Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

OAeE. 631.158:331.522.4.(477.64)

Eaaaaea Ieueaa Ieoaee?aia.

Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? (ia i?eeeaae?
Caii??cueei? iaeano?).

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 11.00.02 — aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Iaeanna — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iae?oiiieuenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
?inoeooo? ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?ioeue Ea?ena
Ieaenaiae??aia, Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

I?nooi Ieeiea Aeaieeiae/, aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea

Naiaiia Aaneeue Oaaei?iae/, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.051.03 a Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

ca aae?anith 270058, i. Iaeana, Oaiiainueeee i?ia.2, AAO, aoae. 86.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 17 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.a.i.
AEaioaeae I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th c iaea?eueo cia/eieo oa
iaa?aeeeaaeieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ? icaei?iaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? ia nae? ? oi?ioaaiiy
noaa?eueiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. Naia
aeey n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? oa?aeoa?i? aeaiiioeyoe?y ? noa??iiy
ianaeaiiy, nooo?a? ci?ie a no?oeoo?? caeiyoino?, ii?ooaiiy iniiaieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue o oi?ioaaii? oa ?aae?caoe?? o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?,
iaae?iiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?a?ii? i?aoe? oa cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Iioeeee a?e ? iecueeee i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue
caeiyoeo o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? aaea nueiaiaei?
noathoue aaeueiii ia oeyoo ?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a
oe?eiio. Oiio ia?aae iaoeith oa i?aeoeeith noi?oue aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy
noai?aiiy oaeiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, yea noeioethaaei
a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo eiiieaenii? no?aoaa?? oi?ioaaiiy caeiyoino?
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo naea.

O oeueiio a?aeiioaii? cia/i? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? ia?
noni?eueia aaia?ao?y. ?eiie i?aoe? ia? /?oeo noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/io
nooi?noue. Ia eiai oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie cia/ii aieeaathoue
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? /eiieee: nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy, aaiaeaiia?ao?/ia
neooaoe?y, ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aa?ii?a, niaoe?ae?caoe?y oa
eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa, ??aaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
oa iniaeeaino? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai
?icaeoeo a oe?eiio. Ne?ae neacaoe, ui noni?eueia aaia?ao?y iaeiie/eea
/eiaeee aeina?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ia?iaeiianaeaiiy, ?icnaeaiiy ?
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

?acii c oei i?iaeaie no/aniiai ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Ua a?eueoith i??ith oea noino?oueny caeiyoino? oa
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo ?iai/i? neee o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ?aa?ii?a.
Oiio aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ?? iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, aeeiai?ci no/anieo ci?i oa iaiao?aei?noue
oi?aae?iiy ieie coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c oaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, cie?aia c
oaiith «Aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?ce/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??
Caii??cueei? iaeano?», yea aeeiio?oueny ia i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiio
oaeoeueoao?.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe – ?ic?iaea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo canaae oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaei?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa icaei?iaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ii? ?
aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a oe?a?inueeiio nae?.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aei iinoaiiaeo oa ae??oaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ii? nooiino? ?eieo i?aoe? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio, eiai cia/aiiy oa i?noey a ?ioaa?iaaiiio
?eieo i?aoe?;

— aiae?c no?oeoo?e oa iniaeeainoae ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino?;

— ioe?ieo aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a, nioe?aeueii? aace n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, oiia i?aoe? a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? ?aa?iio ye
iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?eieo i?aoe? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio;

— noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano?;

— aiae?c no/anieo iaoai?ci?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? oa aecia/aiiy
i?e/ei eiai iaaeinoaoiuei? aoaeoeaiino?;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a oa cania?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe?? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo iaoiae?a ?o ?aae?caoe??.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io oa iaoiaee/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee
caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae i?i i?aoeth ?
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne, ?icaeoie n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? ? aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno, nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy o ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
iiaeyae?a aaoi?a ni?aaeee ?iaioe i?aaenoaaiee?a aaia?ao?/ii? iaoee, ye?
caeiathoueny i?iaeaiaie aaia?ao?? ianaeaiiy, aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, oai?aoe/ii? aaia?ao?? – A.I.Aie?eiaa, O.?. Canoaaiiai,
I.A. ?aiaoaiea, I.Ae. I?nooia, I.I. Iaeaia?/oea, TH.?. I?oth?aiea, E.A.
?oaeaiea, I.?. Oaae?y, I.A. Oii/??aa, I.?. Oauaanueeiai, I.O.Oii?e,
a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a, ye? caeiathoueny i?iaeaiaie o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
caeiyoino?, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?, nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy – N.?.Aaiaeo?a, A.I.E?aaiiai?, A.A.Ii?e??iei.

Oaeoieia?/io aaco aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaee noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee
Aea?aeaaiiai oa Caii??cueeiai oeaio??a caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy i?aoe? ia
nae?, icaei?iaeaiiy aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueii? oa I?i?noa?noaa,
noaa?e?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ?eieo i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee,
Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie, Caii??cueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy noaoenoeee,
Caii??cueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
i?iaeiaieuenoaa, ioae?eaoe?? ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a,
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiao iiaecio aeena?oaoe?? aecia/athoue:

— ooi/iaiiy oa ?icoe?aiiy ?nioth/iai eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo
?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano?;

— anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae
eaoaai??yie ”aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueia neooaoe?y”, “noaoaai-a?eiaa
no?oeoo?a ianaeaiiy”, “nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy”, “nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aaca
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?”, “?eiie i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
?aa?iio, eiai oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y, naaiaioaoe?y, no?oeoo?a,
iniaeeaino? ? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo”;

— ioe?iea aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueii? neooaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
aace n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?;

— cae?eniaiiy nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano?;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo ?eieiaii???ioiaaieo aaeocae oa
ae?iaieoeoa AIE ? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? oa aecia/aiiy iaoai?cio ?o
i?aeo?eiee a eiioaeno? ae??oaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino? ? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy;

— i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iniiaieo oeyo?a oa cania?a iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ia iniia? ci?ie
i??i?eoao?a a eaae?ia?e iie?oeoe? oa nenoai? i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a, ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ? i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ( oa?ia?noai, iaeee a?cian, i?aei?e?iieoeoai), no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiue a aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ?iaanoeoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?,
nioe?aeuei?e ?io?ano?oeoo?? naea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Oai?aoeei–iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaai? a ?iaio?, a oaeiae
i?eeeaaei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? ? no?oeoo?e ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ?
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano?, i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?,
ae??aino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
iiaeaeueoiio iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?aa?iiaeueieo ?eie?a i?aoe?
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?, i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo
aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo ooiaeaoe?e. ?acoeueoaoe oa
aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? Caii??cueei?
iaeanii? oa ?aeiiieo i?ia?ai caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy o 1997 ?. Aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo, cie?aia i?e aeeeaaeaii? aeenoeeie?i :»Aaia?ao?y ianaeaiiy»,
«Aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie», «Aaia?ao?y Caii??cueei?
iaeano?»

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ia: VII c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Ee?a, 1995); tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? aei 65-??//y IAeI? (Iae?oiiieue, 1995);
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie aiaeiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno I?e/i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio ?
iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai ?icaeoeo (Oa?nii,1997); ia
ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
IAeI? (1994-1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 9
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao oa oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo. Caaaeueieo
ianya ioae?eaoe?e, ui iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o aeena?oaoe??, neeaaea?
2,7 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a oa
iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Aecia/aii noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/io
nooi?noue i?iaeai ?eieo i?aoe? ? caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio oa anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae aeieeiaiiyi aac?ia?ooy ?
no?oeoo?ith caeiyoino?. Iaa?oioiaai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe??? ia nae?, iniiai? iai?yie caaeainoaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?? ?eieo
i?aoe? ? caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 163 noi??ieao
eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, yeee neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae 129 iaeiaioaaiue,
a oiio /ene? 3 ia ?iicaii?e iia?. ?iaioa aeeth/a? 17 oaaeeoeue, 17
?enoie?a.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss OA ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?. ?eiie i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
iaeano? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ?eieo i?aoe? e?a?ie. A?i ?icoi??oueny ye
noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui iathoue niaoeeo?/i?
oa?eoi??aeuei? iniaeeaino?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo cae?enith?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ia ?iai/o neeo a iaaeao n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio. Naia ?iai/a neea, ye noeoii?noue o?ce/ieo oa
aeooiaieo yeinoae, yeeie aieiae?? oa ei?enoo?oueny o i?ioean? i?aoe?
ethaeeia, ? oiaa?ii ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

Iniaeeaino? ?iai/i? neee, ye oiaa?o ia ?eieo i?aoe?, aecia/athoue eiai
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/io nooi?noue. Aiia icia/a?, ui ?aeeiiai ?eieo i?aoe?
i?aeoe/ii ia ?nio?. A?i aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ca i?ioan?yie, aaeocyie,
?aa?iiaie. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne iiaeooue ia?ai?uoaaoeny oa?eoi??aeueii,
ci?ithaaoe caiyooy. Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/io nooi?noue ?eieo i?aoe?
aecia/a? oaeiae niaoeeo?ea /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?iiiceoe?th oa
iiieo ?iai/i? neee, oea -oa?eoi??aeuei? (nenoaie ?icnaeaiiy,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? oeie ianaeaieo ioieo?a, oa?eoi??aeueiee iiae?e i?aoe?),
aaiaeaiia?ao?/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, ineoieia?/i?.

Iniiaiiieiaei? oe?e? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?, a o./. ? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — oea caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o aaeocaaiio oa oa?eoi??aeueiiio aniaeoao,
th?eaee/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, noni?eueiiai aeciaiiy
oi?eaeueii? oe?iiino? ethaenueei? i?aoe?, ??aiino? noi??i o ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiineiao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae ?eiie oiniaeth?
ianooii? iniiai? ooieoe??: noni?eueiee iiae?e i?aoe?, ?ioi?iaoe?eio,
iina?aaeieoeueeo, oe?iiooai?thth/o, ?aaoethth/o.

A aeinyaiaii? iaoe oa aeeiiaii? ooieoe?e ?eiie i?aoe? iiaeiai
caaacia/oaaoeny iaa?oioiaaiei aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi. ?ino?oiaioaie
inoaiiueiai ? a?aeiia?aei? caeiie, i?aecaeiii? aeoe, ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe, noaneae?? ? i?eueae, aeioaoe??, e?aaeeoe, iiaeaoee,
ii?aeuei? noeioee, ?aca?aoaaiiy ?iai/i? neee.

Ca?aeii c iaoiaeieia?/ieie iniiaaie nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, ?eiie
i?aoe? aeioe?eueii no?oeoo?ecoaaoe ca oa?eoi??aeueiith, aaeocaaith,
i?ioan?eiith, nioe?aeueiith, i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeie no?oeoo?aie.
Aei no?oeoo?ieo iciae eeaneo?eaoe?? ?eie?a a?aeiinyoueny: e?euee?nia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iieoioe?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a oiaa?o “?iai/a neea”, oiiae
eiieo?aioe??, ??aaiue aeaiia?ao?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, caeiyoino? oa
aac?ia?ooy ia o?e /e ?io?e oa?eoi???. Oaeei /eiii, ni?eueieie ?enaie
aeey aaeocaaeo oa oa?eoi??aeueieo ?eie?a i?aoe? ? ?aeaioe/i?noue oiaa?o,
noa?eoe oa ia?eoe ?eieo, oe?e? oa ooieoe??, ?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a,
caniae aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa i?noeaaiai naiioi?aae?iiy. Oe?
aeniiaee noinothoueny ci?noo ?eieo i?aoe? aa?a?ii? noa?e oa n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino?. ?acii c oei, oeae ?eiie ia? iaai? iniaeeaino? aiane?aeie
ae?? iniaeeainoae aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, i?ia?aeio ?ieue AIE a aeiiii?oe?,
cia/io ieoiio aaao n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a oa n?euenueeiai niiniao aeeooy.

A?aecia/eii, ui ca e?euee?noth caeiyoeo ?eiie i?aoe? o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? a 1996-1997 ??. iiae?eya ia?oa i?noea c ?eieii i?aoe? o
i?iieneiaino? (22.0% an?o caeiyoeo). ?acii c oei i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?
? aeoaea iecueeith. Aiane?aeie neaaeiai ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoe/iiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy o ENI oa ?aaeainiao, oa?ia?noaa, a?aenooiino?
aeueoa?iaoeae ?iai/eo i?noeue a ieo naeyie ia i?aeoeoe? caeeoathoueny
iaea?eueo aaci?aaieie oa aeene?ei?iiaaieie ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aaa ia
i?aoeth. ??aaiue ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? ia nae? ? ieae/ei ca ??aaiue iieaoe
i?nueeei aeeoaeyi, ui cieaeo? iioeaaoe?th i?aoe?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icaeoeo ae??aieo ianiaoe?ae?ciaaieo, ioaea iecueeii?iaeoeoeaieo,
iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa.

E??i oeueiai, ?eiie i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ia? iaeiaio
?icaeiooo ?io?ano?oeoo?o (oeaio?e caeiyoino?, a??ae? i?aoe?, oeaio?e
i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-?aeeaii?
i?aai?caoe??, nioe?aeueii-aeaaiae?ei? ooiaeaoe??). Oea oo?oaeith?
?aaeueio ioe?ieo noaiiaeua ia ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?,
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeee e?euee?niiai aiae?co.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, iaoiaeeea noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo
i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio, oea: ii-ia?oa — aea/aiiy
aieiaieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo (aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? oa
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? nenoai ?icnaeaiiy), nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
aace n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? ia nae?;
ii-ae?oaa — ioe?iea ??aiy oa yeino? aeeooy n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a, oiia ?o
i?aoe?; ii-o?ao? — nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c aeania ?eieo i?aoe?
(iiieo ? i?iiiceoe?y ia ?iai/o neeo, ??aaiue caeiyoino? ? aac?ia?ooy,
aaeocaaa no?oeoo?a ? oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a) ?,
ia?aoo?, i?iaiic oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? ?aa?iio ia ia?niaeoeao.

I?e ioe?ioe? yeino? i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
i?eiaeii? 3 a?oie iciae — aeeiioaaio ?iaioo; i?ioan?th, ina?oo;
caaaeueio e?euee?noue caeiyoeo oa iacaeiyoeo. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii iaaaoeaiiai yaeua ia ?eieo i?aoe? — aac?ia?ooy.
Ianaiia?aae aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe eiai no?oeoo?o oa ianyae aeae?a:
o?eeoe?eiiai, no?oeoo?iiai, oeeee?/iiai. Aea oi/iiai aei??o aac?ia?ooy
ia i?aeoeoe? aeinyaoe aeoaea aaaeei. Oea iiynith?oueny i?enooi?noth
o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee, /anoeiai? caeiyoino?, iaiiaiith ?a?no?aoe??th
aac?ia?oieo, aai ae cayaaie i?i aac?ia?ooy oeo ethaeae, ye? iathoue
aeioiaee a?ae iaca?a?no?iaaii? ae?yeueiino?.

Cia/ia oaaaa o iaoiaeeoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? iiaeiia i?eae?eyoeny iaoiaeai eiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aiie
aeicaieythoue ciyoe nioe?aeueio iai?oao o noni?euenoa?, caaacia/othoue
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie.

Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano?. Ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? iaea?eueoa aieeaathoue:
aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y (Ae), i?a?aoe?eiee ?oo ianaeaiiy (I?), nenoaia
?icnaeaiiy (N?), ?io?ano?oeoo?a n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? (?NI),
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? (NA) oa aeieia?/i? (A) oiiae i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. Ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue i?ae
oi?ioaaiiyi ?eieo i?aoe? oa ia?ae?/aieie oaeoi?aie iiaeia a?aeia?aceoe
ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

O?I = f ( Ae, I?, N?, ?NI, NA, A).

Iaea?eueoee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? ni?aaeythoue aeaiia?ao?/ia
neooaoe?y, i?a?aoe?eiee ?oo ianaeaiiy, n?euenueea nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy;
?io? oaeoi?e iaioith i??ith aieeaathoue ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo
i?aoe? .

A n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? i?iaeeaa? 480.8 oen.
/ieia?e, aai 23.5% ianaeaiiy (ia 1.01.1998 ?.). Ca inoaii? ?iee aiii
ciaioo?oueny ia 4-5 oeny/ ui??/ii, ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie a?ae?iiiai
i?e?iaeiiai ?ooo. Oea iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia caaacia/aii?
o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie ianaiia?aae n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. O
noaoaai-a?eia?e no?oeoo?? ia i?ioyc? aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo
ia?aaaaeathoue ae?iee (54.0% ianaeaiiy). Oaea iniaeea?noue ? nooo?aei
oaeoi?ii oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?.

Iniaeeai iaaaoeaiei /eiieeii a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? ? ia?aaeuaiiy nia?oiino?
iaae ia?iaeaeoaai?noth i?aeoe/ii a 2 ?ace. Iieacieee aeeoy/i? nia?oiino?
aeinyaathoue 14-15 /ie. ia 1000 ia?iaeaeaieo. I?e oeueiio a?eueo
ni?eyoeeaa aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueia neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?ia aeey
Aanae?anueeiai, ?ic?anueeiai, sseei?anueeiai, Oieiaoeueeiai,
Aaeeeia?eic??nueeiai ?aeii?a. Iaea?eueoa nei?i/aiiy ianaeaiiy (-13.2 —
17.5 /ie./1000/ie.) oa?aeoa?ia aeey Aa?aeyinueeiai, I??o?anueeiai,
Iiaiieeiea?anueeiai, Ieoaee?anueeiai ?aeii?a. A?ae?iiee i?e?iaeiee
i?e??no ianyaii — 9.2 — 12.7 /ie./1000/ie. oa?aeoa?iee aeey iaea?eueo
/eneaiieo a?oi ?aeii?a — Aoeyei?euenueeiai, Eaiyinueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai,
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai, Iieia?anueeiai, I?eacianueeiai, *a?i?a?anueeiai,
I?eii?nueeiai, Eoeaeoaanueeiai, Caii??cueeiai, A?eueiyinueeiai,
Aanee?anueeiai. Ii-ia?oa, aecia/ai? caeiiii??iino? ? aaaeeeaeie i?e
i?iaiicoaaii? ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe?. Ii-ae?oaa, aiie aeacothoue ia
i??i?eoaoi?noue canoinoaaiiy cania?a aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee
(noeioethaaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, iaoa??aeueia aeiiiiiaa aaaaoiae?oiei
n?iyi, iaeeiieei iaoa?yi) a ?aeiiao, aea niinoa??aa?oueny iaea?eueoee
??aaiue aeaiiioeyoe??.

?ioee iaaaoeaiee aeaiia?ao?/iee /eiiee aieeao ia ?eiie i?aoe? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — noa??iiy ianaeaiiy. E?euee?noue aeeoae?a o
a?oe? noa??oa i?aoeacaeaoiiai aei??aith? 20.0% an?o aeeoae?a. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i cia/ia aeaiia?ao?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aoethth/eo.

A?aecia/eii, ui oaea aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?ia aeey an?o
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ye? i?iaeeaathoue a iaeano?. Aeiyoie noaiiaeyoue eeoa
aieaa?nueea oa oaoa?nueea ianaeaiiy, a?aaee i?iaeeaaiiy yeiai
cina?aaeaeai? o i?eacianueeeo ?aeiiao. Ine?eueee /aeaoe ci?ie
oaiaeaioe?e aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?
Caii??cueei? iaeano? iaa?yae /e aeioe?eueii, iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe
?aaeeeaeuei? caoiaee ii i?iiaaoaaiith oa caioi/aiith ia?anaeaiiy iieiae?
c o?oaeiiaaeeeoeiaeo cao?aeieo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie; i?nueeeo iinaeaiue
iaeano?; oe?a?ioe?a, ye? i?iaeeaathoue a ?aa?iiao oa e?a?iao NIAe c
a?enueeiaeie oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieie eioe?eoaie ? aaaeathoue iiaa?iooeny
ia Aaouee?aueio.

Aei /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e
?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, iaeaaeeoue, ianaiia?aae,
n?euenueea nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy. Any noeoii?noue n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo
ioieo?a Caii??cueei? iaeano? – 23 naeeua i?nueeiai oeio ? 921
n?euenueeee ianaeaiee ioieo yaeythoue niaith aaeeio oa?eoi??aeueio
nenoaio ?icnaeaiiy. Aea aiae?c aeaiia?ao?/ieo iieaciee?a, u?eueiino?
ianaeaiiy, ethaeiino? n?e iieacaa cia/i? oa?eoi??aeuei? a?aei?iiino?. Ca
iieacieeii u?eueiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy aeae?eaii aeaayoue a?aae?a
n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy, ye? na?oiiaai? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ethaeiino?
n?e a /ioe?e oeie n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy: 1 – c iecueeith u?euei?noth
na?aaeiueith ? iaeith ethaei?noth iinaeaiue; 2 – c na?aaeiueith
u?euei?noth ianaeaiiy aenieith ? na?aaeiueith ethaei?noth, 3 – c
aenieith u?euei?noth ? aenieith ? na?aaeiueith ethaei?noth iinaeaiue, 4
– i?ei?nueeee oei n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy c iaea?eueoith aonoioith
ianaeaiiy, na?aaeiueith ? aenieith ethaei?noth iinaeaiue aei yeiai
a?aeiinyoueny Iae?oiiieuenueeee, Caii??cueeee, A?eueiyinueeee ?aeiie c
iaea?eueoei iieacieeii u?eueiino?- 29.1-25.1 /ie./ei2, ui ia 40-60%
a?eueoa ca na?aaeiueiiaeaniee iieaciee (15.4 /ie./ei2). Iaaiaee, o
Eoeaeoaanueeiio, I?eacianueeiio, *a?i?a?anueeiio, Aoeyei?euenueeiio,
sseei?anueeiio oa Aanae?anueeiio ?aeiiao u?euei?noue ianaeaiiy ia 30-50%
iaioa ca na?aaeiueiiaeanio. Oae? ??ce? a?aei?iiino? o ??ai? canaeaiino?
iaeano?, a oaeiae iaeiaioa a Oe?a?i? i?ney Oa?niinueei? iaeano?
u?euei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy iiynith?oueny iniaeea?noth ?noi?e/ieo
?aae?e canaeaiiy e?ath, iecueeei i?e?iaeiei i?e?inoii ianaeaiiy,
a?aeoieii naeyi o i?noa, aea ?iai/a neea caaaeaee ciaoiaeeea i?aeaeuaiee
iiieo — Caii??aeaey, Aei?i?i?oaeia, ?ia?aiaea?.

Caaaeii aea n?euenueea nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy ? aeineoue no?eeith ? aaaeei
i?aeeyaa? oe?eani?yiiaaiei ci?iai. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ni?iae ??
?aeiino?oeoe?? a 70-? ?iee. Ioaea nenoaia ?icnaeaiiy ? no?eeith,
iaoa??aeueii oa i?inoi?iai i?aai?ciaaiith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ?eieo i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. Oey
ianoaaeia iineeth?oueny oaeiae /a?ac iacia/iee ??aaiue i?a?aoe??
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ui niinoa??aa?oueny a 90-o ?ieao o Caii??cuee?e
iaeano?.

Caaacia/ai?noue ?eieo i?aoe? o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? o?nii iiaycaia c ??aiai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? oa ae?iaie/i?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, niaoe?ae?caoe??th aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeieia?/iith
neooaoe??th a ?aa?ii?. Iniaeeao ?ieue a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
a?ae?a?athoue oeyoe niieo/aiiy. Aeey n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?
Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa?aeoa?i? cia/i? aeeni?iii?oe?? o u?eueiino?
oeyo?a niieo/aiiy. Iaea?eueoa caaacia/ai?noue oeyoaie o A?eueiyinueeiio,
Ieoaee?anueeiio, I??o?anueeiio ?aeiiao — 270-300 ei/1000 ei2, iaeiaioa —
a sseei?anueeiio, Eaiyinueei-Aei?i?ianueeiio, I?eii?nueeiio,
Aanee?anueeiio, Aa?aeyinueeiio. Oea aieeaa? ia noaoon aeinooiiino?
n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, ioaea ? ?iai/eo i?noeue.

I?e caaacia/aii? naeyi aeeoeii ia ??ai? na?aaeiuei?anioae?eainueeeo
iieaciee?a a Caii??cuee?e iaeano? ? iaaeinoaoiueith oaeaoii?caoe?y (22
oaeaoiie a ?ic?aooieo ia 100 n?iae, aai ia 60.0% iaioa, i?ae o i?noao).
A 3.6 ?ace iaioith, i?ae o i?noao, ? ?aae?caoe?y ieaoieo iineoa (c ieo
iiaooiaeo aoei ?aae?ciaaii anueiai ia 8 a?i. ia 1 n?euenueeiai aeeoaey).
O?eueee 48.0% ae?oae n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? caeaoi? caaacia/eoe
aeeonaaeee. Ia 19.4% iaioith, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio ii e?a?i?, ?
caaacia/ai?noue eieaeeiaei oiiaeii. A iaeano? ooieoe?iio? o?eueee 3
oaao?e a iaeaniiio oeaio??. ?o ia iathoue oae? cia/i? i?noa, ye
Iae?oiiieue, Aa?aeyinuee, Aei?i?i?oaeia, Aia?aiaea?, Oieiae. Iacaai?
ianoaaeie cieaeothoue nooi?iue i?eaaaeeaino? n?e oa ?aeoeaio??a ye
na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy ? i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe?. Oiio caaaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo
naea ? i?aeaeuaiiy eiai nioe?aeueiiai noaoono. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii
caeo/aoe eiooe aea?aeaae, aeia?ia?euei? iiaea?oaoaaiiy, iia? oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa aeaniino?. O?eueee ?icaeiooa ?io?ano?oeoo?a,
??ciiiai?oiee na?a?n aeiiiiiaea ?aaeueii iaaeeceoe n?euenueeee niin?a
aeeooy aei i?nueeiai ?, oaeei /eiii, i?eaaaeoe iieiaeue aeey aeeooy oa
i?aoe? ia nae?. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aecia/aieo iieaciee?a ??aiy
?io?ano?oeoo?iiai caaacia/aiiy o eiaeiiio aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio ?aeii?
iaiao?aeii iaoe i?ia?aio (a?cian-ieai) ia?oi/a?aiaeo caoiae?a eiai
iie?auaiiy.

C iaeyaeo ia ciaioaiiy ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ??ceiai
nei?i/aiiy i?ia?ai o?i?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aeieia?/ia
neooaoe?y a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, ye ? a oe?eiio a Caii??cuee?e
iaeano?, cia/ii iie?aueeany. ?acii c oei iaaeinoaoi? c?ioaiiy, aianaiiy
i?aai?/ieo oa i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, iia?eueia iiiaeaiiy oa iaaeinoaoiy
caaacia/ai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith oaoi?eith iaaaoeaii
aieeaathoue ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue,
o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?thaaiiy a oe?eiio, ni?e/eiythoue
aea?eueiaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. A cayceo c oeei aaeeea cia/aiiy ia nae?
ia? ?icaeoie iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia?
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino?. A ia?oo /a?ao oea oa?ia?nuee?
ainiiaea?noaa. I?ioa /a?ac iaaeinoaoith ?o e?euee?noue (1875 a 1997?.),
iaaaeee? ?ici??e caieaaieiae?iiy (o na?aaeiueiio 42.8 aa) cia/iei
neeaaeieeii ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? aiie ia noaee.

Iaea?eueo cia/iei ina?aaeeii caeiyoino? o no/aniiio nae? ? iniaenoa
i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai. Iacaaaeath/e ia iecueeee ??aaiue oiaa?iino?,
IIA ? cia/iei iinoa/aeueieeii i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoe?? ia niiaeea/ee
?eiie oa aaaiiei aeaea?aeii aeioiae?a n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a. Aea o?eueee
eiiieaeniee, aca?iiocaiaeaeaiee ?icaeoie an?o oi?i ae?iaie/i? aa?a?ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia nae? aeicaieeoue noai?eoe a?aeiia?aeio no/aniei aeiiaai
iaoa??aeueio aaco n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?;
caaeainiaaiee oa a?eueo ?ieee ?eiie i?aoe?; caaacia/eoe ?icoe?aia
a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

No?oeoo?a, i?aai?caoe?y, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa iniiai? iai?yie eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
a no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?eiie i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiith
oa?eoi??aeueiith oa aaeocaaith no?oeoo?ith. O n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
?aa?iio i?aoeth? 15.3% an?o caeiyoeo o aaeocyo noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aeeoae?a. O eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao caeiyoi 91149 /ieia?e, aai 65.0% an?o i?aoethth/eo o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. I?e oeueiio na?aaeiueiinieneiaa e?euee?noue
caeiyoeo a ENI iaeano? cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny. Ca oeei iieacieeii
aeae?eythoueny o?e a?oie aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a c iaeiaioith
(2700-3500 /ie.), na?aaeiueith (3600-4900 /ie.) ? iaea?eueoith(iiiaae
5000/ie.) caeiyo?noth (?en.1.), ia aeae? ie iaceaa?ii oae? oa?eoi???
?aeiiaie ?eieo i?aoe?. A?aecia/eii, ui oaeee ?iciiae?e caeiyoino? ia
caaaeaee iiaycaiee ?c u?euei?noth ianaeaiiy oa ethaei?noth ianaeaieo
ioieo?a. Ia iueiai aieeaathoue, ianaiia?aae, ?ici??e caieaaieiae?iiy
ENI, ?o niaoe?ae?caoe?y.

A iaaeao ?aeii?a ?eieo i?aoe? ??aaiue caeiyoino? ia a?aeiia?aea?
?aaeueiei aeioiaeai n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, niinoa??aathoueny iii?oi?
a?aei?ie iieaciee?a ??aiy aac?ia?ooy oa iieaoe i?aoe?. Iaea?eueoee
??aaiue ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? oa?aeoa?iee aeey Aaeeeia?eica?nueeiai,
Eaiyinueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai, A?eueiyinueeiai, Aanae?anueeiai,
I?eii?nueeiai ?aeii?a aea a?i ia 25-30% aeua na?aaeiueiiaeaniiai ?
a?eueoith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, i?ae
a?ae /enaeueiino? caeiyoeo a ENI. Caaaeii aea, iaa?oue o oeiiai aa?a?ieo
?aeiiao iaeano?, ca?ia?oia ieaoiy naeyi ? ia 30-35% iaioith i?ae o
?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a. Oea ca?eueoo? aeooaeuei?noue ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ?aaeueii? caeiyoino? oa ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ia nae?.

Io?oe?eia e?euee?noue aea?eueiaieo o a?aeionoee aac iieaoe aai /anoeiai
iiea/oaai? noaiiaeea 3737 /ieia?e, aai 2.6% caeiyoeo o aaeoc?.
Iaea?eueoa aea?eueiaieo — na?aae i?aoe?aiee?a oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?i,
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?yaeiaeo i?ioan?e. Oea iiayco?oueny, ianaiia?aae, ?c
cia/iei niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa — ia 30-50%.

I?aeoe/ii ia caciaee aea?eueiaiiy ea??aieee ENI oa niaoe?ae?noe,
n?euenueea ?ioae?aaioe?y. Iaea?eueo aenie? oaiie aea?eueiaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a oa?aeoa?i? aeey aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. *anoea i?eaaoieo
i?aei?e?inoa, aea aea?eueiaiiy i?aoethth/eo iaeiaioa, ? iaaeoi
iacia/iith, uia cae?enithaaoe iii?oiee aieea ia ?eiie i?aoe?, a o./. o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. Iaeiaioa e?euee?noue caeiyoeo, iecueea
na?aaeiueii?ny/ia ca?ia?oia ieaoiy oa?aeoa?ia aeey Aoeyei?euenueeiai,
Iiaiieeiea?anueeiai, I??o?anueeiai, Iieia?anueeiai, Oieiaoeueeiai,
*a?i?a?anueeiai, ?ic?anueeiai ?aeii?a. Naia aeey ieo iio??aii ?ic?iaeoe
oa ao?eeoe ia?oi/a?aiao i?ia?aio caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy.

Cia/io eaoaai??th oiiaii caeiyoeo aai ae aea?eueiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a
neeaaea? ianeoaiaoth/ee ia?niiae oe?e, iaaee/i? i?aoe?aieee na?aaeiuei?
eaiee, i?aoe?aieee n?euenueeeo ?aae, iaaaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa,
?icoaoiaaieo a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. A cayceo c a?aenooi?noth iiieoo
ia oae? i?ioan??, iaiiaeeea?noth i?a?aoe?e c iaoith iiooeo iiai? ?iaioe,
oae? i?aoe?aieee aei ia? ia i?aaiooue, ioaea, ia ioiieai? iae?eii
oeaio??a caeiyoino?. C 54.5 oeny/ a?iiaaeyi, ye? a 1997 ?. ia?aaoaaee ia
iae?eo o neoaea? caeiyoino?, o?eueee 9.8% noaiiaeee n?euenuee? aeeoae?.
?acii c oei Caii??cueea iaeanoue aieiae?? cia/iei iioaioe?aeii
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a iacaeiyoiai ianaeaiiy
yea iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ia aac? 39 iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??ciiai
i?io?eth oa ??aiy iaa/aiiy. Na?aaei? niaoe?aeuei? caeeaaee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? o Aanee?aoe?, I??oia? oa o
I?eii?nueeo. I?ai?/iee no?ae iaeano?, cie?aia Aoeyei?euenueeee,
Iieia?anueeee, Eoeaeoaanueeee, ?ic?anueeee oa *a?i?a?anueeee ?aeiie ia
caaacia/ai? aeanieie niaoe?ae?ciaaieie ina?oi?ie caeeaaeaie, ui
iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia cae??ieai? eaae??a ia nae?.

O no?oeoo?? ianaeaiiy, yea ia i?aoeth?, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aecia/aiiy
eaoaai??e iai?aoethth/eo. Na?aae ieo ia?aaaaeathoue ae?iee (58.3%) oa
iieiaeue a?eii aei 28 ?ie?a (36.9%). Iaei??th c iaea?eueo a?aceeaeo
a?eiaeo a?oi na?aae iioaioe?eieo aac?ia?oieo ? aeioneieee oe?e. O?eueee
13% aeioneiee?a NIOO aaaaeathoue, ui iathoue aeinoaoi? oaine io?eiaoe
?iaioo. Na?aae aeioneiee?a aoc?a oaeeo in?a o 4.2 ?ace a?eueoa. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ??aaiue ina?oe ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii eiieo?aioe??
ia ?eieo i?aoe?. ?acii c oei naia na?aae iaeiaio ina?/aieo eaoaai??e
ianaeaiiy ??aaiue aac?ia?oieo iaeiaioee. Oea iiaycaii ianaiia?aae c oei,
ui oey eaoaai??y ianaeaiiy ? iaeiaio /enaeueiith ia ?eieo i?aoe?. C
?ioiai aieo, o e?a?i? ana ua aeoaea iecueeee ??aaiue iaoai?caoe?? oa
aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?aoe?, ioaea iiieo ia o?ce/io i?aoeth caeeoa?oueny
aeineoue aenieei.

C a?eiaith, noaoaaith, i?ioan?eiith no?oeoo?ith aac?ia?ooy iiaycaia
no?oeoo?a caa?iaiue aei oeaio??a caeiyoino?. Na?aae ieo ciiao ae oaee
aeae?eythoueny ae?iee (57.6%) oa iieiaeue (38.3%). Ieoiia aaaa
aeaooiaaieo ia ?iaioo a?aeiinii an??? e?eueeino? oeo, ooi caa?ioany aei
oeaio??a caeiyoino?, neeaea 26.9%. Oea ia 3.0% iaioa, i?ae a 1996 ?. ?
na?ae/eoue i?i oneeaaeiaiiy neooaoe?? ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

A?aecia/a?oueny naciii?noue caa?iaiue aac?ia?oieo aei oeaio??a
caeiyoino?. Aiia ia? aeaa /?oei ae?aaeai? i?ee — ia ii/aoeo oa a e?ioe?
?ieo (ceiiaee) oa a e?ioe? e?oa (e?oi?e). Oea iiaycaii ?c nei?i/aiiyi
ooao?a o athaeaeaoieo i?aai?caoe?yo ia ii/aoeo — a e?ioe? ?ieo, a oaeiae
i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiyi a e?ioe? e?oa aeioneiee?a ??ciiiai?oieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a. Ia ii/aoie 1998 ?. ia ?eieo i?aoe? Caii??cueei? iaeano? ia
iaeia aaeaioia ?iai/a i?noea i?aoaiaeoaaei 28 /ieia?e ?c /enea oeo, ui
caeiyo? iiooeaie ?iaioe. Iniaeeai eaoano?io?/iith neooaoe?y aeyaeeany a
a?aeaeaeaieo n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao. A I??o?anueeiio ?aeii? ia iaeia ?iai/a
i?noea i?eiaaeaei 82 aaaeath/eo, a A?eueiyinueeiio — 86, Aanee?anueeiio
— 177, I?eacianueeiio — 235. Oea a 3.5-9.8 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae o
na?aaeiueiio ii iaeano?.

A oa?eoi??aeueiiio a?aeiioaii? aac?ia?ooy c?inei a 12 ?aeiiao c 20.
Iniaeeai cia/iee eiai ??aaiue o Aanee?anueeiio (5.57%), I??o?anueeiio
(4.72%), Iieia?anueeiio (4.0%), I?eacianueeiio (2.8%) ?aeiiao. Naia oe?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? ?aeiie iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe a caaaeueiiiaeani?e
i?ia?ai? caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino? ye ?aeiie e?eciaiai noaio ?eieo i?aoe?.

Aaaeeeaei iai?yiii noaa?e?caoe?? ?eieo i?aoe? ? i?aai?caoe?y
a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o. O Caii??cuee?e iaeano? eo?n ia a?iiaaenuee? ?iaioe
acyoee ia aeoeaii. E?euee?noue ?iai/eo i?noeue, ia?aaeaa/aia aeey
cae?eniaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o aoea ia ianiaith. Ui noino?oueny
n?euenueeeo ?aeii?a, oi i?i a?iiaaenuee? ?iaioe ye iii?oia yaeua iiaeia
aiai?eoe eeoa o 2-o ?aeiiao – Aanee?anueeiio oa Aanae?anueeiio, aea i?ae
ieo aeae?eaii 409 oa 245 i?noeue. I?ioa ?c oeeo i?noeue aoei aeei?enoaii
o?eueee 31.8 oa 18.0%. a I??o?anueeiio ?aeii? 150 i?noeue a?iiaaenueeeo
?ia?o aoee caiiaiai? ia 100%. A ?ioeo ?aeiiao iaeano? ianya
a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o aeoaea iacia/iee (20-95 i?noeue), aai ae
aeei?enoiao?oueny ia 50-70%, oiio ? e?euee?noue ethaeeii-aei?a,
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo a?iiaaeyiaie aoea iacia/iith – a?ae 175 o
Ieoaee?anueeiio ?aeii? i?e iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiiyo o Aanee?anueeiio
(5469 ethaeeii-aei?a) oa Iieia?anueeiio (2501 ethaeeii-aei?a) ?aeiiao.

Oaeei /eiii, ?eiie i?aoe? i? ? iiiie?oiei ? aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ia
?aeiie ?eieo i?aoe? c a?aeiinii caaeainiaaiith, iacaaeainiaaiith ?
e?eciaith neooaoe??th (oaaeeoey 1). Oaea aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ? iniiaith
aeey oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee oi?aae?iiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?.

AENIIAEE

Anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
Caii??cueei? iaeano?, oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aac?ia?ooy oa ?ioeo
iaaaoeaieo nioe?aeueieo yaeu aeicaieeee cae?enieoe
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aieiaieo iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy caeiyoino? oa noaa?e?caoe?? ?eieo aa?a?ii? i?aoe?. Na?aae ieo
aeae?eythoueny ianaiia?aae o?e a?oie iai?yie?a ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie e
oa?eoi??aeueieie iciaeaie — caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai, iaeaniiai ? ?aeiiiai
cia/aiiy.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue:

— iie?oeea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ia iniia? i?eioeei?a,
iieiaeaiue oa eiioeaioe?e I?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?, ye?
aeciai? a Oe?a?i?, ii?iaoeaieo oa caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie;

— aaeaioaoe?y i?iiiceoe?? ?iai/i? neee aei iiieoo ia ia? o e?euee?niiio
oa ye?niiio a?aeiioaiiyo c aeiiiiiaith aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy:
i?aeaioiaea oa ia?ai?aeaioiaea eaae??a, noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue,
ni?eyoeeaa iiaeaoeiaa oa e?aaeeoia iie?oeea aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ye? ?o
iaaeathoue (aeoeai? oi?ie nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee);

— a?ioia? aeieaoe oa eiiiainaoe?? iaeiaio nioe?aeueiicaoeuaiei aa?noaai
ianaeaiiy (ianeai? oi?ie nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee).

I?e oeueiio, iaia’yceiaith oiiaith cae?eniaiiy iacaaieo
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo caoiae?a ? ?o oa?eoi??aeueia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oa
aaeocaaa e nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?ecaoe?y o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
oa?eoi??aeueieo aaeocaaeo, noaoaai-a?eiaeo, ina?oiuei-i?ioan?eieo
iniaeeainoae ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano?,
iniaeeai ??ai?a caeiyoino? o?eniaaiiai oa i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy.

Caii??cueea iaeania i?ia?aia ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? ia nae? oiniaeth?
caoiaee, ye? a?aoiaothoue aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th ia nae?, noa??iiy
ianaeaiiy; caaacia/ai?noue n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii?
oa ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ??aaiue iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy naeyi
o oe?eiio, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy, i?eaaoecaoe?th, ?icaeoie ??cieo oi?i
aeaniino? oa i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ??aaiue caeiyoino? oa
aac?ia?ooy.

Caaaeueieie caoiaeaie aeey iaeano? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
?iaeaia?ii-eiioi?eaoe?eiiai iaeaoooaaiiy naea (iei? a?i o 8-10 ?ac?a
ieae/ee ii??aiyii c i?nueeei), ca?eueoaiiy ianyao nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeo
iineoa, ?icaeoie n?euenueei? ?ae?aaoe?? oa aeieia?/iee caoeno naea,
i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e n?euenueeiai aeeooy, o oiio /ene?
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, cae/a?a, nayo
oiui. Aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy oeeo caoiae?a ?:

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
ae?iaiee?a;

— onoiaiiy aeenia?eoaoo oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo oa i?iieneiao
i?iaeoeoe?th;

— iino?eia oe?eani?yiiaaia o?iainiaa i?aeo?eiea ?icaeoeo n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? aea?aeaaith;

— -i?eaaoi? iiaea?oaoaaiiy oa eiooe a?iiaaenueeeo ooiaeaoe?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e a?aei?iiino? o nenoai? ?icnaeaiiy, ethaeiino? ianaeaieo
ioieo?a, ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ??aiy oa no?oeoo?e caeiyoino?, aac?ia?ooy,
aecia/ai? caoiaee iaiao?aeii aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ianooiiei /eiii —
iniaeeai? nenoaiaoe/ii? oa anaa?/ii? i?aeo?eiee ae?iaieoeoaa,
?io?ano?oeoo?e, o?ainii?oieo eiioi?eaoe?e iio?aaothoue naea
iiainoai?aieo Aaeeeia?eic??nueeiai oa ?ic?anueeiai ?aeii?a. Aecia/aiiy
Aaeeei? A?eic??ee oa ?ic?aee ye oeaio??a i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei?
oa?eoi??? iai?aaeaia ia aeoea?caoe?th an?o iai?yi?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? —
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, iineoa, ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e.

?ioa a?oia oe?eani?yiiaaieo caoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?
noino?oueny aioo??oi?o oa i?ai?/ieo ?aeii?a — I??o?anueeiai,
Oieiaoeueeiai, *a?i?a?anueeiai, Iieia?anueeiai, Aoeyei?euenueeiai,
Iiaiieeiea?anueeiai. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aeaeaeaiei iieiaeaiiyi ii
a?aeiioaiith aei aieiaieo i?no — oeaio?? ?icaeoeo Caii??cueei? iaeano? —
Caii??aeaey, Iae?oiiiey oa Aa?aeyinueea; o?aaeeoe?eii aaaeeeaeo aeey
noaiiai? ciie aiaeieo aeaea?ae — Aei?i?a, *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a.
Oea coiiaeei iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie oeyoiai? aioo??oiuei- oa
i?aeainiiaea?nueei? ia?aae?, caeeaae?a a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy,
ioi?iie caei?iay oa a?aeii/eieo. Naia a oeeo iai?yiao ia? ?icaeaaoeny
?eiie i?aoe?, aeioe?eueia i?aai?caoe?y a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o.
?aoe?iiaeueia niieo/aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa ?ioeo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? o iaaeao eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
cia/ii i?aeaeueoue iioeaaoe?th i?aoe?, ni?eyoeia c?inoaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

Caoiaee ii ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?eieo aa?a?ii? i?aoe? a i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao
iaeano? — Aa?aeyinueeiio, I?eii?nueeiio, I?eacianueeiio iathoue
a?aoiaoaaoe ?o oi?eaeueiee ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae. ?icaeoie ?ae?aaoe??
ia? aacoaaoeny ia?o ca ana ia aenieiye?niiio i?iaeiaieue/iio
caaacia/aii?. *anoi aiii cae?enith?oueny i?eaaoieie i?aei?e?ioeyie,
iaeeie o??iaie, ye? ia a ciic? caaacia/eoe ??aaiue oiaa?iino?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy. I?ae oei niaoe?ae?caoe?y ia
i?iaeiaieue/iio caaacia/aii? ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii oa oeaio??a iaaeieeoi?ie
eieaeoeaieie oa aea?aeaaieie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie
aeiiiiiaea a noai?eoe iia? ?iai/? i?noey a oeeo ?aeiiao.

O i?ei?nueeeo ?aeiiao — Iae?oiiieuenueeiio, Caii??cueeiio,
Aanee?anueeiio, Eaiyinueei-Aei?i?ianueeiio, Iiaiieeiea?anueeiio aaeeea
cia/aiiy ia? i?aai?caoe?y oa o?iainoaaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o, a ia?oo
/a?ao i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo — aii?yaeeoaaiiy nae?oaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a,
aoae?aieoeoai no/anieo aaoiiaa?no?aeae c a?aeiia?aeiithnoai?aiiy cii
ianiaiai a?aeii/eieo aeey i?nueeeo oa n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a. Noai?aiith
aeiaeaoeiaeo ?ia ?io?ano?oeoo?ith, i/eo i?noeue aoaeooue ni?eyoe ?
no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy a niaoe?ae?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
aeei?enoaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o. Iiaa eaea i?i ?icaeoie
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? no?oeoo?i? c?oo c?ioaiiy, iieeaieo
i?e?iaeieo ianiaeu aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai i?ei?nueeiai oaa?eiieoeoaa.
Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeoea?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, a,
ioaea, ? caeiyoino?, ia? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaea iaa?oioiaaieo i?iaeo?a
c?ioaiiy.

C iaeyaeo ia caaaeueio e?eciao neooaoe?th, a oiio /ene? ? ia ?eieo
i?aoe?, iaiao?aeii noai?eoe ni?eyoeeaa na?aaeiaeua aeey ?icaeoeo
iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa, oa?ia?noaa, iaeeo oi?i aa?ia?ciano.
Ia a?aei?io a?ae aaeeeeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aiie
iio?aaothoue iiaiai, ?eieiaiai ?io?ano?oeoo?iiai caaacia/aiiy
(i?aei?e?inoa ii caaacia/aiith iaeeaii-ianoeeueieie iaoa??aeaie; i?ieaoo
(i?aiaee, e?ceiao) n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oaoi?ee;
iina?aaeieoeueei-caooiai? ia?aae? (caeoiee ian?iiy, aeia?ea, oa?/iaeo
aeiaaaie, ?aae?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ae?ia?a c
ia?); ?ioi?iaoe?eii-?aeeaiieo aaaioe?e, oiui. Naia i?aeo?eiea iaeiai
a?ciano o aeacaiiio iai?yi? caeaoia ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieoe noaiiaeua ia
?eieo aa?a?ii? i?aoe? oa a ?icaeoeo n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? a oe?eiio.

NIENIE IAOEIAEO IOAE?EAOe?E

1. Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ia ioe?iea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? (ia i?eeeaae?
Caii??cueei? iaeano?). – Iae?oiiieue, IAeI?, 1998 . – 50 n.

2. O?oaei?ano?niee iioaioe?ae AIE Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa ia?niaeoeae
eiai aeei?enoaiiy// OI c?cae Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa.
Ee?a, 1995. – N.297-298 (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

3. Aniaeoe ea?oia?aooaaiiy noaio o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa eiai
ia?niaeoeae// THa?eaeia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y aei 65-??//y
IAeI?- Iae?oiiieue, IAeI?, 1995. – N. 150-151.

4. I?iaeaia caeiyoino? ? ?aoe?iiaeueia ?ici?uaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a//
Aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie I?ai?/iiai I?eaciay-.
Iae?oiiieue, 1995. – N.67-68.

5. ?aa?iiaeuei? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo o?oaea ia i?eeeaae?
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio// Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Oa?nii, ONA?,
1997. – Aei. 5. -N.129 –131.

6. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio //Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/iee
eiiieaen I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: oai??y, i?aeoeea, iaoiaeeea. Iae?oiiieue.
1997 . – N. 206-207.

7. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?ce/ii?, aeiiii?/ii?, nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??
Caii??cueeiai e?ath// Iaoeiaee a?niee IAeI? – Iae?oiiieue, 1998.- ? 1-
N. 138-149. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

OEI?CAOe?ss

?AEII?A ?EIEO I?AOe? N?EUeNUeEI? I?NOeAAINO? CAII??CUeEI? IAEANO?

?aeiie

?eieo i?aoe???aaiue

caeiyoino?

(oen ./ie.)??aaiue

aac?ia?ooy

(%)Noai?aiiy

?iai/eo i?noeue

(iaeeieoeue)I?aai?caoe?y

a?iiaaenueeeo ?ia?o

(iaeeieoeue)I?ioan?ia ia?ai?aeaioiaeaaac?ia?oieo (/ie.)C a?aeiinii

caaeainiaaiith neooaoe??th4900-6000

Eoeaoaanueeee, Iae?oiiieuenueeee, Aa?aeyinueeee, Aanee?anueeee,
A?eueiyinueeee, Caii??cueeee, I??o?anueeee, Iieia?anueeee, I?eii?nueeee,
sseei?anueeee.0.5-1.0

Iieia?anueeee, A?eueiyinueeee,

Caii??cueeee, Eoeaeoaanueeee, I?eii?nueeee, Iae?oiiieuenueeee,
sseei?anueeee, Aanae?anueeee, Oieiaoeueeee100-200

Ieoaee?anueeee,

I?eii?nueeee.

OieiaoeueeeeIiiaae 120

A?eueiyinueeee.

I??o?anueeee,

Iieia?anueeee,

Aanee?anueeee,

Aanae?anueeee. Iiiaae 60

Caii??cueeee,

A?eueiyinueeee,

I??o?anueeee,

Iieia?anueeee,

Aanee?anueeee,

Oieiaoeueeee,

I?eacianueeee,

I?eii?nueeeeC iacaaeainiaaiith neooaoe??th3500-4900

Aoeyei?euenueeee, *a?i?a?anueeee, I?eacianueeee, Ieoaee?anueeee,
Aanae?anueeee, Oieiaoeueeee.1.0-2.0

Aaeeeia?eica?nueeee, Eoeaeoaanueeee, Iiaiieeiea?anueeee,
?ic?anueeee.50-100

Aa?aeyinueeee,

A?eueiyinueeee,

Iieia?anueeee,

I?eacianueeee,

*a?i?a?anueeee.

61-120

Aoeyei?euenueeee,

Oieiaoeueeee,

Ieoaee?anueeee,

Iae?oiiieuenueeee,

Eai’yiei-Aei?i?ianueeee,

Caii??cueeee. 31-60

Eai’yinueei-

Aei?i?ianueeee,

Ieoaee?anueeee,

Aanae?anueeee,

Iae?oiiieuenueeee,

sseei?anueeee,

Aa?aeyinueeee.C e?eciaith

neooaoe??th2700-3500

?ic?anueeee, Iiaiieeiea?anueeee, Eai’yinueei-Aei?i?ianueeee,
Aaeeeia?eica?nueeee2.0-5.7

Aa?aeyinueeee, I?eacianueeee, *a?i?a?anueeee, Ieoaee?anueeee,
Aoeyei?euenueeee, I??o?anueeee, Aanee?anueeee.0-40

Aanee?anueeee, Aaeeeia?eica?nueeee, Aanae?anueeee, Aoeyei?euenueeee,
Caii??cueeee, Eai’yinueei-Aei?i?ianueeee, Eoeaeoaanueeee,
Iae?oiiieuenueeee, Iiaiieeiea?anueeee, I??o?anueeee, ?ic?anueeee,
sseei?anueeee.10-60

Iiaiieeiea?anueeee,

Eoeaeoaanueeee,

?ic?anueeee,

Aa?aeyinueeee,

I?eii?nueeee,

I?eacianueeee,

sseei?anueeee, *a?i?a?anueeee,

Aaeeeia?eica?nueeee.Aei 30

Aaeeeie?eica?nueeee,

Iiaiieeiea?anueeee,

Aoeyei?euenueeee,

Eoeaeoaanueeee,

?ic?anueeee,

*a?i?a?anueeee

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?eiie i?aoe? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?, aeaiia?ao?/ia
neooaoe?y, caeiyo?noue, aac?ia?ooy, naaiaioaoe?y, no?oeoo?a,
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?uiie o?oaea naeueneie ianoiinoe, aeaiia?aoe/aneay
neooaoeey, caiyoinoue, aac?aaioeoea, naaiaioaoeey, no?oeoo?a,
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?uiea o?oaea.

.Key words: labor market of a rural territories, demographical
situation, employment, unemployment, segmentation, structure, labor
market improving.

AIIOAOe?ss.

Eaaaaea I.I. Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? (ia i?eeeaae?
Caii??cueei? iaeano?).

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.02 – aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y.
– Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1998
?.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae oa iaoiaeeea
ioe?iee ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeano?. Cae?eniaiee anaa?/iee aiae?c no?oeoo?e,
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??, oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe? o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Caii??cueei? iaeano? oa iaa?oioiaai? iai?yie oa
caoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy caeiyoino? ia ia?niaeoeao.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eaaaaea I.I. Iauanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneea iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?uiea o?oaea naeueneie ianoiinoe (ia
i?eia?a Caii?iaeneie iaeanoe).

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.02 – yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay
aaia?aoey, Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa,
Iaeanna, 1998 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau e
iaoiaeeea ioeaiee niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?uiea o?oaea a naeueneie ianoiinoe
aaeieieno?aoeaiie iaeanoe. I?iaaaeai ananoi?iiiee aiaeec no?oeoo?u,
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?uiea o?oaea a
naeueneie ianoiinoe Caii?iaeneie iaeanoe e ?ac?aaioaiu iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey e ia?ii?eyoey iiauoaiey o?iaiy caiyoinoe ia ia?niaeoeao.

SUMMARY.

Levada O.M. Social-geographical basics of forming and functioning of
regional a labor market on a rural territory (Zaporozhye region as an
example).

Geographical sciences master thesis on specialty 11.00.02 economic and
social geography. Odessa State University after I.I. Mechnikov, Odessa,
1998 year.

The given thesis concerns and studies theoretical and methodological
basis and methods of labor market improvement evaluation of an
administrative area.

The thesis gives the results of all-round area organization structure
analyses, analyses labor market developing tendencies of Zaporozhye
region rural territories and offers basic directions and measures aimed
at increasing level of employment in perspective.

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