?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

CA???AA ??eia Aeieo??aia

OAeE 371: 316

OAI??ss ? I?AEOEEA NIOe?AEUeII-IAAeAAIA?*II? ?IAIOE

C Ae?OUeIE OA IIEIAeAeTH A OE?A?I?

13.00.05 — nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie EIAAEUe Ea?ena A?eai??aia, eieeoiy
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie NAA*AIEI Ieaenaiae?a sse?aia, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, canooiiee i?i?no?a ina?oe; aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie NEIUeIA A?eoi? Ieeieaeiae/,
?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa Aeaaeai?? IAN Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee;aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? IEAIAE*
?aai ?aaiiae/, Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. E.Ae. Ooeinueeiai, eaoaae?a nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14.00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.452.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia, 52-a, 4-e iiaa?o,
cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “16 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Eaaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aoiai?noe/ia
ia?aaeeaia, noaa?aeaeoaaia o no/ani?e ina?oi?e neooaoe??, c iniaeeaith
aino?ioith noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i aa?aio?? aea?aeaae uiaei caaacia/aiiy
i?aa ? iiaeeeainoae iniaenoino? o iia?e nioe?aeuei?e neooaoe??, yea ia?
ni?eyoe ?? oni?oi?e nioe?ae?caoe?? o ??cieo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooao ?
aaeocyo: oeie?, n?i’?, oiaa?enoa? ?iaaniee?a, o eoeueoo??, iaooe?,
caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oiui. A oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeiiii?/ieie, aeaiia?ao?/ieie oa ?ioaeaeooaeueieie
e?ecaie, ianoaa?euei?noth nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, c?inoa?
?ieue nioe?aeueieo neoaea ye ina?aaee?a, iieeeeaieo eaae?o?eiaaii
caoeuaoe i?aaa ethaeeie, cie?aia, aeeoeie, oanee?oaoecoaaoe noaiiaeua
??cieo eaoaai??e iieiae?, ethaeae c iaiaaeaieie nioe?aeueieie, o?ce/ieie
oa ineo?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie, iaaeaaaoe ?i aeiiiiiao oa i?aeo?eieo,
aeoea?coaaoe i?ioeane aaeaioaoe?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe??. Aoiai?noe/i?
oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? caeeaaeai? a oe?a?inuee?e
iaioaeueiino?, aeeeth/i?e ei?aeioeaio?e/iino? ?iaeeiieo a?aeiinei,
“o?einio?? na?oey” A.N.Neiai?iaee oa o?einio?? a?iiaaeyinueeino?
A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai, iniaeno?nii i???ioiaai?e eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
ina?oe nueiaiaeaiiy (A.I.Aaee, ?.Ae.Aao, N.O.Aii/a?aiei, ?.A.Cycthi,
A.A.E?aiaiue, TH.?.Iaeueiaaiee, I.ss. Naa/aiei oa ?i.).

O neeaaeieo oiiaao inioaaiiy aieueoinoi a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaaa iaiaaa?oueny
ni?yioaaoe nioeiaeueio iieioeeo ia i?ioieaeoeeo iaaaoeaieo yaeu oa
aeiiiiiao ciaaeieaiei. Oae, 15 a?oaeiy 1992 ?ieo Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie aoei i?iaieioaii Aeaeea?aoeith «I?i caaaeueii canaaee
aea?aeaaii? iieiaeiaeii? iieioeee a Oe?a?i?», a 5 ethoiai 1993 ?ieo —
Caeii «I?i ni?eyiiy nioeiaeueiiio noaiiaeaiith oa ?icaeoeo iieiaei a
Oe?a?ii».

Ie?aii aea?aeaaii oa noniieueii iinoeoooe, ye? iaaiith i??ith aaea
caii/aoeoaaee nioeiaeueio ?iaioo c ianaeaiiyi, ia aeaeue, ia ni?iiiaeii
?ica’ycaoe aanue eiiieaen ?nioth/eo i?iaeai. Naia oiio aeieeea iio?aaa o
iiaoaeia? nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, yea a ia’?aeioaaea
oao?aoe?a aenieiai i?ioanieiiai ?iaiy. Ca?aeii c ?ioaiiyi Eaaiiaoo
Iiiino?ia Oe?a?ie aiae 1993 ?. aoei noai?aii Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee
oeaio? nioeiaeueieo neoaea aeey iieiaei, iaoith ?iaioe yeiai ?
i?aaiicaoeiy nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae noai?aiiy
nenoaie iaoiaee/ii? oa i?aeoe/ii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith. Noaiiaeaiiy
nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?
aacoaaeiny ia ?nioth/eo ia oie /an oiiaao i?aeaioiaee nioe?aeueieo
iaaeaaia?a ? nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, yeeo c 1991 ?. ii/aee aiooaaoe
i?aeoe/ii a on?o e?a?iao eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco (A.A.Ai/a?iaa,
I.I.Ao?ueyiiaa, O.O.ss?e?ia). Aiaeii/an a Oe?a?i? i?e oiiaa?neoaoao ? ia
aaci iioeo aeueo oa na?aaeiio iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia (iaaeaaiai/ieo,
eoeueoo?ieo, oaoii/ieo, iaaee/ieo) ii/aee noai?thaaoeny eaoaae?e
nioeiaeueii? iaaeaaiaiee oa nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe, eieaeoeae yeeo
caeiyeeny ?ic?iaeith noaiaea?o?a oeueiai oaoo, eiai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei
caaacia/aiiyi (A.I.Aeaenthe, I.I.Ao?a, E.A.Eiaaeue, A.E.Eainueea,
E.?.I?uee, ?.?.Ieaiae/, I.I.Ieaenthe, A.I.Neaei?ia, N.ss.Oa?/aiei).

Iiyaa a Oe?a?ii i?ioaniiiaeia o aaeoci nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe, ?o
iioaa?aoeiy o no/aniee ?eiie i?aoei ni?eythoue aeeiiaiith aaaaoueio
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ieo caaaeaiue ?, c?aooith, coiiaeththoue yeinoue
nioeiaeueii? iieioeee a eiioaenoi aoiaiinoe/ieo, caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
iiaeoiaeia, noaa?e?cothoue nioe?aeuei? iio?aae ethaeeie, ?? caeaoi?noue
ae?yoe a ?iciiiaiioieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoeiyo. ?acii c oei,
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa ia ? aaniethoii iiaith noa?ith
aeiyeueiinoi aeey Oe?a?ie ? ?ini?. Oaea ae?yeuei?noue aeieeea ua o 20-oi
?iee, a iaaoea cia/iiai ?icaeoeo o 60-80-o? ?iee OO no. Oae, o Iineai a
1989 ?. aoa noai?aiee Oei/aniaee iaoeiai-aeineiaeiee eieaeoea
«Oeiea-iie?i?aeii», ae?yeuei?noue yeiai aoei ni?yiiaaii ia noai?aiiy oa
ioioeieia aaaaeaiiy ii anie oa?eoi?i? N?N?, a oiio /enei e a Oe?a?ii,
iinoeoooo nioeiaeueieo iaaeaaiaia oa i?aoeiaieeia. Oey iiaeiy aiaeaoeany
a aa?acii-eaioii 1991 ?. i noaea nai??iaeiith aioith o noaiiaeaiii oa
?icaeoeo no/anii? oai?i? e i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth.

Iaeiae ?icaoaeiaa iiaeo iieioe/ieo oa aeiiiii/ieo aea?aeaaieo canaae
iio?aao? ia eeoa ia?ainieneaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai aeinaiaeo, a e noai?aiiy
yeinii iiai? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a
Oe?a?i?. O?oaeiiui, yei ia’?eoeaii aeieeathoue ia oeueiio oeyoo,
coiiaeththoue iaiaoiaeiinoue canoinoaaiiy iaoeiaeo iiaeoiaeia uiaei
i?aaiicaoei? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie
ae?oae ? iieiae?, iiooeo iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
aca?iiae?? nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
aeaaiae?eieo ? i?aeia?iaeieo oiiae?a, caeaoieo cae?enieoe i?aeo?eieo ?
ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo anio iai?yi?a oai?i? oa i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe.
Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia oaeiae ?yaeii oaeoi??a,
i?ia?aeieie na?aae yeeo ?:

· iaaeiiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, iiyaa aac?iaiooy, ?icea cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai
?iaiy ianaeaiiy, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiai?oaiiyi noaio caei?ia’y oa
c?inoaiiyi e?eiiiiaaiiinoi;

· ca?eueoaiiy eieueeino? ethaeae, ui iio?aieythoue aei eaoaai?i?
iaeicaaacia/aieo ? nioeiaeueii a?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oea
noino?oueny ia eeoa iiaaeiaeia, aaaaoiaeioieo ? iaiiaieo niiae, e
cae/aeieo, a oiio /enei iieiaeeo niiae;

· nioe?aeueia iacao?aaoaai?noue i?ia?aeieo oao?aoe?a ?c
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe (nioe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?a, i?aeoe/ieo
ineoieia?a, nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, nioe?aeueieo ineoieia?a).
Aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith o noaa?e?caoe?? ?oiueiai noaoono a noni?euenoa? ?
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iio?aae o oaeiai ?iaeo oao?aoeyo ?nioth/iio noaio
o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, iaoee, ia?icaeiai?noue i???ioaoe?e
iieiae? ia oe?iiino? noni?euenoaa, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo,
naiioe?iiino? ethaeeie ye i?iaeoeoo eoeueoo?e. Ana oea iio?aao?
i?aeaioiaee iina?aaeieea o neeaaeieo i?ioeanao i?aeiieie?iii? o?aini?n??
aeoiaieo ?aeaae?a ? ii?i aca?iiae??, ae?aeiao ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa,
ethaeeie ? ethaeeie;

· iaa?aei?aoeueiaai?noue nenoaie i?aaaioeaii?, aaeaioaoe?eii? oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae ? iieiae?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei o ca’yceo c iiooeii
nioe?aeueiith iaaeaaia?eith ? nioe?aeueiith ?iaioith, ye aaaeeeaeo
aaeocae iaaeaaia?/ii? oa nioe?ieia?/ii? ina?oe, oeyo?a aca?ii?ioaa?aoe??
o ae??oaii? i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe??, i?io?eaeoeee, aeiiiiiae oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e ae?oae ? iieiae?, noai?aii? oiia
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyieia iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie .

Ieoaiiy i?aaaioeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa, aeoiaaoaey, eeaniiai
ea??aieea ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo A.I.Aeo?iiaa, I.?.Ainaiei,
A.N.Eiaca?y, A.I.I?aeaoianueei?, I.A.Ie/eaei, I.?.Ieeeiaiea, A.I.Naaa/,
A.A.Nethna?aiea oa ?i., ye? i???iooaaeeny ia noai?aiiy nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ? i?aai?caoe?th ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a: oeie?, a?iiac??,
oeie?-?ioa?iao?, caeeaaeao aeui? ina?oe.

Aaaaoianiaeoi?noue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe a?aeiia?aeii aei
anoaiiaeaii? aaoi?aie oeiieia?? iieiae?aeieo ?oo?a, oa?oiiaaiue,
i?aai?caoe?e aeiaaaeaia o aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.A.Caaa?eei, I.A.Ee?e/oea,
A.I.Eaeo?iiiai?, E.A. ?oaaoaanueei?, oa ?i.

Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeiiiiiaa oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?y iniaenoino? caeaaeii
a?ae ?nioth/i? o ia? i?iaeaie uiaei iaa/aiiy, aaeaioaoe?? o n?i’?,
oiaa?enoa? ?iaaniee?a ? o?oaeiaiio eieaeoea?, iiooeo ?iaioe oa
a?aeiiaeaiiy caei?ia’y oe?eaaeoue aeine?aeiee?a, ye? aea/aee oe? ieoaiiy
o aeeoy/iio oa iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu? (I.A.Aaoea, C.A.Caeoeaaa,
A.I.E?aaaoeue, I.A. Ie/eaei, A.I.Neiueia oa ?i.).

A oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, ?icoe?aiiy niaeo?o
niaoe?aeueiinoae, aca?iii? ?ioaa?aoe?? iaoee ? i?aeoeee,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iai?yi?a iaaeaaia?ee aeoea?coaaeeny iiooee a?o/eciyieo
aeine?aeiee?a o aaeoc? nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee oa nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe.
Cie?aia, aeaye? aniaeoe ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co i?ioean?a i?aeaioiaee
oao?aoe?a c nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ?icaeyioo? o aeine?aeaeaii?
E.?.I?uee; ieoaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeeo oao?aoe?a o nioe?aeueieo neoaeaao
ye a?aee?eo?e iaaeaaia?/i?e nenoai? ?ice?eo? a aeena?oaoe??
I.A.Eocueiaiea; nenoaia ?iaioe c ie?aieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae?,
ye? iathoue o?ce/i? iaiaaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaia ?.A.?aaiiaith.

Aiae?c i?aoeue o/aieo, a oaeiae aeina?aeo i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
oao?aoe?a o nenoai? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? na?ae/eoue, ui
oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ??cieie
eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae? e oaoiieia?e ?? ?aae?caoe?? aein? ia
noai?aii.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaee oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?,
yeee aaco?oueny ia a?o/eciyiiio oa ca?oa?aeiiio aeina?ae?, iaie ia?aii
oaio aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? ”.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai
ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie “??cii??aiaaa iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa a oiiaao
oi?aa?neoaoo” (1994 – 1998 ?iee).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa c ??cieie
eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – nooi?noue, caeiiii??iino? oa i?ia?aei?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth Oe?a?ie o OO noie?oo?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy – ii/aoie OO noie?ooy — e?iaoeue 90-o
?ie?a OO noie?ooy — coiiaeai? oei, ui naia o oeae ia??iae ii/eia?
?icaeaaoeny iiaa aaeocue iaaeaaia?ee – nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea,
nooi?noue yei? iieyaa? ia eeoa o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? caeii?a,
i?eioeei?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai iao?iiaaeo ??cieo eaoaai??e
ianaeaiiy, a e o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oa iiooeo iaeaoaeoeai?oeo
cania?a aeoiaeo iniaenoino? c e?eciaeo neooaoe?e. Oey oaiaeaioe?y
i?inoaaeo?oueny o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? ( NOA, Cao?aeia ?a?iia) ?
?icaeaa?oueny i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy ia nai???aeiiio nioe?aeueiiio a?oio?
eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco: nii/aoeo ye oe?ieiai nioe?aeueiiai
aeina?aeo (iaaeaaia?ee na?aaeiaeua o 20-o? ?iee), aeae? – oe?eueii?
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe (30-60-o? ?iee), “aeae?anueei?” iaaeaaia?ee o
70-80-o? ?iee, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo
neoaea (ii/aoie 90-o ?ie?a) ?, ia?aoo?, – eiinie?aeaoe?? aea?aeaaieo,
a?iiaaenueeeo ? aeaaiae?eieo no?oeoo? a i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae?
a Oe?a?i? (e?iaoeue 90-o ?ie?a).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeyaeoe aaiacen, nooi?noue, aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?
oaeoi?e, ye? coiiaeththoue ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth o na?oiaiio eiioaeno? oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oiiaao
Oe?a?ie a OO noie?oo?.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ia?aeia ?aeay eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? iieyaa? o ?icoi?ii? ?? ye
aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie, i?aenenoaiai yei? aeanoea? a?aeiinia
naiino?ei?noue, oaoiieia?/i?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue caeaaeii a?ae ia’?eoa
(iai?yio nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe) e noa’?eoa (eaoaai??? ae?oae oa iieiae?)
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao.

Eiaeai iai?yi-i?aenenoaia ia? nioe?aeueia ni?yioaaiiy, yea aeyaey?oueny
o iao?, i?eioeeiao, ci?no?, oi?iao, iaoiaeao ? e?eoa??yo ae?yeueiino?
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?oae oa iieiae? .

Iniiaith ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo aniaeo?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie
oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? ? ci?no ? i??i?eoaoe eiaeiiai iai?yio
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oae, ci?no nioe?aeueii?
i?io?eaeoeee noaiiaeyoue: ?ic’yniaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i nioe?aeueii cia/oui?
ae?yeueiino? oa iiaaae?iee; iciaeiieaiiy c ii?iaoeaieie i?aeia?iaeieie
oa aea?aeaaieie aeieoiaioaie, ye? caaacia/othoue ?icaeoie iniaenoino?,
??aaiue ina?oe, aea?? i?ioan??; iaaeaiiy ??ciei eaoaai??yi iieiae?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iiaeeea? iane?aeee anioe?aeueieo ae?e, iaoooaaiiy
caei?iaei niiniaii aeeooy, a?aeiiae a?ae eoeueoo?iiai i?iaaaeaiiy
aeica?eey; i?aai?caoe?y caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aie iiceoeaii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iniaenoino?; cae?eniaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ??cieo eaoaai??e n?iae, ae?iie, ae?oae ? iieiae? (caaacia/aiiy
?iaioith, iaa/aiiyi); aeoiaaiiy ii/oooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iiaeeea?
iane?aeee i?ioei?aaieo ae?e.

Iniiaieie canaaeaie nioe?aeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? oe?e?ni?noue ?
caaeainiaai?noue aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo ? i?eaaoieo i?ia?ai, na?aae
yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oa i?noea iin?aea? neoaeaa ieaioaaiiy n?i’?,
i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy iieiae?, iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie ao?aoe ?iaioe, i?aai?caoe?y aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
?iaae?ae?a, ae?oae-ne??o, a oaeiae nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaa oa aoiai?oa?ia
aeiiiiiaa ?iaae?aeai c aeeoeinoaa, ?iaae?aeai i?aoe? oa a?eie,
iaeicaaacia/aiei, aaaaoiae?oiei n?i’yi, iaiiaiie?oi?i iaoa?yi, iaeeiieei
iaoa?yi ? n?i’yi, ye? aeoiaothoue ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a, ?ioei eaoaai??yi
iieiae? (eoi?aey i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, i?eae?aiiy eaa?oe?e,
i?eaiooaaiiy oa aeinoaaea ?ae?, noi?iaiaeaeaiiy aei iaaee/iiai
caeeaaeo); iaaeaiiy aoiai?oa?ii? aeiiiiiae (i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy,
iaeyao, acoooy, iaaeeeaiaio?a) ae?oyi ? ae?ieai, iieiae?, ye? ciooai?
iieeiooe n?i’th /a?ac aei?noiea iiaiaeaeaiiy aeecueeeo; i?aai?caoe?y
?iaioe aeaaiae?eieo caeeaae?a, ?aeaeaiue, nioe?aeueieo i?eooee?a aeey
oei/aniaiai iaoeaiiy ae?oae, ae?iie ? iieiae?, ye? iieieeeny a neeaaeieo
aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo, oa in?a aac iino?eiiai i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy.

Ci?no nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae iieyaa? o oe?eueia?e ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai
ae?yeueiino? neoaea o nenoai? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth (?iaioa c
n?i’?th, ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a o iiae?oaeaey /e o noinoieao c ae?oueie,
a oaeiae i?iaeai ina?oe, i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy, i?aai?caoe??
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ioi?iie caei?ia’y); i?aeo?eioe?
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy n?iae, ae?iie, ae?oae ? iieiae?; iaaeaii? aea?aeaaii?
aeiiiiiae, i?euea oa ?ioeo aeae?a nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee
iaeicaaacia/ai?e iieiae?, iieiae?e n?i’?, yea aeoiao? ae?oae, o oiio
/ene? aeeoeio-?iaae?aea, ii?eo? ne?ioo; iaoa??aeueiiio caaacia/aii? o
?ac? oei/aniai? aai iino?eii? ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ao?aoe
aiaeoaaeueieea; ?aae?caoe?? caoiae?a ae?th/i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy; noai?aii? oiia ?icaeoeo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?,
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe oa iaaea?iaaieo ae?oae ?
iieiae?; caoeno? i?aa i?aoeacaeaoii? iieiae? o aaeoc? i?aoe? a oiiaao
??cieo oi?i aeaniino?.

Ci?no nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue: ?aeiino?oeoe?y
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai ioi/aiiy ??cieo eaoaai??e n?iae, ae?oae ? iieiae?,
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae a eiioi?eaoe?? oa iaa/aii?, oe?eani?yiiaai?e
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?e ?iaio? c aeecueeeie oa ?iaee/aie; iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae a i?ioan?eiiio naiiaecia/aii?, ni?eyiiy i?aoeaaeaoooaaiith;
i?aai?caoe?y aeica?eey oa ni?eeoaaiiy; aeyaeaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae;
ioi?iia i?aa ae?oae ? iieiae?; iaaee/iee, iaaeaaia?/iee, ineoieia?/iee
iao?iiaae; noai?aiiy iiceoeaii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei
aaaaoianiaeoiino? i?iaeai n?iae, ae?iie, ae?oae ? iieiae?.

?aae?caoe?y iniiaii? ?aea? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue iaa?oiooaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth. Aei oaeeo oiia ne?ae
a?aeianoe: aoiai?noe/iee, iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaiee, ei?aeioeaio?e/iee ?
eoeueoo?ieia?/iee i?aeoiaee, iaaeaaia?/ia noeioethaaiiy naiiaeiiiiiae o
i?ioeanao nioe?ae?caoe?? oa naiiaecia/aiiy, i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia
aca?iiae?y i?aenenoai nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe oa oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? a Oe?a?i?.

Iniiaia ?aeay oa iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? ao?eai? o caaaeuei?e a?iioac?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea iieyaa? o aeieac? oiai, ui aeniea aoaeoeai?noue
nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?
aeinyaa?oueny ca oiiae aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeei?a oe?e?niino?,
aeeiai?/iino?, i?iaeoeaiino?, aio/eino?, a?eiai? oa ?aa?iiaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeiino?, aca?iica’yceo c i?aenenoaiaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe,
a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ae?? ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a ??
?icaeoeo ia i?e?i- , iaci- oa iae?i??aiyo .

Caaaeueia a?iioaca eiie?aoeco?oueny o /anoeiaeo a?iioacao , a naia:

· oni?oia ?aae?caoe?y iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? iiaeeeaa ca oiia noai?aiiy
caeiiiaeaa/i? iniiae ?? ?aae?caoe??, yea a?aoiao? iieiaeaiiy Eiiaaioe??
i?i i?aaa aeeoeie;

· aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?oiuei? eii?aeeioth/i? ?ie? o aca?iiae?? aea?aeaaieo,
a?iiaaenueeeo ? aeaaiae?eieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo oai???
oa i?aeoeee nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe, i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
i?io?eaeoeee, nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae, nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo
eaoaai??e ae?oae oa iieiae?;

· ia?niaeoeai?noue ? iaaeaaia?/ia aeioe?euei?noue oaoiieia?e
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth
caaacia/othoueny ca oiiae a?aooaaiiy iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a eiaeii?
iniaenoino?, yea aenooia? noa’?eoii i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oao?aoe?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? caaaeaiue, eiioeaioe?? oa a?iioace aecia/aii
iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie o oai??? oa
i?aeoeoe? aecia/eoe caeiiii??iino? e oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?.

2. ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a
Oe?a?i? oa ai?iaaaeeoe ?? o ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae?.

3. Iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
oao?aoe?a c nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ia aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa
i?noeaaiio ??aiyo.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe oa i?aeoe/ii ai?iaaaeeoe oaoiieia?? cae?eniaiiy
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae? .

5. ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaoaaoe i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii?
i?aeo?eiee, nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? o
nenoai? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?.

6. Aeyaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a
Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia iieiaeaiiyo oai???
i?ciaiiy, cie?aia, ia a?aooaaii? ?aeiino? caaaeueiiai, iniaeeaiai oa
iaeeie/iiai o nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?, oai??? nenoai, yea
aeicaieeea i?aaenoaaeoe nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io ?iaioo ye neeaaeio ?
aaaaoi??aiaao nenoaio ?c aeanoeaeie ?e i?aenenoaiaie, a oaeiae ia
i?eioeeiao o?einio?? ina?oe, cie?aia o?einio?? ianoaa?eueiino?,
iieiaeaiiyo neia?aaoeee, ui aeaei ciiao aeyaeoe noia?a/iino? ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? caeaaeii a?ae ??cieo oaeoi??a ?? nioe?ae?caoe??,
eoeueoo?ieia??, cie?aia, ?icaeoeo caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae
ethaeeie; iieiaeaiue ineoieia?? iniaenoino?, eiioeaioe?e aoiai?caoe??,
iaaeaaia?ee na?aaeiaeua, iie?eoeueoo?iiai ae?aeiao, iaaeaaia?/ii?
aca?iiae??.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iieiaeaiiy o?einio??,
ineoieia?? oa iaaeaaia?ee uiaei niaoeeo?ee ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?
(I.N.Eaaai, I.I.Eaiioue?a, E.I?eieia, A.A.THae?i) oa ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? ia i?e?i, iaci- oa iae?i??aiyo (E.I.Ao?aa, A.A?o?ian,
O.O.ss?e?ia), nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co noni?eueieo i?ioean?a
(A.Noaeaeia), noai?aiiy oiia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? a oiiaao
aeueoa?iaoeaii? ina?oe (I.Iiioanni??, ?.Ooaeia?), i?eioeei?a
i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, eoeueoo?ia?aeiia?aeiino? oa naiiaeiiiiiae
(A.Ae?noa?aaa, AE.?onni, E.Ianoaeioeoe?), i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? (E.A.Caieia, TH.E.Aaaainueeee,
A.A.Aeaaeaeia, I.O.Oaeec?ia, I.I.Aeaieeia, A.A.Eicaeia, A.?.Uoe?ia,
?.ss.Ea?ia? oa ?i.).

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

oai?aoe/ii — aiaeic oieinionueei? eioa?aoo?e, i?aoeue aio/eciyieo i
ca?oaiaeieo o/aieo c ieoaiue nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe oa nioeiaeueii?
iaaeaaiaiee, eoeueoo?ieiai/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoinoi o eiioaenoi eoeueoo?e iaoei?, eiioeaioeie aeiyeueiiniiai
iiaeoiaeo, oi?ioaaiiy iiceoei? iniaenoinoi, oai?ie iao/iiiy, a?oiiaiai
i?enoinoaaiiy, oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeiaiai
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeinaiaeo;

aiii?e/ii — iaoiaee aeiaaiinoeee, aaeaioiaaii aiaeiiaiaeii aei caaaeaiue
aeineiaeaeaiiy, iaoiaee ianiaiai cae?aiiy aiii?e/iiai iaoa?iaeo
(aieaooaaiiy, iieooaaeueieee, aaniaee, iioa?a’th),
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aenia?eiaioo. A aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoaii
iaoiaee yeinii? oa eieueeinii? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o o?e aoaie i?ioyaii 1990 — 1998 ??.:

Ia ia?oiio aoaii (1990-1993 ??.) aoei aea/aii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii
oieinionueeo, nioeiieiai/io, iaaeaaiai/io oa ineoieiai/io eioa?aoo?o c
i?iaeaie, aeine?aeaeaii aio/eciyiee i naioiaee aeinaiae i?aaiicaoei?
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii? ?iaioe c ?icieie eaoaai?iyie ianaeaiiy,
aea/aii noai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? a Oe?a?i?,
oa?aeoa? ?aae?caoe?? ??cieo i?ia?ai, aecia/aii e?eoa??? ?o nioe?aeueii?
cia/ouino?.

Ia ae?oaiio aoaii (1993-1996 ??.) aoei ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? e aecia/aii
iniiai? ia’?eoe ?? ao?eaiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio, i?noeaaiio
oa ?aeiiiiio ??aiyo; aea/aii noai i?aeaioiaeaiino? nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a aei cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, ie?aieo ?? iai?yi?a;
?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?? nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee, nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe??
oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e iieiae?; i?aai?ciaaii ?o
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

Ia o?aoueiio aoaii (1996-1998 ??.) cae?enithaaany iiooe oeyo?a
?ioaa?aoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth a i?aeia?iaei? i?iaeoe “Nioe?aeueia ina?oa a Oe?a?i?”,
“Caea??”, ni?yiiaai? ia aca?iiae?th aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo ?
aeaaiae?eieo i?aai?caoe?e o ae??oaii? i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?, iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a ??
aoaeoeaiino?, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue i?aeia?iaeiei ii?iai e noaiaea?oai;
aecia/aeenue ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ??cieo i?aenenoai nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe
a Oe?a?i? a i?aeia?iaeiiio eiioaeno?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa?:

· o ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo
nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? a Oe?a?i?;

· o noai?aiii eiioeaioei? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie
ae?oae oa iieiae? a Oe?a?i?;

· o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiii oa i?aeoe/iiio ai?iaaaeaeaiii iiaeaei
i?aaiicaoei? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe ia i?e?i-, iaci- oa
iae?i??aiyo;

· o aeyaeaiii oa ai?iaaoei? iaaeaaiai/ieo oiia ?aaeicaoei? oaoiieiai/ieo
iiaeaeae i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth ia
aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa i?noeaaiio ??aiyo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iaoeiaie ?ic?iaoei
aeooaeueieo ieoaiue oai?i? oa i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? iaaeaaiaiee ?
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae ? iieiae?,
caeiiiii?iinoae i oaiaeaioeie ?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae?; aca?iiae?? aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo ? aeaaiae?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e o ae??oaii? i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae, nioe?aeueii?
aaeaioaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae oa iieiae? a Oe?a?i?;
e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? oa
ai?iaaaeaeaii? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a
ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo neoaea Oe?a?ie; a o/ano? o ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo
Caeiio i?i nioe?aeueio ?iaioo c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?; o
noai?aii? iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aieeao ia iniaeno?noue caeaaeii a?ae iayaieo o ia? i?iaeai; o aecia/aii?
oiia aoaeoeaii? aca?iiae?? aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo oa aeia?iae?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e o cae?eniaii? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe; o
ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaeo niaoeeo?n?a ? ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a i?aeoeee a
nenoaio i?aeaioiaee nioe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?a ? nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a.

I?aeoe/ii aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoei? i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th o ?icieo
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (a?eueo i?ae o 400 oeaio?ao nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae? ??ciiai ??aiy an?o iaeanoae Oe?a?ie), a oaeiae o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao: Oa?e?anuee?e aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa,
Oa?iii?euenueeiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Oa?niinueeiio aoiai?oa?iiio ?inoeooo?,
Iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaaeae? i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea oiui) ? iaaoee iioe?aiiy. Aeayei aniaeoe ?ic?iaeaii? iaie
nenoaie e oaoiieiaie ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy o noai?aii? noaiaea?oia
i?ioani? «nioeiaeueia iaaeaaiaiea», inaioiuei-i?ioanieii? i?ia?aie,
caoaa?aeaeaii? Iiiinoa?noaii inaioe Oe?a?ie. ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aeey
neeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo ieaiia ? i?ia?ai ca aeaiith niaoeiaeuei?noth
aeei?enoiaothoue aeeeaaea/? ee?anueeeo, oa?eianueeeo, eoaainueeeo aocia
(oiiaa?neoaoia oa aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa, ?inoeooo?a i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe).

O aeine?aeaeaii? (ia ??cieo eiai aoaiao) acyee o/anoue iiiaae 600
i?aoe?aiee?a oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, 2 oeny/
nooaeaio?a, 80 aeeeaaea/?a.

Ai?iaiaeiinoue oa a?aoiaioiaai?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia ? aeniiaeia
caaacia/othoueny canoinoaaiiyi ?iciiiaiioieo iaoiaeia
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, cia/iei ioiieaiiyi iei
o/anieeia aeineiaeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, eieueeiniei oa yeiniei
aiaeicii aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo, ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoth aeai?ee,
iiaeeeainoth aiaeoai?aiiy aenia?eiaioo oa cinoaaeaiiy eiai ?acoeueoaoia
c ianiaei nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaiai/iei aeinaiaeii.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a?eueo i?ae o 400 oeaio?ao
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, a oaeiae o Caii?icueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao?, a Oa?eianuee?e Aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa, o Ee?anueeiio
oiiaa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa o Iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaaeae? i?e
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oi?aa?neoao? “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeaiiy”.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoei eiioeaioei?
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?, a iaa?oiooaaiii
neeaaeiaeo oei?? nenoaie, oaoiieiaie ?? ?aaeicaoei?, aeyaeaiii oiia
aoaeoeaiiai ?? ooieoeiiioaaiiy, caeieniaiii aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aai?ee
oa aiaeico ?acoeueoaoeaiinoi i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?ciaaii ? i?iaaaeaii iniaenoi
aaoi?ii i?aeia?iaei? nai?ia?e oa eiioa?aioe??: “Aieiioa?e na?aae ae?oae
oa i?aee?oe?a: Oe?iiino?. Aoeea. Ai?iiy nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe”
(I?aeia?iaeia e?oiy oeiea aeey aieiioa??a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, Ee?a,
1998 ?.), “Nioe?aeueia ina?oa a Oe?a?i?: iiaeeeaino? iiaiai i?iaeoo” oa
“Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa ye i?ioan?y” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.), “Iaoiaee nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth: iaoe?iiaeueiee oa i?aeia?iaeiee
aniaeoe” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1998 ?.), “Aoeea oa oe?iiino? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe”
(Ee?a, 1998 ?.), “Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa c n?i’yie oa ae?oueie, ye? iathoue
a?aeoeeaiiy o iiaaae?ioe?” (Iaeana, 1998 ?.), “?icaeoie nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?oueie ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy” (Oa?iii?eue, 1998 ?.),
“Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa c ae?oueie a?oi ?eceeo: i?io?eaeoeea aeeiaie?cio oa
ia?eiiai??” (Iaeana, 1998 ?.); “I?io?eaeoeea ia?eiiai?? oa oieneeiiai??
na?aae i?aee?oe?a (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999), “Iaoiae Peer Education o
nioe?aeuei?e ?iaio? c i?aee?oeaie oa iieiaeaeth” (Oa?iii?eue, 1999);
aaoi? a?aea o/anoue o Anana?oiueiio eiia?an? “Ie? oa nioe?aeueia
ni?aaaaeeea?noue — ci?ithaaiiy iaee//y nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe” (?c?a?eue,
??onaeei, 1998 ?.), i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “Oeyoe aea?inoeooae?caoe??
ae?oae a e?a?iao eieeoiueiai Nithco” (AEaiaaa, 1998 ?.), ?a?iiaenuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? aaouee?a-aeoiaaoae?a “Oinoa?nueea i?aeo?eiea ae?oae”
(Ie?aaeueoaca, Oai?ueia, 1998 ?.) oa ?i.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? o
68 iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo (c ieo aac ni?aaaoi??a — 33),
o oii /ene?: 1 iiiia?ao?y, 4 iaa/aeueieo iin?aieee, 28 iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? iaoa??ae?a, 36 noaoae oa oac. Caaaeueiee ianya
iniaenoiai aianeo noaiiaeoue iiiaae 75,5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Eiioeaioeiy nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?,
ui yaey? niaith aaaaoi??aiaao nenoaio, i?aenenoaie yei? ? a?aeiinii
naiino?eieie, oaoiieia?/ieie oa aoaeoeaieie caeaaeii a?ae ia’?eoa
(iai?yio nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe) oa noa’?eoa (eaoaai??? ae?oae oa iieiae?)
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao.

2. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oaoiieia?e nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c eiaeiiai
iai?yio-i?aenenoaie, ye? iathoue nioe?aeueia ni?yioaaiiy, ui
aeyaey?oueny o iao?, i?eioeeiao, ci?no?, oi?iao, iaoiaeao ? e?eoa??yo
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?oae oa iieiae? .

3. E?eoa??? aoaeoeaii? aeiyeueiinoi nenoaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? ia aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa
i?noeaaiio ??aiyo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, 4
?icaeieia, caaaeueieo aeniiaeia (ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo — 390 n.),
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (822), c ieo ?iicaiieie iiaaie — 35 ,
aeiaeaoeia — 19 n. O ?iaio? ai?uaii 9 noai, 7 oaaeeoeue.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo ca iaoeia? eiinoeueoaoe?? ae?eniiio /eaio
AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?o iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o IE*EAEI Iae?
A?eai??ai?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy,
eiioeaioe?y, iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, aecia/a?oueny oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ye iniiae nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth” ?ice?eoi nooi?noue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ye iniiae nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth,
aoaie ?? ?icaeoeo o na?oiaiio oa a?o/eciyiiio nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio
eiioaeno?, iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaiooaeuei? iiceoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy /a?ac
aecia/aiiy ci?noo, iai?yi?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe.

Ia iniia? aiae?co o?einionueeiai ci?noo ae?yeueiino? aecia/aii
aca?iica’ycie eaoaai??e “ae?yeuei?noue”, “nioe?aeueia ?iaioa”,
“iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue” “nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa” e??cue
i?ecio iniaeno?niiai i?aeoiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?yae iiceoe?e,
?ic?iaeaieo o?einioaie, ? iniiaiiieiaeieie aeey ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aiae?co ci?noo ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?. O nai?io
aeine?aeaeaii? ie aeoiaeeee c oaeeo iiceoe?e:

1. Ae?yeuei?noue – oea ooiaeaiaioaeueia o?einionueea iiiyooy, yea ca
nai?i ci?noii iiaeia ii??aiyoe c eaoaai??yie noni?eueiiai aoooy ?
na?aeiiino?, aiii ? ?iaeiaei a?aeiinii aoaeue-yeeo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?.
Oea – eeth/iaa iiiyooy aeey ?icoi?iiy niaoeeo?ee “na?oo ethaeeie “
(A.AE.Eaeea, A.N.Oae?ueia), ?? aca?iiae?? c nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai.

2. Niaoeeo?ea nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe ye ??ciiaeaeo
ae?yeueiino? ia o?eueee aecia/a?oueny aeioe?euei?noth, ?? nooue
aeyaey?oueny ianaiia?aae o aeai??, i?eioeeiia?e “a?aee?eoino?” iniia,
a?eueiiio oai?/iio oe?eaiieeaaeaii? (A.N.Oae?ueia, ?.O.Eanaa?i,
I.N.Ceia?i).

3. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa ia iiaea caiaeeoeny eeoa aei aiae?co
noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiinei aai aei ia?aoai?aiiy ia’?eoeaii?
?aaeueiino?: ?nio? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae o ieai? ?? “caeaoiino? aei naiici?ie”, “aeyao
na?oo ethaenueei? noa’?eoeaiino?”, oi?ioaaiiy iio?aae o ni?eeoaaii?,
?icoi?ii?, ae?aeic? oiui (A.N.Oae?ueia).

4. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa ia iaiaaeo?oueny aeniain??th
ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo, eiai aaniethoecaoe??th: aiia i?iieco? an?
noi?iie ethaenueeiai aoooy, aea ia ? eiai ?aeeiith iniiaith, aeeaeiiith
nooi?noth (A.AE.Eaeea, A.N.Aao?uaa), ine?eueee aaaaoicia/i?noue
iniaeno?nieo i?iaeai aeiaaa? canoiniaoaaiiy eiaeiiai ?aco iiaiai
i?aeoiaeo, iiai? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ia?aaeeaie.

5.Iniiaith ?icaeoeo ? ?icoi?iiy noni?eueiiai aeeooy ? ?aei?noue
ae?yeueiino? oa noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, a ia ae?yeuei?noue ye oaea
(A.AE.Eaeea). Oiio nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa ye nenoaia caeaoia
aei naii?icaeoeo, ci?ie ie?aieo ?? i?aenenoai caeaaeii a?ae iio?aa
noni?euenoaa ? ethaeeie.

Aaiacen ?icaeoeo aeoiaiiai nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua ?
a?aeiia?aeieo oei?a nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o eiioaeno? nioe?aeueii?
iaaeaaia?ee ? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?.

Oaea ia ii/aoeo XIX no. nai oa?i?i “nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea” iaa iaoeiaa
oeoia/aiiy o aeaio cia/aiiyo: ye ?ioaa?aoe?y aeoiaieo nee noni?euenoaa c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy ia?iaeo (I.Iaoi?i) ? ye
nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa ciaaeieaiei ae?oyi, i?eeoaaiiy i?i ieo,
i?io?eaeoeea i?aaiii?ooaiue na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o (A.Iieue, A.Aieia?).
I?ioa, oiae? oe? aeaa iiiyooy ?nioaaee ia?aeaeueii: naia iaoea aeieeea
?c i?aaiaiiy i?ia?aneaieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo ae?y/?a i?ioenoiyoe
aioeaoiai?cio ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa, eeania?e, ?ania?e,
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeene?ei?iaoe?? ae?oae o aaeoc? ina?oe.

O nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aenia?eiaioao ?.Ioaia oa E.Ianoaeioeoe?,
iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? a ?o eiioeaioe?yo, aoei /?oei
aecia/aii aoiai?noe/io ni?yiiaai?noue, iaiaaaiiy oae i?aai?coaaoe
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean, uia a?i a?aeiia?aeaa a?aeiiio ?nioaaiith
ae?oae, ?oi?i iio?aaai, oo?aioai. Iai?eeeaae, ?.Ioai ia i?ioeaaao
?nioth/iio o ao?aeoaciiio noni?euenoa? i?aeoiaeo, yeee ineoieia?/ii
i???ioo? iniaeno?noue ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia, aai?noe/ia “ss”, a iniiao
nai?? eiioeaioe?? iieeaa iiiyooy “Ie”. Oe? oeiee aoee i?e?a/ai? ia
caaeaaeue, oiio ui noni?euenoai ?noi?e/ii aoei ia aioiaa aei ?o
ni?eeiyooy. Aea o niiaaaeao ethaeae aeina?ae i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy iiaeo
?aeae aeoiaaiiy ? iaa/aiiy caeeoeany ye c?acie aaee/? oa ioaeiino?
aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a. Ni?iae iaaeaaia?a-i?ina?oeoae?a ciaeoe ?aaeuei?
ca’ycee oeiee c aeeooyi, i?aai?coaaoe aca?iiae?th i?ioean?a aeoiaaiiy ?
iaa/aiiy c nioe?aeueiith ae?eni?noth iineoaeeee ia?aaeoiiaith no/anieo
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia ii/aoeo XX no. o I?ia//ei? c ?aea?th ia’?aeiaiiy an?o aeoiaieo
iiaeeeainoae noni?euenoaa aenooiea i?io. I.Iaoi?i, i?aaenoaaiee
iaeueao?cueei? oeiee iaieaio?ainoaa, yeee i?eeoia aei ?aea? i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? oeiee ia iniia? ?ioaa?aoe?? aeoiaieo nee noni?euenoaa. O
NOA oa ?a?ii? cia/iiai iioe?aiiy iaaoee iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea? Aeae.Aeueth?.
Oeiee iaeaooiueiai, ca Aeae.Aeueth?, iiaeii? aoee i?aai?/ii
a?aeia?aaeaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iio?aae noni?euenoaa, e iaoe /?oei
aecia/ai? eeania? iciaee (oeiee aeey ia?iaeo – oea oeiee i?aaiaoe/i?).

Noaiiaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee iia’ycaii c aeeneon??th
o o?einionuee?e oa nioe?ieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? c ieoaiue i?i nioe?ae?ci,
eiai iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? o aeoiaaii? ethaeeie iiaiai oeio:
ethaeeie-oai?oey, ethaeeie-a?iiaaeyieia, ethaeeie-eieaeoea?noa. ??
o/anieeaie aoee A.Nieiaeia, A.Niaina?, A.Eoia/a?nueeee oa ?i. O
?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? aoee iiioey?i? iiaeyaee O.Aeinoi?anueeiai,
E.Oienoiai i?i ia?aoai?aiiy noni?euenoaa ia iniia? ii?aeueiiai
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy ethaeeieth.

?aeay i?i ?ieue ethaenueei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a nioe?ae?noe/iiio
noni?euenoa? aoea ?icaeiaia a i?aoeyo aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo
o/aieo-iaaeaaia?a A.Eoia/a?nueeiai, I.E?oinueei?, I.Aeiinueeiai oa ?i.
Caaaeyee ?o i?aai?caoe?ei?e oa iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oeiea
ia?aoai?eeany ia aeoeaio noni?eueio neeo, ui nooo?ai aieeaaea ia
iaaeieeoith ae?eni?noue. Oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeiaeua nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
aeoiaaioe?a, eoeueoo?iee aieea ia noni?euenoai a oe?eiio aa?eoei a eiei
i?yieo iaia’yce?a iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo. Iaaeaaia?/i? iiceoe??
N.Oaoeueeiai, A.Ooeuea?ia, I.E?oiai?ii?, A.Eaeaoi?eiaa, A.I?ieaae/a oa
?o eieaa cacaiaaaee ianeaiiai iii?o i?oiaeienaeueieo a/aieo o ieoaiiyo
?ie? oa i?noey oeiee a noni?euenoa?. Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea 20-o ?ie?a
?icaeaaeany ca oaeeie iai?yiaie: oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae
aca?iiae?? oeiee c nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiaeee
iaaeaaia?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo ca’yce?a ?c n?i’?th, a?iiaaenuee?noth,
aea?aeaaith, o/anoue oeiee o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? oa ai?iouea?, aca?iiae?y
oeiee c aeiiii?eith ?aa?iio, i?aeianaiiy aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ca’ycie c oai?/ith ?ioae?aaioe??th, ai?ioueaa
c aaci?eooeuei?noth, aaaeeiaeoiaoaai?noth, o/anoue o e?ea?aeaoe??
aaca?aiioiino? ianaeaiiy, i?aeianaiiy o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oeiey??a,
anueiai ia?iaeo.

Eiioeaioe?th aca?iiae?? oeiee ? na?aaeiaeua ?ic?iaeyee aeaeaoi?
iaaeaaiae oiai /ano, ea??aieee ?inoeoooo iaoiae?a oe?eueii? ?iaioe
I.E?oiai?ia oa A.Ooeuea?i. I?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano ?o aaaaeaee
i?aaenoaaieeaie “aioeeai?inueei? oai??? a?aeie?aiiy oeiee”. Iacaaaeath/e
ia iaai? iaaeie?ee, ?oiy eiioeaioe?y i?noeea oe?eee ?yae ?aeae, ye? ia
ao?aoeee nai?? aeooaeueiino? e aeioaia?. Ii-ia?oa, oea ?aeay uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? aea/aiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, eiai aieeao ia oeieo.
Nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua, ia ?oith aeoieo, – oea oeiea, aoeeoey, oaa?eea,
n?i’y, ?aaee i?ioni?eie, aac aca?iiae?? c yeeie oeiea ia iiaea ae??oeoe
nai? caaaeaiiy. A oeueiio ieoaii? cia/iee aieea iaee ?aea? Aeae.Aeueth?
i?i iaa/aiiy a oiae? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Ii-ae?oaa, ?aeay
i?aai?/ii? ?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua oa oeiee a ae?yeueiino? inoaiiuei?. Oeth
aeoieo iiae?eya N.Oaoeueeee. ?ioeie neiaaie, i?ioean aca?iiae?? oeiee oa
na?aaeiaeua ia? aeaia?/iee oa?aeoa?. A?i ia?aaeaa/a? ao?o/aiiy oeiee a
na?aaeiaeua, ca ?aooiie /iai i?aeaeuo?oueny eiai aeoiaiee iioaioe?ae,
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaeaaia?caoe?y naiiai na?aaeiaeua. Ca’ycie oeiee c
na?aaeiaeuai ia? aeoeaiee oa?aeoa?: cae?enith?oueny ia o?eueee aea/aiiy,
a e ia?aaoaeiaa c o?aooaaiiyi aeoiaieo caaaeaiue.

Oe? ?aea? a?oiooaaeeny ia aaeeeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio iaoa??ae?.
Iaaeaaiae ?ic?iaeee oe?eaa? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy na?aaeiaeua, nenoaio
aei??thaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe. E??i oiai, aoee ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae?,
ye? iaee a?aeiia?aeaoe iio?aaai na?aaeiaeua ? caaaeaiiyi aeoiaaiiy
aeoeaiiai aoae?aieea iiaiai noni?euenoaa. Na?aae ieo: ae?iaie/a oeiea
(oeiea o?oaeiaa ? iie?oaoi?/ia, aea iaa/aiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia iniia?
ae?iaie/i? i?aoe?). Iaa/aeueiee i?ioean o oeeo oeieao aoa iane/aiee
e?a?ciaa/ei iaoa??aeii, iin?aieee iaee i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae i?noa ? naea. Iiceoeaiee ci?no oeeo oe?e –
oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy oa iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?
aeoiaaioe?a.

Nooo?aee aianie o ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie c?iaea N.Oaoeueeee – aeaeaoiee
a?o/eciyiee o/aiee-iaaeaaia. Naia eiio iaeaaeeoue oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?ie? oeiee oeo ?ie?a. Aecia/ath/e
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? oeiee c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai, a?i i?aee?anethaaa, ui a iaooe? oa i?aeoeoe? neeaeeny o?e
a?aei?iieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai aa??aioe oeiee. Ia?oee iieyaa? a oiio, ui
oeiea aeeiio? o?eueee i?ina?oieoeueeo ooieoe?th, a na?aaeiaeua – eeoa
caaaaea? iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaeoeao aeeiioaaoe naith ni?aao. Oeae iiaeyae
iieeaaeaii a iniiao niaoe?aeueieo oe?eueieo iin?aiee?a, i?aaeiaoii?
nenoaie; aeii?ioaaea a??a o caaa?oai?noue iaa/aiiy. Aeey ae?oaiai
aa??aioa oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui oeiea caoe?eaaeaii noaaeoueny aei
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua — c iiaeyaeo o??? ei?eno?, yeo iaa/aeueiee
caeeaae iiaea iaoe aeey naiai ?nioaaiiy. Oeae iiaeyae aoei iieeaaeaii a
iniiao aeayeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oai??e Aiae??, O?aioe??, Oaaeoea???,
Aia?eee, ui ni?eyei aeieeiaiith oae caaieo oe?e aeeooy, aea iaioaaee
?aea? i?aaiaoecio. O?ao?e aa??aio — oea oaeoe/ia ?aei?noue oeiee ?
na?aaeiaeua, oiaoi i?aai?caoe?y oe?e?niiai aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o
na?aaeiaeu?.

?aeaioe/i? i?ioeane a?aeaoaaeeny o oie /an ? a Oe?a?i?. ?yae aeaeaoieo
iaaeaaia?a a?aenoithaaee ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaiiai ?aeaaeo
(A.Aauaiei), aca?iica’yceo oeiee ? nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua (N.?oniaa),
noai?aiiy nenoaie i?io?eaeoe/ii? oa ?anioe?ae?caoe?eii? ?iaioe c
aacaeiaeyaeieie ae?oueie (A.Iaea?aiei). Cai?iiiiiaai? ieie iiaeae?
nioe?aeueiiai aieeao ia iniaeno?noue ia ao?aoeee aeooaeueiino? e
aeioaia?.

Iiiiaeaiiy iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee
a?aeaoeiny o?eueee a 50-60-o ?ieao. Iaeia?niaeoeai?o? ? iaeoe?eaa?o?
iiaeyaee aoee aeeeaaeai? a i?aoeyo A.Ia??iaa?a ? A.Oethoia?a, ye?
aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui aeeoeia – ia i?inoi ia’?eo aeoiaaiiy, a ianaiia?aae
ethaeeia, yea ia? nai? aeeoo?a? iio?aae. Oiio ?? ni?eeiyooy a oeie? eeoa
ye o/iy — /anoeia i?iaeaie. ”Ianioe?aeueia”, ”cae?eoa” oeiea ia o?eueee
ia aei?aaey? iaaeie?ee aeeoeie, a e iiaeeaeth? ?o. Aieiaiith iaoith
ae?yeueiino? oe?eueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai eieaeoeao ia? aooe i?eeoaaiiy i?i
aeaiaioa?i? aeeoo?a? iio?aae aeeoeie, ui ni?eyoeia ?? nioe?aeuei?e
i???ioaoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy a/eoaeyie o nai?e ?iaio? iaoiae?a
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiiiaaa? caa?aaoe “iaee//y” oeiee, noai?eoe oiiae aeey caoe?eaaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?a ? aaouee?a o aeoiaaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? aeeoeie,
a?aoiaoth/e ?? iiceoeai? ?ene, aeiiiiiaoe o nioe?aeueiiio
naiiaecia/aii?.

Aaaeeea? i?ioeane a?aeaoaaeenue o aioo??oe?eueiiio aeeoo?. A ia?aaeiaeo
oeieao ii/aea oi?ioaaoeny aeoiaia nenoaia, yea ia?aaeaa/aea aecia/aiiy
eiiieaeno oe?eae, ae?yeueiino? c ?o ?aae?caoe??, a?aeiinei, ui
ia?iaeaeothoueny a i?ioean? oaei? ae?yeueiino? i?ae ?? o/anieeaie,
ea??aieo ae?e iaaeaaia?a ? naieo aeoiaaioe?a, aieeao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, c yeei aca?iiae?? oeiea.

Aoiai?caoe?y oe?eae nenoaie, i?aai?caoe?y ae?yeueiino?, yea a iaeiaeiai
caoiiethaaea ? ae?oae, ? aei?ineeo, ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith a?aeiinei
aeia??e ? aca?iiiiaaae, noai?aiith a oeie? ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
?icaeoeo an?o aeoiaaioe?a. Oiio oaeei oe?eaaei aeey ian oaia? ? aeina?ae
Iaaeenueei? oeiee (A.Nooiieeinueeee), ?iaioa oe?eueieo ? iicaoe?eueieo
iaaeaaia?a-i?aai?caoi??a. Caaaeyee ?oi?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
ii/aeeny c?ooaiiy a iai?yieo ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? aeoiaaiiy, a?aee?eoino?
oe?eueii? nenoaie aeey aieeao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aeei?enoaiiy
oeueiai aieeao a iniaeno?niiio ?icaeoeo aeeoeie.

Ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a niinoa??aaany i?ioean, yeee aaeueioaaa
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue oeiee, c’yaeeeny o?eaiaei? iciaee
a?ae?eao oe?eueii? ni?aae a?ae noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Oaoeoecaoe?y
a?aeii/eo iieaciee?a ?iaioe a/eoaey i?ecaaea aei a?aeiii?
“i?ioeaioiiai??”, cieceea ii?aeueiee aaoi?eoao oeiee, a?aeaeeany ia
yeino? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a.

Oiae?, eiee aeaeaoi? ca?oa?aei? a/ai? i?ae?eoee aei nioe?ae?caoe?? ye
i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy c iiceoe?e ?ioaa?aoe?? iaaeaaia?a ?c noni?euenoaii, a
iaaeaaia?eo na?oiaiai ??aiy ii/aee iinooiiai iiaa?oaoeny iiaeyaee
I.Iaoi?ia. Iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea anoaea ia?aae i?iaeaiith i?aai?/iiai
ca’yceo c o?einio??th, nioe?ieia??th, aeiiii?eith, i?e?iaeiciaanoaii,
aea a?o/eciyi? iaaeaaiae iaeiia?/ii i???iooaaeeny o nai?o iaoeiaeo ?
i?aeoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy aeeaeaeoeee iaa/aiiy. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aei ieoaiue ina?oe ia aeaa iiaeeeaino? nai?/anii a?ae?aaaoaaoe
ia ?ic?ea iieie?iue o n?i’?, iiyao noeo?eieo ioe?iie o iioeaaoe??
iaoi?iaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy iieiae? oiui.

Ia oeth neooaoe?th io?oe?eia iaaeaaia?ea a?aeaoeioeany i?iaieioaiiyi
oeiee oeaio?ii aeoiaii? ?iaioe. Aea oea ia aeaei a?ae/ooieo
?acoeueoao?a. Ii-ia?oa, ca aeiaa? ?iee ciaaaaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei
i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo aoee ao?a/ai? iaae/ee ea?oaaiiy
na?aaeiaeuai aeoiaaiiy, ii-ae?oaa, c iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a i?oee
ethaee, ye? cae?enithaaee ?aaeueiee ca’ycie c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai.
Iaa?oue ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? oeiea ia iaea iiaeeeaino? i?aeiyoeny iaae
aaiaeueiei eiai aeaeea?oaaiiyi o caaaeuei?e oi?i?. Io?oe?eia onoaiiaea
“oeiea–oeaio? i?e?i?aeiio” noaea caniaii onoiaiiy a?ae ?iaioe a
na?aaeiaeu? ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooe?e noni?euenoaa. Aea aaea ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie aeeeeeaei iio?aao noni?euenoaa o
aeei?enoaii? ia?aaeiaiai a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae?. A e?a?i? ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny
?icaaeoaeaia nenoaia ??cieo eiiieaen?a (nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo,
o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/eo, n?euenueeeo oe?e-eiiieaen?a oiui). Oea iiaeia
iacaaoe ni?iaith iaaoooy nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo
eiiieaenii? i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ia ??ai? i?e?i?aeiio. Noai?aiiy
eiiieaen?a ? ea?oaaiiy ?o ?iaioith iaaiee /an no?eioaaeeny /a?ac
i?aai?caoe?eii-eaae?ia? oa o?iainia? o?oaeiiu?. Aea a aeeoo?
noni?euenoaa oiae? aaea ?aaeueii ?nioaaea iio?aaa o iiooeo iiaeo oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ? ?ai?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? oeiee
a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. A ia?aaeiaeo oeieao ii/aea oi?ioaaoeny
aeoiaia nenoaia, yea ia?aaeaa/aea aecia/aiiy eiiieaeno oe?eae,
ae?yeueiino? c ?o ?aae?caoe??, a?aeiinei, ui ia?iaeaeothoueny a oae?e
ae?yeueiino? i?ae ?? o/anieeaie, ocaiaeaeaieo ae?e iaaeaaia?a ? naieo
aeoiaaioe?a, aieeao na?aaeiaeua (O.A?thoiaaoeueeee, A.Caoa?aiei,
A.Ea?aeianueeee). Aecia/eeany oaiaeaioe?y aei ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a aieeao
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, iineeaiiy ?ie? iaoi?iaeueieo,
iica?inoeoooe?eieo i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia (O.Aiiiaoa?e?, I.Aocee,
N.Eenaieiaa, A.Oaoaeia oa ?i.). Ia?niaeoeaa ? aeiiae ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa yne?aai aeyaeee oaiaeaioe?th nooo?ai? ia?aaoaeiae oa
iiiaeaiiy ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie a e?a?i?, caaacia/aiiy ??
oe?e?niino?.

Oa?aeoa?ia aeey nueiaiaeaiiy oaaaa iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee aei ieoaiue
oaeineiiaeaiiy aacia?a?aii i?aai?ciaaiiai (oe?eueii-iicaoe?eueiiai)
ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai i?inoi?o, ae?yeueiino? oeiee o nenoai? nioe?aeueieo
ca’yce?a — yaeua caeiiii??ia, iiaoaeiaaia ia ia’?eoeaii ae?th/eo
caeiiao. I?ioean ia?aaoaeiae noni?euenoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o no/ani?e iie?oe/i?e nenoai?, o/ano?
a?iiaaenueeino?, anueiai ia?iaeo o aeoiaaii? ae?oae ye caeiiii??i?noue
?icaeoeo nenoaie aeoiaaiiy oa ina?oe, yea a?aeia?aaea? aeaiie?aoecaoe?th
noni?euenoaa, c?iaeee iei? eiino?oeoeaia ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie
iiaeeeaei ? ae?ae iaiao?aeiei. Oe? oaeoi?e noai?eee oiiae aeey noaaeaiiy
noni?euenoaa aei iniaenoino? ye aei noa’?eoa aeoiaaiiy, aeoeaii? o/ano?
eiaeii? iniaenoino? a nioe?aeueii cia/oui? ae?yeueiino?, aeoiaaiiy a i?e
ii/oooy ainiiaea?y naiai ?aeiio, i?noa, noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio. Ca?aene
caaaeaiiy uiaei caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aii?, iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaiiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee nioe?aeueii?
neooaoe?? ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? oa ?? ineoieia?/ii? iiceoe?? ia an?o
a?eiaeo aoaiao ? a ??cieo noa?ao i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, ui ?? ioi/o? (n?i’y,
eean, oeiea, aoaeeiie, eeoa, iaoi?iaeueia a?oia oiui), c o?aooaaiiyi
on?o noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy (aaoueee, iaaeaaiae ??cieo
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenuee?noue).

Cia/ii c??n ?ioa?an oeiee oa ?ioeo aeoiaieo ?inoeoooe?e aei
i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, yea ioi/o? aeeoeio iica io?oe?eieie ?inoeoooe?yie
aeoiaaiiy ? iniaeeai – aei iaenoaa?euei?oiai ioi/aiiy
(nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy).

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny i?ia?aeia eiioeaiooaeueia ?aeay i?i oa, ui
nioe?aeueia ?iaioa ye i?aeoe/iee aeya i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ?
iieiae? o noni?euenoa? cae?enith?oueny a oaeeo i??i?eoaoieo iai?yiao:
nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea, nioe?aeueia ianeoaiaoaaiiy, a oiio /ene?
nioe?aeuei? iineoae e nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa, nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y c
aeanoeaeie ?e i?aenenoaiaie, ci?noii, oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe (Aeea. noaio).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea ye iniiaa i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth” i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoeia?
i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, ye? canoiniaothoueny
ca?oa?aeieie oa a?o/eciyieie ineoieiaaie ? iaaeaaiaaie, aecia/a?oueny
nooue i?aaaioeaii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae? a
nenoai? ina?oe, aecia/athoueny neeaaeia? nenoaie aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
aeeoy/eo oa thiaoeueeeo ?i?oe?aoea, iaa?oioiaothoueny i?aaia? canaaee
cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe a aeeoy/iio oa
thiaoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aiae?c i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo ineoieia?a ? iaaeaaia?a
(O.Aeana?, ?.Eii, E.Eieaa?a, I.Eaiioue?a, A.Iaea?aiei, I.I?ae,
A.A??enii, A.Ia?ea?i, AE.I?aaea, C.O?aeae) aeaa ciiao aecia/eoe iniiai?
oaeoi?e nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? ia ??cieo aoaiao ?? ?icaeoeo (n?i’y,
oeiea, i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, ?ae?a?y, iie?oeea oiui), iieacaa ?o
caeaaei?noue a?ae ??aiy aaeaioiaaiino? iniaenoino? ia iae?i-, iaci- oa
i?e?i??aiyo. Aeiaaaeaii oaiaeaioe?th i?aaaethaaiiy ?ie? oeiee ye
i?ia?aeii? ?inoeoooe?? nioe?ae?caoe?? ia iaoa??ae? ao?eaiiy iiaeaeae
i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oa iieiae? o ca?oa?aeiiio ?
a?o/eciyiiio aeina?ae? (NOA, Aaeeea A?eoai?y, I?ia//eia, O?aioe?y,
Iieueua, ?in?y, Oe?a?ia).

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aaaioeaii?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie ? iieiaeaeth a noa?? ina?oe
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaee?au? caeiaooee o oe?e aaeoc? nioe?aeueii?
iaaeaaia?ee aeinyaathoueny oeyoii aca?iiae?? ??cieo
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a, ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo ?
a?iiaaenueeeo onoaiia, caeeaae?a oa i?aai?caoe?e.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii ?aeath i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeio?eiaiiy ? caoenoo
a i?aaaioeai?e ?iaio? i?aa ae?oae oa iieiae?. Niaoeeo?ea ? iniiaia
ni?yiiaai?noue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai caoenoo aeeoeinoaa
aeyaey?oueny a ineaaeaii? aeey ae?oae iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, a oaeiae noai?aii? oiia aeey
?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a ? aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeieo iio?aa ae?oae caaaeyee
aeaeici?iai ? noai?aiith iiaeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a. Iineeaiiy
aoiai?oa?ii? ni?yiiaaiino? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe
a?aeia?aaea?oueny a ?? i?eioeeiao, onoaiiaoe? – a?ae ?iaeea?aea a eiai
eiie?aoi?e neooaoe?? aei oe?e?niiai aa/aiiy ethaeeie a ?? oe?ieiio
nioe?aeueiiio ioi/aii?. Oea icia/a?, ui nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa
ia? a?oiooaaoeny e i???iooaaoeny ia i??i?eoao ??ciia?/ieo
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae, oiaoi ia ni?eeiaiiy ethaeeie a ??
aca?iica’yceao c i?e?iaeith, noni?euenoaii, aeiaaeueieie i?iaeaiaie,
coiiaeaieie iniaeeainoyie oa ?aae?yie yaea?iiai a?eo, ia na?oiao
eoeueoo?o, cie?aia, ia oae? caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?, ye?
caeeaaeathoueny ia?iaeiith iaaeaaia?eith, ?iaeeiiei na?aaeiaeuai, a
oaeiae ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iniiae ii?aeueiino?.

Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee caoeno aeeoeinoaa ?aae?co?oueny o oaeeo
iai?yiao:

— caaaeueiiina?oi?e (aeiiii?aeiee, iicaoe?eueiee ? i?ioan?eiee), i?ae
/an yeiai noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? caaaeyee ?icoe?aiith ia?aaee aeeoy/eo, i?aee?oeiaeo,
iieiae?aeieo ia’?aeiaiue, oe?e, eo?n?a, naeoe?e, eeoa?a ca ?ioa?anaie;
iiaeeaeththoueny iaoeia? nioe?aeuei? ciaiiy i?i noni?euenoai, iniao,
n?i’th, noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? caaaeyee ?icaeoeo neoaea
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae; cae?enith?oueny i?aeo?eiea
aeeoy/eo, i?aee?oeiaeo ? iieiae?aeieo ?i?oe?aoea c? noai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo
nii?oeaii-icaei?ia/eo caeeaae?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy nii?oeaieo caoiae?a,
i?aai?caoe?? n?iaeiiai nii?oeaiiai aeica?eey oiui; ?icaeaa?oueny
oaoi?/ia ? ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue ae?oae ia iniia? ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai caoenoo iaaea?iaaieo ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a;
i?aai?ciaothoueny aeieia?/i? aeniaaeeoe??, oaeoeueoaoeae c aea/aiiy
?noi???, iiae, eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee i?aee?oe?a ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee iieiae?, i?aai?caoe?? eo?n?a,
eiinoeueoaoe?e;

— aeoiaii-i?io?eaeoe/iee, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia aeyaeaii? iani?eyoeeaeo
ineoia?ieia?/ieo oiia, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoi??a, ui
coiiaeththoue a?aeoeeaiiy o ineo?/iiio ? nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo ae?oae,
i?aee?oe?a, iieiae?, a ?oi?e iiaaae?ioe?, noai? caei?ia’y oiui. C oe??th
iaoith aaeeaathoueny i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? caoiaee ii noai?aiith
aeoiaoth/iai na?aaeiaeua ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy ae?oae, aeeth/aiiy
??cieo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooe?e o i?ioean aeoiaaiiy, iaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ae?oyi ?c n?iae a?oie ?eceeo;
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino? oa i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o caaaeyee
noai?aiith ?iai/eo i?noeue aeey iieiae? e iaiiaiie?oi?o a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee; i?aeo?eiee ae?yeueiino? ??ciiai ?iaeo onoaiia
nii?oo, eoeueoo?e, i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey;

— ioi?iiiee (ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee), yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io ioi?iio ? caoeno ae?oae (ia i?ioeaaao ?nioth/?e
nenoai? ea?aeueieo caoiae?a), iaiiaiie?oi?o c a?aeoeeaiiyie o
iiaaae?ioe?; ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a, ye? caciaee aei?noieino?, ianeeuenoai;
iaiiaiie?oi?o, ye? iiaa?ioeeny c i?noeue iicaaaeaiiy aie?; noai?aiiy
th?eaee/ieo eiinoeueoaoeaieo ioieo?a, ui iathoue caaacia/oaaoe caoeno
i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a aeeoeie, ?ic’ynithaaoe iieiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i i?eueae iieiaeei n?i’yi, ae?ieai, iaiiaiie?oi?i,
iieiae?; nioe?aeueii-i?aaiao ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io i?aeo?eieo ae?oae c
iaiiaieo n?iae, oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiaiai noaaeaiiy aei nai?o aaouee?anueeeo
ooieoe?e oeo, ooi ?iceo/eany ? i?oia c n?i’?, a oaeiae aaouee?a, ye? ia
aoee a oetha?; iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aeiiiiiae ne?ioai,
?iaae?aeai ? n?i’yi ?iaae?ae?a, ui iathoue iaiiaiie?oi?o ae?oae,
iaeicaaacia/aiei n?i’yi a?oie ?eceeo, ae?oyi, ye? noaee aea?oaaie
aeieia?/ieo ? oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io, a oaeiae oei, ooi iio?aiea a ?io?
aeno?aiaeuei? neooaoe?? (a?aeaioe?, ia?anaeaioe?) oiui.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
caoenoo iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae oe?ieiai ?icai?oaiiy ia?aae? neoaea
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ae?oyi, i?aee?oeai ? iieiae?.
Ocaaaeueiaiee iaoa??ae aea? ciiao, ia iaoo aeoieo, ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui
oe? neoaeae iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe: noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ae?oae,
i?aee?oe?a, iieiae? (iaa/aeueiee caeeaae, i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy, i?noea
?iaioe, aeica?eey); aeooaeuei? ? iaeoeiia?o? nioe?aeuei? oa ineoieia?/i?
i?iaeaie ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a ? iieiae? (iai?eeeaae, ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai
caoenoo, i?io?eaeoeee a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe?, naenoaeueiino?,
ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie); eaoaai??? ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a ? iieiae? (o/i?,
neoaeaiaoe?, ?ia?oieee, thiaee, ae?a/aoa, /eaie aaaaoiae?oieo, iaiiaieo,
iaaeaaiiieo/ieo, aeaii?ae?ciaaieo oa ?ioeo n?iae).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Nenoaia ae?yeueiino? oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea
aeey iieiae? c nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ??ciei eaoaai??yi ae?oae oa
thiaoeoaa” i?iaiae?ciaaii aoaie noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo nenoaie
nioe?aeueieo neoaea o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe?, aecia/aii
aoaeoeai?noue oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae
??ciei eaoaai??yi iieiae? o i?aoeaaeaoooaaii?, i?aai?caoe??
eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino?, iaoa??aeueiiio caaacia/aii?,
iai?yie ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a ?o nioe?aeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy o nenoai?
ae?yeueiino? oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?.

O ?icaeoeo i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe a ?icieo ?aaiiiao eieeoiueiai
Nithco ca inoaiith /aa?oue noieiooy oiiaii (aea aeinoaoiuei /ioei)
aeie?aieththoueny yeinii ?icii aoaie. Ia?oee aoai – 60-oi ?iee, yei
noaee ia?iiaeii ii/aoeiaiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aeinaiaeo, aiii?e/iiai
iiooeo, aecia/eee iniiai? ia?aaeoiiae iiyae o noni?euenoa?
niaoeiaeinoia, yei i?i?ioothoueny ia i?aaiicaoeith
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii? ?iaioe a nioeioii, iie?ina?aaeiaeui. Ia?oi
oaei oao?aoe? c’yaeeeny a aaeoci nioeiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e
ia ?icii iaeiaioaaiiy ?oi?o iinaae (i?aaiicaoi? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe i
iicaoeieueii? ?iaioe oeiee, iaaeaaia-i?aaiicaoi? eiioiaeueii? neoaeae,
aeoiaaoaeue eiiiaoe oeiey?a o aoaeeieo, ea?iaiee iiaeeioeiaiai eeoao oa
ii.), ani aiie ca nai?th nooi?noth aoee i?ioioeiii i?aoe?aieea
nioeiaeueii? neoaeae, ineieueee aeeiioaaee nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii
ooieoei? i i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?icaeaaoe a iiaeo oiiaao aoiai?noe/i?
o?aaeeoei? aio/eciyii? iaaeaaiaiee na?aaeiaeua ii/aoeo OO noieiooy.
?iaaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo neoaea ia oeueiio aoai? iiaeia aecia/eoe
ye i?aaiicaoeieii-aiii?e/iee.

Ia iaaei 70-80-o ?ieia noniieueia iaiao?aei?noue, aeinyaiaiiy
ia?aaeiaiai aeinaiaeo nioeiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aeaaee i?iaeaio ia iiaee
?iaaiue ?? ae?ioaiiy. O e?a?ii ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny ?icaaeoaeaia ia?aaea
?iciiiaiioieo eiiieaenia – nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ieo,
oiceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/eo, n?euenueeeo oeie-eiiieaenia oa ii. Oea aoea
ni?iaa oeieani?yiiaaiiai noai?aiiy nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeina?aeo,
eiiieaenii? i?aaiicaoei? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe o iie?i?aeiii. Iaeiae, ia
i?eieaeoth/e cia/aiiy ?nioth/iai aeinaiaeo, ?acii c oei aoei a
iani?aaaaeeeaei eiai ia?aaieueooaaoe. ?icaeoie nenoaie nioeiaeueii?
?iaioe i?iaeiaaeoaaa no?eioaaoeny i?aaiicaoeieiith, eaae?iaith,
oiiainiai-?ano?niith iacaaacia/aiinoth. I?ioean aaeueioaaany iiaeoiaeii,
yeee aaea neeaany, a naia: ooieoei? nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe iiae
?iciiaeieyeeny iiae o?aaeeoeieii inioth/eie neoaeaaie, caeeaaeaie
inaioe, ioi?iie caei?ia`y, nioeiaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy. Ia?aaaioaaeaiiy,
yea niinoa?iaaeiny aianeiaeie oeueiai o ?icieo ca i?ioaniyie oao?aoe?a
(o/eoaeia, eiea?ia, ?iaioieeia iieioei? oa ii.) /a?ac aeeiiaiiy ia
aeanoeaeo aeey ieo iaia`yce?a, c iaeiiai aieo, caaaaeaei iiaiioeiiiiio
aeeiiaiith ieie nai?o aaciina?aaeiio ooieoeie, a c iioiai – aaeueioaaei
?icaeoie a e?a?ii nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe ye naiinoieii? i?ioani?.

Iieieaoenue o oaeie neooaoei?, oeiea iaeaea aeaa aeanyoe?i//y iaiaaaeany
ii nooi naia ae?ioeoe ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy aca?iei aei?ineeo i aeioae a
nioeioii, i?aaiicaoei? aeicaieey o aiaee?eoiio na?aaeiaeui. Iai?inoa
neooaoeiy neeaeany i a noa?? ioi?iie caei?ia`y /a?ac aiaenooi?noue
iaaee/ieo nioeiaeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ooieoei? yeeo eeoa /anoeiai i
iai?ioanieii aeeiioaaee niaoeiaeinoe iioeo aaeocae. Nioeiaeueio ?iaioo c
iiaeeioeaie aeaaiaioii? iiaaaeiiee i nii`yie «a?oi ?eceeo» /a?ac
aiaenooi?noue nioeiaeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a-i?ioaniiiaeia i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai
/ano aoei iieeaaeaii ia i?aaie iieioei?. Ia ?nioaaei nenoaie
nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe c iiaaeiaeaie, ethaeueie iioeeiai aieo, iioeie
eaoaai?iyie ethaeae, yei iniaeeai iio?aaoaaee nioeiaeueiiai caoenoo.

Aeeaiea e?eca noniieuenoaa aeyaeea i ?icei caieueoeea nioeiaeueio
iacaoeuaiinoue aaeeei? e?eueeino? niiae, iineeeea nioeiaeueia
iai?oaeaiiy. Ana oea caaino?eei i iinoaaeei ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee i?iaeaio
iiooeo oeyoia aeiei?iiiiai aeiiiii/iiai, iaoa?iaeueiiai i
aeooiaii-ii?aeueiiai icaei?iaeaiiy noniieuenoaa ye aa?aioi? caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa, caoenoo iioa?ania i?aa iniaenoinoi.

Ie?aii caoiaee ?c nioeiaeueiiai caoenoo oa nioeiaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
ianaeaiiy, ui cae?enithaaeeny a e?a?ii (ia?aaaaeii aacnenoaiii, yei iaee
?iiae? a?ioiaee ae?ac o aeaeyaei noai?aiiy nioeiaeueieo oiiaeia iniaai,
ui ia?aaoaaee ca iaaeath aiaeiinoi), aeaaaee eeoa oei/aniaee aeiiiii/iee
i iieioe/iee aoaeo. Aiie ia iiaee i?ioenoiyoe iioeyoeieiei i?ioeanai,
no?iieiio ca?eueoaiith /enea inia, yei iio?aaoaaee nioeiaeueii?
aeiiiiiae i?e iaaeinoaoiueiio athaeaeaoiiio ?ano?ni. E?ii oiai,
iaoa?iaeueia aeiiiiiaa aeaeaei ia caaaeaee aeyaeyeany aoaeoeaiei,
aeioeieueiei aeaeii i caniaii nioeiaeueii? aeiiiiiae. Iac?iea iio?aaa a
aeiei?iiiie ciiii nioeiaeueii? iieioeee noniieuenoaa i aea?aeaae,
iiaeieaiii ?iciaaeoaaiiy nioeiaeueieo, ineoieiai/ieo, iaaeaaiai/ieo,
iaaee/ieo, i?aaiaeo caoiaeia i i?i?ioaoei? iiaeaiaeii/i? nenoaie neoaea
nioeiaeueii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith ia caaeiaieaiiy eiai iio?aa.

Ia eiiaoeue 80-o ?ieia a e?a?ii aeieeee ani iaiaoiaeii ia?aaeoiiae aeey
ia?aoiaeo ia aea?aeaaiee ?iaaiue ae?ioaiiy i?iaeaie a noa?? nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe, noai?aiiy nenoaie neoaea nioeiaeueii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith c
?icaaeoaeaiith iio?ano?oeoo?ith ?o eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy. Nioe?aeuei?
neoaeae aeey iieiae? – oea noeoii?noue ??ciii?io?eueieo onoaiia,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ni?yiiaaia ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy c?oeiiaaieo ? noai?aiiy
iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, iaaeeei-aeieia?/ieo,
i?aaiaeo, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa ?ioeo oiia, ye? iathoue
caaacia/oaaoe ia no/aniiio ??ai? ?icaeoie ? aeaeeaaiiy iieiae?, ?? iiaio
naii?aae?caoe?th.

Iaeaaaeeea?oeie i?eioeeiaie ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueii? neoaeae aeey
iieiae?, ye ? an??? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, ?: aoiai?ci, iiaaaa aei
iniaenoino?, aeiiiiiaa iieiae?e ethaeei?, aeeoei? iacaeaaeii a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiino?, iioiaeaeaiiy, nioe?aeueiiai noaoono, noa?e caeiyoino?,
i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy, a??iniia?aeaiiy; ia?oia?noai ? aca?iia aeia??a,
aeia?ia?euei?noue caa?oaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith, iiaaaeaiiy iniaenoi?
naiaiaee ee??ioa; eiio?aeaioe?ei?noue, caa?aaeaiiy oa?iieoe?,
aeei?enoaiiy eeoa oeo oaeo?a ? aeaieo, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae; inea?aeaiiy ae?e i?aoe?aiee?a nioe?aeueii? neoaeae, yeui aiie
a?aeiiaeythoueny aeiiiiiaoe, aeyaeythoue iai?ioan?ei?noue e iaiiaaao aei
ee??ioa; aaceiooiai?noue (aeinooii?noue oe?i).

Iniiai? ooieoe?? nioe?aeueii? neoaeae aeey iieiae?:

— nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeiiiiiaa inia?, a oaeiae ??ciei eaoaai??yi ?
a?oiai iieiae?, ui ni?eyoeia oni?oi?e ?o ?ioaa?aoe?? o a?iiaaenueea
aeeooy;

— nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea yaeu, ye? iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue
ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? oa coiiaeththoue
nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue;

— ei?aeoe?y nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee oa naiiii/oooy i?ae?inoath/i?
ethaeeie, yea iieieeanue o ne?ooieo oiiaao aai ia?aaeeaa? e?eciao
aeeneiioi?oio neooaoe?th;

— nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y, ni?yiiaaia ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?ooaieo
nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a, c aeiiiiiaith iia?e?caoe?? ianaiia?aae aioo??oi?o
?ano?n?a, oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?, aeei?enoaiiy ?? i?e?iaeii?
aeoeaiino?.

Aeeiaiieo iaaeaiiy nioeiaeueieo iineoa a nenoaii oeaio??a NNI ca
1996-1998 aiaeoai?aii o oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo iineoa a nenoai? oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo
neoaea aeey iieiae? ca 1996 — 1998 ?iee

1996 ?.1997 ?. ? i?a??//y 1998 ?.ca
oa?aeoa?ii?acii651881107072i?ioieaeoe/ia25423903139-ei?aeoeieia132011277
46-?aaaeaioaoeieia1360469416-iioi129606771-ca
oi?iaie?acii686521446977906796iiaeeaiaeoaeueii17996199019182930a?oiiai19
086454605723866ianiai caoiaee24611726664-ienueiiai 168123934-oaeaoiii?
459742755-iioi 681—ca
aeaeaie?acii701691446977906816ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii18732352579274404i?a
aiai 44987683378293iaaee/ii 738679241107523i?ioi?i?ioaoeieii
363623710-iioi?iaoeieii15699459939384944eiinoeueoaoeieii
860534128-iaoa?iaeueia aeiiiiiaa 79944850061652iioi 3619372047-Oaeei
/eiii, niinoa?iaa?oueny noieea oaiaeaioe?y a iaaeaiii i?ioieaeoe/ii?,
ei?aeoeieii?, ?aaaeaioaoeieii? aeiiiiiae, ui naiae/eoue i?i aeeiaiieo
nioeiaeicaoei? iniaenoinoi. Cia/ii c?inee a?oiiai oi?ie ?iaioe oa
iineoae, ui iaaeathoueny ii Oaeaoiio Aeiai?e. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe ye
iioe?aiiyi oaeeo oi?i ?iaioe, oae i ?o niaoeeoieith. A oie /an, eiee
cieceeanue eieueeinoue caa?oaiue ca i?aaiaith i iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith,
c?inea eieueeinoue caa?oaiue ?c ieoaiue i?ioi?i?ioaoei?. Oea iiaeia
iiynieoe oei, ui aaoueee aeioae-iiaaeiaeia oa iieiaei iiaaeiaee io?eiaee
iaaiee ianya iioi?iaoei? c ieoaiue i?aaiaiai caoenoo. Cieaeaiiy ?iaiy
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae iiynith?oueny aecia/aiiyi i?ii?eoaoia nioeiaeueii?
?iaioe a oeaio?ao NNI o iai?yii iaaeaiiy iaiaaee/ieo iineoa.
I?ioi?i?ioaoeieia aeiiiiiaa naiae/eoue i?i iiceoeaii c?ooaiiy o i?ioeani
nioeiaeicaoei?.

Aieiaieie caaaeaiiyie oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? ?
?aae?caoe?y aea?aeaaieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo ? aaeocaaeo i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae ? i?aeo?eiee ae?oae oa iieiae?. Oeeie i?ia?aiaie ?: Aea?aeaaia
i?ia?aia ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth; Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia i?ioeae??
ceiaaeeaaiith ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie oa ?o iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia 1994-1997
??.; Aei?o/aiiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 29.09.94. ? 1638/96
uiaei caaacia/aiiy cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a i?ioeae?? ieyoeoao, aeeiaie?cio
oa aaeeaaiith othothio; Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia i?io?eaeoeee NI?Aeo ia
1995-1997 ??.; Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia ieaioaaiiy n?i’?; Aeiaaio?eaaea
i?ia?aia iie?ioaiiy noaiiaeua ae?iie, n?iae, ioi?iie iaoa?einoaa ?
aeeoeinoaa; Aea?aeaaia Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa” (Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy); I?ia?aia i?aaiai? ina?oe ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie; Eiiieaeni?
i?ia?aie ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai ?iaae?aeiino?; Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
a?ae 5.04.94. ? 226 “I?i iie?ioaiiy aeoiaaiiy, iaa/aiiy, nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ae?oae ne??o ? ae?oae, ye? caeeoeeeny aac i?eeoaaiiy
aaouee?a”; I?ia?aia caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy ia 1997-2000 ?iee.

O oeeo aeieoiaioao i?aee?aneaii, ui iniaeeai? oaaae ? aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee iio?aaothoue ae?oe, ye? aeeaooue o aeiyoeiai aaaeeeo
nioe?aeueieo oiiaao. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue: ae?oe-ne?ioe, ae?oe, ye?
caeeoeeeny aac i?eeoaaiiy aaouee?a, ae?oe-?iaae?aee, ae?oe — aea?oae
aeieia?/ieo ? oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io, ae?oe c anioe?aeueieo n?iae,
iaiiaiie?oi?, ye? ii?ooeee Caeii, ia?eiiaie e o?, ui ceiaaeeaathoue
nie?oiei. Eiaeia c iacaaieo eaoaai??e iio?aao? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oi?i ?? nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee. A oeaio?? oaaae
noni?euenoaa caeeoa?oueny iaeaaaeeea?oa nioe?aeueia ?inoeoooe?y – n?i’y,
a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo yei? caeaaeeoue i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ?
iieiae?. Oiio aieiaia oaaaa a iao?e aeine?aeii-i?iaeoi?e ?iaio?
caa?oaeany ia ci?no, ooieoe??, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?iaioe nioe?aeueieo
neoaea ?c n?i’?th. Aeina?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?aaenoaaeaieo o aeine?aeaeaii?
i?iaeo?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaeoni?oi?oa ?aae?cothoueny oae? iai?yie,
ye i?aeaioiaea iieiae? aei n?iaeiiai aeeooy oa aeiiiiaa iieiaeei n?i’yi
c? noaa?e?caoe?? n?iaeieo a?aeiinei. ?icaeaa?oueny eiinoeueoaoeaia,
eeoaia ?iaioa, i?aai?ciaothoueny nayoa n?i’?, cai?iaaaeaeothoueny
aeoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aeiiiiiao aaaaoiae?oiei, iaeicaaacia/aiei n?i’yi.
Aei ?iaioe caeo/athoueny caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeaeathoueny
iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee.

C iaoith eiie?aoecaoe?? ??cieo oi?i aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueei?
nioe?aeueii? neoaeae aeey ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a ? iieiae? aoei ?ic?iaeaii
i???ioiai? iieiaeaiiy ?yaeo i?aai?caoe?e, iniiaia iaoa yeeo –
cae?enithaaoe ia?oo aeiiiiiao ae?oyi, iaiiaiie?oi?i ? iieiae? ia iniia?
i?eioeei?a aeia?ia?eueiino? e aiii?iiino?. O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii i?eeeaae
ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?o nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? i?aeo?eiee ae?oae ?
i?aee?oe?a, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye naiia?yaeia i?aai?caoe?y, eoaee
aoiaeyoue ??ciii?io?euei? nioe?aeuei? neoaeae, ? yea eii?aeeio?
ae?yeuei?noue naiino?eieo neoaea. O i?iiiiiaaiiio aa??aio? aeiiiiiaa
ae?oyi ? i?aee?oeai i?aai?ciaaia ia iniia? aeoiaieo ? ei?aeoe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae a?aeae?e?a Oeaio?o a?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeyaeoaaieo
aeiaaee?a.

?aeath nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae ae?oyi ? i?aee?oeai
caeeaaeaii o ?ic?iaeaiiio iaie o neeaae? oei/aniaiai oai?/iai eieaeoeao
IAe? i?iaeai iieiae? iaeao? aeieoiaio?a uiaei noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
i?eooeeo aeey iaiiaiie?oi?o. Noai?aiiy i?eooeeo aeey iaiiaiie?oi?o aea?
ciiao iaaiith i??ith caoenoeoe a?ae e?ei?iiaaiiiai aieeao i?aee?oe?a,
ye? ia nei?ee cei/eio; aeiiiiiaoe ?i o anoaiiaeaii? ineoieia?/ii?
??aiiaaae, iaeaaiaeaeaii? aca?iei c n?i’?th, oeieith, aeoiaiei
caeeaaeii; ei?aaoaaoe iiaaae?ieo; io?eioaaoe eaae?o?eiaaio th?eaee/io
aeiiiiiao, caaacia/oth/e oei/aniaa i?iaeeaaiiy aeeoeie o ii?iaeueieo
iiaooiaeo oiiaao.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeioe?euei?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eooee?a aeey ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a, ?: cae?eniaiiy i/ii?
? cai/ii? eiinoeueoaoeaii? aeiiiiiae iaiiaiie?oi?i, ?oi?i aaoueeai ?
a/eoaeyi o e?eciaeo neooaoe?yo; i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy nioe?aeueii?
aaeaioaoe?? ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a, ?aiiy i?io?eaeoeea a?aeoeeaiue o
iiaaae?ioe?; i?aeoe/ia aeiiiiiaa aaoueeai ? a/eoaeyi o noai?aii?
ni?eyoeeaiai ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo a n?i’? ? iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao;
caoeno i?aa ae?oae a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?
i?aeia?iaeii? Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aaa aeeoeie.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee o aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeo noai?aiiy Oaeaoiio Aeia??e (OAe)
a nenoai? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? coiiaeth?oueny ?yaeii
oaeoi??a, a naia: o?aai?caoe?y ? e?eca n?i’?, e?eca noni?euenoaa ?
neeaaeia nioe?aeueia neooaoe?y, ia?inoaiiy ineoieia?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy o
i?aee?oeiaiio ? iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?, a?aenooi?noue i???ioe??a ?
iaae/ie ineoieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e, iaaaciaea ia?inoaiiy iaoiaaiii? ?
e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?e oa e?eciaeo noai?a, c?inoaiiy ??ai?a
iieiae?aeii? cei/eiiino?, ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ineoiniiaoe/ieo ?
ineo?/ieo caoai?thaaiue, naiiaoanoa, ni?ia naiiaoanoa na?aae i?aee?oe?a
? iieiaeeo ethaeae. Aa?oi a?aoiaoaaoe e oa, ui ?aa?ii a?ae/oaa? ia nia?
iane?aeee *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei aeooae?co?oueny
caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy neoaea, caeaoieo iiaeaoe nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/io
aeiiiiiao ie?ai?e ethaeei?, a oaeiae aeeiiaoe ?ieue /ooeeaiai aa?iiao?o
iano?i?a, iac??aaiiy eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, aeieeiaiiy aieueiaeo oi/ie o
i?aee?oeiaiio ? iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aiii?ii?noue aan?ae ii OAe
aeaaaoeia ciiao i?aee?oeai ?iciia?noe i?i nai? i?iaeaie ? aooe ii/ooei
caoe?eaaeaiei ni?aaan?aeieeii, yeee c?icoi?? ? coi?? i?aeeacaoe oeyoe
aeoiaeo c aacaeoiae?.

Iaoa ae?yeueiino? OAe – aeiiiiiaa i?aee?oeai ? iieiae?, ye?
ia?aaeeaathoue e?eciaee noai, i?io?eaeoeea ? caiia?aaiiy aeaa?aioi?e,
aeae?ieaaioi?e ? no?oeeaei?e iiaaae?ioe?. Caaaeaiiy OAe: caaacia/eoe
aeinooii?noue ? nai?/ani?noue eaae?o?eiaaii? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?aee?oeai iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o nioe?aeueiiai noaoono, i?noey
i?iaeeaaiiy; aeiiiiiaoe aaiiaioai ia?aaeeoe eiioe?eoe oa ?io?
ineoio?aaioth/? neooaoe??; aeooae?coaaoe ?oi? oai?/?, ?ioaeaeooaeuei?,
iniaeno?ni?, aeooiai? oa o?ce/i? ?ano?ne aeey aeoiaeo c e?eciaiai noaio;
aeaaaoe ii OAe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa ?ioi?iaoe?ei? eiinoeueoaoe??
ae?oyi, aaoueeai ? a/eoaeyi c ineoieia?/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai
nioe?ae?caoe??, ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? iieiaei? ethaeeie c iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo c ?ioeie nioe?aeueieie neoaeaaie ? niaoe?ae?noaie.

Ia?niaeoeaiei aeey iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy ? i?aeoe/ii? ?ic?iaee ? oaeiae
i?iaeo oaeeo nioe?aeueieo neoaea, ye oeiea nioe?ioa?ai??, ath?i
?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo ieoaiue, nii?oeaiee eiiieaen.
Aeioe?eueii ii/aoe ?ic?iaeo aeo?aeii? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
aeeoeinoaa a Oe?a?i?, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aiae?c? ?aaeueiiai noaiiaeua
ae?oae, caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
aeeoeinoaa.

Iaie aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeae ?iaioe nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? c
ieoaiue i?ioeae?? iaaaoeaiei yaeuai o iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?,
iia’ycai? c:

· iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii ? canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeniiai, nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo;

· i?aeaeuaiiyi oaoiaiai ??aiy niaoe?ae?no?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea;

· iiooeii ? aeei?enoaiiyi ?iiiaaoe?eieo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a ?iaioe;

· ?icoe?aiiyi ? ci?oeiaiiyi aca?iica’yce?a c a?o/eciyieie oa
ca?oa?aeieie niaoe?ae?noaie c i?iaeai i?ioeae?? iaaaoeaiei yaeuai o
iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaaaeaii, ui iei? neeaeany iaaia nenoaia nioe?aeueii?
i?aeo?eiee in?a c iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie, iniiao yei? noaiiaeyoue
ianooii? /eiieee: nioe?aeueia ii?ea ?iaae?ae?a ? ne??o;
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee iao?iiaae n?iae, ye? aeoiaothoue
ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a; i?aai?caoe?y naiii?aeo?eioth/i? oa
aca?iii?aeo?eioth/i? ae?yeueiino?; noeioethaaiiy i?ia?aneaii?
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ia i?aeo?eieo ?iaae?ae?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaio ?iaioo, yeo i?iaiaeyoue iaeani? oeaio?e
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae? ?c cacia/aieo iai?yi?a ae?yeueiino?,
iniiaiith oaiaeaioe??th, ui niinoa??aa?oueny iaeaea a on?o iaeanoyo, ?
iaiaaeai?noue o?iainoaaiiy, iaona?aeiieaiiy ie?aieie
iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?yie aaaeeeaino? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth.
Oea, a naith /a?ao, iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai ?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ieeiiino? eaae??a.

Ioaea, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii? i?io?eaeoeee, nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae, nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo
eaoaai??e ae?oae ? iieiae? o ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo neoaea
na?ae/eoue i?i cia/io oaaao noni?euenoaa ? eiaeii? iniaenoino? aei oeo
oi?i ? iaoiae?a, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue ae??oeoe neeaaei? i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueii? oa i?aeiniaeno?nii? aca?iiae??. Ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo
neoaea o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ii/eia? iaaoaaoe nenoaiiiai,
i?aai?ciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Aca?iiae?y aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo oa
aeaaiae?eieo i?aai?caoe?e o cae?eniaii? i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae oa iieiae? a Oe?a?i?“ iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a?eoeiieo iniaenoinoae ?
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, a oaeiae nioe?aeueieo i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo ia NI?Ae ? ia?eiiai?a, noai?aieo ia iniia?
?ic?iaeaii? iaie eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie
oa iieiaeaeth, aena?oeaii niaoeeo?/i? oi?ie oa iaoiaee nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? in?a c iniaeeaeie iio?aaaie, aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue
aca?iica’yceo aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo ? aeaaiae?eieo i?aai?caoe?e o
cae?eniaii? i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae oa iieiae? a
Oe?a?i?, aecia/aii ia?niaeoeae oe??? aca?iiae??.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii oeyoe ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? a?eoeiieo iniaenoinoae, a naia: noai?aiiy nenoaie
aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee, ine?eueee iayai?noue ia’?eoeaieo aeaieo i?i
ae?oae a?oie ?eceeo coiiaeth? iai?yie eiinie?aeaoe?? aea?aeaaieo ?
iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? o noai?aii? ia?niaeoeaieo iiaeaeae nioe?aeueiiai
iao?iiaaeo ae?oae aoeeoe?, a?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee.
Aeiaaaeaia iaia?niaeoeai?noue nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae aoeeoe? o oaeeo
o?aaeeoe?eieo iiaeaeyo, ye oeiee-?ioa?iaoe oa i?eooeee. Ia?oa iiaeaeue
iio?aao? i?ioan?iiae?a, ui aieiae?thoue oaoiieia?yie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy ??ciia?/ieo i?iaeai, c
yeeie noeeathoueny ae?oe oe??? eaoaai???, caeo/aiiy aea?aeaaieo,
a?iiaaenueeeo ? ?ae?a?eieo no?oeoo?, ui ia caaaeaee aei?aaaeaii
eiioaenoii nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee uiaei oea?eae ? a?aenooi?noth
o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy aeaaiae?eiino?. Ae?oaa iiaeaeue ia? nai? i?ione
o ca’yceo c iao?eaaeei ia??iaeii ia?aaoaaiiy ae?oae o i?eooeeao (iaeei
i?nyoeue), a?aenooi?noth eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a ? nenoaie iiaoaiii? ?anioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae aoeeoe?. Oey
iiaeaeue ? oaeaeoa ia?ao?aeiith, i?ae noaa?eueiith aeey a?eueoino?
?aa?ii?a.

Iaaaaeai? o aeine?aeaeaii? aeai? i?i noai, ??aaiue ? aeeiai?eo
A?E/NI?Aeo na?ae/aoue, ui oi/a a Oe?a?i?, ia a?aei?io a?ae aaaaoueio
?ioeo aea?aeaa na?oo, ?aae?co?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia ai?ioueae c
oeeie iaaaoeaieie yaeuaie, ana ae, niinoa??aa?oueny iaiaaeai?noue
iiaeeeainoae, ianaiia?aae iaoa??aeueieo ? i?ioan?eieo uiaei eiio?ieth
neooaoe??. Ni?iae ?ica’ycaoe oeth i?iaeaio c aeiiiiiaith iaaeeoeeie
caciaee iaaaea/?, ine?eueee ia ??ai? no/anii? iaoee ia aaea?oueny
?ic?iaeoe aeinooii? ? aiaeii/an aoaeoeai? oano-nenoaie ?aiiueiai
aeyaeaiiy A?E-?io?eiaaiino?, aeaioiaeoe e?ea?nuee? i?aia?aoe, ye? a
caaacia/eee caiia?aaiiy ?io?eiaaiino?, i?eieieoe ia?ao?ae a??ono a noai
NI?Aeo, a oei a?eueoa aee?eoaaoe oai?iao.

Aiane?aeie ona?aeiieaiiy iaiiaeeeaino? ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio iioe?aiiy
A?E-?ioaeoe?? c aeiiiiiaith iaaee/ieo ? i?aaiaeo cania?a i?ioeae??, a
?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi i?eeeaaee caa?oaiiy aei nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? —
iaoee, yea aeine?aeaeo? aca?iiae?th iniaenoino? e nioe?aeueieo yaeu,
iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy onoaiiaie ia iiaeae? iiaaae?iee ? niin?a aeeooy
i?ae aieeaii iae?i — ? i?e?inioe?oio. Oai???, iiiyooy ? iaoiaee
nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??, a oaeiae iaoe, o?nii iia’ycaieo c iath,
aeyaeeeny aaaeeeaei i?aea?oioyi aeey ?ic?iaee i?io?eaeoe/ieo,
oa?aiaaoe/ieo ? ?aaaeaioaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aieeao ia iniaeno?noue. Aiie iathoue ina?oi?e, aeoiaiee oa iaaee/iee
oa?aeoa?. Ina?oi? i?ia?aie ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic’yniaiiy iaaaciaee
A?E-?ioaeoe??, ?? ca’yceo c ?eceeiaaiith naenoaeueiith iiaaae?ieith,
?i’?eoe?eiei oaeeaaiiyi ia?eioee?a. A Oe?a?i? ?niothoue aaaaoi
eieaeueieo ina?oi?o oa aeoiaieo i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a aeey ae?oae ?
i?aee?oe?a (oaeoeueoaoeae c aaeaieia?? a ?yae? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a),
o?ai?iae ia aac? iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a, nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae? oa neoaea o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o, iai?oaioe?a?ieo caeeaae?a,
?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e ? oai?/eo ni?eie (ioce/i? aeoe?? i?ioe NI?Aeo oa
ia?eiiai??), caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. ?yae i?ia?ai ni?yiiaai? ia
ineoieia?/io i?aeo?eieo A?E-?io?eiaaieo, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
i?aca?aaoea?a, i?io?eaeoeeo A?E na?aae oi?eoeaaeo ia?eiiai?a ?
i?aoe?aieoeue naen-a?ciano, ?aaa?e?oaoe?th ae?oae oa i?aee?oe?a, ye?
iaoeathoue ia aoeeoe?. Iaaee/iee aniaeo i?aaaioe?? ni?yiiaaii ia
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aeiii?nueei? e?ia?, ianoaaeaiue ia A?E-?ioaeoe?th,
eiio?ieue ca ai?aeai?ieia?/iith neooaoe??th.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ni?eyiiy nioeiaeueiiio noaiiaeaiith
oa ?icaeoeo iieiaei a Oe?a?ii” iaeei c iniiaieo iai?yiia ?iaioe IOeNNI –
iaaeaiiy iieiaeei iiaaeiaeai ?iciiieaiiai? aeiiiiiae (iaoa?iaeueii?,
ineoieiai/ii?, th?eaee/ii?, iaaeaaiai/ii?). Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai noaea
“I?ia?aia nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a ? iieiaeeo
?iaae?ae?a”, yea aeyaeeany iioeiaeueiei ?ino?oiaioii ?aaoeyoe?? noa?e ?o
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo .

I?ia?aia a?aeiia?aea? i?eioeeiai aoiai?noe/iino? (a?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a,
caieo?a ? iio?aa ?iaae?ae?a ye nioe?aeueii? a?oie, a?eiaeo ? noaoaaeo
iniaeeainoae ineoio?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo eiaeii? iniaenoino?, nooiaiy ?
aeaeo ?iaae?aeiino?); iane??ciino? e ianooiiino? (i?aai?caoe?y
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?, ineoiei?aeoe?eii?, iaaee/ii? ? i?ioan?eii?
aeiiiiiae); ?aa?iiaeueiino? (a?aooaaiiy ?ie? aoiiineoieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, iaoe?iiaeueii-ooaeiaeiueiai ieneaiiy
oa a?aeiia?aei?noue ii?aeueii-aoe/iei ?aeaaeai ia?iaeo).

I?ae /an ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a aeeiioaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:
?aeiino?oeoe?y nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai ioi/aiiy ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a, aeiiiiiaa
a eiioi?eaoe?? ? iaa/aii?, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ?iaioa c aaoueeaie
ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a; aeiiiiiaa a i?ioan?eiiio naiiaecia/aii?, aeaoooaaii?
ia ?iaioo; i?aai?caoe?y aeica?eey ? ni?eeoaaiiy; aeyaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae; ioi?iia i?aa ?iaae?ae?a; iaaee/ia, iaaeaaia?/ia ?
ineoieia?/ia aeiiiiiaa; noai?aiiy iiceoeaii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei
i?iaeai ?iaae?aeiino?. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
aeeiiaoe oe? caaaeaiiy iiaeia eeoa a ?ac? eii?aeeiaoe?? coneeue
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e (ioi?iia caei?ia`y, ina?oa, nioe?aeueiee
caoeno) ? noni?euenoaa: aeoeaia caeo/aiiy ianaeaiiy, a?iiaaenueeeo,
iaoi?iaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ia`?aeiaiue, o oiio /ene? ?iaae?ae?a oa ?o
?iaee/?a.

Aacoiiaii, ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?io?eaeoeee, nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e ae?oae ? iieiae? caeaoi? eeoa i?ioan?ei?
nioe?aeuei? i?aoe?aieee, ye? iathoue aeina?ae ?iaioe ? aieiae?thoue
aenieith iaaeaaia?/iith iaenoa?i?noth, cae?eniththoue aca?iica’ycie i?ae
aea?aeaaieie, a?iiaaenueeeie, aeaaiae?eieie i?aai?caoe?yie c iaoith
iioeiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ae?oae oa iieiae?. ?o
ciaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ai?iiy aeei?enoai? iaie i?ae /an ?aae?caoe??
i?ioyaii 1997/1998 ?ie?a i?iaeoo “Nioe?aeueia ina?oa a Oe?a?i?”, ui
ii/aa cae?enithaaoeny i?ney i?aeienaiiy oaiaee i?ae I?aeia?iaeiith
oaaea?aoe??th nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, O?enoeyinueeei aeeoy/ei oiiaeii
oa THI?NAO o o?aai? 1997 ?ieo ca aeoeaii? o/ano? Oe?a?inueei?
anioe?aoe?? nioe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a ?c nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe. No?aoaa?/ia iaoa oeueiai i?iaeoo iieyaaea a iaaeaii? aeiiiiiae
i?ioan?iiaeueiei iaaeaaiaai nioe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i, nioe?aeueiei
i?aoe?aieeai, a oiio /ene? niaoe?ae?noai oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea
aeey iieiae?, i?aaenoaaieeai aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? ? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, nooaeaioai oaeoeueoao?a, a?aeae?eaiue, oe?e nioe?aeueii?
iaaeaaia?ee ? nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe o i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy nioe?aeueii?
ina?oe. Iaaaaeai? o ?icae?e? ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo na?ae/aoue
i?i ia?niaeoeai?noue aca?iiae?? i?ioan?iiae?a o ae??oaii? i?iaeai
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?.

AENIIAEE

1. Ao?eaiiy iiaeo iieioe/ieo oa aeiiiii/ieo aea?aeaaieo canaae
?icaoaeiae Oe?a?ie iio?aao? ia oieueee ia?ainieneaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai
aeinaiaeo, a e noai?aiiy yeinii iiai? eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth. O?oaeiiui,
yei ia’?eoeaii aeieeathoue ia oeueiio oeyoo, coiiaeththoue
iaiaoiaeiinoue ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iiaeoiaeia aei i?aaiicaoei?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa
iieiae?, iiooeo iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a aca?iiae??
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, aeaaiae?eieo ?
i?aeia?iaeieo oiiae?a, caeaoieo cae?enieoe i?aeo?eieo onio eaiie oai?i?
oa i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe. Nooo?aith oa?aeoa?enoeeith no/aniiai
aoaio ?? ?icaeoeo ? aeooae?caoe?y nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, iia’ycaii? ?c oi?ioaaiiyi o ae?oae oa iieiae? nioe?aeueieo
iaae/ie, nioe?aeueii? iiceoe??, no?eeiai ?ioi?oaoo aei iaaaoeaieo yaeu ?
i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee, iaaeaiiy eiaei?e iniaenoino? aeiiiiiae c iaoith
oi?ioaaiiy o ia? iaae/ie naiiaeiiiiiae ? naii?aae?caoe??.
Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui iniaeno?noue naia iaa/eoueny aeiiiiaaaoe nia? o
ae??oaii? /eneaiieo i?iaeai, iiaeieaii? aeeoo?aeo o?oaeiiu?a ?
iaaa?acae?a, ci?oeithaaoe na?e aeoo.

2. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii ye?nii ??ci? aoaie ?icaeoeo
i?aeoeee nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe a ?icieo ?aaiiiao eieeoiueiai Nithco ca
inoaiith /aa?oue noieiooy. Ia?oee aoai – 60-oi ?iee, yei noaee ia?iiaeii
ii/aoeiaiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aeinaiaeo, aiii?e/iiai iiooeo, iiyae o
noni?euenoa? niaoeiaeinoia, yei i?i?ioothoueny ia i?aaiicaoeith
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii? ?iaioe a nioeioii, iie?ina?aaeiaeui. Ia iaaei
70-80-o ?ieia noniieueia iaiao?aei?noue, aeinyaiaiiy ia?aaeiaiai
aeinaiaeo nioeiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aeaaee i?iaeaio ia iiaee ?iaaiue ??
ae?ioaiiy. O e?a?ii ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny ?icaaeoaeaia ia?aaea
?iciiiaiioieo eiiieaenia – nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ieo,
oiceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/eo, n?euenueeeo oeie-eiiieaenia oa ii. Oea aoea
ni?iaa oeieani?yiiaaiiai iaaoooy nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeina?aeo,
eiiieaenii? i?aaiicaoei? nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe o iie?i?aeiii. Ia eiiaoeue
80-o ?ieia o e?a?ii aoee noai?ai? ani iaiaoiaeii ia?aaeoiiae aeey
ia?aoiaeo nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe ia aea?aeaaiee ?iaaiue ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai,
noai?aiiy nenoaie neoaea nioeiaeueii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith c
?icaaeoaeaiith iio?ano?oeoo?ith ?o eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy.

3. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie iieiae? iaaeaa
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe, ui i?ia?aeiei nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii, yeee
i?ioyaii aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue ni?aaeya ia iniaeno?noue aeoiaiee aieea,
caeeoaeany oeiea. Ni?iae aeeoe ia ??aaiue ?ioaa?aoe?? coneeue oeiee ?
n?i’?, oeiee ? a?iiaaenueeino?, oeiee ? i?aei?e?inoaa iathoue aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey i?iyao ?? a ianooiieo oaiaeaioe?yo :

— iiooe iioeiaeueieo i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a o aeoiaaii? i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue;

— aeyaeaiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth a
no/anieo oiiaao;

— ?ic?iaea oa ooi/iaiiy ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe, niaoeeo?/ieo aeey Oe?a?ie.

4. ?eieia? ia?aoai?aiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?i?, iaaeathoue
ieoaiith nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ae?oae ? iieiae? naiino?eiiai noaoono ?
?iaeyoue eiai iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith i?iaeai, ui noinothoueny no/aniiai
noaiiaeua ae?oae ? iieiae?. Oai?aoe/ii nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio, iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith /anoei (i?aenenoai):
caoenoo ae??caeaoiiai o?oaeiaiai ianaeaiiy oa caoenoo oo?eiaioe?a, in?a
c iaiaaeaiith ae??caeaoi?noth ? iai?aoeacaeaoieo. I?ia?aeiith,
aecia/aeueiith ? ia?oa i?aenenoaia. Aiaeii/an nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee
caoeno aeeoeie ia?aaeaa/a? ?nioaaiiy iai?aieo oaiaeaioe?e o nioe?aeuei?e
iie?oeoe? ? nioe?aeuei?e ?iaio?:

— cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? nioe?aeueii? aeeoy/i? iie?oeee (aai
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee c ieoaiue aeeoeinoaa);

— ?aae?caoe?y niaoe?aeueieo aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeeo aeeoy/eo i?ia?ai –
eiiieaenieo ? oe?eueiaeo – ye aea?aeaaiiai oae ? i?noeaaiai ??ai?a;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ae?oae;

— noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii? neoaeae aai niaoe?aeueieo neoaea c ieoaiue
caoenoo i?aa aeeoeie.

5. Cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai caoenoo iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae
oe?ieiai ?icai?oaiiy ia?aae? neoaea nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae
ae?oyi, i?aee?oeai ? iieiae?. Ocaaaeueiaiee iaoa??ae aea? ciiao, ia iaoo
aeoieo, ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui oe? neoaeae iathoue o?aoiaoaaoe: noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a, iieiae? (iaa/aeueiee caeeaae,
i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy, i?noea ?iaioe, aeica?eey); aeooaeuei? e iaeoeiia?o?
nioe?aeuei? oa ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a ? iieiae?
(iai?eeeaae, ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai caoenoo, i?io?eaeoeea a?aeoeeaiue o
iiaaae?ioe?, naenoaeuei?, ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie); eaoaai??? ae?oae,
i?aee?oe?a ? iieiae? (o/i?, neoaeaiaoe?, ?ia?oieee, thiaee, ae?a/aoa,
/eaie aaaaoiae?oieo, iaiiaieo, iaaeaaiiieo/ieo, aeaii?ae?ciaaieo oa
?ioeo n?iae).

6. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee ia?niaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaie
eiioeaioe??, a ye?e nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa iiaeaia ye
i?aeoe/iee aeya i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ? iieiae? a noni?euenoa?.
Aiia cae?enith?oueny o oaeeo i??i?eoaoieo iai?yiao, ye nioe?aeueia
i?io?eaeoeea, nioe?aeueia ianeoaiaoaaiiy, a oiio /ene? nioe?aeuei?
iineoae, nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa ? nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y.

7. O ?iaio? c?iaeaii iaaiein ia cia/aii? iaeaaaeeea?oi? nioe?aeueii?
?inoeoooe?? — n?i’?, a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo yei? caeaaeeoue i?ioean
nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ? iieiae?. Oiio aieiaio oaaao a iiaeai?e
aeine?aeii-i?iaeoi?e ?iaio? caa?iooi ia ci?no, ooieoe?? oi?ie ? iaoiaee
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c n?i’?th. sse iieaco? aiae?c ?iaioe NNI Oe?a?ie c
iieiaeith n?i’?th, iaeoni?oi?oa ?aae?cothoueny oae? iai?yie, ye
i?aeaioiaea iieiae? aei n?iaeiiai aeeooy, ?iaioa e aeiiiiiaa iieiaeei
n?i’yi o noaa?e?caoe?? n?iaeieo a?aeiinei. ?icaeaa?oueny
eiinoeueoaoeaia, eeoaia ?iaioa, i?aai?ciaothoueny nayoa n?i’?,
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny aeoe?? c aeiiiiiae aaaaoiae?oiei, iaeicaaacia/aiei
n?i’yi. Aei ?iaioe caeo/athoueny caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aeaeathoueny iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee.

8. I?ae /an aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ? i?aeo?eiee iieiae? e i?iaeo?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?o ?aae?caoe?th o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, anoaiiaeaii iniaeeai a?aceea?
eaoaai??? ae?oae oa iieiae?: ae?oe-ne?ioe, ae?oe, ye? caeeoeeeny aac
i?eeoaaiiy aaouee?a, ae?oe-?iaae?aee, ae?oe-aea?oae aeieia?/ieo e
oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io, ae?oe c anioe?aeueieo n?iae, iaiiaiie?oi?, ye?
ii?ooeee caeii, ia?eiiaie e o?, ui ceiaaeeaathoue nie?oiei. Iei?
neeaeany iaaia nenoaia nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee ae?oae oa iieiae? oe???
eaoaai???, iniiao yei? noaiiaeyoue: nioe?aeueia ii?ea ?iaae?ae?a ?
ne??o; nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee iao?iiaae n?iae, ye? aeoiaothoue
ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a; i?aai?caoe?y naiii?aeo?eioth/i? oa
aca?iii?aeo?eioth/i? ae?yeueiino?; noeioethaaiiy i?ia?aneaii?
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ia i?aeo?eieo ?iaae?ae?a.

9. Iiooe iai?yi?a ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c eaoaai???th
a?eoeiieo iniaenoinoae o aeae?eueeio i?noao Oe?a?ie aeia?a
iaiao?aei?noue eiinie?aeaoe?? coneeue aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? o i?aeo?eioe? n?i’?,
oi?ioaaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aaouee?a ca aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, noai?aii?
nenoaie aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, ci?oeiaii? o?aaeeoe?e n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy,
iineeaii? aeaiioieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a, aeanoeaeo oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia?,
i?iiaaoaaii? caniaaie ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy,
ineoieia?? iaianeeuenoaa, aoiaiiino? e oiea?aioiino? o aca?iinoinoieao
ae?oae ? aei?ineeo.

10. Aiaeic ?acoeueoao?a aeiyeueiinoi nioeiaeueieo neoaea aeey iieiaei
aeyaea aeaeieueea oaiaeaioeie o iai?yii nioeiaeueii? iiaeo?eiee
aeioae-iiaaeiaeia i iieiaeeo iiaaeiaeia. Ii-ia?oa, oea iineeaiiy o
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeoao iaoeiai? iaa?oioiaaiino? aeiiiiiae ? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
oa iine?aeiaiino? ?? cae?eniaiiy. Ii-ae?oaa, caeaaeiinoue oi?i i
iaoiaeia ?iaioe aiae aeaiia?aoi/ieo iniaeeainoae ?aaiiio, eiai
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy i oiiainiaeo iiaeeeainoae. Ii-o?ao?, oaiaeaioeiy
aei iineeaiiy oaaae noni?euenoaa aei i?iaaaeaiiy ianiaeo caoiaeia:
oanoeaaeia oai?/inoi, aenoaaie-eiieo?n?a oai?/eo ?iaio, oaeaia?aoii?a,
nii?oeaieo ciaaaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy aeiia iaeanieo oeaio?ia o
oeieao-iioa?iaoao aeey aeioae c aaaeaie ?icaeoeo, cono?i/ae c?
niaoeiaeinoaie oeaio?ia nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?,.

11. Oaeei /eiii, niinoa?iaa?oueny noieea oaiaeaioe?y aei iineeaiiy
i?ioan?eii? i?ioieaeoe/ii?, ei?aeoeieii?, ?aaaeaioaoeieii? aeiiiiiae,
ni?yiiaaii? ia oni?oio nioeiaeicaoeith iniaenoinoi. Cia/ii c?inee
a?oiiai oi?ie ?iaioe oa iineoae ii Oaeaoiio Aeiai?e, ui iiynith?oueny
?icoe?aiiyi eiea eiai iineoa oa ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th caeaaeii a?ae
i?iaeai ae?oae oa iieiae?. Ii?yae c? ciaioaiiyi eieueeino? caa?iaiue ca
i?aaiaith i iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith ca?eueoeeany eieueeinoue caa?oaiue ?c
ieoaiue i?ioi?i?ioaoei?. Cieaeaiiy ?iaiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
iiynith?oueny aecia/aiiyi i?ii?eoaoia nioeiaeueii? ?iaioe a NNI o
iai?yii iaaeaiiy iaiaaee/ieo iineoa.

12. Iiooe oeyo?a aio/eiai ? iiina?aaeeiaaiiai i?io?eaeoe/iiai,
oa?aiaaoe/iiai ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai aieeao ia i?iaeaio ia?eiiai?? ?
NI?Aeo a Oe?a?i?, ?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yiii. A?i
a?oioo?oueny ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao, iioei?caoe?? iaoeiaeo ?
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie a?o/eciyieo oao?aoe?a, aaeaioiaaiiio aeey Oe?a?ie
?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae? ?iaioe nioe?aeueieo neoaea ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i,
i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeino? ia i?ioeae?th oeueiio eeoia?. Oeaio?e
nioe?aeueieo neoaea a i?ioeae?? iaaaoeaiei yaeuai ?aae?cothoue oae?
iai?yie: nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea; nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa, nioe?aeueiee
iao?iiaae, nioe?aeueia i?aeo?eiea; nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y oa
nioe?aeueia ?ioaa?aoe?y.

13. Ca /an i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo ca?eueoeeany eieueeinoue
nioeiaeueieo neoaea aeey iieiaei, yei ?aaeicothoue i?ia?aie c iai?yio
nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c aeioueie i iieiaeaeth. O eiaeiie
iaeanoi iaaeathoueny nioeiaeueii iineoae c i?ioieaeoe/ii?, ei?aeoeieii?,
?aaaeaioaoeieii? iiaeo?eiee. ?iaaiue c?inoaiiy oeeo iineoa naiae/eoue ye
i?i iio?aao o ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iie, i?aaiaie, iaaee/iie,
i?ioi?i?ioaoeieiie, eiinoeueoaoeieiie oa iaoa?iaeueiie aeiiiiici, oae i
i?i caaacia/aiiy oiia nioeiaeicaoei? iniaenoinoi.

14. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? e?eoa???
aoaeoeaiino? cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth. Aei e?euee?nieo e?eoa???a iaeaaeaoue e?euee?noue
nioe?aeueieo neoaea, a?aeae?e?a ? iai?yi?a ae?yeueiino?, eaoaai??e
ae?oae ? iieiae?, ?o caa?iaiue aei oao?aoe?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea, aeai?
i?i ?acoeueoaoe oe?eueiai? aeiiiiiae. sse?ni? e?eoa??? aecia/athoueny:
a) caoe?eaaeaiith o/anoth i?aaenoaaiee?a aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo
no?oeoo?, a oaeiae ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e o aecia/aii? iai?yi?a aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee uiaei ae?oae a?oie ?eceeo; a) eiinie?aeaoe?y coneeue
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e o iiooeo ia?niaeoeaieo
iiaeaeae nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ? iieiae?; a) ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae niaoe?ae?no?a ?c nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe aei
aeai?o oi?i ? iaoiae?a nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee ae?oae ? iieiae?,
aecia/aiiy aeeoo?ai? ia?niaeoeae o noa?? iaa/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy, aeai?o
i?ioan??; a) i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo, caeaoiiai
?ica’ycaoe caaaeaiiy ii aeyaeaiith, nioe?aeuei?e aaeaioaoe?? ?
nioe?aeuei?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae a?oie ?eceeo; ae) ?icoe?aiiy noa?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, noai?aiiy
oiia aeey iai?io i?aeia?iaeiei aeina?aeii i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/ii? oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae oa iieiae?.

15. I?aaenoaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeoe na?ae/aoue i?i oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? uiaei aeoea?caoe?? coneeue aea?aeaaieo ? iao?yaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ca?oa?aeieo ia?oia??a ? aeaaiae?eieo oiiae?a o ae??oaii?
i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ethaeae c iaiaaeaieie o?ce/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie, a oaeiae i?aaenoaaiee?a nioe?aeueii ia caoeuaieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

16. I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii i?ia?aeio caeiiii??i?noue:
?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii? i?io?eaeoeee,
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae, nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e ae?oae ? iieiae? o ae?yeuei?noue
nioe?aeueieo neoaea na?ae/aoue i?i cia/io oaaao noni?euenoaa aei oeo
oi?i ? iaoiae?a, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue iniaenoino? ae??oeoe neeaaei?
i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? oa i?aeiniaeno?nii? aca?iiae??. Ca oaeeo oiia
ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo neoaea o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ii/eia?
iaaoaaoe nenoaiiiai, i?aai?ciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o. ?? aeiiiaith?
caeiiii??i?noue, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeniea aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? aeinyaa?oueny ia
iniia? canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a oe?e?niino?, aeeiai?/iino?,
i?iaeoeaiino?, aio/eino?, a?eiai? oa ?aa?iiaeueii? a?aeiia?aeiino?,
aca?iica’yceo c i?aenenoaiaie nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe, a?aooaaiiy
iniaeeainoae ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a ?? ?icaeoeo ia i?e?i-,
iaci- oa iae?i??aiyo. Noai?aia oa aei?iaoaaia iaie eiioeaioe?y
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?
ni?eyea ?ice?eooth ?? ye aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie, i?aenenoaiai yei?
aeanoea? a?aeiinia naiino?ei?noue, oaoiieia?/i?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue
caeaaeii a?ae ia’?eoa (iai?yio nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe) oa noa’?eoa
(eaoaai??? ae?oae oa iieiae?) nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? an?o aniaeo?a ?icaeyiooi?
i?iaeaie. Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iio?aaothoue oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
iniiae i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae?; nenoaia i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oa nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?;
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeiiiiiaa a?eoeiiei iniaenoinoyi ? nioe?aeueiei
a?oiai; nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e
iieiae?; nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeiiiiiaa aac?ia?oi?e iieiae?; nenoaia
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c n?euenueeith iieiaeaeth; aca?iiae?y
aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o ae??oaii?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai ae?oae oa iieiae?.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 68 ioae?eaoe?yo
caaaeueiei ianyaii 75,5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, na?aae yeeo:

1. IIIIA?AO??, IAA*AEUeI? IIN?AIEEE, A?IOO?E, NOAOO? O IAOEIAEO
AEAeAIIssO

1. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ?iaioa c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?: oai??y ? i?aeoeea. — E.: I?aaaea ss?ineaae/?a,
1998. — 25,2 ae?.a?e.

2. Eoeueoo?a aeeoo?aiai naiiaecia/aiiy. ?icae?e ?O // Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y aeeoo?oai?/ino?: Iaa/.-iaoiae.iin?aiee: Oee. ?.Ae. Ca???aa //
?aae. ?aaea A.I.Aeii?e (aieiaa) oa ?i. — E., 1996.- N. 492-546.

3. Eiaaeue E.A., Ca???aa ?.Ae., Oe?a?e N.A. Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea /
nioe?aeueia ?iaioa: Iaoiae. iin?aiee. — E.: A?IIE, 1997.- 428 n.

4. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A., O?ieia I.Ae. Ae?aaiinoeea ii?aeueii?
aeoiaaiino? oeiey??a. — E.: ?CII, 1995. — 205 n..

5. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. I?aeoeeoi c iaaeaaia?ee: Iaoiae.
iin?aiee. — E.: ?CII, 1996. — 124 n.

6. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Iaoiaeieiae/aneea aniaeou a ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey
e no?oeoo?u iieeoe/aneie niciaoaeueiinoe eae eioaa?aeueiiai ea/anoaa
ee/iinoe oeieueieea // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiie niaaoneie e
ca?oaaaeiie iaaeaaiaeee: Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. — I.: 1988. — N.
22-31.

7. Caa?aaa E.Ae. E aii?ino i iiaeoiaeao e eco/aieth ee/iinoe //
Aeooaeueiua aii?inu oai?ee e iaoiaeeee ainieoaiey iiae?anoathuaai
iieieaiey: Na. iao/iuo o?oaeia AII NNN?. — Caii?iaeuea: Ecae-ai AII
NNN?. — 1989. — N. 106.-108.

8. Caa?aaa E.Ae. I i?iaeoa “Nioeeaeueiia ia?aciaaiea a Oe?aeia” //
I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. — 1998. — ? 5. — N. 35-38.

9. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Anaie?iue eiia?ann nioeeaeueiuo ?aaioieeia //
I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. — 1998. — ? 6 — 7. — N. 34.

10. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Nioe?aeueia i?aeo?eiea aac?ia?oii? iieiae? //
I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. — 1998. — ? 8. — N. 26-28.

11. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie n?euenueei? iieiae? // I?aeoe/ia
ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. -1999. — ? 4. — N.31-32.

12. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie n?euenueei? iieiae? // I?aeoe/ia
ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. — 1999. — ? 5. — N.31-34.

13. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay caueoa aeaonoaa //
Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie: noai, i?iaeaie, oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy: Ca.iaoe. ioae.
IAe?II.- E.: 1993. — N. 146-157.

14. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Ia?iaeia iaaeaaia?ea — iniiaa ?aeaeii? aaeaioaoe??
ae?oae ne??o oa ae?oae, ui caeeoeeeny aac aaouee?anueei? ii?ee //
Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea ? aaeaioeai?noue iniaenoino?: Iaoe.-iaoiae.
aeaeaiiy. — Noie: I??y, 1994. — N. 310-319.

15. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Oeiea nioeeioa?aiee aeey iiae?inoeia n anioeeaeueiui
iiaaaeaieai // Nioeeaeueiay ?aaioa n iieiaeaaeueth. — E.: Aeaaeaii?ann,
1994. — N. 3-33.

16. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno aeeoeinoaa. // Aeia??a ? iaae?y.
— E.: Aeaaeaii?an.- 1994. — ? 3. — N.15-23.

17. Ca???aa ?.Ae. I?i i?aai?caoe?th aeiiiiiae iieiae? I?ia//eie //
Aeia??a ? iaae?y. — E.: Aeaaeaii?an. — 1994. — ? 3. — N. 31.-34.

18. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. Aeeoy/ee ?oo ye can?a nioe?ae?caoe??
iniaenoino? // Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea ? aaeaioeai?noue iniaenoino?:
Iaoe.-iaoiae. aeaeaiiy. — Noie: I??y, 1994. — N. 29-48.

19. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Caaa?eei I.A. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? // Nioe?aeueia
iaaeaaia?ea ? aaeaioeai?noue iniaenoino?: Iaoe.-iaoiae. aeaeaiiy.-Noie:
I??y, 1994. — N.49-59.

20. Iaoe?iiaeueia nenoaia aeoiaaiiy: Eiioeaioe?y // Oee. Noaeueiaoiae/
I.A., ?oaeaiei TH.Ae., Ca???aa ?.Ae. oa ?i. — E.: Eea?aeue, 1991.- 28 n
.

21. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Aaeaeoeaae/ A.E. Aieiaaoue I.O. Ec iiuoa ?aaiou
neoaea nioeeaeueiie iiiiue ca ?oaaaeii // Nioeeaeueiua neoaeau aeey
iieiaeaaee. — E.: OIEEII, 1993. — N. 81-102.

22. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A., Oioe?ieia ?.I. I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii?
?iaioe c ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i? // A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: Nioe?ieia?y. Ineoieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea.-Aei.2-
E.,1996.- N. 175-190.

23. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eaeo?iiiaa A.I. Ae?oe o ne?oo?: aeueoa?iaoeae
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie // I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y oa nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. —
1998. — ? 3. — N. 9-11.

24. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eaeo?iiiaa A.I., Ainaiei I.?. E??cue i?ecio
o?einio?? ina?oe (eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo oeiee-a?iiac??) // ??aeia oeiea.
— 1993. — ? 7. — N. 54-58. —

25. Eiaaeue E.A., Caa?aaa E.Ae. I?iaeaiu i?iaiice?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie
aaeaioaoeee iaea?aiiuo aeaoae // Iaaea?iaaia aeeoeia. — 1998. — ? 7. —
N.2-4.

26. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa / nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea:
Iiiyo?eii-oa?i?iieia?/iee neiaiee. — E.: Aoiinoa?a, 1994. — 119 n. (ca
caa. ?aae.)

27. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa c iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?. — E.:
Noieeoey, 1997. — 151 n. (caa.?aae.).

28. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea ye iniiaa
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe // Aeia??a ? iaae?y. — ? 5. — E.: Aeaaeaii?ann,
1994. — 34 n.

29. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eiaoaeee A.N. Niaea?aeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony a oeieueiuo EEAeao //
Eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneia, o?oaeiaia e i?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea oeieueieeia. —
I.: AII NNN?,1987.- N.22-30.

30. Ca???aa ?.Ae., E?iothe N.O., Ao/ae A.I. Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ??cieo ??ai?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea
aeey iieiae? (?aeii, i?noi, naei) // Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie: noai, i?iaeaie,
oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy: Ca.iaoe.ioae?e. Oe?IAe? i?iaeai iieiae?. — Aei.4. —
E.: A.E.Ae., 1996. — N. 118-125.

31. Ca???aa ?.Ae., E?iothe N.O. Iaoiaeeea oa iaoiaeieia?y aecia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ??cieo ??ai?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea (oeaio??a)
aeey iieiae? // Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie: noai, i?iaeaie, oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy:
Ca.iaoe.ioae?e. Oe?IAe? i?iaeai iieiae?. — Aei.5. — E.: A.E.Ae., 1996. —
N. 103-113.

32. Kowal Larisa, Zwieriewa Irina. Problematyka aktywnosci tworczej
uczniow we wspolczesnej pedagogice radzieckiej // Pedagogika XXYII.
Zeszyty Naukowe wyzszej szkoly pedagogicznej im. Powstancow slaskich w
Opolu. — 1993. — C.79-83.

33. Zvereva I. Tolv ar och narkoman // Kosmopolit. International
Culture Forum Sweden, Stockholm. – 1999. – ? 5. – Pages 34-35.

2. IAOIAeE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??, IAOA??AEE, AeAIIIIAAI? NOAOO?, OACE O
IAOEIAEO CA??EAO ? AEO?IAEAO.

1. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Ae?yeuei?noue oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey
iieiae? ca 1 eaa?oae 1995 ?. // Aeia??a ? iaae?y — E.: A.E.Ae., 1995. —
? 2 .- 46 n. —

2. ?iaae?ae ? noni?euenoai: i?iaeaie ?ioaa?aoe??: Oee. Ca???aa ?.Ae.,
?aaiiaa ?.A. — E.: A.E.Ae., 1995. — 96 n.

3. Caa?aaa E.Ae. O?iaie i?aanoaaiiie ainieoaiiinoe // Aeeaaiinoe/aneea
iaoiaeeee eae iniiaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e ?acaeoeth e
ainieoaieth ee/iinoe: Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. — Noiu: I??y, 1991.- N.
38-46.

4. Caa?aaa E.Ae. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ii inouanoaeaieth iao?eioe/aneiai
e eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey o/aueony: Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. —
E.: ?OIE, 1990. — 16 n.

5. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe oeieueiuo eeoaia
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie ae?oaeau ii oi?ie?iaaieth iieeoe/aneie
niciaoaeueiinoe iiae?inoeia: Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. — Caii?iaeuea:
IaeEOO, 1984. — 25 n.

6. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey niaoe?ae?no?a ?c
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth uiaei nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? iieiaei? ethaeeie, yea ao?aoeea aai ia iiaea ciaeoe ?iaioo,
aei noaoono aac?ia?oiiai // Aeia??a ? iaae?y. — E.: A.E.Ae., 1995. — ? 4
. — N. 21-28.

7. Caa?aaa E.Ae. I?iaeaiu ?aaeecaoeee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea a eco/aiee
i?aanoaaiiie ainieoaiiinoe // Oi?ie?iaaiea ananoi?iiia ?acaeoie ee/iinoe
a nenoaia aiao?i/iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou oeieu-eioa?iaoa. — E.:1990.-
N.23-28.

8. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Ainieoaoaeueiua ooieoeee ia?ae/iiai eieeaeoeaa //
Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a oeiea. — E.: 1977. — N.65-66.

9. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. Naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaioa o/aueony
iaaeaaiae/aneeo o/eeeu ii eco/aieth eo?na “Iaaeaaiaeea”: Iaoiae.
?aeiiaiaeaoeee. — E, 1989. — *. 1. — 58n.; *.I. — 73 n.; *.O. — 102 n.

10. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., Oo?aeia I.Ae. Oaeaoii aeiaa?ey:
Iaoa?eaeu e ?anioaeeeaineiio naieia?o i?aaiecaoi?ia nioeeaeueiuo neoaea.
— Aeiai?iiao?iane: 1992. — 43 n.

11. Nioe?aeueia i?aeo?eiea ne??o: Ca.ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a
aeey niaoe?ae?no?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?: Oee. Ca???aa ?.Ae.,
?aaiiaa ?.A. // Aeia??a ? iaae?y. — E.:A.E.Ae., 1996. — ? 2. — 53 n.

12. I?io?eaeoeea NI?Ae. Ca??iee ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a:
Oee. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Ieeeiaiei I.?. // Aeia??a ? iaae?y. — E.:
A.E.Ae.,1996. — ? 3. — 55n.

13. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Aaeaeoeaae/ A.E. Enoiaeiay eiioeaioeey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa “I?etho-oaaaeeua aeey
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo iiae?inoeia” // Nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iieiae?
(Oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe):
Ca.iaoiae.iaoa?.-aei.1.-E.,1992.-N.8-29.

14. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., Oo?aeia I.Ae. Oaeaoii aeiaa?ey. //
Nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iieiae? (Oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y
?iaioe): Ca.iaoiae.iaoa?.- Aei.1.- E.: 1992 . — N. 30-63.

15. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., Aa?ooaei A.I. Oeaio?
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaea?aeee aeaoae e iiae?inoeia //
Nioe?aeuei? neoaeae aeey iieiae? (Oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aai?caoe?y
?iaioe): Ca. iaoiae. iaoa??ae?a. — aei.1.- E.: 1992.- N.64-80.

16. Caa?aaa E.Ae., O?ieia I.Ae. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
auyaeaieth e eco/aieth o?iaiy i?aanoaaiiie ainieoaiiinoe iiae?inoeia. —
Caii?iaeuea: IaeEOO, 1989. — 25 n.

17. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Aa?aoaiei O.A. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
eco/aieth ioiioaiey e o?oaeo o iiae?inoeia (5-7 eeannu). — Caii?iaeuea:
IaeEOO, 1989. — 27n.

18. Caa?aaa E.Ae., O?ieia I.Ae. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
auyaeaieth e eco/aieth o?iaiy eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneie ainieoaiiinoe
iiae?inoeia (5-7 eeannu). — Caii?iaeuea: IaeEOO, 1989. — 24 n.

19. Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?eia iaaeaaia?ea ia ii?ic? OO?
noie?ooy // Oee. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eaeo?iiiaa A.I., ??iaeia ?.A. — E.:
?ioiAe?OE, 1998. — 32n.

20. Eiaaeue E.A., Caa?aaa E.Ae. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaieth eieeaeoeaiuo oai?/aneeo aeae a ieiia?neii
eaaa?a // Eaoaae?a iaaeaaiaeee aunoae e n?aaeiae oeieu EAO, 1988. — 8 n.

21. Caa?aaa E.Ae. E aii?ino ia i?aaiecaoeee neoaea nioeeaeueiie caueou
e iiaeaea?aeee aeaoae e iiae?inoeia // Iieiaeaaeiay iieeoeea: iiuo,
i?iaeaiu, ia?niaeoeau: Iaoa?. iao/ii-i?aeo. eiioa?aioeee — *. ??. — E.,
1992. — N. 186-188.

22. Caa?aaa ?.Ae. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiino?oeoeaii? ? aeano?oeoeaii?
iiaaae?iee iieiae?: oaeoi?e ? oaiaeaioe?? // Aea/aiiy iieiae? ia
no/aniiio aoai?: ieoaiiy iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiaeeee. — E.: A.E.Ae., 1996.
— N. 196-197.

23. Caa?aaa E.Ae. I ?aaeecaoeee eaeae oi?ie?iaaiey /aeiaaea-aoiaienoa a
ia?iaeiie iaaeaaiaeea // Ia?iaeiay iaaeaaiaeea e nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
ainieoaiey: Iaoa?eaeu Ananithciie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. —
*aaiena?u, 1991. — N. 49-50.

24. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Iiauoaiea aeaenoaaiiinoe naiioi?aaeaiey e
iaaeaaiae/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa aeayoaeueiinoueth oeieueiuo
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee o/aueony // Nio?oaeie/anoai
iaaeaaiae/aneie iaoee e ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey o/aueony a oneiaeyo ?aoi?iu oeieu. — *. 1. — I.,
1988. — N. 99-104. — Aeai. A IIOeE “Oeiea e iaaeaaiaeea” II NNN? e AII
NNN? 11.01.88, ? 17-88.

25. Caa?aaa E.Ae. ?ieue yiioeeiiaeueii-iiaaaeai/aneiai aniaeoa a
eco/aiee eaeaeii-i?aanoaaiiie ainieoaiiinoe ee/iinoe oeieueieea //
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a oeiea e a
iaaeaoca: Oacenu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. — E?eaie ?ia, 1990. —
N. 93-96.

26. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?u iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee
n?aaenoaaie ia?iaeiie iaaeaaiaeee // I?aanoaaiii-ynoaoe/aneia ainieoaiea
iieiaeaaee n?aaenoaaie eneonnoaa: Oac. iao/.-i?aeo. nai. —
*a?ieaia,1990. — N.27-28.

27. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ii?aeueiiai noaiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino? a i?aoe? // Iaia?a?aia iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa: i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae: Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1993. — N. 197-199.

28. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Enoiaeiua iinueee eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiie caueou
aeaonoaa ia Oe?aeia //Aei i?ia?ano a aeiiii?oe? /a?ac ina?oo: Oace
i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??.- Caii??aeaey, 1993. — N. 88.

29. Caa?aaa E.Ae. Ia?niaeoeau iiaeaioiaee nioeeaeueiuo iaaeaaiaia a
nenoaia ia?aciaaiey // I?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ci?ie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. —
E., 1993. — N.225-226.

30. Ca???aa ?.Ae. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeo?eiea iaaea?iaaieo
ae?oae //Oaeaiiaeoa iniaeno?noue: n?i’y, oeiea, aea?aeaaa: Oace I?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo.eiioa?aioe??. — E., 1994. — N.105-108.

31. Caa?aaa E.Ae., Eaeoeiiiaa A.I., ?iiaiiaa Ae.A. Iio?aaiinoue a
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaea?aeea o aeaaooae-iiae?inoeia (ii
?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee a Eeaaneie aa/a?iae aeaineie aeiiacee //
Iieiaeue ? i?iaeaie eiioe?eoo a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa: Oace I?aeia?. iieiae?ae. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. —
*.??. — *a?i?aoe?, 1994.- N.216-219.

32. Ca???aa ?.Ae., ?aa?aoiaa E.?. Oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeyaeaiiy oa
aea/aiiy ??aiy ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? oeiey??a // Iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea —
ia?aaoaeia? oeiee: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? IAe? iaaeaaia?ee
Oe?a?ie. — E., 1990. — N.107-109.

33. Caa?aaa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeeee
i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco ? o/i?a iaaeo/eeeu
// ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ? iaoee a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie:
Oace iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. — *.??. — Oa?iii?eue, 1990. — N.54-55.

34. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Eiaaeue E.A. Iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei i?aeaioiaee
aaeaeaa??a o iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaaeae? // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a aei oai?/i? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?: Oace Anaoe?.
iaoe. eiioa?aioe??.- E.,1993.- N.90-92.

35. Ca???aa ?.Ae., Oa?aiaiei ?.A. Aieea aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ia
oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o oe?eueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? // Oace aei iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?? “Oeyoe aeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a iao??ioe/iiai oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?. -E., ?OIE. — 1990. — N.15.

Ca???aa ?.Ae. Oai??y ? i?aeoeea nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c
ae?oueie oa iieiaeaeth a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.05 — nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea. — ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny aaiacen, nooue, i?ia?aei?
caeiiii??iino? oa oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy oai??? ? i?aeoeee
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie ? iieiaeaeth ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee oa nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe o
na?oiaiio ? a?o/eciyiiio eiioaenoao. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe c ??cieie eaoaai??yie ae?oae ? iieiae? iiaeaii
?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o nenoaio ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea,
aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? aeaaiae?eieo oiiae?a
i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a nioe?aeueii? i?io?eaeoeee, nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae,
nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae ? iieiae?
a Oe?a?i?. Iaa?oioiaaii e?eoa??? ae?yeueiino? oeaio??a nioe?aeueieo
neoaea aeey iieiae? oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai iai?yio
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea, nioe?aeueia ?iaioa,
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue, nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa,
nioe?aeuei? iineoae, nioe?aeueia aaeaioaoe?y, nioe?ae?caoe?y,
nioe?aeueia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y, nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea, nioe?aeuei?
neoaeae.

Caa?aaa E.Ae. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaiou n
aeaoueie e iieiaeaaeueth a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.05 — nioeeaeueiay iaaeaaiaeea. — Einoeooo
iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony aaiacen, nouiinoue, aaaeouea
caeiiiia?iinoe e oaiaeaioeee noaiiaeaiey oai?ee e i?aeoeee
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaiou n aeaoueie e iieiaeaaeueth ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao ?acaeoey nioeeaeueiie iaaeaaiaeee e nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou
a ie?iaii e ioa/anoaaiiii eiioaenoao. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca oeeinioneiai
niaea?aeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeaia acaeiinaycue eaoaai?ee
“aeayoaeueiinoue”, “nioeeaeueiay ?aaioa”, “iaaeaaiae/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue”, “nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay ?aaioa”. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu
iao/iua iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia nioeeaeecaoeee ee/iinoe, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony ca?oaaaeiuie e ioa/anoaaiiuie ineoieiaaie e iaaeaaiaaie,
ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue i?aaaioeaiie ?aaiou n ?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie
aeaoae e iieiaeaaee a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, ii?aaeaeaiu ninoaaiua nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee aeaoneeo e thiioaneeo eieoeeaoea,
iainiiaaia i?aaiaay aaca inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneie
?aaiou a aeaoneie e thiioaneie n?aaea. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou
?ac?aaioaiiie e ai?iae?iaaiiie eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou n
aeaoueie e iieiaeaaeueth a Oe?aeia, eioi?ay yaeyaony iiiaio?iaiaaie
nenoaiie, iiaenenoaiu eioi?ie – ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiu,
oaoiieiae/iu e yooaeoeaiu a caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa (iai?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou) e noauaeoa (eaoaai?ee aeaoae e iieiaeaaee)
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu yoaiu
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey nenoaiu nioeeaeueiuo neoaea a ioa/anoaaiiie e
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea, ii?aaeaeaia yooaeoeaiinoue oeaeaauo i?ia?aii
inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iiiiue ?acee/iui eaoaai?eyi iieiaeaaee a
o?oaeiono?ienoaa, i?aaiecaoeee eoeueoo?ii-aeinoaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaoa?eaeueiii iaania/aiee. I?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou ?aaeecaoeee
nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii ?aaaeeeoaoeee aeeoeiiuo ee/iinoae e nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii, a oaeaea nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeoia nioeeaeueiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee
aieueiuo NIEAe, AE*-eioeeoee?iaaiiuo e ia?eiiaiia; inaauaiu
niaoeeoe/aneea oi?iu e iaoiaeu nioeeaeueiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee ethaeae n
iniauie iio?aaiinoyie; iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue acaeiinayce
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee a inouanoaeaiee
i?iaeoia nioeeaeueiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee aeaoae e iieiaeaaee a Oe?aeia,
ii?aaeaeaiu ia?niaeoeau yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiinieeaeaoeee oneeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a iiaeaea?aeea naiuee,
oi?ie?iaaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?iaeeoaeae ca ainieoaiea aeaoae, nicaeaiee
nenoaiu aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, oe?aieaiee o?aaeeoeee naiaeiiai
ainieoaiey, oneeaiee aeaiioieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia, naienoaaiiuo
oe?aeineiio ia?iaeo, i?iiaaaiaea caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie, ineoieiaee
iaianeeey, aoiaiiinoe e oiea?aioiinoe a acaeiiioiioaiee aeaoae e
ac?ineuo. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey, oi?iu e iaoiaeu
?aaiou oeaio?ia nioeeaeueiuo neoaea n naiueae. Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie
ii?aaeaeaiu iiaeaioiaea iieiaeaaee e naiaeiie aeecie, iiiiuue iieiaeui
naiueyi a noaaeeecaoeee ioiioaiee, ainieoaiee ?aaaiea. A oiaea aiaeeca
?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii nioeeaeueiie iiiiue e
iiaeaea?aeee onoaiiaeaiu iaeaieaa iacaueuaiiua eaoaai?ee aeaoae e
iieiaeaaee. ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia eo nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee:
nioeeaeueiay iiaea eiaaeeaeia e ne?io, nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iao?iiaae naiae, ainieouaathueo aeaoae-eiaaeeaeia, i?aaiecaoeey
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuae e acaeiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuae aeayoaeueiinoe,
noeioee?iaaiea i?ia?anneaiie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey ia iiaeaea?aeeo
eiaaeeaeia. Ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou n
?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie aeaoae e iieiaeaaee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou
aiaae?aiey a nenoaio aeayoaeueiinoe nioeeaeueiuo neoaea,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e
aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo oiiaeia i?ia?aii e i?iaeoia nioeeaeueiie
i?ioeeaeoeee, nioeeaeueiie iiiiue, nioeeaeueiie aaeaioaoeee e
nioeeaeueiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee aeaoae e iieiaeaaee a Oe?aeia. Iainiiaaiu
e?eoa?ee aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?ia nioeeaeueiuo neoaea aeey iieiaeaaee,
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey eaaeaeiai iai?aaeaiey e eo niioaaonoaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay iaaeaaiaeea, nioeeaeueiay ?aaioa,
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, nioeeaeueiay iiiiuue,
nioeeaeueiua oneoae, nioeeaeueiay aaeaioaoeey, nioeeaeecaoeey,
nioeeaeueiay ?aaaeeeoaoeey, nioeeaeueiay i?ioeeaeoeea, nioeeaeueiua
neoaeau.

Zvyeryeva I. Theory and practice of social — pedagogical work with
children and youth in Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Submission one’s these is for a doctor’s degree; specialization 13.00.05
— social pedagogics. — Institute of pedagogics, Academy of Pedagogical
Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The following problems are the subject of researching: genesis, essence,
leading appropriateness and tendencies of developing of theory and
practice of social and pedagogical work with children and youth on
different steps of development of social pedagogy and social work in the
world and Ukrainian context. On the base of created concept of social
work with different categories of children and youth the results of
inculcation in the system of social services activities, governmental
organisations, non-government organisations and charity foundations,
projects of social prevention, social help, social adaptation and social
rehabilitation of children and youth in Ukraine are presented. The
criteria of work the centres of social services for youth and
perspectives of development of each direction and their accordance to
the international standards of social work are scientifically grounded.

Key words: social pedagogy, social work, social and pedagogical
activities, social help, social service, social adaptation,
socialisation, social rehabilitation, social prevention.

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