I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeA?AEAAIA IAOAEO?A?EIA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

I?EAOIIAA Aaeaeue Aai?a??aia

OAeE 669.2/8.017

OAI??ss OA OAOIIEIA?? IAeA?AEAIIss AENIEIssE?NIEO NEEOI?I?A
O?CEEI-O?I?*IEIE AIEEAAIE IA ?ICIEAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.01 iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie OA?AI TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,
Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, ?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie AI?ENIA Aai?a?e Iaaeiae/, O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee
?inoeooo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie , caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
iaoai?ee ??aeeeo oa oaa?ae?th/eo nieaa?a;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *A?IAAA Aeieo?i Oaaei?iae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iniia oaoiieia??
iaoae?a;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, OAIIAAEIAA Ienaia Ieoaee?aia,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/a
eaai?aoi???th iiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa oaoiieia?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e e?enoae?caoe??,
a?aeae?e aoaeiae ??aeeeo ? aii?oieo iaoae?a, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 19 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiae 30 oa ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.084.02 i?e Aea?aeaai?e
iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 49600, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ac?neaii » 10 » aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, aeieo.oaoi.iaoe, i?ioani?
I.I. Eiia?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Nieaae nenoaie Al-Si oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye eiino?oeoe?ei? iaoa??aee. Caaaeyee aa?i?e
oaoiieia?/iino?, aenieiio ??aith o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, aenie?e
ieoii?e i?oeiino? oa ei?ic?ei?e no?eeino? aiie oni?oii eiieo?othoue c
/i?ieie iaoaeaie, cai?ithth/e aai iiai?noth aeo?niyth/e ?o c
o?aaeeoe?eieo noa? aeei?enoaiiy: o iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, o?i?/i?e,
aeaeo?ioaoi?/i?e i?iieneiaino?, o iiaooia?e oaoi?oe?. Iaeiae ?icoe?aiiy
iaeanoae ?o canoinoaaiiy oa ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa no?eio?oueny
aeao?oeeoii ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a.

Aenieicae?ci? aieneoe a?o/eciyieo ?iaeiaeu /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaee o eieuei?ia?e iaoaeo?a?? i?aeoe/ii ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny. ?aca?aii aeiiii?? ia?aeiiiai aethi?i?th ? a?ooo oa
a?aeoiaee, aea i?e ?o ia?aieaaoe? ooai?th?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
aaciiiae?aieo oa iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie. Caaeiaieaiiy iino?eii c?inoath/i?
iio?aae a aethi?i??aeo nieaaao iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e onoiaii? ??cieoe? a
yeino? ia?aeiieo oa aoi?eiieo nieaa?a, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?icoe?aii?
ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy aethi?i??ai? ?oaeii? aace , c ?ioiai. ? a oiio, ? a
ae?oaiio aeiaaeeao aeieea? i?iaeaia noai?aiiy iiaeo aai aaeineiiaeaiiy
?nioth/eo oaoiieia?e a?aeiia?aeii aei oeooe iecueei? yeino?.

Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ? canoinoaaiiy
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ae?e ia ?icieaae. Aea ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo cania?a
ae?yiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ia iniia? /?oeeo oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?o ?icieaao,
ui ci?ith?oueny i?ae aieeaii ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a. No/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i
o?ceei-o?i?/io i?e?iaeo iaoaeaai? ??aeeie aacothoueny ia ?iaioao
aeaaeai?ea A.?. Aeaieeiaa, eiai o/i?a ? iine?aeiaiee?a: I.N. Eaoei, A.O.
Ne?eoaanueeiai, I.A. ?iiaiiai?, ss.E. Aeoo/aea oa ?i. Aaeeeee aianie o
aea/aiiy aoaeiae ?icieaa?a c?iaeee eieaeoeae o/aieo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
I.A. ?eue?inueeiai, A.?. Iaco?a, A.I. Aaoia, ?.I. Iiaioaonueeiai, A.I.
Aaoie?ia. Aaoi?ea iei?oiuei? ?iaioe, yea o?eaaeee ia??iae
ni?ai?aoethaaea c oeeie eieaeoeaaie, aaeeea ni?iao aeaoaeueii aea/eoe
aoaeiao aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a, ?o aieea ia iniaeeaino? i?ioeano
e?enoae?caoe??, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? a?aeeeaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ocaaaeueith? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaiiae AeEIO
N?N? a?ae 3.05.79. ? 180, ca eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith IA ? NNI N?N?
«Iaoaee» (i.12.03.06); caaaeaiiyi 03.03.O IIOE «Aioeei?» AeEIO N?N?;
Caaaeueiinithciith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith 0.09.06 «?ic?iaeoe ?
inai?oe iia? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane ? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? c eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a ? aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?», ui caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith
AeEIO N?N? a?ae 30.10.85. ? 555 (i?aei?ia?aia 1 «?ic?iaeoe oa
ai?iaaaeeoe eeaa?i? nieaae, a oaeiae nieaae eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a, ui
aeaoi?iothoueny, ye? ae?iaeythoueny c a?oooo oa a?aeoiae?a, cai?noue
nieaa?a c ia?aeiieo iaoae?a»); i?ia?aiith I?iaoco O?N? c i?iaeaie
«Oai?aoe/i? oa oaoiieia?/i? iniiae aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?ioean?a
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? c aenieeie niiaeea/eie aeanoeainoyie», ui
caoaa?aeaeaia eiieo?niith eii?n??th I?iaoco O?N? 18.01.91.; aea?aeaaiith
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith 7.12.2 «Noai?aiiy iiaeo eiino?oeoe?eieo
eeaa?ieo nieaa?a ia iniia? eaaeeo iaoae?a», ui caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith
AeIOI Oe?a?ie a?ae 4.05.92. ? 12, a oaeiae o paieao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ieai?a
i?i?noa?noa ? aaeocaaeo ?inoeooo?a.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy ye?noth
neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a ia iniia? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae o ??aeeiio oa oaa?aeiio noaiao ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?o o iaoaeo?a?ei?e i?aeoeoe? i?e ae?iaieoeoa? nieaa?a ?
a?aeeeaie c iecueeini?oii? oa aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Iioe?aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a.

2. ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie noai?aiiy aoi?eiieo
neeoi?i?a c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii oeeieo oa iaai?th.

3. ?ic?iaea iaoai?cio ? aoaeoeaieo caoiae?a uiaei
iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca i?e?iaeii?oeaie, cai?iiiioaaoe
can?a i?iaiicoaaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae neeoi?i?a ca oaciaei
neeaaeii.

4. ?ice?eooy i?e?iaee i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
?icieaaao i?ae ae??th oaiia?aoo?e, aeo?eioaaiiy a ??aeeiio noai?,
ia?iaoe? aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii, ?ia?oiei aacii.

5. Aea/aiiy aieeao aoaeiae ?icieaao oa oiia ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ia
iniaeeaino? oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e e?enoae?caoe?? neeaaeiieaaiaaieo
neeoi?i?a.

6. I?iaaaeaiiy i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo
aenieiye?nieo nieaa?a ?c iecueeini?oii? ne?iaeie, a?oooo oa a?aeoiae?a,
ui io?eiai? c aeei?enoaiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ieo cania?a ae?? ia no?oeoo?o
?icieaao.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?o iiaecia. Ia iniia?
aeaieo ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai oa aa?ooaaeueii-i?e?ino?oeoo?iiai aiae?c?a,
aei??thaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae (a’yceino?, u?eueiino?,
aeaeo?iiii?o), naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee
ooi/iaia ? io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e ??aeeeo
neeoi?i?a.

Aia?oa ae??oaia iae?i?eia caaea/a naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o
iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee c iaoith aecia/aiiy ?ici???a i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue
aoii?a e?aii?th.

Anoaiiaeai? ?ai?oa iaa?aeii? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oeeieo oa
iaai?th ia oa?aeoa? i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo
?icieaa?a, ?o ca’ycie c? no?oeoo?ith oa iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie
a?aeeeaie.

Aia?oa aeyaeaia iaiaeii??aei?noue oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aethi?i?th
(Al), ui noi?ioaaany ia ??cieo aoaiao e?enoae?caoe??. Iieacaia
caeaaei?noue aeanoeainoae Al a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, ??aeeiiioacii? ia?iaee.

?ice?eoee i?eioeeiiai iiaee iaoai?ci ia?eoaeoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a
neeoi?iao, ui eaaiaai? iaai??i.

Cae?eniaia e?euee?nia ioe?iea iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiuei? no?oeoo?e.
Iiaoaeiaai? iiaeae? o?i?/iee neeaae oaciaee neeaae aeanoeaino?, ui o
ii??aiyii? c iiaeaeyie iioei?caoe?? o?i?/iee neeaae aeanoeaino? iiai?oa
? oi/i?oa ?ice?eaathoue o?ce/io ea?oeio i?ioean?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia
iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee nieaa?a.

Aea/aiee iaoai?ci ? cai?iiiiiaai? caniae iaeo?ae?caoe??
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca a aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo nieaaao
i?e?ieaaoaaiiyi. Anoaiiaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue o ci?i? nooiaiy aieeao
iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie ia ii?oieia?th cae?ciai?nieo oac, i?e?i- oa
iae?ino?oeoo?o caeaaeii a?ae ?oiueiai ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a o Ia??iaee/i?e
nenoai? o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a Ae. ?. Iaiaeaea?aa.

?ic?iaeaiee i?ea?iaeueiee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e ?
iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca o i?iieneiaeo nieaaao ae??th ia
?icieaa aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii. Io?eiaia ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy aeaeo?iia?aiino,
cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui iaoiiaeai? ae??th
ia ?icieaa aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio.

Iioe?ai? oyaeaiiy i?i aeaaacaoe?th ?icieaa?a aeaeo?e/iei
no?oiii. Iienaiee iaoai?ci oeueiai i?ioeano.

Aia?oa io?eiaia aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iiae?aiino?
caeiiii??iinoae o ci?i? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a ?icieaa?a i?ae aieeaii
oaiia?aoo?e oa o?eaaeeo aeo?eioaaiue o ??aeeiio noai?. Anoaiiaeaia
oaiia?aoo?ia iaeanoue ia?aa??ao aeiaaoaeoe/ieo oa aaoaeoe/ieo neeoi?i?a,
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c yei? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ea?aeeiaeueieie ci?iaie
i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe??, neeaaeo oa ii?oieia?? oac.

Noi?ioeueiaai? e?eoa???, ui caaacia/othoue aca?iica’ycie
no?oeoo?e aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo nieaa?a o ??aeeiio oa oaa?aeiio noaiao,
cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci iiaeeo?eoaaiiy cae?ciai?nieo oac i?e o?ce/ieo ?
o?i?/ieo ae?yo ia ?icieaa.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? a
?iaio? aeai? i?i aoaeiao oa aeanoeaino? aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a
iioe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo neeoi?i?a, aaaaoioacio
e?enoae?caoe?th nieaa?a aaoaeoe/iiai oeio.

Anoaiiaeai? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e a
??aeeiio oa oaa?aeiio noaiao, iaoai?cie ci?ie ?? i?e i?e?ieaaoaaii?,
i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?e, a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeo?eioaaiiy a ??aeeiio
noai?, ia?iaee ?ia?oiei aacii, aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii, ci?ie oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy aeicaieeee iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe iia? noaie
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?nieo
neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a.

I?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee iniiaith iioei?caoe?? ?nioth/eo ? ?ic?iaee iiaeo eeaa?ieo nieaa?a,
i?e ae?iaieoeoa? yeeo iiaeeeaa oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy iecueeini?oii?
ne?iaeie, a?oooo oa a?aeoiae?a c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii Fe, Mg, Zn, aeaye?
c ieo aianai? aei ?aaeaeoe?? AINO 1583-89 «Nieaau aethieieaaua
eeoaeiua».

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo nieaa?a ? oaoiieia?e ia iaoaeo?a?eieo
? iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie, ?in??, A?oc?? aeicaieeee
cieceoe ??aaiue

eeaa?iiai a?aeo, i?aeaeueoe iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? a?aeeeaie, nei?ioeoe
aeo?aoe ia?aeiieo iaoae?a, ianaiia?aae Al, Ni, Mn, ? io?eiaoe noia?iee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo (o oe?iao aei 1990 ?.) 6950 oen. ?oa, i?e iaeia?e
o/ano? aaoi?ee 4980 oen. ?oa.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?ee. Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai?
aaoi?eith iniaenoi o oiae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue, a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? ?ia?o, ui
cae?enithaaeeny i?ae ?? aaciina?aaei?i ea??aieoeoaii. On? oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeeiiai? naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iia?aeiieai? ?
iaaiai?ai?: ia II ananithciiio nai?ia?? ii cii/oaaiith, aaeaac?? oa
aca?iiae?? ?icieaa?a (Ieeiea?a, 1975); ia III, IV, V, VI, VII
ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aoaeiaa oa aeanoeaino? iaoaeaaeo ? oeaeiaeo
?icieaa?a» (Naa?aeeianuee, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1986; *aeyaeinuee, 1990);
ia I, II, III ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e nieaa?a aaoaeoe/iiai oeio» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1979, 1982,
1986); ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??
eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa» (Ee?a, 1978); ia IV ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
«Caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy aac?a o iaoaeao ? iai?aai?/ieo
iaoa??aeao» (Eai?ia?aae, 1979); ?anioae?eainueeiio nai?ia?? «I?ia?aneaia
oaoiieia?y i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? a?aeeeaie c eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a» (Ee?a,
1978); ?anioae?eainueeiio nai?ia?? «Aeanoeaino? ??aeeiai iaoaeo ?
ye?noue a?aeeeaie» (Ee?a, 1978); ia III ananithci?e ia?aae?
«O?ceei-o?i?/i? i?iaeaie aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aiaeiai?iieeiino? iaoae?a»
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1983); ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iniiai? iai?yiee
aeiiii?? oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoaeo a
aaoio?aeoi?iaoaeoaaii?» (*aeyaeinuee, 1984); ciiaeuei?e ia?aae?
«No?oeoo?a oa aeanoeaino? iaoae?a» (Iiaieociaoeuee, 1984); ia IV
ananithci?e ia?aae? «Aiaeaiue o iaoaeao» (Iineaa, 1984); ia VII
ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iia? aenieii?iaeoeoeai? i?ioeane, aenieiye?ni?
nieaae ? iaeaaeiaiiy o eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?» (Eaoian, 1986); ia IV
?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoai?caoe?y oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeeeaie iaoaeo?a?eiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1986); ia I, II ananithcieo ia?aaeao
«Aca?iica’ycie ??aeeiai oa oaa?aeiai iaoaeaaeo noai?a» (Naa?aeeianuee,
1987, 1990); ananithciiio nai?ia?? «Aeeaei?e ii?yaeie o iaoaeaaeo
?icieaaao ? no?oeoo?ii-/ooeea? aeanoeaino? iiaeeco iaae o?eaaeino? oac»
(Euea?a, 1988); ia IV i?aeaaeocaaiio nai?ia?? «Niaaeeia?noue o eeoeo
nieaaao» (Eoeaeoaa, 1990); ia I oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «No?oeoo?a ?
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? iaoii?yaeeiaaieo nenoai» (Euea?a, 1993);
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aaoaeoeea IV» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997),
“Ia?niaeoeae oaoiieia?y” (Iieueua, E?aeia, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o
54 ae?oea?nueeeo ?iaioao, o oiio /ene? 1 iiiia?ao??, a oaeiae 41 oacao
aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao oa noaooyo, ui ia oa?eoee aei
nieneo i?aoeue. Iiaecia ?ic?iaie caoeuaia 11 aaoi?nueeeie
na?aeioeoaaie ia aeiaoiaee, iaoaioii ia aeiao?ae, ui aeaeaiee
Aeaaeiaoaioii Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 405 iiceoe?e ?
aeiaeaoea. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 180

noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 102 iaethiee, 53 oaaeeoe?.

Caniae aeine?aeaeaiue. Canoiniaai? iia?oi? caniae oa iaoiaeeee
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai ? ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?c?a, aeeth/ath/e
aenieioaiia?aoo?io ?aioaaiia?ao?th, aei??thaaiiy a’yceino?, u?eueiino? a
??aeeiio noai?, naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee,
iioe/ii?, ?ano?iai? oa o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??,
oa?i?/iiai, aa?ooaaeueii-i?e?ino?oeoo?iiai, o?i?/iiai, aaciaiai
aiae?c?a, aeai?/iai o?aaeaiiy, aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo, eeaa?ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Aeei?enoaiee no/aniee iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae ?icieaa?a, caniae ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo,
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee ? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a.

Eaai?aoi?i? ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei AeINO?a, ia i?eeaaeao ? iaeaaeiaii?,
ui i?ieoee iao?ieia?/iee eiio?ieue. Oea aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i
iaai?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

E?EUeE?NIA IOe?IEA IA?AIAO??A I?E?IIAIAeII??AeIINO? ?ICIEAA?A

E?euee?nia ioe?iea ia?aiao??a i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? iaeia c
iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai o?ceee ??aeeiiiai noaio. ?ioi?iaoeaiei caniaii
aecia/aiiy ?ici??o i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si (dSi) o ?icieaaao
neeoi?i?a ? aenieioaeaee?nia ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c ??aeeiai noaio (Vioie >
107 E/oa) c iiaeaeueoei aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
iaoaeaaeo ie?aie. ?noioi? oni?oe o ae??oaii? icia/aii? i?iaeaie, o
?ic?iaoe? oa aeei?enoaii? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiaeee aoee aeinyaioo? a
eaai?aoi??? i?io. A. ?. Iaco?a. Iaeiae i?yi? aeai? i?i nooi?iue
a?aeiia?aeiino? dSi o ?icieaa? oa a?aeiia?aeieo e?enoae?a Si o
oaeaeeiioieiaeaeaieo ie?aeao a?aenooi?. Io?eiaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia oea
ieoaiiy iiaeeeai, yeui aeei?enoaoe iaoiae naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o
iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee. O iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeao c oeaio?eooaoaaiiy,
caniiaaieo ia aeinyaiaii? aaeaino ian i?ae eiiaaeoeaiei ia?aiinii (?ooii
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue) oa aeeooc??th, ui ae??aith?, ?aii?oaaany iae?i?eiee
oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie ? caeaaei?noue ?ici??o i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aii?th. Iane?aeeii icia/aieo iiieeie ?
iaiaeiicia/i?noue o aecia/aii? /ano aeinyaiaiiy naaeeiaioaoe?eii?
??aiiaaae, ui, ye ? ?io? ia?aiao?e aeeooc?eii? caaea/?, a oiio /ene?
?ici?? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si, iiaea aooe aecia/aiee o?eueee ia
iniia? ??oaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ii? caaea/? naaeeiaioaoe??. Ca iayaiino?
iae?i?eiiai /eaia o ??aiyii? naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icaycaoe eiai
noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ia iiaeeeai. ??aiyiiy
?icaycoaaee ca aeaiia ??cieie aneiioioe/ieie iaoiaeaie. Aeey i?yiieooii?
nenoaie eii?aeeiao io?eiaia iae?i?eia ??aiyiiy naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaao
oeyoii i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iiaiiai aeeooc?eiiai iioieo oiia?
aacia?a?aiino?
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 ;
(1)
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 ;
(2)
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, (3)

aea cV0, cV ii/aoeiaa oa iioi/ia cia/aiiy ia’?iii? eiioeaio?aoe??; V
ia’?i i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue; , 0 u?euei?noue i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue oa
na?aaeiaeua; eooiaa oaeaee?noue; /anoea aoii?a, ui aa?a o/anoue
a ooai?aii? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue; k iino?eia Aieueoeiaia; D eiao?oe??io
aeeooc??; /an oeaio?eooaoaaiiy; O oaiia?aoo?a ?icieaao; N1, N2 –
a?aenoaiue a?aeiia?aeii a?ae aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iaae? iaa?oaiiy
?icieaao aei in? iaa?oaiiy; — a?aenoaiue a?ae aioo??oiuei? iaae?
iaa?oaiiy ?icieaao aei oi/ee, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? ?aoi?oe c ?icieaaii
aeei?enoaia ??aiyiiy aeeooc?? o ?ooiiiio na?aaeiaeu?
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 ;
(4)
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 .
(5)

Aiae?oe/ia ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (1) io?eiaia ca iaoiaeii
oi?iaeueiiai ia?aiao?a c canoinoaaiiyi e?ioeaaeo ?ioaa?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue
aeinoaoi?i ? aeei?enoaiiy ??oaiiy ioeueiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy caaea/? (1):
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 ; (6)
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 ; (7)
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 ,
(8)

aea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 R1; R2; r1; r2; 1; 2 eiao?oe??ioe oa aeani? /enea caaea/?,
ui aecia/athoueny ?ioaa?aeueieie ia?aoai?aiiyie.

??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (4) iiaeeco aioo??oiuei? iaae? io?eiaia ca
iaoiaeii ?ioaa?aeueii? e?eai? Pohlhausen ? Hills. Ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe??
ca oiaueiith ?icieaao, ui caaeaia o aeaeyae? ia?aaiee
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,
(9)

iieno?oueny o?ainoeaiaeaioiei ??aiyiiyi

picscalex109010009000003790300000400150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02200880231200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffacffffff40230000cc0700000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000c00109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
5a0314010500000013022605140109000000fa0200000800000000000000220004000000
2d0101000500000014027802b20905000000130278029a0a0500000014027802930b0500
000013027802810c0500000014027802f70d0500000013027802df0e040000002d010000
05000000140240043d050500000013024004ff0e10000000fb0205fedd00000000009001
000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020008000000320a9e044a130100
0000280010000000fb0205fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320a9e04d31701000000290005000000
14024004041e05000000130240043e2315000000fb0220ff000000000000900100000000
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01020004000000f001
030008000000320a22058d2201000000320008000000320a0005121a0100000031000800
0000320a0005241701000000300008000000320a2205bc0901000000320008000000320a
2c02b10701000000320015000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000000040200105469
6d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000
320ace05242001000000320008000000320ace05121e01000000350008000000320aaf03
472001000000330008000000320aa004fe1b01000000310008000000320aa0046d180100
00003b0008000000320aa004251801000000200008000000320aa004ce14010000003300
09000000320aa0041d11030000006578700008000000320ace058d0b0100000031000800
0000320a0304110e01000000320008000000320ae701110e01000000330008000000320a
0304cc0901000000320008000000320ae701c90901000000350015000000fb0260ff0000
000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00006804000000
2d01020004000000f001030008000000320a3701691001000000310015000000fb02c0fd
0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000680400
00002d01030004000000f001020008000000320ad802a60a01000000290008000000320a
d8024b0501000000280015000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000000040200105469
6d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000
320ace05f02002000000536e08000000320aa0040919010000004b0008000000320aa004
8e1502000000534608000000320ace051f0802000000536e08000000320a0304ad0b0100
00006e0008000000320ae701a10b01000000750008000000320ad802140602000000536e
08000000320aa0042e0001000000750015000000fb0220ff000000000000900101000000
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01030004000000f001
020008000000320aff00d60f010000004b0008000000320a00056a02010000006e000800
0000320a0005730101000000780010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002
001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000320ace050c1f
010000002d0008000000320aa004e01c010000002b0008000000320aa004fa1a01000000
3d0008000000320aa004c213010000002d0008000000320a5306170f01000000fa000800
0000320ae304170f01000000fa0008000000320a7303170f01000000fa0008000000320a
c107170f01000000fb0008000000320a0302170f01000000f90008000000320a53069b04
01000000ea0008000000320ae3049b0401000000ea0008000000320a73039b0401000000
ea0008000000320ac1079b0401000000eb0008000000320a03029b0401000000e9000800
0000320ace059f0a010000002d0008000000320ad802d30c010000002b0008000000320a
d8029408010000002d0008000000320aa0046703010000003d0010000000fb0220ff0000
000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001
020008000000320a0005e401010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000
000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0400
00002d01020004000000f0010300030000000000000000000000 . (10)

Ia iniia? ?ic?aooieiaeo eiioeaio?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
u=?(S) oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a c ia?a?iciiae?eo e?aii?th o
?icieaa? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeo (, CV0,T)
aecia/aee ia?aiao? S ,ui ca’ycaiee c dSi ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi
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.
(11)

C?noaaeaiiy aeaieo i?i ae?aiao?e i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si,
ui io?eiai? ca iaoiaeii naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaao ca ae?acaie (6)…(10)
oa a ?acoeueoao? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaeaeeiioieiaeaeaieo ie?aie, iieacaei aenieee nooi?iue ?o
a?aeiia?aeiino? [25,30,32]. Oea noaei iniiaith aeey aeei?enoaiiy
aenieioaeaee?niiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c ??aeeiiiai noaio i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
?icieaa?a eaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a.

IIAeAEUe AOAeIAE AETHI?I?E-E?AII??AEO ?ICIEAA?A

Iiaeaeue aoaeiae aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a aaco?oueny ia
?acoeueoaoao ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co [5,6], naaeeiaioaoe??
?icieaa?a o iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee [8,25,30,32],
aa?ooaaeueii-i?e?ino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co [2], aeaieo i?i u?euei?noue [37],
a’yce?noue [7], aeaeo?iii?? [5].

??aee? neeoi?ie i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?. No?oeoo?e aeiaaoaeoe/ieo
oa aaoaeoe/ieo ?icieaa?a (5,0…12,0 ao.% Si) iiae?ai? ?
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae caaaoaeoe/ieo, ui i?noyoue 14,0…20,5 ao.% Si. Ia
eiioeaio?aoe?eieo caeaaeiinoyo ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e, a’yceino?,
u?eueiino?, aeaeo?iiii?o niinoa??aa?oueny aeno?aioi i?e 16,5 ao.% Si.

O aeiaaoaeoe/ieo oa aaoaeoe/ieo nieaaao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao,
aeecueeeo aei ieaaeaiiy, oa eiioeaio?aoe?yo Si aeua 1,5 ao.%
ooai?ththoueny i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a Si c oiaeiaeith, iiae?aiith IE
(Z1=6), c /anoeiai eiaaeaioieie ca’yceaie oa ?aae?onii ia?oi?
eii?aeeiaoe?eii? noa?e r1, ??aiei 0,25 ii. I?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a Si
?iciiae?eai? o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii?, ui neeaaea?oueny c i?e?iiaeanoae
c? noaoenoe/iei ?iciiae?eii aoii?a Al oa Si ia iniia? oiaeiaie oeio IE (
r1 = 0,264…0,265 ii, Z1 = 6), IOeE ( r1 = 0,284…0,280 ii, Z1 = 8),
AOeE ( r1 = 0,287…0,282 ii, Z1 = 12). C i?aeaeuaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? Si ciaioo?oueny ?ici?? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si [2].
Ca?eueoo?oueny ?o e?euee?noue [2] ? ia’?iia /anoea ae?eyiie
?icoii?yaeeiaaii? ciie c? no?oeoo?ith oeio AOeE [5]. I?aeaeuo?oueny
?ic/eii?noue Si o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii?, ui aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai
cia/aiiy a oiaeiaoe? AOeE nieaao aaoaeoe/iiai neeaaeo [5]. Caa?aaeaiiy
icia/aieo a?aeciae i?e aenieioaeaee?ni?e e?enoae?caoe?? caaacia/o?
aenieee nooi?iue ia?aiane/aiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aethi?i?th o ie?aeao,
ui i?noyoue 12,0 ao.% Si, a?aeiia?aei?noue oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino?
iaea?eueo ?iia??ii? i?aeaoiiii? a?aenoai? o ?icieaa? r1 oa ia?aiao?a
e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee aethi?i?th aAl a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? Si [34]. I?e
ai?no? Si aei 1,5 ao. % i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy Si ia niinoa??aathoueny, a
aoiie Si noaoenoe/ii ?iciiae?eythoueny iii?ae aoiiaie Al.

Caaaoaeoe/i? ?icieaae c 14,0…20,5 ao.% Si oaeiae iathoue
neeaaeio i?e?iiaiaeii-??aeio aoaeiao [6]. Iaeiae ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeiaaoaeoe/ieo ?icieaa?a ooo aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e ? i?e?iiaeano? c?
noaoenoe/iei ?iciiae?eii aoii?a Al oa Si ia iniia? oiaeiaie oeio IOeE (
r1 = 0,280 ii; Z1 = 8) e IE (r1 = 0,265 ii; Z1 = 6), ui neeaaeathoue
?icoii?yaeeiaaio ciio, oa i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy c? noao?iiao???th nee?oeeaeo
AlxSi (x = 3…5) ia iniia? oiaeiaee AOeE (r1 = 0,306 ii; Z1 = 12). I?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? Si a?eueo i?ae 20,5 ao.% o caaaoaeoe/ieo ?icieaaao ciiao
ia?aaaaeathoue i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a Si.

C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ?ici?? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si
ciaioo?oueny [2]. Ci?ith?oueny no?oeoo?a ?icoii?yaeeiaaii? ciie:
ciaioo?oueny ia’?iia /anoea i?e?iiaeanoae c oiaeiaeith aoii?a,
iiae?aiith Al o oaa?aeiio noai? (AOeE), ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue
oiaeiaie oeio IOeE oa IE. Iacaeaaeii a?ae ai?noo Si, o ?icieaa?
iineeth?oueny aca?iiae?y ??ciini?oieo aoii?a, aiane?aeie /iai o
aeiaaoaeoe/ieo oa aaoaeoe/iiio nieaaao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeecueeeo aei
750 oN, c’yaeythoueny i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy c aeeaei?i ii?yaeeii ??ciini?oieo
aoii?a oeio nee?oeeaeo AlxSi, ui ni?a?niothoue c i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyie
aoii?a Si. A ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 800…865 oN i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a
Si i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

C?noaaeaiiy iiaeaeae ??aeeeo neeoi?i?a ??ciiiai?oieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e aeicaiey? aeyaeoe aeayeo caeiiii??i?noue o ia?aoiae?
iaeieo no?oeoo?ieo cii a ?io? i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe??. A
iaeano? eiioeaio?aoe?e 1,5 ao.% < Si < 14,0 ao.% oa i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao o i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo caeaa?eueoiai ?aae?co?oueny aca?iiae?y aoii?a Si. I?e neeaaeao 14,0 ao.% < Si < 20,5 ao.% oa a iaeano? aenieeo oaiia?aoo? iineeth?oueny aca?iiae?y ??ciini?oieo aoii?a. Naia oeeie oaeoaie iiynith?oueny oyaia i?ioe??//y i?ae i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiith aoaeiaith aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a oa iaaaoeaiith aia?a??th ci?ooaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a. ?acoeueoaoe oa?iiae?iai?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iienai? a e?oa?aoo??, a?aeiinyoueny aei oaiia?aoo? 1000 oN ? a?aeia?aaeathoue ea?oeio i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae?? aenieiia?aa??oi? ??aeeie. CAEIIII??IINO? OI?IOAAIIss NO?OEOO?E OeEIEIAENOEO NEEOI?I?A ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue ??aeeeo oeeieiaenoeo neeoi?i?a. ?? iniiai? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe aiaeia?/i? oei, ui ? o a?ia?ieo ?icieaaao [29]. Oeeie ia ooai?th? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue c aeaniith no?oeoo?ith, a cina?aaeaeo?oueny a i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo aoii?a Si, o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii?, a a neeaaeiieaaiaaieo nieaaao ? a i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo neeaaei?oiai neeaaeo: FexSiyAlz. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao 640...750 oN oeeie ciaioo? i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue ??aeeeo neeoi?i?a. O oeueiio nain? eiai aieea aiaeia?/iee i?aeaeuaiith oaiia?aoo?e. Iaeneeuei?oee iiaeeo?eoth/ee aieea Zn niinoa??aa?oueny i?e 1,5 %. Ca aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e, a eeaa?ieo aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo nieaaao Zn ia?aaoaa? o?eueee o oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? Al. Aia?oa aeyaeaia aiiiaeueia, c oi/ee ci?o caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo oyaeaiue, ca?eueoaiiy ?ic/eiiino? Zn a Al i?e ciaioaii? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaao c 107 aei 5 E/oa [33]. I?e iaaenieeo oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeoaaiiy (5...10 E/oa) Zn iaeaea iiai?noth ia?aoiaeeoue ?c i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue o ?icoii?yaeeiaaio ciio ?icieaao, a ye?e oi?iothoueny aeaiae?eoe oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio Al. C? ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ai?no Zn a Al ciaioo?oueny, a?i eiioeaio?o?oueny a eioa?iaoae?aeao (Fe,Mn,Cu)3Si2Al15 (), FeSiAl5 ( ) oa Cu4NiAl7 [14]. Aeey ioe?iee /ano, iaiao?aeiiai aeey ia?aoiaeo Zn c? noa?iiiae?aieo i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue o ?ic/ei, aeei?enoaee ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy aeeooc?? c nooe?eueii? noa?e ?aae?ona R aeey ii/aoeiaeo oa a?aie/ieo oiia c(r; 0) = c0 ; c(R, ) = c1 , picscalex100010009000003bc0300000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00460211200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa9ffffff20210000690400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000000110000000fb0205fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320abf01070101000000280010000000fb0205fedd000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320abf012d0301000000290009000000fa020000100000000000000022000400 00002d0100000500000014026002400005000000130260025d060500000014026002f309 0500000013026002e30b0500000014026002d10e05000000130260023b12050000001402 60027b140500000013026002e31605000000140260022d1b05000000130260025d201000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a55038d2001000000f70008000000320aaf028d20 01000000f70008000000320a4b048d2001000000f80008000000320ab9018d2001000000 f60008000000320a5503471901000000e70008000000320aaf02471901000000e7000800 0000320a4b04471901000000e80008000000320ab901471901000000e60008000000320a c002071a010000002d0008000000320ace016f0f010000002d0008000000320ac002c708 010000002b0008000000320ac002cf06010000003d0008000000320aec03d50201000000 2d0008000000320ac101d903010000002d0010000000fb02c0fd00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a 1903220c01000000e50010000000fb0220ff000000000000900100000002000200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a3a019c0c01000000 a50008000000320a2f04c80c010000003d0015000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00009a040000002d01010004000000 f001020008000000320a4703061e01000000320008000000320a2201c21d010000003200 08000000320a2201521c01000000320008000000320a2f04370d01000000310008000000 320a4c04a40401000000300008000000320a4c04f70101000000310008000000320a2102 a80501000000300008000000320a2102e90101000000310015000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00009a040000002d01 020004000000f001010009000000320ac0021f17030000006578700009000000320ac002 71120300000073696e0008000000320ace01e31001000000290008000000320ace014110 01000000310008000000320ace01e50e01000000280008000000320ace010d0a01000000 320008000000320ac002dd0701000000310015000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100 00000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00009a040000002d01010004000000 f001020008000000320af303f51c01000000520008000000320ace015d1e010000004400 08000000320ace01e11c010000006e0008000000320aec03401501000000520008000000 320ace01271601000000720008000000320ace019514010000006e0008000000320aec03 2910010000006e0008000000320aec03f40a01000000720008000000320ace01df0a0100 0000520015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e00cc9a040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320aec03ef03 01000000f10008000000320aec03570101000000f10008000000320ac101f30401000000 f10015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e00009a040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ac1017f010100 0000720015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e00cc9a040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac1015400 01000000f10015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e00009a040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a2201 8211010000006e0008000000320a2f044a0c010000006e0010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010100 08000000320ace01711f01000000740008000000320ace01291b01000000700008000000 320ace01551501000000700008000000320aec03220a01000000700008000000320ac101 43020100000074000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000 070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000 f00102000300000000000000000000000000, (12) aea c1 ai?no Zn o ?icieaa?; c0 ai?no Zn o oac? aai o i?e?ioa?oiiaaii?. Eiee i?ioean aeeooc?? caaa?oo?oueny c(r = 0; = Tk) = c1, aea Tk /an iiaiiai caaa?oaiiy i?ioeano, ??aiyiiy (12) i?eeia? aeae picscalex1000100090000034c0200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c004a0141200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffff60140000760400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000000109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 6002c60d0500000013026002981310000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a6203c81301000000f7000800 0000320aa202c81301000000f70008000000320a5804c81301000000f80008000000320a ac01c81301000000f60008000000320a6203e00b01000000e70008000000320aa202e00b 01000000e70008000000320a5804e00b01000000e80008000000320aac01e00b01000000 e60008000000320ac002a00c010000002d0008000000320ac002d006010000002d000800 0000320ac002d201010000003d0010000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a1903cd03 01000000e50010000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a3a01470401000000a5000800 0000320a2f046004010000003d0015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000097040000002d01020004000000f0010100 08000000320a4703f01001000000320008000000320a15015b1001000000320008000000 320a1501eb0e01000000320008000000320a2f04e40401000000300015000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000970400 00002d01010004000000f001020009000000320ac002b809030000006578700008000000 320ac002440801000000290008000000320ac002a20701000000310008000000320ac002 460601000000280008000000320ac0020a0301000000320015000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000097040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320af303df0f01000000520008000000320ac101f610 02000000445408000000320ac1017a0f010000006e0008000000320ac002460001000000 4b0015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e000097040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a2102dc120100 00006b0008000000320a1402e308010000006e0008000000320a2f04e203010000006e00 10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 2d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac101c20d0100000070000a00000026060f00 0a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222 53797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000200100000 0000. (13) Io?eiaiee ae?ac aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe nooi?iue caaa?oaiiy aeeooc?eiiai ia?aoiaeo Zn c noa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?e o oaa?aeee ?ic/ei i?e ??ciiiai?oieo oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeaiiy. Aeey oeueiai i?iaiaeeoueny cai?ia ia e?ioeaaa cia/aiiy Tk, ui aecia/a?oueny ca ?ici??ii ?ioa?aaeo e?enoae?caoe?? oac ? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ?icieaao. I?eionea?oueny, ui i?e ooai?aii? oace a?aeaoaa?oueny ia'?aeiaiiy oii?yaeeiaaieo i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue, ca?aeee aeo?ea?, ui ii/aoeia? oiiae caaea/? n(r; 0) = n0 ? ? i?e aeeooc?? Zn ?c ?icaeyiooeo oac o ??aeei-oaa?ae?e iaeano?. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aeia?a iiaiaeaeothoueny c aeine?aeieie aeaieie i?i ?ic/eii?noue oeeieo a ?ioa?iaoae?aeao. I?ioean aeae?eaiiy oeeieo c ?ioa?iaoae?aeieo oac, ui aeoea?co?oueny ?c cieaeaiiyi oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? Zn o nieaa? aei 8 %, iano?eueee ?ioaineaiee, ui iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? ?ic/eio Al a?aeiia?aea? i?i?iaeuei?e oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy (Vioie = 5...10 E/oa). Ioaea, ?iciiae?e Zn, no?oeoo?a oa aeanoeaino? oeeieiaenoeo neeoi?i?a cia/iith i??ith aecia/athoueny oiiaaie ioieiaeaeoaaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe??th Zn [12,22]. I?e NZn > 1,5 % a?aeaoaathoueny iii?oi?
ci?ie o oaciaiio neeaae? ciaioo?oueny ia’?iia /anoea oace . Ei?aeyoe?y
ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e ?icieaao c iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie a?aeeeaie
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e Vioie = 120 E/oa ? aoaea a?aenooiy i?e Vioie =
10…5 E/oa.

NO?OEOO?I? INIAEEAINO? NEEOI?I?A, EAAIAAIEO IAAI??I

Iaai?e ?noioii ci?ith? aoaeiao aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a.
A?i ciaioo? ?ici?? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si, aea ca?eueoo?
i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue o oe?eiio /a?ac ooai?aiiy aaaeeiaeenioe?eiaaieo
oa?oiiaaiue ca oeiii nee?oeeaeo iaai?th. Inoaii? noaa?euei?o?, i?ae
e?aii??a?, iaio noeeuei? aei aieeao oaiia?aoo?e, oi/a e o?, ? ?io? c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe?? Mg (0…2 %) ciaioothoueny.
I?e oeueiio ia’?iia /anoea i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue Si ciaioo?oueny, ca oeiii
nee?oeeaeo ca?eueoo?oueny. A ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 750…1000 iN o
?icieaa? a?aeaoaathoueny no?oeoo?i? ia?aaoaeiae [37], iaea?eueo iaaii
iia’ycai? c? ci?iaie neeaaeo ? aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo aoii?a o
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo ca oeiii nee?oeeaeo. Iiae?ai? ci?ie a ?icieaa? ? i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? Mg a?eueo?e i?ae 1,1% [35].

Ia i?eeeaae? nieaao AE9I2 aea/aiee aieea Mg oa oiia
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy (Vioie = 20…180 E/oa) ia oa?aeoa? i?ioeano
e?enoae?caoe??. I?e ai?no? Mg (0.6…2.0 %) oa ioieiaeaeoaaii? ?icieaao
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e 700 oN aei oaiia?aoo? oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue c?
oaeaee?noth 20 E/oa ii?yaeie aeae?eaiiy oac oaeee:

1 ae Al1; 2 ae + Al2; 3 ae + +Al3; 4 ae +Si + Al4;

5 ae + + Al4 Mg8FeSi10Al17 () + Si + Al5; 6 ae + Si + Al6 ;

7 ae Mg2Si + Si + Al7; 8 ae Mg2Si + Si + + Al8.

Aiae?c c?ace?a, caaa?oiaaieo c ??aeei-oaa?aeiai noaio ?c
canoinoaaiiyi niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo aeaeo?ie?oe/iiai
o?aaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey? ?icae?eyoe oaa?aeee ?ic/ei aethi?i?th ia
ae?eyiee, a?aeiia?aei? aoaiai eiai aeae?eaiiy, aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe
iaoai?cie iaaaaeaieo ia?aoai?aiue [28].

Ia?eoaeoe/ia, i’yoa, ia?aoai?aiiy aea/aia aeieeaaei?oa, ai
aiii cia/iith i??ith aecia/a? aeanoeaino? neeaaeiieaaiaaieo iaai??aeo
neeoi?i?a [28]. Iniaeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue Al — ?ic/eio, ui eiioaeoo? c
oacith . O nieaa? c 0,05 % Mg i?e?ioaa?ae?noue ?ic/eio Al4, ui
aeae?ey?oueny ni?eueii c oacith , noaiiaeoue H=5 = 340 IIa ? cia/ii aeua
a?ae i?e?ioaa?aeino? Al1 (H=5 = 120 IIa). I?e oeueiio ai?no Mg a Al4
ci?ith?oueny o iaaeao 0,9…1,5 %, aiane?aeie /iai ooai?th?oueny oaca o
eieaeueieo ia?iao iaa?oue o nieaa? c oaeith iecueeith eiioeaio?aoe??th
Mg. Aeey iiai?noth cae?enoae?ciaaieo a?aeeeaie nieaao AE9I2 (0,6…2,0 %
Mg) iiae?ai? a?aei?iiino? ia aeyaeai?. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a, ui
caaa?oiaai? c ??aeei-oaa?aei? iaeano? a iiiaio cae?eniaiiy /aoaa?oiai oa
iyoiai ia?aoai?aiue iieacaee i?aeaeuaiee ai?no Mg a Al4 ? a?aenooi?noue
eiai a Al5. O i?ioean? /aoaa?oiai ia?aoai?aiiy Al4 iiai?noth ?cieth?
e?enoaee oace a?ae ??aeeie, ui ia ?iciaeany. I?e oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy 180 E/oa a ie?aieo i?e?iia?iao ?ic/eiaiiy oace ia
a?aecia/a?oueny, aea aeyaeythoueny ci?ie o aeanoeainoyo ? neeaae? Al4.
Cae?enith?oueny o?ainoi?iaoe?y Al4 Al5.

I?ney caaa?oaiiy /aoaa?oiai ia?aoai?aiiy Mg o neeaae? ??aeei?
oace a?aenooi?e.

Caaaeath/e ia oea ? oie oaeo, ui ?ic/eiaiiy oace iiaea cae?enithaaoeny
o?eueee ca iayaiino? eiioaeoo c ??aeeiith, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
ooai?aiiy aenieiiaai??ai? oace ca e?iaoe/ieo oiia a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaa
aoaie: I ae+Al4 ae’, II ae’+ +Al5+Si /a?ac i?ii?aeio noaae?th
ooai?aiiy ??aeeie iiaiai neeaaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, iiyniaiiy oa?aeoa?o ci?i iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
nieaa?a, ui i?noyoue 0,05…2,0 % Mg, eeoa c oi/ee ci?o neeaaeo oa
e?eueeino? ?ioa?iaoae?aeieo oac ia iiynith? an??? noeoiiino?
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaeo?a [19]. Iaiao?aeiee iae?e
iaiaeii??aeiino? o neeaae? oa aeanoeainoyo aethi?i??ai? iao?eoe?.

Ia’?iia /anoea aenieii?oeieo ae?eyiie oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio Al4 o
nieaa? AE9I2 (0,6… 2,0 % Mg) noaiiaeoue 20…30 %. C iaeiiai aieo,
aiie ci?oeiththoue nieaa, c ?ioiai iaaie?eath/e e?enoaee oace ,
cieaeothoue eiia??i?noue ooai?aiiy oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy e?eoeeo o??uei,
noeeuei?noue aei yeeo cae/aeii ca’ycothoue c i?enooi?noth oe??? oace.
Cia/ia e?euee?noue aenieii?oeiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio Al4 (20 %) o nieaa?
c 0,05 % Mg ? ie?aiith no?oeoo?iith neeaaeiaith, ui ia a?aoiaoaaeany
?ai?oa, ? aecia/a? aenieee ??aaiue iaae? i?oeiino? oa a?aeiiniiai
iiaeiaaeaiiy A ? . Aeiaeaoie iaai?th noeioeth? ia?eoaeoe/ia, iyoa,
ia?aoai?aiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy A ? aiane?aeie
o?ainoi?iaoe?? Al4 Al5 [19].

I?e iioeiaeueieo ?aaeeiao ia?iaee ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii
a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? no?oeoo?i? ia?aaoaeiae [18]. I?e oaa?ae?ii?
ciaioo?oueny ia’?iia /anoea aaoaeoeee +Si+Al4 aae aei iiaii? cai?ie ??
ia Si+Alz ? +Ale. Ci?ith?oueny aaee/eia oa iai?yiie ae?? iae?iiai?oa a
Al [38] a?ae ?icoyaoth/eo aei noeneath/eo, inoaii? noaa?e?co?
ia?ane/ai? ?ic/eie Al4 ? Alz, ui noi?ioaaeeny o aenieioaiia?aoo?i?e
iaeano?, ? ?iaeoue iaiiaeeeaei ?o ?iciaae i?e ianooiiiio ioieiaeaeoaaii?
a ??aeei-oaa?aeiio ? oaa?aeiio noaiao.

Iiooaeiei oaeoi?ii oi?aae?iiy no?oeoo?ith ? aeanoeainoyie
iaai??aeo neeoi?i?a ? oaiia?aoo?a ia?aa??ao a ??aeeiio noai? [34,39].
Iioeiaeuei? aeanoeaino? nieaao AE9I2 aeinyaathoueny aai ciaioaiiyi
ai?noo Mg aei 0,05…0,3 % (B = 180 IIa; = 3,0 %), aai i?aeaeuaiiyi
eiai aei 1,5…2,0 % i?e iaiaaeaii? ai?noo Cu aei 1,2…1,5 % (a = 170
IIa; = 1,5 %). I?e ae??oaii? ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy a?oooo oa a?aeoiae?a
aethi?i??aeo nieaa?a VIVII a?oi, ui i?noyoue aei 13 % Mg, inoaii?e
aa??aio ? a?eueo i?eeiyoiei.

I?IAIICOAAIIss AEANOEAINOAE NIEAA?A IA INIIA? OACIAIAI AIAE?CO

Aeey iioei?caoe?? aeanoeainoae nieaa?a o?aaeeoe?eii
aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ui iienothoue aca?iica’ycie
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo c aeanoeainoyie. Aea aiie i?aaii??i? eeoa o oiio
aeiaaeeo, eiee ana?aaeei? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?ioa?aaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e
aoaeooue a?aenooi? ye?ni? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie. A ?aeaae?, oyaey?oueny
iiaeeeaith ?ic?iaea caniao aiae?co caeaaeiino? neeaae aeanoeaino?, yeee
ae c’?aeiaa ?acoeueoaoe

aea/aiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee [27,31]. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy
i?eioeeiiai? ei?eniino? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ?icaeyiaii caeaaei?noue
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?ae ia’?iii? /anoee oac o nieaa? AE8I3 i?e
ci?i? ai?noo Mg o iaaeao 0,2… 2,0 %.

O i?e?ino?oeoo?? nieaao aeyaeai? n?i iniiaieo oac: ; ; Si; Al;
; Mg2Si; CuAl2 (). E?i?eiiio ca?eueoaiith ai?noo Mg a?aeiia?aeathoue
iae?i?ei? ci?ie e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a no?oeoo?e. Ca aieeaii Mg ia
ia’?iio /anoeo ?ioa?iaoae?ae?a (iniaeeai Mg2Si oa ) iiaeia aeae?eeoe
aeaa ?ioa?aaee: 0,23 % [Mg] < 1,0 % oa 1,0 % < [Mg] 2,0 %. Iacaeaaeieie a?ae ai?noo Mg ? oace Al, Si, , a oaeiae a?aeiinia iiaeiaaeaiiy. Iaaea i?oeiino? ? oaa?ae?noue (IA) caeaaei? a?ae oac , , ? Mg2Si. Aeey aeae?eaieo ia?aiao??a aecia/ai? eiao?oe??ioe ia?ii? ei?aeyoe?? ? iaea?aeai? aaeaeaaoi? ??aiyiiy, ui ca'ycothoue aca?iicaeaaei? ia?aiao?e: =4,682 - 0,384() ; (14) = 0,614() - 0,3 ; (15) HB = 77,098 + 0,165a . (16) C on?o oac, ui i?noyoue cae?ci, oaca aeae?ey?oueny inoaiiueith. ?? ia'?iia /anoea eiio?ieth?oueny e?euee?noth aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo oac ? . Oea aeicaieeei ni?inoeoe caaaeaiiy ? iaiaaeeoeny caeaaeiinoyie i?ae a oa ia'?iieie /anoeaie (o1) ? Mg2Si (o2), a oaeiae i?ae o1, o2 ? ai?noii Mg (o0). Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a aeicaieeei io?eiaoe: a) noaiaea?oia ??aiyiiy, ui ca'yco? o?i?/iee neeaae c aeanoeainoyie, a = 138,67 - 6,852o0 + 84,25o02 - 35,876x03 , IIa ; (17) a) ??aiyiiy, ui ca'yco? a c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oaciaiai neeaaeo, a = 130 + 11,5x1 + 36,58x2 - 6,64x1x2 , IIa. (18) Iie?iii?aeuei? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, ui ca'ycothoue o1 oa o2 c ai?noii Mg, aeey an??? iaeano? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?e Mg aeyaeeeny iaaaeaeaaoeie aenia?eiaioo. Oneeaaeiaiiy eaaei onoiooe, yeui aeei?enoaoe ?acoeueoaoe iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ? iiaoaeoaaoe aaeaeaaoi? iiaeae? aeey aeaio i?aeiaeanoae, ui a?ae??ciythoueny no?oeoo?ieie neeaaeiaeie: aeey ia?oi? i?aeiaeano? 0,23 o0 <1 x1 = 0,663x0 + 0,857x02 ; (19) x2 = 1,261x0 ; aeey ae?oai? i?aeiaeano? 1< x0 2 x1 = -5,797 + 7,32xo ; (20) x2 = 9,356 - 12,82x0 + 4,72x02 . Ia'?aeioth/e ??aiyiiy (18)...(20), io?eiaee aaeaeaaoi? aenia?eiaioo cia/aiiy a (oaae. 1). Oaaeeoey 1 - Oaciaee neeaae ? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? nieaa?a oeio AE8I3 Mg,Aenia?eiaioaeuei??ic?aooieia?%(ian)Ia?iia /anoea oac,%a,a, IIa (o1), %Mg2Si (o2), %(o1) Mg2Si (o2)IIa(18)(19), (20)(19), (20)0,230,501,001,502,000,100,631,285,678,600,210,531,330,782,5914314818 51951751421571811911740,200,551,52 5,18 8,840,29 0,63 1,26 0,75 2,6 sse?niee aiae?c aieeao Mg (o0) ia ci?io a i?iaaee ca ??aiyiiyi ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo a?aeiinii o0: picscalex1000100090000032c0200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400480111200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb8ffffff40110000f80300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 000240000500000013020002ef0205000000140200028704050000001302000236070500 00001402000208080500000013020002220a0500000014020002900b0500000013020002 3f0e0500000014020002110f05000000130200022f1117000000fb0220ff000000000000 9001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc6704000000 2d01010008000000320aec03841001000000300008000000320ace018610010000003200 08000000320aec034d0d01000000320008000000320ace01730d01000000420008000000 320aec03790901000000300008000000320ace01770901000000310008000000320aec03 5a0601000000310008000000320ace016a0601000000420008000000320aec03fb010100 0000300008000000320ace01230201000000420017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc67040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a8c03920501000000780017000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc67 040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8c03db0f01000000780008000000 320a6e01d90f01000000780008000000320a8c03a00c01000000780008000000320a8c03 d00801000000780008000000320a6e01e30801000000780008000000320a8c0352010100 0000780010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8c031b0f01000000b60008000000 320a6e01190f01000000b60008000000320a8c03e00b01000000b60008000000320a6e01 980b02000000b67308000000320a8c03100801000000b60008000000320a6e0123080100 0000b60008000000320a8c03d20401000000b60008000000320a6e018f0402000000b673 08000000320a8c03920001000000b60008000000320a6e01480002000000b67310000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010100 04000000f001020008000000320a60027b0e01000000d70008000000320a6002700a0100 00002b0008000000320a6002720701000000d70008000000320a60025503010000003d00 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001010003000000 000000ffffff00000000 , (21) aea o1 ? o2 aecia/ai? ca ??aiyiiyie (19), (20);picscalex1000100090000035501000002001700000000000500000009020000000 00400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000 0050000000b0200000000050000000c02a002200d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000 010000000c0ffffffb7ffffffe00c0000570200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547 970650000800017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d65732 04e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d01000008000000320a0002610c010 00000320008000000320a00027c0901000000420008000000320a0002cb0401000000310 008000000320a0002ff0101000000420017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000c c0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d010100040 00000f001000008000000320aa001640a010000002f0008000000320aa001c8060100000 0200008000000320aa001080601000000e80008000000320aa001b405010000002000080 00000320aa001e702010000002f0017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d0100000400000 0f001010008000000320aa001b80b01000000780008000000320aa0013b0401000000780 010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c00020400000 02d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001f80a01000000b60008000000320aa00 1a50702000000b67308000000320aa0017b0301000000b60008000000320aa0012800020 00000b6730a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000700000 00000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010 0030000000000000000000000 ca ae?acii (18). ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co (17) ? (21) ca?aathoueny. Iiaoaeiaai? iiaeae? ia?aa??ai? ia nieaa? AE9I2, o yeiai ia eiioeaio?aoe?ei?e caeaaeiino? B a?ae ai?noo Mg ? aeno?aioi [19,26]. Io?eiaii iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe [27], ui na?ae/aoue i?i ia?niaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo. IAEO?AE?CAOe?ss OE?AeEEAIAI AIEEAO CAE?CA I?E?IAeII?OEAIE Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iieneiaeo aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo nieaa?a c ia?aeiieo (AINO 2685-75) oa aoi?eiieo (AINO 1583-73) iaoa??ae?a [1,12], oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e ?o e?enoae?caoe?? [21,24], aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? cae?ca oa ?ioeo iaeiio?ieueiaaieo aeii?oie o aoi?eiieo nieaaao ni?eythoue ooai?aiith aaoa?iaaiii? no?oeoo?e, cieaeaiith iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, iniaeeai ieanoe/iino?. No?aoaa?/iei iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aoi?eiieo neeoi?i?a aei ??aiy ia?aeiieo ? ?ic?iaea cania?a, ui caaacia/oaaoeiooue i?eaeooaiiy ooai?aiiy oace , ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy ?icaaeoaeaiino? oa eiiia?aoeaiino? oac a aaoaeoeeao [1]. Aea/aiiy ae?? i?e?iaeii?oie Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, V, Be, Cd, Sr, Y, B, Zr ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? aoi?eiieo neeoi?i?a c iaoith iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca iieacaei [4,36,40,41], ui an? aiie ??ciith i??ith aieeaathoue ia ii?oieia?th cae?ciai?nieo oac, i?e?i- oa iae?ino?oeoo?o, i?aeaeuothoue i?oei?noue ? ieanoe/i?noue. Iaeaoaeoeai?oeie aeaiaioaie eiiiainaoi?aie cae?ca ?: i?e eeoo? o i?uaio oi?io (Vioie = 25 E/oa) Mn, Cr, Be, Sr; i?e eeoo? a eie?eue (Vioie = 120 E/oa) Mn, Cr, Ni, Be, Co, Sr, Zr, Y, B. Iaoai?ci ?o aieeao ia i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? ??ciee: Mn, Cr, Be – caeaa?eueoiai ca ?aooiie ci?ie oi?i ?inoo cae?ciai?nieo oac; Sr, Y, B ca ?aooiie ci?ie i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe?? Al-Si aaoaeoeee, ii?oieia?? aaoaeoe/ieo e?enoae?a Si, ciaioaiiy ?ici??o no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, o oiio /ene? ? oace , iae?ica?ia. Aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?iaeii?oie aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo eeoaa. I?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao ia?ao?ae a?ae ieanoei/aoeo cae?ciai?nieo oac aei ?icaaeoaeaieo oiieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ? aeiaoey?ieo aeyaey? a?eueoee aieea ia i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?, i?ae oi?ioaaiiy eiiia?aoeaii? Al-Si aaoaeoeee ? ciaioaiiy iae?ica?ia. C ?icaeyiooeo oaeoi??a inoaii?e iaio aoaeoeaiee. Aeyaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue o ci?i? nooiaiy ae?? i?e?iaeii?oie ia ii?oieia?th cae?ci-ai?nieo oac, i?e?i- oa iae?ino?oeoo?o a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai? o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a Ae.? Iaiaeaea?aa. Io?eiaiee ?yae: Be, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo, V, Cd, Sr, Y, Zr, B, ui a?aeia?aaea? aieea o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a ia iae?ino?oeoo?o. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii ni?eythoue cae??aiaiith iae?ica?ia aeii?oee, ui caaa?oothoue oeae ?yae (Zr, B). Iaio aoaeoeai? o? c ieo, ui ?noioii aeaeici?iththoue ii?oieia?th cae?ciai?nieo oac (Be, Mn, Cr). Ni?iiiaei?noue aeaiaioa aieeaaoe ia ?ici?? iae?ica?ia c?inoa? o i??o ca?eueoaiiy iiaeeo?eoth/iai aieeao ia Al-Si aaoaeoeeo, a oeueiio ieai? aeae?eythoueny Cd, Sr, Y. Aaaaeaiiy aeaiaio?aeiiiainaoi??a cae?ca (Mn, Cr oa ?i.) aeioe?eueia, yeui ai?no Fe 0,7 %. Iaoai?ci iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca i?e?iaeii?oeaie Mn, Cr iieyaa? o ci?i? no?oeoo?e ?icieaao, oa?aeoa?o no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?e e?enoae?caoe??, i?eaeooaii? ?aaeoe?e ooai?aiiy oace ; ci?i? iaoai?cio c?inoaiiy cae?ciai?nii? oace i?ae aieeaii iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny /a?ac iniaeeaino? ?? ii?oieia??, ?ici??o ? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? ca oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ?icaaeoaeaieo aaoaeoe/ieo aao aai eiiiaeoieo (aeecueeeo aei aeiaoey?ieo) ia?aeiieo ia?a e?enoae?a [42]. O ni?iuaiiio aeaeyae? ci?io oaciaiai neeaaeo i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? Mn, Cr, iiaeia a?aeia?aceoe noaiith + aao aao aao+ ia?a ia?a . Ii?oieia?y oace ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (Mn+Cr): Fe o nieaa?, oac?, a oaeiae a?ae oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy. ?icaaeoaeai? oa eiiiaeoi? e?enoaee ooai?ththoueny, eiee cia/aiiy oeueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aeiaaoaeoe/ieo ? aaoaeoe/ieo nieaaao noaiiaeoue 0,4…0,9, o caaaoaeoe/ieo – 0,7…1,0 , ca oiiae, ui ai?no Mn o noi? eiiiiiaio?a Mn+Cr ia iaioa 2/3. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? Mn, Cr ii?oieia?y aaoaeoe/ii? oace ? ci?ith?oueny o iine?aeiaiino?: ???iae?o (neaeao), oe?oiiaiiy ???iae?oa, eenoy iaii?io?, ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o eenoy iaii?io? o iai?yieo in? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo c ooii/aiiyi eiai a?eie. Ia?aeiii? – aeiaoeue, aaaaoia?aiiee, ?icaaeoaeaiee ieineia?aiiee aeaiae?eo. E?enoae?caoe?y ia?aeiii? oace ii/eia?oueny a ae?eyieao ??aeeie, neeaae yei? aeecueeee neeaaeo oace. Ia?a?nii ooai?ththoueny aeiaoey?i? e?enoaee, ia iiaa?oi? yeeo o i?ioean? c?inoaiiy oi?iothoueny noiaee c?inoaiiy. Aieea oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ia ci?io ii?oieia?? oace ? ii??aiyii c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?iaeii?oie. AIEEA OA?IIOEI*ANIAI? IA?IAEE ?ICIEAAO IA NO?OEOO?I? IA?AOAI?AIIss I?E E?ENOAE?CAOe?? Aeyaeai? ?ai?oa iaa?aeii? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia ii?yaeie ? oa?aeoa? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?e e?enoae?caoe?? neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a, ui iaea?eueo aeieeaaeii aea/ai? ia nieaaao oeio AE9I2 [39]. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ia?aa??ao ?icieaao ca?eueoo?oueny eiai ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy, cieaeo?oueny oaiia?aoo?a ii/aoeo oa e?ioey e?enoae?caoe?? i?e i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiiio ?ioa?aae? e?enoae?caoe??. Aieea ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ia iniaeeaino? i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee caniaii noii-aa?oo. I?e caaa?ooaaii? a?ae eiio?ieueiaaii? oaiia?aoo?e 550 oC a ?acoeueoao? ia?aa??ao ?icieaao aei 800 oC cao?eniaaiee ii/aoeiaee aoai e?enoae?caoe?? aeae?eaiiy c ??aeeie ia?aeiieo aeaiae?eo?a oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aethi?i?th: ae Al. ?c ciaioaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ia?aa??ao aei 750 oC nooi?iue ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaao ciaioo?oueny ? ooai?th?oueny no?oeoo?a, ui noi?ioaaeany a ?acoeueoao? ia?aoai?aiue: ae Al; ae+Al. I?e 700 oC aei ia?a?aoiaaieo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo aeiaeaeany iio??eia aaoaeoeea +Al+Si, a i?e 680 oC ? oaca . Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy i?e oaa?ae?ii? iieacaee, ui i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? nieaao AE9I2 a?ae 680...740 oC iniiaieie no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie ? ia?aeii? aeaiae?eoe ?ic/eio aethi?i?th oa i?iaeoeoe aaoaeoe/iiai ?iciaaeo ae+Al+Si. O oie aea /an i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? a?ae oaiia?aoo? 800...865 oC oaca ia ooai?th?oueny, a c'yaey?oueny oaca , ui aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo iio??eii? aaoaeoeee +Al+Si. I?e i?aeaeuai? eiioeaio?aoe?? Mg aei 2,0 % caeaa?eueoiai ooai?th?oueny oaca . Ii?oieia?y oac oa ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? o 1,3...1,5 ?ace. Oea aeinyaa?oueny iaa??aii ?icieaao o aeinoaoiuei aocueeiio oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? 800...865 oC [35,39]. O a?aeeeaeao, io?eiaieo ioieiaeaeoaaiiyi ?icieaao a?ae oaiia?aoo? 750...790 oC, cao?eniaaiee ci?oaiee oei no?oeoo?e, eiee o nieaa? i?enooi? an? iacaai? oace ?c caa?aaeaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, iaoiiaeaii? o?i?/iei neeaaeii. "E?eoe/ia" iaeanoue oaiia?aoo? (800...865 oC) a?aeia?aaea? ?nioaaiiy caaaeueii? caeiiii??iino?. O aeiaaeeo, eiee iniiaiith cae?ciai?niith neeaaeiaith ? oaca , ye, iai?eeeaae, o nieaa? AE12I2IaI aai i?e i?e?ieaaoaaii? aoi?eiieo nieaa?a o?iiii oa ia?aaioeai, iaa??a ?icieaao aei 800...865 oC noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith ii?oieia?? oace , aae aei ci?ie iaoai?cio ?? e?enoae?caoe?? [36]. Aeio?eiaiiy oiia oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ia?iaee a ??aeeiio noai? ? iaiao?aeiith, aea iaaeinoaoiueith oiiaith aeey ?aaoethaaiiy oaciaiai neeaaeo a?aeeeaee. Ia?aaoaeiaa aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo aoii?a o ?icieaa? iiaea aooe cao?eniaaia eeoa i?ney 30-oaeeeiiiai aeo?eioaaiiy a ??aeeiio noai? oa oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ia iaioa 80 E/oa. Aeey a?ia?ieo aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a a?aeiia?aeii = 5...15 oa, Vioie 107 E/oa. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iiaeeco oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? ?icieaae neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a o?eaaeee /an caa??aathoue no?oeoo?ii-ia??aiiaaaeiee noai, iaoiiaeaiee caa?aaeaiiyi oac ia?aaeieaaeaiiy [35]. I?aeue, iaai?e, cae?ci ca?eueoothoue nooi?iue i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? ?icieaa?a neeoi?i?a ? /an ia?aoiaeo a ??aiiaaaeiee noai. Aiie ooai?ththoue noae? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a, ui aca?iiae?thoue ca oeiii ?ioa?iaoae?aeieo niieo/aiue ? nee?oeeae?a . Oeeie i?enei?th? ia?ao?ae nenoaie a ??aiiaaaeiee noai. A?i ?ic/eiy?oueny o no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo eaac?aaoaeoeee, iineaaeth? i?aeaoiii? ca'ycee, ?oeio? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy. Ca oa?aeoa?ii ci?ie no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a ?icieaao aieea aeo?eioaaiiy a ??aeeiio noai? aiaeia?/iee i?aeaeuaiith oaiia?aoo?e [35], aiane?aeie /iai niinoa??aa?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae eiiaeiia?aoii? no?oeoo?e aaoaeoeee Si+Al aei eiiia?aoeaii? oiieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? [34], i?aeaeuo?oueny nooi?iue ?icaaeoaeaiino? oac, ui i?noyoue Si, , Mg2Si. Iaaiaee, oaca o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?inoa ca aii?iaeueiei iaoai?ciii. ?AAOETHAAIIss I?IOeAN?A NO?OEOO?IOOAI?AIIss ??AeEIIIOACIITH IA?IAEITH AEAEO?E*IEI NO?OIII Iaeo?ae?caoe?th oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca iiaeia cae?enithaaoe i?eioeeiiai iiaei oeyoii, ci?ithth/e ii?oieia?th cae?ciai?nieo oac ia?iaeith ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii [13,15]. I?e i?ioiaeaeaii? iino?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio /a?ac ?icieaae neeoi?i?a, ui i?noyoue Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, Ti, Ni, Cu, niinoa??aathoueny aeno?aiaeuei? ci?ie no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a ??aeei? oace, oa?aeoa?enoee aycei? oa/?? [16,18,20], iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?aeeeaie i?e iaci?iiino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo. C?noaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai /ano tx, ui aecia/a?oueny ae?acii tx = l 2/(2Di), (22) aea l a?aenoaiue i?ae yeaeo?iaeaie; Di eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? i-ai eiiiiiaioa, c ?aaeueiei /anii ia?iaee ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii o i?ioean? ?iceeaee ia aeieia? (t < 0,3tx 20 c<108 c) iieaco?, ui iae?ineii?/i? ci?ie o ?icieaa? ia a?aeaoaathoueny, a oaeaee?noue ?ooo ?ii?a iaeaea oi/ii iieno?oueny ??ai?noth Vi = ZyoeA Di /(kO) , (23) aea k iino?eia Aieueoeiaia; O aaniethoia oaiia?aoo?a; Zyo aoaeoeaiee ca?yae i-ai eiiiiiaioa; A iai?oaeai?noue aeaeo?e/iiai iiey; a ca?yae aeaeo?iia. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ? aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oi/eo ci?o i?i i?e?iiaiaeii??aeio aoaeiao ?icieaa?a nenoaie Al-Si, ine?eueee ca oiiae oaioe/iiai ?iciiae?eo aoii?a, /an ?aeaenaoe?? aei aeo?aeiiai noaio aoa ae cia/ii iaioei. ?icaeyiaii aeaeo?iia?aiin o aeae?eaiiio ia?i? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy ?icoii?yaeeiaaia ciia. I?eeia?ii, ui eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii? aeua, i?ae o i?e?ioa?oiiaaii?. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, c iaaiei aeiiouaiiyi, ia?ao?aeio ciio i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy ?icoii?yaeeiaaia ciia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iai?iieeiith. Oiio iiaeeeai nei?enoaoeny ??oaiiyi ??aiyiiy aeaeo?iia?aiino, io?eiaiei Oe?nii (Furth R. Uber Diffusion im Schwerefeld // Z. Physik. -1927. - B. 45. -N1) , picscalex100010009000003ea0200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c026004601c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa9ffffff201c0000090400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 400291050500000013024002f50810000000fb026afe8100000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320af201bb170100000028001000 0000fb026afe8100000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320af201161b01000000290010000000fb02c0fd0000 000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001 020008000000320af902710a01000000e50010000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a f401421b01000000d70008000000320af4017019010000002b0008000000320af4013517 010000002d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320aa002d61501000000d7000800 0000320aa0021d1301000000d70008000000320aa0024f09010000002b0008000000320a d3034f07010000002d0008000000320aa0025304010000003d0015000000fb0220ff0000 000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00006804000000 2d01020004000000f001010008000000320a0f04050b010000006e0008000000320af401 161a01000000700008000000320af401fe17010000006e0008000000320af40197140200 0000707a08000000320a2703710601000000730008000000320a02018e0702000000537a 15000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e000068040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320aa0026c1601000000 650008000000320aa002b31301000000650008000000320aa0029d11010000006e000800 0000320ad303a50501000000650008000000320aae01020602000000536508000000320a a0028401010000007a0015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc68040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000 320aa002340001000000f10010000000fb0220ff00000000000090010100000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320af401681b0100 0000740008000000320af401c81801000000700010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000 320aa0020b1001000000620008000000320aa002920201000000740015000000fb0260ff 0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000680400 00002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a9001981a01000000320008000000320a 90017d1801000000320015000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000000040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000 320aa002631201000000290008000000320aa0020d11010000002c0008000000320aa002 750f0100000028000a000000320aa002390c05000000636f6e73740008000000320ad303 450801000000310008000000320aa0026f0301000000290008000000320aa00226020100 00002c0008000000320aa002e8000100000028000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000f000000000 picscalex100010009000003b30100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02800440111200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff00110000400400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 40029d080500000013024002930a10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a1203631001000000fa000800 0000320a2204631001000000fb0008000000320aa201631001000000f90008000000320a 12033c0101000000ea0008000000320a22043c0101000000eb0008000000320aa2013c01 01000000e90008000000320aa0027207010000002b0008000000320aa002220001000000 b40015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e000068040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320aa002d90f0100 0000290008000000320aa002150d01000000280008000000320aa002c10c010000002000 09000000320aa002cf0a03000000636f730008000000320aa002a6060100000029000800 0000320aa002e20301000000280008000000320aa0028e0301000000200009000000320a a002cc010300000073696e0015000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000004020010 54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01010004000000f00102000800 0000320aa002310f010000007a0008000000320aa0029f0d010000006e0008000000320a cc03500901000000700008000000320aae01b708010000006e0008000000320aa002fe05 010000007a0008000000320aa0026c04010000006e0010000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320aa0025f0e01000000700008000000320aae01770901000000700008000000320a a0022c050100000070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02 1000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0101000400 0000f0010200030000000000000000000000, (24) aea p = S/2; z = x/L; = Dyot/L2; S = Vi L/Dyo; L aeiaaeeia ?icoii?yaeeiaaii? ciie i?ae i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyie; Dyo aoaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeey aoiio i-ai aeaeo. Ine?eueee cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o aaeeea, cia/aiiy exp[-(n22+p2)] i?yio? aei ioey. Oaeoe/ia ea?oeia ?iciiae?eo caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aiao?a S. I?iaiae?co?ii o?ce/i? aaee/eie, ui aecia/athoue oeae ia?aiao?. Aoaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeeth/a? a naaa eiiaaeoeaio neeaaeiao, ui iineaaeth? ia?a?iciiae?e eiiiiiaio?a o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii?, Dyo = D0 + De , (25) aea D0 iieaeoey?iee eiao?oe??io aeeooc??; De eiiaaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeooc??, De = A .A2 .d5, (26) aea d ae?aiao? eai?ey?o (oa/?? ?icieaao); A eiinoaioa. Oaeei /eiii, aieea aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio ia ia?a?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a iaiaeiicia/iee: i?aeneeaiiy yeaeo?iia?aiino i?iii?oe?eii A ? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a, ui iathoue a?eueoa cia/aiiy Zyo ia oiiai?e iaae? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy ?icoii?yaeeiaaia ciia. ?icaeoie i?ioean?a aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe??, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae A2, iineaaeth? aoaeo iai?aaeaiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ?ii?a. Ioaea, caeaaei?noue ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a a?ae u?eueiino? no?oio, ui aecia/a?oueny ia?aiao?ii picscalex79010009000003d601000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000 00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000 0000b0200000000050000000c02c004e00c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000 000c0ffffffb2ffffffa00c0000720400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650 000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014028 002ca020500000013028002170c15000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000000004020 01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000081040000002d01010008000000320ae0024 30c010000002c0008000000320ac101b704010000002f0015000000fb0220ff000000000 0009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000081040000002d010 20004000000f001010008000000320a6403740a01000000350008000000320a640309090 1000000320008000000320a7004f70401000000300008000000320a2102f503010000003 00015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e6577205 26f6d616e000081040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a1004870901000 000640008000000320a1004130702000000414508000000320a1004f2030100000044000 9000000320ac10199090300000065454c0015000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000 0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc81040000002d01020004000000f 001010008000000320ac101a20602000000d27a15000000fb0280fe00000000000090010 10000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000081040000002d01010004000 000f001020008000000320ac1015b05010000006b0008000000320ac101f002010000004 40008000000320ae002400001000000530015000000fb0220ff000000000000900101000 0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc81040000002d01020004000000f 001010008000000320a21021a0802000000fdf408000000320a2102150601000000c1001 0000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002 d01010004000000f001020008000000320a1004d205010000002b0008000000320ae0028 801010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000 70000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f 00101000300000000000000000000000000 (27) ia? iaiiiioiiiee oa?aeoa?. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio ia no?oeoo?o ?icieaao aeicaiey? aeyaeoe aeno?aiaeueio caeaaei?noue ia?a?iciiae?eo eiiiiiaio?a a?ae u?eueiino? no?oio. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeno?aioi ia?aiao?a S = ?(E) iieaco?, ui iaeneiaeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e ?ii?a a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey picscalex850100090000039501000004001500000000000500000009020000000004000 00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000 0000b0200000000050000000c02c002400a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000 000c0ffffffb9ffffff000a0000790200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650 000700010000000fb02b6fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020 40000002d01000008000000320add01620601000000280010000000fb02b6fddd0000000 0009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00100000 8000000320add01900901000000290009000000fa0200001000000000000000220004000 0002d010000050000001402b201ee0205000000130296011f0309000000fa02000020000 000000000002200040000002d0102000500000014029e011f03050000001302530266030 40000002d01000005000000140253026e030500000013024f00cc030500000014024f00c c030500000013024f00f70915000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000000040200105 4696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007e040000002d01030004000000f001010008000 000320a9901b30801000000350008000000320ae001e305010000002f0015000000fb022 0ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007e0 40000002d01010004000000f001030008000000320a4002060501000000300015000000f b0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000 07e040000002d01030004000000f001010008000000320ae001eb0602000000416408000 000320ae001f00301000000440008000000320ae001460001000000450010000000fb028 0fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000 000f001030008000000320ae001a801010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0 1000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d0 0cc040000002d01030004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000 . (28) Ci?ia no?oeoo?e ?icieaao, noao?iiao?e/iiai neeaaeo i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue, ui ca'ycaia c yeaeo?iia?aiinii ? ia?a?iciiae?eii iaoaeaaeo (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu oa ?i.) ? aaciaeo (I, I) aeii?oie, iaoiiaeth? ci?ie o i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe?? oa ii?oieia?? cae?ciai?nieo oac: (aieea) (neaeao) (eiiiaeoia). Iiae?aiee aoaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aaaaeaii? aei ?icieaao aeaiaio?a eiiiainaoi??a cae?ca: Cr, Mn. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiio ca?eueoaiiy noia?ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?ao?aeieo aeaiaio?a o oac? nieaao AE12I2IaI, ui iaaoaa? aeaeo ae??aieo aeiaoeae. I?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae nieaao (cie?aia, i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?) i?e iioeiaeueieo ?aaeeiao ??aeeiiioacii? ia?iaee aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii iia'ycaia ia o?eueee c? ci?iaie oaciaiai neeaaeo, ii?oieia?? oac, ciaioaiiyi ?ici??o iae?ica?ia, aea e c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy eaaiaaiino? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aethi?i?th, ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? aeaoaeo?a ? i?e?iiai?oaeaiue o iueiio [9,38], caa?aaeaiiyi iiaeeo?eiaaii? no?oeoo?e i?e o?eaaeeo aeo?eioaaiiyo o ??aeeiio noai?. Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae iiaeooue aooe aeinyaioo? ? ia?iaeith ?icieaao ci?iiei no?oiii, aea i?e cia/aiiyo u?eueiino? no?oio a 2…4 ?ace aeueo. Iaeii/ania i?iaeoaaiiy a?aiiii iineeth? aoaeo aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio [20]. No?oeoo?i? a?aeciaee, ui iaoiiaeai? aieeaii aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio ia ?icieaa, caa??aathoueny i?ney ia?aieaaeaiiy [18], ui aeicaieeei aeei?enoaoe oeae aeae ??aeeiiioacii? ia?iaee a oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? nieaao oa a?aeeeaie [45,46]. AeAAACAOe?ss AETHI?I??AEO ?ICIEAA?A AEAEO?E*IEI NO?OIII Caaaeueiii?eeiyo? oai??? i?i aieea iino?eiiai no?oio ia aeaaacaoe?th ?icieaa?a i?eioneathoue ia?a?iciiae?e ?ii?a aiaeith i?ae aiiaeii ? eaoiaeii, a?aeiiaeaiiy ia eaoiae? oa iiaeaeueoa aeeo/aiiy c ?icieaao ca noaiith H+ + e = [H], [H] + [H] = H2 . (29) sseui acyoe ca iniiao oeae iaoai?ci, oi aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, ui io?eiai? o iei?oi?e ?iaio? ? iienai? a e?oa?aoo??, ia iathoue iiaiiai iiyniaiiy. I?iaaaeaia e?euee?nia ioe?iea icia/aii? a?iioace ? ?icaeyiooee iaoai?ci aeaaacaoe?? ?icieaao aethi?i?th aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii. Aeei?enoaia ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy aeaeo?iia?aiino picscalex83010009000003a701000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000 00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000 0000b0200000000050000000c024004c00a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000 000c0ffffffabffffff800a0000eb0300000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650 000d00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014024 00240000500000013024002f40105000000140240029b0305000000130240022a0605000 00014024002bf0805000000130240026c0a10000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000 0020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320acf03c70802000000b 66508000000320aac01d80801000000b60008000000320ae003a90302000000b66508000 000320aac01a30301000000b60008000000320acf03480002000000b67408000000320aa c015d0001000000b60015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696 d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7d040000002d01020004000000f0010100080000003 20aac01980901000000f10015000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000000040200105 4696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007d040000002d01010004000000f001020008000 000320aa002970701000000530015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc04020 01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7d040000002d01020004000000f00101000 8000000320aac01680501000000f10008000000320aac011d0101000000f10010000000f b0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0101000 4000000f001020008000000320aa0027b06010000002d0008000000320aa002620201000 0003d0015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657 720526f6d616e00007d040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a340365050 1000000320008000000320a0001d5040100000032000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0 1000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d0 0cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000000000 (30) i?e caaeaieo iaie a?aie/ieo oa ii/aoeiaeo oiiaao picscalex1000100090000032a0200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 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010000003d0010000000fb0260ff0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320af8022a03010000003d000800 0000320a91032a03010000003d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a6002450a 01000000650008000000320a8c03480002000000b66508000000320a6e015a0001000000 b60010000000fb0260ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320af802c20201000000650008000000320a 9103c20201000000650015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cca2040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000 320a6002190901000000f10015000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000004020010 54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000a2040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320a6002e70501000000530015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00ccf3040000002d01010004000000f0010200 08000000320a6002a70601000000f10008000000320a6e011a0101000000f1000a000000 26060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc 0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f00101000300000000000000 000000000000 (30a) iaea?aeo?ii ??aiyiiy picscalex100010009000003470500000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028009801f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffaeffffff401f00002e0900000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300209000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 3b029d050500000013023b02010910000000fb0299fddd00000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a1a04660c0100000028001000 0000fb0299fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a1a0426130100000029000500000014023b02510c 0500000013023b024b1410000000fb0205fedd0000000000900100000002000200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a9902cd1801000000 280010000000fb0205fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a9902e91a01000000290010000000fb02 43fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0101000400 0000f001020008000000320a98028314010000005b0010000000fb0243fddd0000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320a9802191c010000005d0010000000fb0299fddd00000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8e07df06 01000000280010000000fb0299fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8e079f0d0100000029001000 0000fb0283fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 010004000000f001020008000000320a8b075803010000005b0010000000fb0283fddd00 000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001 010008000000320a8b07b80e010000005d000500000014022f07a1160500000013022f07 431815000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e0000b2040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8f07df1e0100 00002c0008000000320a8f07b91d01000000290008000000320a8f07c51a010000002800 08000000320a8f07711a01000000200009000000320a8f077f1803000000636f73000800 0000320a8f07aa1401000000290008000000320a8f07b61101000000280008000000320a 8f07621101000000200009000000320a8f07a00f0300000073696e0009000000320a8f07 3001030000006578700008000000320a9b023b1a01000000310008000000320a9b02b014 01000000310008000000320aa901700e01000000340008000000320ace03510801000000 310008000000320a9b027b0301000000290008000000320a9b023202010000002c000800 0000320a9b02e80001000000280015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000b2040000002d01020004000000f0010100 08000000320ae306ec0c01000000320008000000320ae306520b01000000320008000000 320ae3065d0801000000320008000000320a0a04920b01000000310008000000320a2203 961301000000320008000000320a6f03731201000000320008000000320a6f03d9100100 0000320008000000320a6f03e40d01000000320008000000320afd009111010000003200 10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 2d01010004000000f001020008000000320a0108431e01000000fa0008000000320a1109 431e01000000fb0008000000320a9106431e01000000f90008000000320a0108100f0100 0000ea0008000000320a1109100f01000000eb0008000000320a9106100f01000000e900 08000000320a8f077615010000002b0008000000320a8f074c09010000002b0008000000 320a8f07c405010000002d0008000000320a8f07220001000000b40008000000320a9b02 901c01000000b40008000000320a9b024519010000002d0008000000320a9b029a150100 00002d0008000000320a1b04d30e010000002b0008000000320a9b025b09010000002b00 08000000320ace035b07010000002d0008000000320a9b025f04010000003d0010000000 fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010200 04000000f001010008000000320af4027d0a01000000e50010000000fb0220ff00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200 08000000320a1501f70a01000000a50008000000320a0a04230b010000003d0008000000 320aef017d17010000002d0010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8f070f1c0200 0000706508000000320a9d069d1601000000700008000000320a8f070013020000007065 08000000320a8f07d60d01000000740008000000320a8f07c30b01000000700008000000 320a8f07a40401000000650008000000320a1b044a1101000000700008000000320aa901 180f01000000700008000000320a9b029e0201000000740008000000320a9b0260010100 0000650010000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320afd00e30701000000650015000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00 00b2040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8f074f1b010000006e000800 0000320abb082a1701000000700008000000320a9d066f17010000006e0008000000320a 8f074012010000006e0008000000320a8f07710a010000006e0008000000320a8f077607 01000000700008000000320a8f07e40301000000700008000000320a9b02b41601000000 650008000000320a1b04f80f010000006e0008000000320a1b04fd0c0100000070000800 0000320aa901ea0f020000006e7008000000320ace03b10501000000650008000000320a a901e70502000000536515000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e00ccb2040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000 320a9b02340001000000f10015000000fb0220ff00000000000090010100000004020010 54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000b2040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320a0a04a50a010000006e0008000000320ad301681b010000006e0008000000320a ef01201801000000700008000000320a22037d0601000000730008000000320afd007307 0100000053000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000700 00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001 0200030000000000000000000000 (31) aea S = EezyoL/(kAT) ; p = S/2 ; = D0t/L2; = l/L; n = nV /nV0 ; zyo = zi - zcpi /cp ; zyo aoaeoeaiee ca?yae ?iio; zi ca?yae ?iio i-ai aeaeo; i ia?aoei ?icn?thaaiiy ?iio i-ai aeaeo; zcp, cp na?aaei? cia/aiiy ca?yaeo ? ia?aoeio ?icn?thaaiiy an?o eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie; D0 eiao?oe??io aeeooc??; t - /an i?ioeano; l – a?aenoaiue i?ae aiiaeii ? cai?iiiiiaaiith oi/eith; L a?aenoaiue i?ae aiiaeii ? eaoiaeii; nV ,, nV0 iioi/ia cia/aiiy ia'?iii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i-ai eiiiiiaioa a ?icieaa? ? eiai ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea nooiaiy aeaaacaoe?? ca ae?acii (31). C?noaaeaiiy aeaieo c ia?iaee aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii ?icieaao aethi?i?th ? nieaa?a ia eiai iniia? iieacaei cia/i? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae oai?aoe/ieie ? aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie (oaae. 2, ? 1 ? 2). Oe? ?ica?aeiino? aoaeooue ua a?eueo ?noioieie, yeui o ae?ac (31) aaanoe cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc?? (25). Oaaeeoey 2 - Aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i? cia/aiiy nooiaiy aeaaacaoe?? aeey ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee ?icieaao aethi?i?th aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii NN, %?ic?aooiiei/ij10-4 A/i2, nO, EAenia?eiai-oaeuei?oai?aoe/i? ca ??aiyiiyi1*2340,5...1,7100,71,41200...36060020201000396396396328...30 37,5 15,6 20,00,9 1,2 12,5 17,3(31) (31) (32) (32) *Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe acyo? c ?iaioe: Aacu a oeaaoiuo iaoaeeao e nieaaao / Ae.O. *a?iaaa, I.I. Ayeee, Ae.O. Eaai/oe, A.A. ?aiecia. - I.: Iaoaeeo?aey, 1982. - 176 n. I?yiei aeieacii iaaeinoaoiuei? iaa?oioiaaiino? a?iioace i?i aeaaacaoe?th ?icieaa?a oeyoii aeaeo?iia?aiino ?ii?a I+ ? aenia?eiaio i?iioneaiiy /a?ac ?icieaa ci?iiiai no?oio. I?e oeueiio oaeiae a?aecia/a?oueny cieaeaiiy ai?noo aiaeith, aea i?e a?eueo aenie?e u?eueiino? no?oio j. Ioaea, i?ioean aeaaacaoe?? ia ? iane?aeeii aeaeo?iia?aiino aiaeith o ?icieaa?. Iniaeeao oaaao o?aaa caa?iooe ia oa, ui aeaeo?iia?aiin i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aeii?oie o ?icieaa? aethi?i?th. Iaeiae i?e ?icaeyae? aeaeo?iia?aiino aiaeith oeae aniaeo o e?oa?aoo?? ia iaaiai?thaaany. O oie aea /an a?aeiii, ui aeii?oee aeyaeythoue cia/iee aieea ia ?ic/eii?noue aiaeith a aethi?i??. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aeey aethi?i?th ia?ee A7 (Fe 0,2 %; Si – 0,14 %; Cu – 0.005 %; Ti – 0,006 %) aieea aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio (A = 0,08 A/i; = 300 n) aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aeii?oie ia eaoiae? (Fe 2,3 %; Si 1,0 %; Cu 0,046 %;Ti 0,13 %). Ioaea, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ia?a?iciiae?e aiaeith i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie ? ooieoe??th o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?icieaao, ui aecia/a?oueny aeaeo?iia?aiinii ?ii?a a?aeiia?aeieo aeii?oie. Aeaaacaoe?y ?icieaao (i?e iaci?iiino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaao, oaiia?aoo?e ? u?eueiino? no?oio) cae?enith?oueny ia caaaeaee. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao a?aecia/a?oueny i?ioeeaaeiee i?ioean iane/aiiy. Inoaii? aeaco? ia caeaaei?noue i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? ?icieaao a?ae ai?noo aiaeith o aeiae?ee?. Aeoiaey/e c oyaeaiue, ui aeeo/aiiy aiaeith ?acoeueoao ianiiai?io, io?eiaia ??aiyiiy ? ciaeaeaia eiai ??oaiiy [23] picscalex123010009000003b50200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c026004a0161200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb1ffffff60160000110400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 2002020605000000130220021c0e15000000fb0260ff0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc68040000002d01010008000000320a4301 ae1502000000eee415000000fb0260ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a 4301d614010000006e0015000000fb0220ff000000000000900101000000040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000 320a0b01381501000000460008000000320ae0027011010000006e0008000000320a0a04 6b0d010000006e0008000000320a0a04b707010000006e0008000000320aeb01ae0a0100 00006e0008000000320aef035c03010000006e0015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d0102000400 0000f001010008000000320a80020f1301000000650015000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc68040000002d010100 04000000f001020008000000320a8002340001000000f10010000000fb0220ff00000000 00009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010100 08000000320a0b015a14010000006c0010000000fb0280fe000000000000900101000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8002 9510010000006c0008000000320aaa03900c010000006c0008000000320aaa03dc060100 00006c0008000000320a8b01d309010000006c0010000000fb0220ff0000000000009001 000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000 320a0b01d013010000002d0008000000320afa00bd0301000000a50008000000320aef03 d603010000003d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8002f511010000005100 08000000320aaa03a608010000002b0008000000320a8b01330b01000000510008000000 320a80024801010000003d0010000000fb02c0fd00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ad90243030100 0000e50015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000068040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a8002600e 03000000636f730008000000320aaa03d00b01000000320009000000320aaa03c4090300 000073696e0008000000320aaa031c0601000000320009000000320a8b01cd0703000000 73696e0008000000320a8002800201000000340015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001 000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000068040000002d0102000400 0000f001010008000000320aef0356040100000030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff 01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d 00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000000000 , (32) aea n aecia/a?oueny c ae?aco ntgn = - Big; Big = d/Dyo; Fog =Dyo/d2; = x/d; n = (nV - nVH)/(nV0 - nVH); nVH, nV0 ia'?iia eiioeaio?aoe?y aiaeith a na?aaeiaeu? ? a ?icieaa? o ii/aoeiaee iiiaio /ano ; eiao?oe??io iania?aeaea/?; d oiaueia oa?o ?icieaao; /an aieeao iino?eiei no?oiii; Dyo, D0 aoaeoeaiee ? iieaeoey?iee eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? aiaeith o ?icieaa?. Aoaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aiaeith cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny eiiaaeoeaiith neeaaeiaith, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie no?oio (26). ?ic?aooiee, ui i?iaaaeai? ca ??aiyiiyi (32), ocaiaeaeothoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie (ni. oaae. 2, ? 3 oa 4). Oaeei /eiii, i?ioean aeaaacaoe?? aethi?i??aeo ?icieaa?a ? ?acoeueoaoii i?aeneeaiiy ianiiai?io i?ae ?icieaaii ? aeiae?eeyi aiane?aeie aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eieo iioie?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? a 10...15 ?ac?a. Ia?a?iciiae?e aiaeith cae?enith?oueny aiane?aeie aeaeo?iia?aiino aeii?oie (Si, Fe oa ?i.), ui iathoue cia/-ii a?eueoee ia?aoei ?icn?thaaiiy, i?ae aiaeaiue (H+1,53.10-22 i2; Si 4,4.10-16 i2; Fe 5,8.10-16 i2). Aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiaoi?iiai aaciiane/aiiy ? caaaeaiiy eiai aei i?i?ioio aeioe?eueii aeaaacoaaoe ?icieaa o i?ioean? ?iceeaee [51-53]. I?e oeueiio ia?a?iciiae?e aeii?oie i?ae aieeaii aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio i?aeoe/ii aoaea a?aenooi?e ( 20 n). IIA? NIEAAE ? OAOIIEIA??, UI ?AAE?CIAAI? O I?IIENEIAINO? Aaciiane/ai?noue, ?, ia?aaeon?i, ?ic/eii?noue aiaeith, ? no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith [11]. Aoaeue-yea ae?y, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Si o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii? ?icieaao, ni?eythoue eiai aeaaacaoe??. Iaeiae aeaaaciaaiee ?icieaa ia? i?aeaeuaio ni?iiiaei?noue iiaeeiaoe aiaeaiue. O?eaae? aeo?eioaaiiy o ??aeeiio noai? i?aaeththoue aoaeo aeaaacaoe??, iiaeeo?eoaaiiy. I?iaeoaaiiy ?icieaao ?ia?oieie aacaie ciaioo? nooi?iue eiai i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino?, ni?ey? aeaaacaoe?? oa a?aeiiaeaiith iiaeeo?eiaaii? no?oeoo?e [3,11]. Ia Caii??cueeiio aethi?i??aiio eiia?iao? (CAeE) aei?iaoaai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? oaoiieia?? aeaaacaoe?? ?icieaao a i?ioean? ?iceeaee. Eiino?oeoe?y ia?aaiei?aea, ui caaacia/o? noaa?eueia cieaeaiiy aaco aei 0,18...0,21 ni3/100 a Ia, caoeuaia aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii (a. n. 908894) [44]. ?ic?iaeai? ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeeeaaeie can?a (a. n.1150960) ? i?eno?i? (a. n. 1169368, 1667389, 1741482, 1769545) ??aeeiiioacii? ia?iaee aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii ? ?ia?oieie aacaie aeicaieeee: cieceoe ai?no aaco, ciaioeoe ii?eno?noue a?aeeeaie; i?aeaeueoe oaa?ae?noue eeaa?ieo nieaa?a aei 10 %, iaaeo i?oeiino? ia 12…14 %, a?aeiinia iiaeiaaeaiiy a 1,5…2 ?ace, oaea?io a'yce?noue ia 20 %; noaa?e?coaaoe aieea oethno IEO c 30 oa aei 3…4 a, iiai?noth aai /anoeiai aeeeth/eoe iia?aoe?th iiaoi?iiai iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ia iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?; nei?ioeoe /an aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? oaa?aeino? oa iaae? i?oeiino? i?e oa?iiia?iaoe? ca ?aaeeiii O1 c 10…12 aei 2…3 a ; i?aeaeueoe ai?no Fe o ii?oiaaiio nieaa? AE12I2IaI aei 1…1,3 % (AE12I2IaIAE) ? io?eiaoe iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?e 20 0N, ui ii??aiyi? c aeanoeainoyie nieaao c ai?noii Fe 0,6 %, a B i?e 300 iN ia 35 % aeua; aeei?enoaoe iecueeini?oio ne?iaeio c aenieei ai?noii cae?ca, a?ooo oa a?aeoiaee. Ca ?ic?iaeaieie OO 48-01.05-0/78-89 "Nieaa aethi?i??ai-e?aii??aee AE12I2IaIAE" ? "Oaoiieia?/iei ?aaeaiaioii ia ae?iaieoeoai nieaao AE12I2IaIAE c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?iaee ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii" a AOOe CAeE aeiouaii i?iaeoeoe?th c ai?noii aiaeith, ui ia ia?aaeuoaaa 0,20…0,25 ni3/100 a Ia. I?e oeueiio aeiiii?y Mn ? Al noaiiaeei a?aeiia?aeii 4,9 oa 26,1 ea/o. Aei?iaoaaiiy nieaao AE12I2IaIAE ia AI "Oa?e?ao?aeoi?icai/anoeia", AI "Ee?ao?aeoi?iaeaoaeue" i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ii?oi?a ia?ie NIAe14I-0305A oa Ae240 iieacaee cieaeaiiy eeaa?iiai a?aeo a na?aaeiueiio ia 2,8 % i?e caa?aaeaii? iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o a?aeeeaee. Ia iniia? caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ? cai?iiiiiaaieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy ia?aeiiith no?oeoo?ith aaeineiiaeai? oa ?ic?iaeai? iia? eeaa?i? nieaae c i?aeaeuaieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie Fe, Mg, Zn, ui i?noyoueny a iecueeini?oi?e oa aoi?eii?e ne?iaei? [43,47,49,50]. Nieaa AE11I2? (a.n.1376594) ai?iaaaeaeaiee ia ioeainueeiio caaiae? "Aoi?eieuei?iao" ? aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey a?aeeeaie aeaoaeae neeaaeii? eiio?ao?aoe?? cai?noue ia?aeiiiai nieaao AE12I2. Oeeieiaenoee neeoi?i AE8Oe4I2 (a.n.1487470), ui i?ecia/aiee aeey a?aeeeaie ?aae?aoi??a iiaethaaeueieo nenoai, i?ieoia aei?iaoaaiiy ia AI "Oa?e?aaoi?eieuei?iao". Nieaa AE12I3OeIa (a.n.1502647), ui aeaioiaeaiee ia CAeE, AI “Oa?e?aaoi?eieuei?iao”, ai?iaiaaiee ia AI ”Oa?e?ao?aeoi?icai/anoeia” a oiiaao ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?e aeioneo ii?oi?a NIAe22-0305-01. ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue aeicaieeee ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe eiai cai?noue ia?aeiiiai nieaao AE12I2IaI. Iioe?ai? aeiionoei? iaae? c Zn o nieaa? AE5I2 c 0,5 aei 1,5 % oa Mg o nieaa? AE9I2 aei 1,5...2,0 %. Nieaa AE5I2 c 1,5 % Zn ai?iaaaeaeaiee ia ?onoaanueeiio iaoaeo?a?eiiio caaiae?. Io?eiai? a ?iaio? aeai? i?i oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? aeei?enoai? i?e oi?o?eaoe?? i?iieneiaeo neeoi?i?a c ia?aeiieo oa aoi?eiieo iaoa??ae?a ? a?aoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? AINO 1583-89 "Nieaau aethieieaaea eeoaeiua". I?ae?a?ai? i?e?iaeii?oee eiiiainaoi?e cae?ca aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?aeeeaie ??ciiiai?oieie caniaaie (o eie?e?, i?uai?e oi?i?), ui aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe i?oei?noue o 1,2...1,5 ?aca, ieanoe/i?noue o 1,2... 4,5 ?aca. C o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/iiai oa?aeoa?o no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae ?icieaa?a neeoi?i?a c 14,0...16,5 % Si noai?ai? iia? ii?oiaa? aaci?eaeaa? nieaae AE15AE (OO 48-0103-147/093) oa AE15IAE (OO O322-0103-009-95) c iecueeei eiao?oe??ioii e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy, ui iniaeeai aoaeoeai? i?e ae?iaieoeoa? a?aeeeaie caniaii ??aeei? ooaiiiaee. Aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeaiaioiaaieo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue (Mn+Cr): Fe o nieaa? oa eiioeaio?aoe?eieo ?ioa?aae?a c Mg aeicaieythoue aeei?enoaoe i?e ?o ae?iaieoeoa? iecueeini?oio oa aoi?eiio ne?iaeio c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii Fe oa Mg, ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoiiai o ii??aiyii? c? nieaaii AE12I2IaI ia 6 %, caeiiiieoe 95,7 ea/o ia?aeiiiai Al oa 10,5 ea/o Ni. Nieaae i?ieoee i?iieneiaa aei?iaiaoaaiiy ia CAeE, i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ii?oi?a ia AI "Caaiae ?i. Iaeeoaaa" oa eiiioiinueeiio caaiae? "Iioi?aeaoaeue". Eaai?aoi?i?, aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?, noaiaeia? oa iaoo?i? aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaee eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue iiaeo nieaa?a o ii??aiyii? c a?o/eciyieie aiaeiaaie AE12I2IaI, AE18 ? nieaaaie O?I Mahle 138 ? KS 740. Ia ii?oiaaee aeiiiiiieaaiaaiee nieaa AE15IAE aeaeaiee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae [54]. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa iaoa??ae?a noaiiaea (o oe?iao aei 1990 ?.) 6950 oen. ?oa., i?e iaeia?e o/ano? aaoi?ee 4980 oen. ?oa. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE 1. ?ic?iaeaiee i?aoeec?eiee iaoiae ioe?iee ia?aiao??a i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? ?icieaa?a. Io?eiai? ??oaiiy iae?i?eiiai ??aiyiiy naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o iie? a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee aeaiia caniaaie. Iaeaeaa ??oaiiy ocaiaeaeothoueny i?ae niaith. Aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a c oeaio?eooaoaaiiy ia iniia? icia/aieo ??oaiue aeicaieea aecia/eoe ?ici?? i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si ? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aeine?aeaeaiue i?e?iiaiaeii??aeieo ?icieaa?a iaoiaeii o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? oaeaeeiioieiaeaeaieo ie?aie, ui io?eiai? aa?oii c ??aeeiai noaio (Vioie >107 E/oa).

2. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue i?e?iiaiaeii??aeii? aoaeiae
aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a, ui caaeia?eueii iieno? ?acoeueoaoe
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, naaeeiaioaoe?? ?icieaa?a o iie?
a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee, aenieioaeaee?niiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c ??aeeiai noaio,
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue u?eueiino?, aeaeo?iiii?o, a’yceino?. I?e
eiioeaio?aoe?yo 1,5 ao.% < Si < 14,0 ao.% oa oaiia?aoo?ao, ui ia ia?aaeuothoue 800 oN, o ?icieaaao neeoi?i?a ooai?ththoueny caeaa?eueoiai i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a c? no?oeoo?ith ??aeeiai Si, ui ia?aaoaathoue a ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii? c? noaoenoe/iei ?iciiae?eii aoii?a Al oa Si ia iniia? oiaeiaie oeio AOeE, IOeE, IE. O eiioeaio?aoe?eiiio ?ioa?aae? 14,0 ao.% < Si < 20, 5 ao.% ? t > 800 oN oa?aeoa? i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae?? o
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo ci?ith?oueny. A iniiaiiio ooai?ththoueny
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy AloSi (o = 3…5). No?oeoo?a ?icieaao c ai?noii Si
aei 1,5 % iiae?aia no?oeoo?? ?icoii?yaeeiaaii? ciie. I?e ca?eueoaii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? Si iiiaae 20,5 ao.% o ?icieaa? ciiao iineeth?oueny
aca?iiae?y aoii?a Si. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue
?icieaa?a ciaioo?oueny.

3. Aea/aiee aieea Zn ia no?oeoo?o, aeanoeaino? oa caeiiii??iino?
e?enoae?caoe?? neeoi?i?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aoaeiae aeiaaoaeoe/ieo
?icieaa?a nenoaie Al-Si-Zn, ui ca iniiaieie aeaiaioaie ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iiaeae? aoaeiae aeaieiiiiiaioieo
aethi?i?e-e?aii??aeo ?icieaa?a. Oeeie, ?ic/eiyth/enue o
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiyo aoii?a Si ? neeaaeieo noao?iiao?e/ieo anioe?aoe?yo
(eaaiaai? nieaae), o ?icoii?yaeeiaai?e cii?, ci?ith? ia?aiao?e
i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? ? aeeaei?e ii?yaeie aoii?a o ?icieaa?. I?e
oaiia?aoo?ao, ui ia ia?aaeuothoue 750 iN, Zn ciaioo?
i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue ??aeei? oace. Iaeneeuei?oa a?aeaeaa?oueny aieea
Zn ia i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy aoii?a Si i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? eiai 1,5 %.
No?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a ?icieaa?, ui iia’ycai? c aieeaii Zn,
ei?aeththoue c iiaeeo?eaoe?yie oaciaiai neeaaeo, i?e?i-, iae?ino?oeoo?e,
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. I?e i?aeaeuaieo oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeoaaiiy
(Vioie 120 E/oa) cao?eniaaia ?ic/eii?noue Zn a ?ioa?iaoae?aeieo oacao
, , Cu4NiAl7 ? aiiiaeueia, a?aeiinii aieeao ?ioeo aeaiaio?a, ciaioaiiy
nooiaiy ia?aiane/aiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aethi?i?th, ci?oeiaiiy yeiai oei
aeua, /ei ieae/a oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeoaaiiy a ??aeeiio noai?.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci, ui iiynith? oe? aoaeoe c iiceoe?e oai???
i?e?iiaiaeii??aeii? aoaeiae ?icieaao. Iaaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee, ye?
iieacothoue, ui e?euee?noue Zn o oacao oa aethi?i??a?e iao?eoe?
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ?icieaao ? e?i?oo?oueny
aeeooc??th Zn c i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue o ?icoii?yaeeiaaio ciio. Ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy Zn o
nieaa? AE5I2 c 0,5 aei 1,5 % ? noai?aiiy aenieioeeieiaenoeo neeoi?i?a
c ai?noii Zn aei 8 %.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui Mg ci?ith? no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
?icieaa?a neeoi?i?a ? ca?eueoo? ?oith i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue aiane?aeie
ooai?aiiy i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue ca oeiii nee?oeeaeo. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia’?iieo
/anoie i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aoii?a Si ? nee?oeeaeiiiae?aieo aecia/a?oueny
oaiia?aoo?ith ? o?i?/iei neeaaeii ?icieaao. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? Mg ia’?iia /anoea ia?oeo ciaioo?oueny, a ae?oaeo –
ca?eueoo?oueny. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua 800 iN ? ai?no? Mg a?eueoa i?ae
1,1 % inoaii? ia?aaeuothoue.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeainoaae?eiee iaoai?ci ia?eoaeoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a
neeoi?iao, eaaiaaieo Mg, ca o/anoth oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio Al:

I ae+Al4 ae’; II
ae’++Si +Al5.

Ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?eaeooaiiy ia?eoaeoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy. I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Mg
ni?ey? eiai caaa?oaiino?.

6. Aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue aeanoeainoae i?e?iia?i?a oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio aethi?i?th o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?e
e?enoae?caoe??. Iieacaiee aieea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, ia?iaee ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii ia ooai?aiiy
aenieio?eaeeo cii oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ? ?oiy ?ieue o i?aeaeuaii?
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. A?aeaeoee aca?iica’ycie neeaaeo ? aeanoeainoae
Al c oaciaei neeaaeii, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei?
eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ?ioa?aaee ai?noo Mg o nieaa? AE9I2: 0,05…0,3 oa
1,5…2,0 % Mg.

7. ?ic?iaeaiee noaoenoe/iee can?a i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae,
ui a?aoiao? no?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e, oaciaee neeaae neeaaeiieaaiaaieo
neeoi?i?a. Aeei?enoaiiy eiai aeey iioei?caoe?? nieaa?a aeicaieeei
aeyaeoe iaaaeeoeaiee aieea eaaiaaieo aeaiaio?a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?,
ui i?aaeththoueny i?e o?aaeeoe?eiiio iiaeaethaaii?.

8. Aecia/ai? no?oeoo?i? a?aei?iiino? ia?aeiieo ? aoi?eiieo
i?iieneiaeo nieaa?a, iniaeeaino? ?o e?enoae?caoe??. Aeey ia?aeiieo
neeoi?i?a iaeoa?aeoa?i?oei ? aaoaeoe/ia ia?aoai?aiiy aeSi+Al, aeey
aoi?eiieo ae+Si+Al. O ia?aeiieo nieaaao c aenieei ai?noii Fe (0,8 %)
inoaii? ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeeeaa, aea aiii ?aae?co?oueny ca oeiii
iiaea?eieo aaoaeoee: Si+Al; +Al. Oaeee iaoai?ci e?enoae?caoe?? iio??eii?
aaoaeoeee aeicaiey? Si o i?enooiino? oace c a?eueo neeaaeiith
e?enoaeio?i?/iith i?e?iaeith caa?aaoe e?aee?oth/o ?ieue o ia?iiio
c?inoaii? ? caaacia/eoe ooai?aiiy eieii?e aunieieiiia?aoeaii? aaoaeoeee.
Iniiaiei iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aoi?eiieo neeoi?i?a aei ??aiy
ia?aeiieo ? ?ic?iaea cania?a i?eaeooaiiy ia?aoai?aiue, ui iia’ycai? c
ooai?aiiyi oace .

9. Aeine?aeaeaiee aieea i?e?iaeii?oie Mn, Cr, Be, Co, Ni, Mo,
V, Sr, Y, Zr, B, Cd ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? Al-Si nieaa?a c iaoith
iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca. Anoaiiaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue o
ci?i? nooiaiy ?o aieeao ia i?e?i-, iae?ino?oeoo?o, oaciaee neeaae ?
ii?oieia?th cae?ciai?nieo oac o caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a o
Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai? o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a Ae.?. Iaiaeaea?aa. Aeaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?e?ieaaoaaiiy nieaa?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae caniao
iaea?aeaiiy a?aeeeaee.

10. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoai?ci iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao
Fe i?e i?e?ieaaoaaii? iieyaa? o i?eaeooaii? ?aaeoe?e ooai?aiiy oace ,
ciaioaii? ?ici??o no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, oi?ioaaii? iiaeo cae?ciai?nieo
oac ?icaaeoaeaii? aai aeiaoey?ii? oi?ie. I?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe??
Mn, Cr ci?ie o i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe?? iiaeia iienaoe
ni?iuaiith noaiith: +aao. aao.aao.+ia?a. ia?a. C i?aeaeuaiiyi
?ic/eiiino? aeaiaioa eiiiainaoi?a a aaoaeoe/i?e oac? ?? ii?oieia?y
ci?ith?oueny o iine?aeiaiino?: ???iae?o (neaeao), ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o
???iae?oo, eenoy iaii?io?, ?ic?inoaiiy eenoy iaii?io? o iai?yieo in?
ia?oiai ii?yaeeo c? noiioaiiyi eiai a?eie. O ia?aeii?e – aeiaoeue,
aaaaoia?aiiee, ?icaaeoaeaiee ieineia?aiiee aeaiae?eo. O aeiaaoaeoe/ieo
? aaoaeoe/ieo nieaaao ?icaaeoaeaia oa aeiaoey?ia oaca ooai?ththoueny i?e
ni?aa?aeiioaii? (Mn+Cr): Fe = 0, 4…0, 9, o caaaoaeoe/ieo – 0,7…1,0.

11. ?ice?eoa i?e?iaea niieo/aiiy (FeMn)3Si2Al15 (). Iieacaii,
ui i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? Fe 0,7 %, Mn – 0,1…0,8 %, Cr – 0,2…0,4 %
(i?iieneia? nieaae, AINO 1583), oaca — oea oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ci?iiiai
neeaaeo ia aac? niieo/aiiy Fe2SiAl8, ui ia? aaenaaiiaeueio no?oeoo?o.

12. Iieacaii, ui ?icieaaeai? neeaaeiieaaiaai? neeoi?ie
o?eaaeee /an ia?aaoaathoue o no?oeoo?ii-ia??aiiaaaeiiio noai?,
iaoiiaeaiiio caa?aaeaiiyi aoiiieo eiio?ao?aoe?e oac ia?aaeieaaeaiiy.
Ia?ao?ae o ??aiiaaaeiee noai o?eaaeee i?ioean. Oeeie i?enei?th? eiai.
I?aeue, iaai?e, cae?ci iineeththoue i?e?iiaiaeii??aei?noue, ai
ooai?ththoue neeaaei? niieo/aiiy, ?ic/eiaiiy yeeo aeiaaa? o?eaaeeo
aeo?eioaaiue o ??aeeiio noai?. Aoaeoeaiei caniaii iaaeeaeaiiy aei
??aiiaaaeiiai noaio ? ei?ioei/aniee ia?aa??a ia 150…120 oC. Ca
oa?aeoa?ii ci?i no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a aieea /ano aeo?eioaaiiy a
??aeeiio noai? aiaeia?/iee i?aeaeuaiith oaiia?aoo?e.

13. Io?eiaii aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e
ia?aa??ao ia ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaa?a neeoi?i?a ? iica’ycai? c iei
iniaeeaino? i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe??. Aecia/aii iaeanoue oaiia?aoo?
(800…865 oC), ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c yei? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith
oa?aeoa?o oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e oaa?ae?ii?. Anoaiiaeaii
oei/aniai-oaeaee?ni? e?eoa???, aeiaea?aeaiiy yeeo iaiao?aeia aeey
ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ?icieaa?a, ui
iaoiiaeai? aieeaii oaiia?aoo?e, a?aeeeaee. Aeyaeaii caeaaei?noue oeeo
e?eoa???a a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaao.

14. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue oi?aae?iiy no?oeoo?ith oa
aeanoeainoyie neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a ??aeeiiioaciith ia?iaeith
aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii no?oio iioeiaeueii?
u?eueiino? ci?iththoueny nooi?iue iiaeeo?eoaaiiy oa aeaoaeoi?noue
nieaa?a, e?enoaeia?ao?y oa ii?oieia?y cae?ciai?nieo oac. Cai?iiiiiaaiee
iaoai?ci no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue c iiceoe?? i?e?iiaiaeii??aeii? aoaeiae
?icieaao.

?icaeyiooee aeaeo?iia?aiin o aeae?eaiiio ia?i?
i?e?ioa?oiiaaiiy ?icoii?yaeeiaaia ciia. Iieacaii, ui i?e iaeeaaeaii?
??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a cae?enith?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aoii?a. Nooi?iue
?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy o ooieoe?? a?ae u?eueiino? no?oio ia? iaeneioi. Aiae?c
??oaiiy ??aiyiiy aeaeo?iia?aiino eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a oa aeii?oie
iieacaa, ui ?nio? iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy iai?oae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, i?e
yeiio iiaeeeaee iaeneiaeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e ?ii?a. I?yi? aeeo?aeoe?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee iayai?noue aeno?aioio a
ooieoe?iiaeuei?e caeaaeiino? ci?ie ia?aiao??a aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo
?icieaa?a a?ae u?eueiino? no?oio. Ia?a?iciiae?e aeii?oie ? ci?ia
no?oeoo?e ?icieaao, ia?iaeaiiai aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii,
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ?acoeueoaoaie aei??thaaiiy e?iaiaoe/ii? ayceino?.

15. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui iaeo?ae?caoe?y
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao cae?ca o?i?/iei (i?e?ieaaoaaiiy) oa o?ce/iei
(oaiia?aoo?a, aeaeo?e/iee no?oi) aieeaaie ia ?icieaa cae?enith?oueny ca
?aeeiei iaoai?ciii, a iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue ci?ia no?oeoo?e ?icieaao,
neeaaeo ? ?ici??o i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue, ia aac? yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
e?enoae?caoe?y oac, ? caa?aaeaiiy oeeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i i?e
ioieiaeaeoaaii?. A?aeciaea a oiio /e ?ioiio aeiaaeeao eeoa o noaiao
?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano.

I?e ia?iaoe? ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii iioeiaeueii?
u?eueiino? a ?acoeueoao? aeaeo?iia?aiino oa ia?a?iciiae?eo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a ooai?ththoueny ye?nii ?io? ca neeaaeii ? aeeaei?i ii?yaeeii
anioe?aoe?? aoii?a, ui aeeeeea? ci?ie o i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe??. I?e
i?e?ieaaoaaii? oea aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii ci?ie o?i?/iiai neeaaeo nieaao.
A iaio aeiaaeeao no?oeoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?aeaoaathoueny a ii??aiyii
iaaaeee? oa?i?ie aiane?aeie oioaeueiiai ianiia?aiino aeaiaio?a. I?e
oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? ianiia?aiin ia ?ioaineo?eiaaiee, ui aeiaaa? o?eaaeeo
aeo?eioaaiue o ??aeeiio noai?.

16. Aeine?aeaeaiee aieea aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio ia aeaaacaoe?th
aethi?i??aeo ?icieaa?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui nooi?iue aeaaacaoe?? a ooieoe??
a?ae u?eueiino? no?oio iieno?oueny aeno?aiaeueiith caeaaei?noth. Oi/oe?
aeno?aioio a?aeiia?aea? iaeneiaeueiee nooi?iue aeaaacaoe??. Cieaeaiiy
aoaeoo aeaaacaoe?? coiiaeaia i?aeaeuaiiyi a?aie/ii? ?ic/eiiino? aiaeith
i?e ci?i? no?oeoo?e ?icieaao i?ae aieeaii aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio.
Iai?aaeaiee ?oo ?ii?a I+ nooo?ai ia aieeaa? ia aeaaacaoe?th.
Ia?a?iciiae?e aiaeith i?ae aiiaeii ? eaoiaeii ?acoeueoao
aeaeo?iia?aiino aeii?oie, ci?ie o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?icieaao a?ey
aeaeo?iaeo ?, ioaea, a?aie/ii? ?ic/eiiino? aiaeith.

Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith ? aeaaacaoe?y ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii ia
aeieia? a i?ioean? ?iceeaee. Aeaeo?iia?aiin aeii?oie o oeueiio aeiaaeeo
(t < 20 c) cia/iiai aieeao ia aeaaacaoe?th ia aeyaey?. Iaoai?ci aeaaacaoe?? iieyaa? o i?aeneeaii? ianiiai?io aaco i?ae ?icieaaii ? aeiae?eeyi ca ?aooiie eiiaaeoe?eieo iioie?a, ui ca?eueoothoue oaeaee?noue aeeooc?? aiaeith o 10...15 ?ac. 17. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeai?, ii?iaiaai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai: oaoiieia?? oa i?eno?i? aeey aeaaacaoe?? aethi?i??aeo nieaa?a ?ia?oiei aacii, aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii, ui caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy ai?noo aaco aei 0,15…0,25 ni3/100 a Ia; oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?nieo eeaa?ieo nieaa?a c iecueeini?oii? oa aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie, aeeth/ath/e ia?iaeo ?icieaao aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii, ui aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ai?no Fe o ii?oiaaiio nieaa? AE12I2IaIAE aei 1,0...1,3 % ?c caa?aaeaiiyi iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ia ??ai? nieaao AE12I2IaI, ui i?noeoue 0,6 % Fe; i?aeaeueoe aea?ii?oeiino? i?e 300 oC ia 35 %,nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe oethn?a IEO ia 15... 50 % ? o?eaae?noue oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee a?aeeeaie ii?oi?a ca ?aaeeiii O1 c 10...12 aei 2...3 a ; cieceoe aeo?aoe ia?aeiiiai Al ia 26,1 ea/o, Mn ia 4,9 ea/o; iia? nieaae AE11I2?, AE10Oe5, AE10Oe4I, AE8Oe4I2, AE12I3IaOe, i?e ae?iaieoeoa? yeeo iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy aunieicae?cii? ne?iaeie, a?oooo oa a?aeoiae?a VIII-IX a?oi (AINO 1638) c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii Zn; aaci?eaeaa? aenieicae?ci? ii?oiaa? nieaae AE15AE, AE15IAE eiieo?aioini?iiiaei? nieaaai AE12I2IaI, AE18, KS 740, Mahle 138. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaie o i?iieneiaino? ia CAeE, AI "Oa?e?aaoi?eieuei?iao", ioeainueeiio caaiae? "Aoi?eieuei?iao", ?onoaaneiio iaoaeo?a?eiiio caaiae?, AI "Caaiae ?i. Iaeeoaaa", eiiioiinueeiio caaiae? "Iioi?aeaoaeue" oa ?i. aeicaieeea io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo (o oe?iao aei 1990 ?.) 6950 oen. ?oa., i?e iaeia?e o/ano? aaoi?ee 4980 oen. ?oa. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. Neeoieiu. Aoean iee?ino?oeoo? e o?aeoia?aii i?iiuoeaiiuo nieaaia: Ni?aai/i. ecae./ A.A. I?eaoiiaa, I.A. Aaeia, TH.I.Oa?ai, A.N. Cieioi?aaneee, A.E. Iaiaeeia, N.N. Iao?ia. - I.: IENeN, 1996. - 175 n. 2. Iaco? A.E., I?eaoiiaa A.A., Oa?ai TH.I. Iiaeaee ?anieaaia a nenoaia Al-Si ii ?acoeueoaoai no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca i?iaeoeoia caeaeee ec aeeaeeiai ninoiyiey // Oeceea iaoaeeia e iaoaeeiaaaeaiea. -1980. - O. 50. - Aui. 1. - N. 123 - 129. 3. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa nieaaa AE12I2IaI aeey ii?oiae oi?ne?iaaiiuo aeecaeueiuo aeaeaaoaeae / TH.N. Eyuoe, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.N. Naaaeueaa, N.A. Eaionoieeiaa, A.E. Iaco? // Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai. - 1980. - ? 11. - N. 8 - 9. 4. I iiaeeoeoee?othuai aeeyiee iaeioi?uo iee?iaeiaaaie ia e?enoaeeecaoeeth neeoieiia / A.I. Aoeiaiei, A.A.Aa?aiia, A.C.Eenoiueei, TH.A. Au/eia, A.A. I?eaoiiaa // Eca. aocia. Oeaaoi. iaoaeeo?aey. - 1982. - ? 6. - N. 95 - 99. 5. Enneaaeiaaiea no?iaiey aeeaeeeo nieaaia aethieiee-e?aiiee.1. Aeiyaoaeoe/an-eea e yaoaeoe/aneee ?anieaau /A.A.I?eaoiiaa, A.E. Iaco?, TH.I.Oa?ai, A.A.?iiaiiaa, C.A. Ia?neii, O.I. O?enoaiei // Iaoaeeioeceea. - 1983. - O. 5. ? 1. - N. 88 - 94. 6. Enneaaeiaaiea no?iaiey aeeaeeeo nieaaia aethieiee-e?aiiee. 2. Cayaoaeoe-/aneea ?anieaau / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.E. Iaco?, TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. ?iiaiiaa, C.A. Ia?neii, O.I. O?enoaiei // Iaoaeeioeceea. - 1983. - O. 5. - ? 3. - N. 54 - 57. 7. I ayceinoe aeeaeeeo neeoieiia / C.A. Ia?neii, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.C. Eenoiueei, A.A. ?iiaiiaa, A.I. Aoeiaiei, A.E. Iaco? // Iaoaeeioeceea. -1983. - O.5. - ? 4. - N. 107-109. 8. Aeeyiea oneiaee oeaio?eooae?iaaiey ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e?aiiey a neeoieiao / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, A.E. Iaco?, I.A. Iiiiaa // Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey iaoanoaaeeueiie no?oeoo?u nieaaia. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: Aeiai?. ain. oi-o, 1983. - N. 219 - 221. 9. Aeeyiea ia?aaioee ?anieaaa yeaeo?e/aneei oieii ia oaciaue ninoaa e no?oeoo?o a?aioee?iaaiiiai aunieie?aiienoiai neeoieia / TH.I.Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.E. Iaco?, A.TH. Aa??ca, A.N. Naaaeueaa, A.I. Aoeu/?aa // Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia. - 1984. - ?1. - N. 88 - 93. 10. Aeaenoaea ieaciu e i?iaeoeoia ac?uaa ia neeoieiu / A.A. Iiiia, I.A. Iiiiaa, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, I.A. A?aoa?y // Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia.-1985 .-? 1.-N. 51- 57. 11. Iaco? A.E., I?eaoiiaa A.A., Oa?ai TH.I. No?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey ?anieaaia e yaoaeoeee neeoieiia i?e ni?aoeeiiiie aeaaacaoeee eo a i?ioeanna auieaaee // Iaoaeeu.-1985. - ? 4. - N. 49 - 54. 12. Iaoaeeia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oac a aethieiee-e?aiieaauo nieaaao ec aoi?e/iiai nu?uey / A.E. Ei?ae, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.A. Eaceie?iaa, TH.A. Au/eia // Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai. - 1986. - ? 1. - N. 9 -10. 13. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea eioa?iaoaeeeaeiuo oac ia?aaioeie ?anieaaa yeaeo?e/aneei oieii / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.A. Eaceie?iaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia // Aeiee. AI NNN?. - 1986. - O. 289. - ? 3. - N. 668 - 670. 14. ?iciiae?e oeeieo a eeoeo neeaaeiieaaiaaieo aethi?i?e-e?aiienoeo nieaaao / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, N.N. Iao?ia, I.?. Ei?ae // Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?. A. O?c.-iao. oa oaoi. iaoee. - 1986. - ? 12. - N. 69 - 72. 15. Aeeyiea ia?aaioee ?anieaaa yeaeo?e/aneei oieii ia ii?oieiaeth oac a neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo neeoieiao / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.A. Eaceie?iaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia, A.I. Aaeniai // Iaoaeeo?aey e eienioeiey. Aui. 92. - Eeaa: Oaoieea, 1987. - N. 67 - 70. 16. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie a ?icieaaao neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a i?ney ia?iaee aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.I. Aaeue/ae, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, ?.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia // Aeiee. AI O?N?. Na?. A. O?c.-iao. oa oaoi. iaoee. -1987.- ? 6. - N. 73 - 77. 17. Oa?ai TH.I., *a?iaiei A.I., I?eaoiiaa A.A. Ii?oieiaey ia?ae/iuo e?enoaeeia e?aiiey a nieaaao Al-Si // Iaoaeeu. - 1987. - ? 4. - N. 182 - 184. 18. Aeeyiea yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea ia no?oeoo?iua i?aa?auaiey a neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo aethieiee-e?aiieaauo ?anieaaao / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.I. Aaeue/ae, N.N. Iao?ia, E.E. Aaeueeia // ?anieaau. -1987. -O.1. - Aui. 4. - N. 111 - 116. 19. Iia? oyaeaiiy i?i aieea iaai?th ia no?oeoo?iee noai ? aeanoeaino? neeaaeiieaaiaaieo neeoi?i?a / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, N.N. Iao?ia, I.?. Ei?ae, TH.A. Ae/eia // Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?. A.O?c.-iao. oa oaoi. iaoee. -1987. - ? 10. - N. 76 -78. 20. Aeeyiea aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee ia oa?aeoa? iieeoa?i ayceinoe aeeaeeeo neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo neeoieiia / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.I. Caiyoei, E.E. Aaeueeia, ss.A. Ianue?ia, N.N. Iao?ia // Eca. aocia. Oeaaoi. iaoaeeo?aey. - 1987. - ? 4. - N. 82 - 85. 21. I?eaoiiaa A.A., Iao?ia N.N., Aaeueeia E.E. No?oeoo?iua i?aa?auaiey a nieaaa AE5I2 i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee // Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey iaoanoaaeeueiie no?oeoo?u nieaaia. Ia?aaiiaaniay e?enoaeeecaoeey.-Aeiai?iiao?iane: Aeiai?. ain. oi-o, 1987. - N. 105 -109. 22. I?eaoiiaa A.A., Iao?ia N.N., Ei?ae A.E. Aeeyiea eeiaoe/aneiai oaeoi?a ia e?enoaeeecaoeeth neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo oeeieiaenouo neeoieiia // Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey iaoanoaaeeueiie no?oeoo?u. Ia?aaiiaaniay e?enoaeeecaoeey. - Aeiai?iiao?iane: Aeiai?. ain. oi-o, 1987. - N. 90 -94. 23. I iaoaiecia aeaaacaoeee aethieieaauo ?anieaaia yeaeo?e/aneei oieii / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia // Iaoaeeu. - 1987. - ? 6. - N. 39 - 44. 24. Oaciaua i?aa?auaiey a nieaaa AE5I2 i?e ioeaaeaeaiee n ?aciuie nei?inoyie / TH.I. Oa?ai, N.N. Iao?ia, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.I. Naeaci?a, A.I. Aoeiaiei // Iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea iaoaeeia. - 1987. - ? 12. - N. 36 - 38. 25. Iiaeaee?iaaiea naaeeiaioaoeeiiiie aeeooocee a aethieieaauo ?anieaaao / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. Ioaiaaiaeai, N.N. 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Aaeueeia // ?anieaau. - 1990. - ? 4. - N. 104 - 107. 30. I?eaoiiaa A.A., Iao?ia N.N. I?aoeeceiiiua enneaaeiaaiey iee?iiaiaeii-?iaeiuo ?anieaaia a iiea oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee // I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa; Aui. 101. - E.: Oaoieea, 1990. - N. 99 -105. 31. E aiaeeco eiioeaio?aoeeiiiuo caaeneiinoae naienoa iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaia / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, N.N. Iao?ia, A.E. Ei?ae, A.A. Ioaiaaiaeai // Iaoaeeu. - 1991.- ? 1. - N. 202 - 207. 32. Iaoiae ?an/?oa ?acia?ia iee?ia?oiie?iaie a ?anieaaa ii ?acoeueoaoai naaeeiaioaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, TH.I. Oa?ai, N.N. Iao?ia, A.A. Ioaiaaiaeai // ?anieaau. - 1991. - ? 5. - N. 3 -8. 33. I?eaoiiaa A.A., Oa?ai TH.I., Iao?ia N.N. Caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u oeeieiaenouo neeoieiia // Iaoaeeu. - 1991. - ? 6. - N. 101 - 106. 34. I?eaoiiaa A.A., Iao?ia N.N. Ianeaaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ?anieaaa ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa neeoieiia // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu. - 1992. - ? 2. - N. 59 - 63. 35. Oa?ai TH.I., Aaeue/ae A.I., I?eaoiiaa A.A. Aeeyiea eaae?othueo yeaiaioia, oaiia?aoo?u e a?aiaie auaea?aeee a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee ia no?oeoo?o ?anieaaia neeoieiia // Aeiee. AI Oe?aeiu. Na?.A.Oec.-iao. e oaoi. iaoee. - 1993. - ? 5. - N. 85 - 91. 36. I?eaoiiaa A.A. No?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a aeaeacenouo neeoieiao, eaae?iaai-iuo o?iiii // Iaoeia? i?aoe? i?aeia?iaei. eiio. "Aaoaeoeea - IV". - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AeIAI "Nenoaii? oaoiieia??", 1997. - N. 144 - 145. 37. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Aeeyiea e?aiiey, oeeiea e iaaiey ia ieioiinoue e no?iaiea ?anieaaia neeoieiia // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee.-1997. - O.19. - ? 9. - N.80-82. 38. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue cii oa??aeiai ?anoai?a aethieiey e a? aeeyiea ia oaciaue ninoaa e naienoaa neeoieiia // Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaoaeeo?aee. -1997. - ? 4. - N. 24 - 27. 39. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u, auaea?aeee a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee e nei?inoe ioeaaeaeaiey ia oa?aeoa? oaciauo i?aa?auaiee i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. - 1997. - O.19. - ? 10. - N. 17 - 21. 40. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Iaeo?aeecaoeey a?aaeiiai aeeyiey aeaeaca a neeoieiao iee?iaeiaaaeaie // O?. iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. “Ia?niaeoeau oaoiieiaee”.- E?aeia ( Iieueoa). - 1998. - N.69 - 73. 41. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Iiauoaiea i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe aoi?e/iuo neeoieiia iee?iaeiaaaeaie // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. - 1998. -O. 20. - ? 10. - N.43-49. 42. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Iaoaieci iaeo?aeecaoeee a?aaeiiai aeeyiey aeaeaca a neeoieiao iee?iaeiaaaeaie ia?aaioea e o?iia // Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. - 1998. - O.20. - ?12. - N.59 - 68. 43. A.n. 717923 NNN?, IEE N22N 21/04, N22N 1/04. Nieaa ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.E. Iaco?, TH.I. Oa?ai, A.O. Ceiaei, A.O. Aaeaeei, A.I. Ae?oyi, A.N. Naaaeueaa, A.I. Aaeniai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa , TH.A. Aoeyaa, ?.A. Ooaei, E.I. Aano?uaa, I.E. Caai?ianeee (NNN?). - ? 2665666; Cayaeaii 21.09.78; Iaioae. 44. A.n. 908894 NNN?, IEE N22A 21/06, N22A 9/05. Ono?ienoai aeey ?aoeie?iaaiey aethieiey e nieaaia ia aai iniiaa / N.A. A?o?iaiei, A.I. Aaeniai, A.E. Iaco?, A.A. I?eaoiiaa , TH.I. Oa?ai, A.E. Oa?oaiia, A.E. Oea?oia (NNN?). - ? 2947544; Cayaeaii 30.06.80; Iioae. 28.02.82;Athe. ? 8. 45. A.n. 1150960 NNN?, IEE N22A 9/00,N22A 21/00. Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa eeoaeiuo nieaaia ia iniiaa aethieiey / TH.I. Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.I. Aaeniai, E.A. Eaceie?iaa, A.E. ?i/iye, E.I. Aano?uaa, A.I. Eenae?a, I.A. Eooeei, TH.E. Eioaeueieeia, E.I. Niaa (NNN?). - ? 3689409; Cayaeaii 24.10.83; Iaioae. 46. A.n. 1169368 NNN?, IEE N22A 9/00. Onoaiiaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eeoaeiuo nieaaia ia iniiaa aethieiey / TH.I.Oa?ai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.I Aaeniai, A.E. ?i/iye, E.A. Eaceie?iaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, Y.N. E?una, E.I. Aano?uaa, A.A. Niao? (NNN?). - ? 3654756; Cayaeaii 24.10.83; Iaioae. 47. A.n. 1376594 NNN?, IEE N22N 21/14. Nieaa ia iniiaa aethieiey / TH.A. Au/eia, A.I. Aoeiaiei, E.I. Naeaci?a, Ae.A. Ei?iaeia, A.N. Cieioi?aaneee, I.Ae. Iie/aiia, A.A.Oaeaiia, A.A. I?eaoiiaa.-? 4021088;Cayaeaii 23.09.85; Iaioae. 48. A.n. 1444384 NNN?, IEE N22N 1/06. Iiaeeoeeaoi? aeey cayaoaeoe/aneeo neeoieiia / A.I. *a?iaiei, TH.I. Oa?ai, I.N. Na?aa?yineay, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, I.A. Oeiea?aiei (NNN?). -? 4250901;Cayaeaii 26.05.87; Iioae. 15.12.88; Athe. ? 46. 49. A.n. 1487470 NNN?, IEE N22N 21/18. Eeoaeiue nieaa ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.N. Cieioi?aaneee, TH.I. Oa?ai, TH.A. Au/eia, A.I. Aoeiaiei, TH.E. Aacia?acia, A.E. Aaiaiei, A.I. Oa?auaiei, N.N. Iao?ia, A.E. Ei?ae, E.E. Aaeueeia, A.N. Ai?y/aaa, E.N. Aeoeaeia (NNN?) - ? 4342015; Cayaeaii 3.11.87; Iaioae. 50. A.n. 1502647 NNN?, IEE N22N 21/04. Nieaa ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. Aa?oiai, I.E. Naeaci?a, A.N. Cieioi?aaneee, TH.I. Oa?ai, E.I. Aano?uaa, Y.N. E?una, A.I. Aaeniai, A.A. I?eaoiiaa, ?.E. Ieoaeeia, A.N. Aeeno?aoia, TH.E. Aacia?acia, A.E. Aanaaa, A.I. Ei?ia/?a (NNN?). - ? 4352122; Cayaeaii 25.11.87; Iioae. 23.08.89; Athe. ? 31. 51. A.n. 1667389 NNN?, IEE N22A 9/00. Onoaiiaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eeoaeiuo nieaaia ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.E. ?i/iye, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia, E.A. Ieeiaa (NNN?). - ? 4712773; Cayaeaii 3.07.89; Iaioae. 52. A.n. 1741432 NNN?, IEE N22A 9/00. Onoaiiaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eeoaeiuo nieaaia ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia, A.E. ?i/iye (NNN?). - ? 4712774; Cayaeaii 03.07.89; Iaioae. 53. A.n. 1769545 NNN?, IEE N22A 9/00. Onoaiiaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eeoaeiuo nieaaia nieaaia ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, A.E. ?i/iye, E.E. Aaeueeia, N.N. Iao?ia (NNN?). - ? 4712227; Cayaeaii 07.03.89; Iaioae. 54. Iao. 22435A Oe?aeia, IIE 6 N22N 21/00. Eeoaeiue nieaa ia iniiaa aethieiey / A.A. I?eaoiiaa, N.A. A?o?iaiei, A.A. Aeaaeu/aiei. - ? 95073306; Cayae. 13.07.95; Iioae.30.06.98; Athe.? 3. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Oai??y oa oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?nieo neeoi?i?a o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aieeaaie ia ?icieaa. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a. Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeooaeuei?e i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eeaa?ieo aethi?i??aeo nieaa?a ?c iecueeini?oii? ? aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co aoaeiae ? aeanoeainoae ?icieaa?a, anoaiiaeaiiy e?eoa???a aca?iica`yceo no?oeoo?e o ??aeeiio oa oaa?aeiio noaiao, aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe??, coiiaeaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aieeaaie ia ?icieaa. Ia aac? oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ic?iaie cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?/i? ??oaiiy aeaaacaoe?? ?icieaa?a, iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaiai aieeao aeii?oie, iia? nieaae, ui i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iieacaee aenieo aoaeoeai?noue. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aethi?i?e-e?aii??aee nieaa, iecueeiye?nia ? aoi?eiia ne?iaeia, ?icieaa, e?enoae?caoe?y, no?oeoo?a, aeanoeaino?. I?eaoiiaa A.A. Oai?ey e oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey aunieiea/anoaaiiuo neeoieiia oeceei-oeie/aneeie aicaeaenoaeyie ia ?anieaa. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea iaoaeeia. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia iiauoaiey ea/anoaa eeoaeiuo aethieieaauo nieaaia ec ieceini?oiiai e aoi?e/iiai nu?uey ia iniiaa aeaoaeueiiai aiaeeca no?iaiey e naienoa ?anieaaia, onoaiiaeaiey e?eoa?eaa acaeiinayce no?oeoo?u aeeaeeiai e oa??aeiai ninoiyiee, enneaaeiaaiey iniaaiiinoae i?ioeanna e?enoaeeecaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiuo oeceei-oeie/aneeie aicaeaenoaeyie ia ?anieaa. Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca, ayceinoe, ieioiinoe, yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey, oeaio?eooae?iaaiey, ?acoeueoaoia aunieinei?inoiiai ioeaaeaeaiey ec aeeaeeiai ninoiyiey ( Vioe. 107 E /iei ) ?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue no?oeoo?u ?anieaaia neeoieiia. Iieacaii iiaeiaea no?iaiey aeiyaoaeoe/aneeo e yaoaeoe/aneiai nieaaia e ioee/ea eo io cayaoaeoe/aneeo a iaeanoe eiioeaio?aoeee 14,0…20,5 ao. %Si. Io?aaeaia caaeneiinoue ia?aiao?ia aeeaeiaai ii?yaeea aoiiia e oa?aeoa?enoee no?oeoo?ii-/oanoaeoaeueiuo naienoa aeeaeeeo neeoieiia io eiioeaio?aoeee e?aiiey e oaiia?aoo?u. ?aoaia ianoaoeeiia?iay caaea/a naaeeiaioaoeee ?anieaaia a iiea oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee. Iieo/aii yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea niioaaonoaey ?acia?a /anoeoe e?aiiey a ie?ieao iee?ia?oiie?iaeai aoiiia e?aiiey a ?anieaaa. Onoaiiaeaiu no?oeoo?iua ioee/ey ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo neeoieiia, iaoneiaeaiiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth eo oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e iaoaiecia i?ioeanna e?enoaeeecaoeee. Ioia/aii, /oi iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie iiauoaiey i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe aoi?e/iuo nieaaia aei o?iaiy ia?ae/iuo yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea niiniaia iiaeaaeaiey ?aaeoeee ia?aci-aaiey oacu , oaaee/aiey noaiaie ?acaaoae?iiinoe e eiiia?aoeaiinoe oac a yaoaeoeeao. Eco/aiu no?oeoo?a e naienoaa oeeieiaenouo e iaaieaauo neeoieiia a aeeaeeii e oa??aeii ninoiyieyo. Iieacaia caaeneiinoue no?iaiey ?anieaaa io eiioeaio?aoeee i?eianae, oaiia?aoo?u e eo aeeyiea ia oaciaue ninoaa e iaoaie/aneea naienoaa ioeeaie i?e ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo ioeaaeaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaaiee, a ioee/ea io oeeiea, oaaee/eaaao noaiaiue iee?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoe aeeaeeeo neeoieiia. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao, ia i?aauoathueo 750 IN, oeeie ieacuaao iiaeeoeoee?othuaa aeeyiea ia iee?ia?oiie?iaee aoiiia e?aiiey, iniaaiii i?e 1,5 % Zn. Iaia?oaeaia ?anoai-?eiinoue oeeiea a oacao , , Cu4NiAl7 i?e aunieeo nei?inoyo ioeaaeaeaiey (120 E/iei) e aiiiaeueiia ia?anuuaiea oa??aeiai ?anoai?a aethieiey oeeieii i?e nei?inoe ioeaaeaeaiea 5 E/iei. ?ane?uo i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iaoaieci ia?eoaeoe/aneiai i?aa?auaiey a Al-Si nieaaao, eaae?iaaiiuo iaaieai, n o/anoeai oa??aeiai ?anoai?a aethieiey /a?ac i?iiaaeooi/ioth noaaeeth ia?aciaaiey aeeaeeinoe iiaiai ninoaaa. Iao/ii iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey aunieiea/anoaaiiuo nieaaia ec eiia e iooiaeia n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai oeeiea e iaaiey. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeaee iioeiecaoeee ninoaaa e naienoa neiaeiieaae?iaaiiuo neeoieiia ii oaciaiio ninoaao. Enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey aoi?e/iuo auniei-aeaeacenouo nieaaia i?e aaaaeaiee aeiaaaie Mn, Cr, Be, Co, Ni, Mo, V, Sr, Y, Zr, B, Cd. Iieacaia noaiaiue eo aicaeaenoaey ia iee?i- e iae?ino?oeoo?o a caaeneiinoe io ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a a nenoaia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia Ae.E. Iaiaeaeaaaa. ?ane?uo iaoaieci iaeo?aeecaoeee a?aaeiiai aeeyiey aeaeaca a neeoieiao iee?iaeiaaaeaie. Ia i?eia?a ia?aaioea e o?iia io?aaeaia ?ieue iee?iaeiaaaie a eciaiaiee e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?u e ii?oieiaee aeaeaciniaea?aeaueo oac, a oaeaea acaeiinaycue iineaaeieo n iaoaie/aneeie naienoaaie. Onoaiiaeai oaiia?aoo?iue eioa?aae ia?aa?aaa ?anieaaa 800…865 IN , ioeaaeaeaiea ec eioi?iai i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth oa?aeoa?a oaciauo i?aa?auaiee i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu a?aiaiii-nei?inoiua ia?aiao?u ia?aaioee a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee, iaania/e-aathuea ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee i no?oeoo?iuo ia?ano?ieeao a ?anieaaa oa??aeiio oaeo. I?aaeeiaeai niinia oi?aaeaiey iee?i-, iae?i- e oiieie no?oeoo?ie nieaaia aeeaeeioaciie ia?aaioeie yeaeo?e/aneei oieii. Iieacaii, /oi iaoaieci eciaiaiey ii?oieiaee aeaeaciniaea?aeaueo oac i?e ia?aaioea ?anieaaa yeaeo?e/aneei oieii caeeth/aaony a yeaeo?iia?aiina e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia iaaeaeo iee?ia?oiie?iaeaie e ?acoii?yaei/aiiie ciiie ?anieaaa, oaaee/aiee eiioeaio?aoeee ia?aaioea, o?iia e oiaiueoaiee niaea?aeaiey eenei?iaea a iee?ia?oiie?iaeao, niaea?aeaueo aeaeaci, n i?ioeaiiieiaeiui yooaeoii a ?acoii?yaei/aiiie ciia. Aneaaenoaea oaeiai iaiaia i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee oi?ie?othony aeaeaciniaea?aeauea oacu ni no?oeoo?ie e ii?oieiaeae iiaeiaiie nieaao, aeiiieieoaeueii eaae?iaaiiiio ia?aaioeai, o?iiii eee ia?aa?aoiio a iaeanoue “e?eoe/aneeo” oaiia?aoo?. Iineaaeiaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aaeeiie i?e?iaea i?ioeannia iaeo?aeecaoeee a?aaeiiai aeeyiey aeaeaca oeceei-oeie/aneeie aicaeaenoaeyie, ?aaeecothueony ?acee/iuie niiniaaie. Ii?aaeaeaiu ?aaeeiu e iienai iaoaieci aeaaacaoeee aethieieaauo ?anieaaia yeaeo?e/aneei oieii. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeaaacaoeey aethieieaauo ?anieaaia yeaeo?e/aneei oieii e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aiaei?iaea, a iniiaiii, ia naycaiu n aeaeaeaieai eiiia I+ a yeaeo?e/aneii iiea, a caaenyo io yeaeo?iia?aiina iaoaeee-/aneeo i?eianae e nei?inoe ianniiaiaia aiaei?iaea iaaeaeo ?anieaaii e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. Ia aaca oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?ac?aaioie i?aaeeiaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoaiey aeaaacaoeee ?anieaaia, iaeo?aeecaoeee a?aaeiiai aeeyiey i?eianae, iiaua eeoaeiua eiiiiceoeee, eioi?ua i?ioee ai?iae?iaaiea a oneiaeyo i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iieacaee aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aethieiee-e?aiieaaue nieaa, ieceini?oiia e aoi?e/iia nu?ue?, ?anieaa, e?enoaeeecaoeey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa. Prigunova A.G. Theory and technologe of manufacturing high quality silumins by the method of the physicochemical influence on the melt. - Manuscript. Thesis on the competition of scientific degree of doctor of engineering sciences on specialty 05.16.01 physical metallurgy and heat treatment of metals.State metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, 1999. The thesis deal with the actual problem of increasing of the quality of the casting aluminium alloys from low-grade and secondary raw materials as the result of detailed analyses of structure and properties of the melts, determination of criterion’s of correlation of structure in liquid and solid state, investigation of peculiarities of crystallization process stipulated by physicochemical actions on the melt. On the basis of theoretical and experimental developments it had been offered theoretical solution of alloys decontamination, neutralizing of harmful influence of impurities, new alloys which have passed approbation under conditions of commercial production and have shown high effectiveness. Key words: aluminium-silicon alloy, low grade and secondary raw material, crystallization, structure, property.

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