueieo oe?iiinoae oa nioe?aeueieo
i???ioaoe?e uiaei aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo aeoiaaiiy.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “O?ainoi?iaoeiy naino iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”
iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i ?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa? oe?iiinoae oa nenoaie
ii?i ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui iaoiiaeththoue nain
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Nie?ath/enue ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio
no/anii? ina?oe (E.?iaeaea?n, E.Iaioaei, A.I.C?i/aiei, ?.I.Eie?ni?eiaa
oa ?i.), a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui nain
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aecia/aiee ia iiia?aaeiueiio uaae?
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iinooiiai
ao?a/a? nai? cia/aiiy ?acii c? ci?iaie oiia nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy,
oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo. A ina?o? a?aeaoaa?oueny
niiioaiiee i?ioean iiooeo iiaiai naino iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?:
noa?a nenoaia ina?oi?o ii?i aaea ia ae??ni?iiiaeia aiane?aeie nai??
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? eoeueoo?iei oa nioe?aeueiei oiiaai, a
iiaa — iiee ui o?eueee oi?io?oueny. Aeooaeueiei noa?
aeine?aeaeaiiy naiiai eiioaenoo, a yeiio iiaeeeaee oeae iiooe, a oaeiae
oeo /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue eiai ie?aei?noue.

Aeciath/e, ui ia i?ioean iiiaeaiiy aeiia aei ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeanno aieeaa? ci?ia ?noi?e/ii noi?iiaaieo ia?ac?a ethaeeie, oeei
eiioaenoii iiaea aooe eoeueoo?a, ye i?aea?oioy, aea a?aeaoaathoueny oe?
ci?ie.

9

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Eoeueoo?a ye /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy ina?oe”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny eoeueoo?ia i?aea?oioy e?eciaeo yaeu a ina?o?.
?ice?eaa?oueny oa?aeoa? aca?iica(yceo i?ae ina?oith oa eoeueoo?ith.
Aiae?co?oueny noai eoeueoo?e e?ioey O?O — OO no. oa aecia/athoueny
iiaeeea? ia?niaeoeae ?? ?icaeoeo.

?icae?e neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Eoeueoo?a ? ina?oa”, nie?ath/enue ia ?icaeyae
?noi?e/iiai noaiiaeaiiy iiiyoue “eoeueoo?a” ? “ina?oa”, ina?oo
aeine?aeaeaii a eiioaeno? ?? eoeueoo?iiai ?nioaaiiy. Oea aeaei
iiaeeea?noue eiioeaiooaeueii aecia/eoe ?o aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue oa
aca?iica(ycie. Aeeiai?ea aca?iica(yceo i?ae ina?oith ? eoeueoo?ith
?ice?eaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
ina?oe. Aeaiee ?icaeyae cana?ae/ea iayai?noue aca?iiae?? oa
aca?iiaieea?a eoeueoo?iiai eiioaenoo ie?aieo aiio ? ina?oiueiai
i?ioeano, oi?i eiai i?aai?caoe?? oa ?aae?caoe??. ?ice?eaath/e oa?aeoa?
aca?iica(yceo ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e, aaoi?ea cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia
aecia/aii? ?ie? ina?oe a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e. A i?ioean? o?aineyoe??
eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue (o?aineyoe?eia ooieoe?y) ina?oa ia?aiineoue ?
eoeueoo?ii aecia/ai? iciaee ethaenueei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Ina?oa
aieeaa? ia i?ioean ?aae?caoe?? ia?aco ethaeeie a eoeueoo??, ine?eueee
aiia iieeeeaia aeoiaoaaoe iniaeno?noue, caeaoio aeeoe ca aeiiaaie oa
ii?iaie eiie?aoiiai noni?euenoaa. Oey i?n?y ina?oe aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe ??
aoaeiiiei oeaio?ii eoeueoo?e. Aeooiaiee na?o ethaeeie, ye aeoeaiee
eiiiiiaio, ? noa?ith cae?eniaiiy ina?oiueiai i?ioeano, a oea caeeaaea?
iiaeeea?noue o?ainoi?iaoe?e eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a (o?ainoi?iaoeieia
ooieoeiy), oiaoi oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?ieo ?iiiaaoe?e. Caeienithth/e oei
aeai ooieoei( a eoeueoo?i, inaioa aeeiio( ?ieue iaia?aie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiai?ee aca?iica(yceo i?ae eoeueoo?ith oa ina?oith na?ae/eoue i?i eiai
ci?iiee oa?aeoa?. Ia??iaee a?aeiia?aeiino? ina?oe aeii?ioth/?e
eoeueoo?? ci?iththoueny iiiaioaie iaaaeaeaaoiino?, ui iaoiiaeai?
neaaeith caeaoi?noth ina?oe aei “aaoiiaoe/ieo” ci?i a?aeiia?aeii
aaiethoe?? eoeueoo?e.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeaa i?ioeeaaeii
i?eiouaiiy: no/ania o?ainoi?iaoeiy ina?oe iaoiiaeaia “iai?oaith”, ui
aeieeea a /a?aiaee ?ac i?ae ina?oith oa eoeueoo?ith (ina?oa
iaaeinoaoiueith i??ith cae?enith? o?aineyoe?th

10

eoeueoo?e), aai ae o?ainoi?iaoeiy ina?oe ni?e/eiaia a?eueo aeeaieeie
/eiieeaie, ui iaeaaeaoue no/aniiio eoeueoo?iiio eiioaenoo.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “E?eca no/anii? eoeueoo?e: ona?aeiieaiiy
aeao?oeeoo aeooiaiino?” iieacaii, ui inieneaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
eoeueoo?e ieneeoaeyie ia?oi( iieiaeie OO no. caeaa?eueoiai iia(ycaia c
ona?aeiieaiiyi i?e/ei ?? e?eciaiai noaio. Ia iniia? o?einionueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue A.Aonna?ey, O.I?oaae-?-Aannaoa, I.Ni?ie?ia, A.Ia?eoca,
I.Oiaiaea?a, TH.Aioaiuenueeiai ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui “oaia e?ece”
eoeueoo?e aoea iaei??th c oi?i aeyao o?einioaie e?eciaino? ethaenueeiai
?nioaaiiy a e?ioe? O?O-ii/aoeo OO no. Iniaeea?noth oeueiai aoaio
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e ? c?inoaiiy a i?e e?eciaeo aeaiaio?a, ui aoee
ni?e/eiai? ?aae?caoe??th na?oiaeyaeieo canaae Iiaiai /ano. Oea, ia?o ca
ana, ?aoe?iiaeueia ni?eeiyooy na?oo oa ooee?oa?ii-i?aaiaoe/ia
a?aeiioaiiy aei iueiai, ui aiaeii/an i?eaaei aei i?eieaeaiiy,
ae?oai?yaeiino? ii?aeueii-oe?ii?nieo noa? eoeueoo?e. E?eca aa?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e e?ioey O?O-ii/.OO no. aea? i?aenoaae aeey cana?ae/aiiy ceaio
o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie oe?iiinoae oa oaiaeaioe?? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioe??a, aea i??i?eoao iaaea?oueny aeooiaiei aei??ai
eoeueoo?e. Nie?ath/enue ia aeaiee aeniiaie oa a?aoiaoth/e, ui iniiaieie
ooieoe?yie ina?oe ? o?aineyoe?y oa o?ainoi?iaoe?y eoeueoo?e,
cacia/a(oueny, ui o?ainoi?iaoeiy ina?oe iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooa a aeaio
aniaeoao: 1) a eiioaeno? o?aineyoe?eii? ooieoe?? o?ainoi?iaoeiy ina?oe ?
i?yiei iane?aeeii ciii, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a eoeueoo?i; 2) a eiioaeno?
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? ooieoe?? o?ainoi?iaoeiy ina?oe aeeeeeaia
iiiiaaoeieieie i?ioeanaie a naiie inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/iie aeiyeueiinoi.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Ia oeyoo aei eoeueoo?e
iaeaooiueiai”, nie?ath/enue ia no/ani? eiioeaioe?? eoeueoo?e,
?iaeoueny ni?iaa aecia/eoe iiaeeeaee iai?yiie oa niin?a oai?aiiy
iaeaooiueiai eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. A aeena?oaoe??
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniaeea?noth no/aniiai eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo ? c?inoaiiy ieeaiaino? oeo eiai /eiiee?a, ye?
iia(ycai? c ??aiai iaoeiai-o?einionueeiai ona?aeiieaiiy
nooiino? eoeueoo?e. Na?aeioeoaii iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiai-

11

o?einionueeiai ?icoi?iiy eoeueoo?e ? aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a uiaei ??
aecia/aiiy. Ina?oa aiane?aeie ?? ?ie? o oi?iioai?aii? ethaeeie iaaoea
iniaeeaiai noaoono, noaaoe “oi/eith ia?aoeio” iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo
?ioa?an?a ??cieo aaeocae iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Naia a ina?oi?e ae?yeueiino?
iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai? aai ia?aa??ai? oai?aoeei-o?einionuee? aeniiaee
uiaei ?icaeoeo ethaeeie ? eoeueoo?e iaeaeeae/iai iaeaooiueiai. sse
i?eeeaae ?icaeyaeathoueny iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea?, ui ?ic?iaeyeeny a iaaeao
o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??, Ae.Aeueth?. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui
iiooe iiaeo na?oiaeyaeii-oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie OO no. iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeae?aci?oith oaiaeaioe??th o ?icaeoeo
no/anii? o?einio??. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co eiioeaioe?e ae?aeiao
eoeueoo? (I.I.Aaoo?i, A.N.A?aea?, Ae.Aii) ?iaeoueny i?eiouaiiy, ui
ae?aeia?/ia ?aeay iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy iaeaooi?o
ci?i o eoeueoo??. Iiaee?aneth(oueny, ui inaioa, aeoiaey/e ?c ?? iniiaieo
ooieoe?e, ia? ni?eyoe ia?iaeaeaiith iiai? eoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino?. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo, caaaeath/e, ui aiia o?aineth? iaaiei /eiii
aeaoi?iiaaio eoeueoo?o, iiaa eaea i?i iineeaiiy o?ainoi?ioth/i? ooieoe??
ina?oe (ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iioaeaeooaeueiinoi a eoeueoo?o). Oea ia?aaeaa/a?
oi?ioaaiiy aaaeaii? eoeueoo?e ye eoeueoo?e ina?oiuei?, iaaeaaia?/ii?.
Eoeueoo?a ina?oiy ia? noaoe iiia?aaeieeii ooai?aiiy iiai? eoeueoo?e.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ia?niaeoeaia iiaeaethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe o OO?
no.” aeine?aeaeothoueny ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane a ina?o? OO no.,
aeiaiaeeoueny ?o ia?aaeeaiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Ia iniia? no/anieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, c?iaeaieo a aaeoc? ina?oe, ie?aneththoueny i???ioe?e oa
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iiai? ia?aaeeaie ina?oe.

?icae?e i?noeoue o?e ia?aa?aoe.

A ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ina?oiuei? ia?aaeeaie”,
nie?ath/enue ia cae?eniaia a iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aea? i?i iaiao?aei?noue oe?ii?nii? ia?ai???ioaoe??
eoeueoo?e oa ?ie? ina?oe ye cia?yaeaey ?? i?aeoe/iiai cae?eniaiiy
o ianiaiio ianooaa?, iaaieioo?oueny ia aeieeiaii? iniaeeai? (a
ii??aiyii? c ?noi?e/iei ieioeei) neooaoe?? ia?niaeoeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy iaeaooiueiai noaio ina?oe. Caa?iaiiy aei
aeine?aeaeaiue noaio ina?oe A.I.Aieei,

12

I.Aeieaeaiea, A.Eii?aa, ?.I.Eieani?eiai?, I.Inooiai?, A.?ic?ia oa
?i. aeaei ciiao cacia/eoe, ui coneeey iaoeiaoe?a ni?yiiaai? ia
ona?aeiieaiiy caaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeiai noaio ina?oe, o yeiio ?o
o?ainoi?ioth/a ooieoe?y ia? iineeaiia cao/aiiy. Oe?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia ia(?aeiaoe i?iaeaiith ia?aaeeaiaeueieo iniia
ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaaieineoe ia oe?e?niino? a?o?oaeoii?ee aeooiaii-na?oiaeyaeieo,
ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo, oe?ii?nieo ii?i, ui aenooiathoue iniiaith na?aeiiino?
oa a?aeoai?ththoueny ca o/anoth ina?oe, a oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe ??
aeaoi?iaoe?th ca oiia eoeueoo?ii? e?ece eiioey OO no. C?iaeaii aeniiaie,
ui iaae??oai?noue i?iaeaie ia?aaeeaiaeueieo iniia
ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iia(ycaia c iaaeinoaoi?i
inieneaiiyi ia?aaeeaiaeueieo c?ooaiue a ina?o?. Ia?aaeeaiaeuei? c?ooaiiy
(ia?ao?ae a?ae eeane/ii? ia?aaeeaie a ina?o? aei iiai? ina?oiuei?
ia?aaeeaie) ua ia io?eiaee a e?oa?aoo?? /?oei aecia/aiiai noaoono e
?icaeyaeathoueny aai ye iaiao?aeia ia?niaeoeaa ?icaeoeo ina?oe
(I.Aeieaeaiei), aai ye cae?eniaiee oaeo (A.Aieei, A.Aieoa?aa, ?.Cycthi,
A.?ic?i, I.Nooaiia). A ca(yceo c oeei i?iaeaiaoe/iei ? ? inoaoi/ia
cae??ieaiiy iacae iiai? ia?aaeeaie, ? iaaeinoaoi?e
o?einionueei-oai?aoe/iee ??aaiue iaa?oiooaaiiy naiiai oa?i?io
“ia?aaeeaia” a eiai canoinoaaii? aei ina?oe. Oey iaaeinoaoi?noue
ciaoiaeeoue ??ci? oi?ie i?iyao: oae, canoinoaaiiy oa?i?io «ia?aaeeaia» o
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ia iia(ycaii c nenoaiiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
i?eioeeiiaeo canaae ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Ie?ai? aaoi?e (I.A?o?i(?aa,
A.Aieei, I.Nooiaa, A.Noie?i) iathoue ia oaac? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia
ina?oiuei? ia?aaeeaie, a ia?aaeeaie aeoiaaiiy. O ni?aa?aeianaii? c
?noi?e/ieie uaaeyie ?icaeoeo ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano
?icaeyaea? iaaeaaia?/i? ia?aaeeaie ?.Eieanieeiaa.

Aaoi?ea iiaee?aneth(, ui aeooaeueiei noa? iiooe oaei? iaoiaeieia??,
yea a iaaeaaaea iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe ethaeeiioeaio?enonueeee “iiai?io
ina?oe”. Iaai? ia?aaeoiiae aeaii? iaoiaeieia?? noai?ththoueny i?e
?aoeaen?? ?iiiaaoe?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ye? ona?aeiieaii
ci???ioiaai? ia ?aae?caoe?th ie?aieo ianoaiia, ui aecia/ai? ye
canaaeie/? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeaooiuei? ia?aaeeaie ina?oe.

13

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “?aae?caoe?y ia?aaeeaiaeueii?
i???ioaoe?? ia ?icaeoie iniaenoino? o no/anieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
eiioeaioe?yo” ?icaeyaeathoueny eiie?aoi? iaaeaaia?/i? i?ia?aie,
iia? iiaeae? ina?oe, aeey yeeo i?aea?oioyi aeey iiaeo iiooe?a
a ina?o? noaee ?aea?, ui iia(ycai? c ia?ai???ioaoe??th no/anii?
eoeueoo?e ia iniaeno?niee ?icaeoie oa iniao, yea ?, a naith
/a?ao, iaiao?aeiei iiiaioii ?nioaaiiy naii? eoeueoo?e. sse i?eeeaaee
oai?aoe/iiai ?icai?oaiiy aeaii? ?aea? ?icaeyaeathoueny:
ineoiiaaeaaia?ea, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii ?aae?caoe?th iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaaeaiue ineoieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie (A.Aaae/, A.A?eionia); ?aea?
?icaeaath/iai iaa/aiiy (O.Aiiiaoa?e?, A.Aeaaeaeia, E.Caieia,
Ae.Aeueeii?i oa ?i.); i?ia?aia “O?einio?y aeey ae?oae” (I.THe?ia,
I.Aeoae?ia), yea ci???ioiaaia ia ?icaeoie iniaenoino? oeyoii na?aeiiiai
?i?oe?thaaiiy ?icaeoeo ieneaiiy a i?ioean? ina?oe; i?iaeoii-oai?/a
iiaeaeue iaa/aiiy, ui nie?a?oueny ia iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae
o iaa/aii?; ?aea? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? iaaeaaia?ee (A.C?i/aiei).

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea o iiooeo
eoeueoo?ii???ioiaaieo oi?i ao?eaiiy ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?” aiae?cothoueny iniiai? ?aea? “Oeiee ae?aeiao eoeueoo?”, ui
aacothoueny ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao, ae?iaeaieo a o?einionueeeo
i?aoeyo I.Aaoo?ia, I.Aoaa?a, A.A?aea?a. Aeciath/e i???ioaoe?th ia
eoeueoo?o ye iai?yiie ?icaeoeo ina?oe, i?aaenoaaieee Oeiee ae?aeiao
eoeueoo? (A.Aaee, N.Eo?aaiia, A.Eeoianueeee) i???ioe?ii ?icaeoeo ina?oe
aaaaeathoue oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai “ia?aco ethaeeie a eoeueoo??”, yea ciiaea
i?aoethaaoe c? ciaiiyie, c ??cieie oeiaie ieneaiiy, c ?aeayie ??cieo
eoeueoo?.

Oiaoi, ina?oi?e i?ioean ia? aooe iiaoaeiaaiee ye ae?aeia (i?ciaiiy
?icai?oa?oueny ye aacia?a?aiee ae?aeia noiniaii ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
i?iaeai aoaeiae na?oo ? ethaenueeiai aoooy).

14

AENIIAEE

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeai, yei iia(ycaii c o?ainoi?iaoeieieie i?ioeanaie a
inaioi ia no/aniiio aoaii (( inioaaiiy, ( ia?niaeoeaiei aeey iaoeiaiai
iiooeo. A no/aniie iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i (aeineiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaiaia,
nioeiieiaia, ineoieiaia, oieinioia), ui i?ena(y/aia aiaeico aeaiiai
yaeua, aaea ie?aneaii ie?aii iai?yiee aeineiaeieoeueei( ?iaioe. sse
iaeei ic ieo iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe aea/aiiy aieeao eoeueoo?ieo ciii, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny a OO no., ia o?ainoi?iaoeith inaioe. Ia iiaeyae aaoi?ee,
naia aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?i(ioe?ia eoeueoo?iiai inioaaiiy noaia
aaaiiei eiiiiiaioii a i?ioeani iiooeo iiaiai naino iaaeaaiai/ii(
aeiyeueiinoi. Aaeaea nain iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi oinii iia(ycaiee c
oei oeiii eoeueoo?e, ia iiaea?oioi yei( oi?io(oueny i ?icaeaa(oueny
inaioa ye oi?ia eoeueoo?iiai aeinaiaeo.

Aiaeic aieeao oeo ciii, yei aiaeaoaathoueny o eoeueoo?i, ia
o?ainoi?iaoeith inaioe, aeyaea, ui no/ania eoeueoo?a iaaoaa( i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo oi?i inoi?e/iiai iinooio, yei anooiathoue o noia?a/iinoue c
inoi?e/ii ieioeeie. sseui aei ia?oi( iieiaeie OO noieiooy
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii i?ioeane noniieueiiai aeeooy aecia/aee oeiei,
ii?ie, ciino inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/iiai i?ioeano, oi, ii/eiath/e c ae?oai(
iieiaeie OO noieiooy, eiee aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo iaaoea iaoeiai-oaoii/ia
?aaiethoeiy (ceeooy iaoeiai( i oaoii/ii( ?aaiethoei( a ?aeeiee i?ioean),
inaioa noa( aaciina?aaeiii aeaea?aeii no/anii( eoeueoo?e. Aeaaeaei
ae?aciioith noa( oaiaeaioeiy, ui iiaie ia?aaeeaii inaioe, oi?ioaaiiy
yei( ( ?aaeueiinoth no/aniiai noniieueiiai aeeooy, iaeaaeaoeia i?iaiaeia
?ieue a iiooeao oeyoia, yei caaacia/aoue aeoiae c e?eciaiai noaio
eoeueoo?e oa (( iiaeaeueoa caa?aaeaiiy i ?icaeoie.

Inai/aia ethaeeia nueiaiaeii caeaoia noaoe oai?oeai aeanieo
oieinionueeeo oyaeaiue i?i naio, aeanii( nenoaie aoe/ieo oa
anoaoe/ieo oiiaeiaaiue. Oiaoi, iaaeaaiiy oni(( naioiai( eoeueoo?e
ao?a/athoue aoaeiiiinoue a i?ioeani oi?ioaaiiy aioo?ioiueiai naioo
iniaenoinoi. Ethaeeia ?icaeyaea( caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii iaaeaaiiy eeoa
a yeinoi aoaeiaaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo aeey naiai aeaniiai aeooiaiiai
noaiiaeaiiy. Oeae i?ioean ciiie aca(iiaiaeiioaiiy eoeueoo?e
oa inaioe ?icii/aany aaciina?aaeiuei aiaee?eoei ?ooii

15

inai/aii( iieiaei o 60-70-o ?ieao OO noieiooy i?ioe eoeueoo?ieo
“oeiiiinoae aaoueeia”. O eoeueoo?ioai?/eo i?ioeanao ii/eiathoue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny iaea( iaeaooiueiai, yei anooiathoue o
i?eioeeiiao noia?a/iinoue c ia?acii iaeaooiueiai o o?aaeeoeieieo
eoeueoo?ao. Oae, o?aaeeoeieii eoeueoo?e oyaeiee aei caa?aaeaiiy
iaaeaaiue nai(o iiia?aaeieeia o yeinoi c?aceia, a no/anii oyaeaiiy
/anoioa aoaeothoueny ia aeciaiii o?aaeeoei( a?oa(eith, aiio?iiiciii, i?i
yeee iiaeia ciaoe, aea ia iaia(yceiai aeio?eioaaoeny.

Caa?iaath/e iioeiinoe/iee iano?ie o iiaeyaei ia i?ioeane o?ainoi?iaoei(
a eoeueoo?i oa inaioi, iiaeia c?iaeoe ianooiiee aeniiaie: inaioa
nueiaiaeii ( aoaeiiiei oeaio?ii eoeueoo?e, aeeiioth/e ?ieue iaia?aie. Ia
iiaenoaai aeineiaeaeaiiy no/aniiai noaio inaioe oa inoi?e/iiai aiaeico
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy inaioe ye nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooo a
aeena?oaoeieiiio aeineiaeaeaiii iiaee?aneth(oueny inoi?e/iee oa?aeoa?
oeieae, ii?i, ciinoo inaioe, yei iaoiiaeththoue nain iaaeaaiai/ii(
aeiyeueiinoi. Nain iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi, yeee aecia/aany
eoeueoo?ii- inoi?e/iei ?icaeoeii noniieuenoaa, nueiaiaeii iaaoaa(
i?eioeeiiai iiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Iiai i?i(ioe?e a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e
aeicaieythoue cacia/eoe, ui ia?ai?i(ioaoeiy, yea aiaeaoaa(oueny a
inaioi, aeeeeeaia iiaei ?icoiiiiyi iaeaaeo inai/aiinoi, ?icoio. Oae,
ia ciiio iaioth/iio a iaaeao eeane/ii( ia?aaeeaie inaioe iaeaaeo
“i?e?iaeie/iiaoeiaiai ?icoio” i?eoiaeeoue iaeaae “aoiaiioa?iiai ?icoio”
. A ca(yceo c oeei iiaiai cao/aiiy iaaoaa( ethaenueea iniaenoinoue,
eoeueoo?a, yei ?icaeyaeathoueny ye naiioeiiiinoue. Iaaeaaiai/ia
aeiyeueiinoue nueiaiaeii ia( nain, yeui aiia i?i(ioiaaia ia ia?ac
iaeaooiueiai. Iaeaae iaeaooiueiai, a yeiio caeeaaeaii caa?aaeaiiy
ethaeeie, a yeinoi aeii?o nueiaiaeaiiy noa( e?eoa?i(i aiaeai?o
inoi?e/ieo eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue, a ia iaaiaee.

Nie?ath/enue ia no/anii eiioeaioei( ?icoiiiiy nooiinoi eoeueoo?e, ia(ii
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i c?inoaiiy eoeueoo?ioai?/i( ?iei inaioe a
eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo (ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iioaeaeooaeueiinoi a eoeueoo?o).
Oea naiae/eoue i?i aeieeiaiiy iniaeeai( neooaoei( ia?niaeoeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy iaeaooiuei( inaioe, yea ia?aaeaa/a( oi?ioaaiiy aaaeaii(
eoeueoo?e ye eoeueoo?e inaioiuei(.

16

O?aaeeoeieia oeoia/aiiy iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiiy no/anii( inaioe,
yea caeienith(oueny caeaaieueoiai a eiioaenoi iaeae e?eciaiai
noaio ooieoeie inaioe, ia caeaoia ae?ioeoe noia?a/iinoi, ui
aeieeathoue iiae ?icieie ooieoeiyie inaioe, ineieueee aiie
aeaiaeyoue iiiyooy i?i oei ooieoei( c inoi?e/ii iiia?aaeiuei(
eoeueoo?e. Ni?aaa iieyaa( a oiio, ui no/ania inaioa ia
iiaea ?icaeyaeaoe o yeinoi aeaea?aea nai(o ooieoeie iiia?aaeith
eoeueoo?o. Ciiia naino no/anii( inaioe, yea noa( i?i(ioiaaiith ia
iaeaooi(, aeiaaa(, uia aeaea?aeii oeieae, ii?i, ciinoo, oi?ie
inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi noaaaea iioaeaeooaeueia ?icaoaeiaa
aeiia, yei aenoaa( no/ania ethaeeia aei aaaeaiiai iaeaooiueiai.
Aiaeiiaiaeii oeae ia?ac aaaeaiiai naioo noa( iniiaith aiaeiioaiiy aei
inoi?e/ii iaaooi( i no/anii( eoeueoo?e.

Eiioeaioeiy aecia/aiiy o?ainoi?iaoeieieo i?ioeania a no/aniie inaioi ye
oi?ie noaiiaeaiiy iiai( ia?aaeeaie aeooiaii( eoeueoo?e aeicaiey(
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui inaioa noa( cia?yaeaeyi i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iioaeaeooaeueiinoi a eoeueoo?o, ui ia?aaeaa/a( iiaeeeainoue
ia?niaeoeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaeaooiueiai noaio inaioe, yea iia(ycaia c
oi?ioaaiiyi iaeaaeo aaaeaii( eoeueoo?e ye eoeueoo?e inaioiuei(.

Naiae/aiiyi inioaaiiy oaei( o?ainoi?iaoei( iiaeia aaaaeaoe
?iciianthaeaeaiiy o Aa?iii, Aia?eoei, ?icaeiaieo e?a(iao Aci( iaeaaeo
inai/aii( iieiaei( ethaeeie ye iaeaieueo aaaeaiiai iaeaooiueiai aeey
nai(o iauaaeeia. Iaaieiii c?inoa( a inoaiii ?iee eieueeinoue
iieiaei, ui aaaea( io?eiaoe aeuo inaioo. Oea naiae/eoue, ui
inaioa noa( iaeaaeii eoeueoo?iiai inioaaiiy, ui, a naith /a?ao,
caaacia/o( aeiiiii/ia aeaaiiieo//y oa nioeiaeueiee ?icaeoie e?a(ie.

NIENIE IIOAEIEIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Eoeueoo?a ye na?aaeiaeua ooieoeiiioaaiiy i /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy
inaioe.- E.: *aoaa?oa oaeey, 1997. — 28 n.

2. No/ania oe?a(inueea inaioa a eiioaenoi (a?iiaenueei( inoi?i( OO
no.// Iaoeiai caienee c inoi?i( Oe?a(ie (Cai?iee noaoae). Aei.6. —
Ei?iaia?aae, 1997. — N.86-90.

17

3. Aiaeic iniiaieo iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiue a inaioi ia no/aniiio aoaii
// Iiai oaoiieiai( iaa/aiiy. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee cai?iee. Aei.21. — E.,
1997.

4. Oieinioiy inaioe: iiooe iiaeo iai?yieia // “Aeii iaoee-96”. Oace
iaoeiaeo aeiiiaiaeae. — E., 1996. — N.103.

Aiioaoeiy.

Uoaaeea I.A. O?ainoi?iaoeiy inaioe ye yaeua no/anii( eoeueoo?e
(oieinionueeee aiaeic). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oieinionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinooth — 09.00.10 — Oieinioiy inaioe.- Ee(anueeee
oiiaa?neoao iiaii Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee(a.1998.

O aeena?oaoeieiiio aeineiaeaeaiii caeieniaii aiaeic aieeao ciii, ui
aiaeaoaathoueny o no/aniie eoeueoo?i ia o?ainoi?iaoeith iinoeoooo
inaioe. Noi?ioeueiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioeith aecia/aiiy
o?ainoi?iaoeieieo i?ioeania o no/aniie inaioi ye oi?ie noaiiaeaiiy iiai(
ia?aaeeaie aeooiaii( eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/iai neiaa: o?ainoi?iaoeiy, eoeueoo?a, ia?aaeeaia, inaioiy
eoeueoo?a, nain inaioiuei-iaaeaaiai/ii( aeiyeueiinoi.

Summary.

Schubelka N.V. Transformation of education as a phenomenon of modern
culture (philosophical analysis). — Manuscript.

The thesis is submitted for the Candidate of Philosophical Sciences
degree, Discipline — 09.00.10. Philosophy of education. — Kyiv
University named after Taras Shevchenko, Kyiv. 1998.

The thesis deals with analysis of influence of changes taking place in
modern culture on transformation of education. The concept of
determination of transformation processes in modern education as the
forms of establishment of new paradigm of spiritual culture is revealed
and grounded.

Key words: transformation culture, paradigm, educational culture, sense
of educational and pedagogical activity.

18

Aiiioaoeey

Uoaaeea I.A. O?ainoi?iaoeey ia?aciaaiey eae yaeaiey nia?aiaiiie
eoeueoo?u (oeeinioneee aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe — 09.00.10 — oeeinioey ia?aciaaiey.

Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee inouanoaeai aiaeec aeeyiey eciaiaiee,
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a ia o?ainoi?iaoeeth einoeoooa
ia?aciaaiey. Noi?ioee?iaaia e iainiiaaia eiioeaioeey ii?aaeaeaiey
o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a nia?aiaiiii ia?aciaaiee eae oi?iu
noaiiaeaiey iiaie ia?aaeeaiu aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?ainoi?iaoeey, eoeueoo?a, ia?aaeeaia, ia?aciaaoaeueiay
eoeueoo?a, niune ia?aciaaoaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

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