IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE IAI?AI?IA?AeIEE?A

E?nianueeee ?ai? Iao?iae/

OAeE 621.315.592

NO?OEOO?I? IA?AOAI?AIIss A IIAA?OIAAEO OA?AO

E?AII??AI? OA E?AII?E-EENIAAI? OACE

01.04.10 — o?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ae?aeaeo?ee?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaae/ A?e?e Iaeneiiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeoia/aiei Iao?i A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe E?ae/einueeee Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, o.a.i. caa?aeoaa/a a?aeae?eii.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i.
Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 eeiiy 1999 ?. i 1415 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee Ae26.199.02 ?inoeoooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

252028, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, 252028, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae26.199.02
?uaiei N.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ieaia?i? aaaaoioa?ia? nenoaie e?aii?e-ieneae, ye? ?
aaciaeie a no/ani?e i?e?iaeaeo?ii?oe?, iathoue aenieo /ooeea?noue aei
?aaeei?a io?eiaiiy oa ianooiieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?iaie, a oaeiae aei oiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aioiaeo i?eeaae?a. Oea iia’ycaia, aieiaiei /eiii, c
iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?e neeiiiae?aii? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth iaaii? nenoaie ?icoaooaaiiy aoii?a eenith
(iaai? oeie e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a SiO4 o aeiaaeeo SiO2 aai eiiieaen?a
Si-Oy-Si4-y (1y4) o aeiaaeeo SiOo), ui iiaea i?e a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao
aeineoue eaaei ci?ithaaoenue caaaeyee, cie?aia, aio/eino? i?noea
Si-O-Si. Naia no?oeoo?iee noai eenith ? aecia/a? aeaeo?io?ce/i?,
iaoai?/i?, o?i?/i? oa iioe/i? aeanoeaino? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace, a eiai
aa??aoe?? iaoiiaeththoue ??ciiiai?oi? no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy, ye?
aeeeeeathoue, a naith /a?ao, ci?ie iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaia?ieo
nenoai ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia?aiao??a i?eeaae?a ia ?o iniia?. Oiio aea/aiiy
no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith oa iaoai?ci?a eiai o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia io?eiaiiy oa ianooiieo ia?iaie aaaaoioa?iaeo
ieaia?ieo nenoai ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo
caaea/ i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee.

Ci?ia no?oeoo?iiai noaio aoii?a eenith iiaeeeaa ia aeaio ??aiyo.

(1) O?ainoi?iaoe?y iino?aeiaiai eenith o iaiino?aeiaee. I?e oeueiio
aiane?aeie ?ic?eao Si-I ca’yce?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy
aeaeo?iaeoeaieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a — o?e/? eii?aeeiiaaieo aoii?a
e?aii?th (Si3+) oa ia-iino?aeiaeo aoii?a eenith (I-) — ui a?aeaeaa?oueny
ianaiia?aae o ci?i? aeae-o?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ieneaeo.

(2) Ci?ia nenoaie ?icoaooaaiiy aoii?a iino?aeiaiai eenith, oiaoi ci?ia
oei?a e?eaoeue aai iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?ioean
noai?aiiy oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a iaia’yceiai cae?i/o?oueny ooai?aiiyi iiaeo
S?-I ca’yce?a ? ioiieth? aanue ia’?i e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace aai cia/io
/anoeio eiai. Aoaeoe oaeiai ?iaeo i?ecaiaeyoue aei iii?oii? ci?ie eoo?a
S?-I-S? ca’yceo ? i?iyaeythoueny o ci?i? iaoai?/ieo, iioe/ieo, o?i?/ieo
aea-noeainoae ieneaeo.

I?ioeane ooai?aiiy oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a, cie?aia, aaia?aoe?y ca?yaeaeaieo
ianoie a ieene? oa oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a ia iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2
i?ae aieeaii ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a /e ae??ie a ieneae IAeI nenoai,
aea/aeenue iniaeeai ?ioaineaii. Oea aoei iia’ycaia, a ia?oo /a?ao, c
iaiao?aei?noth ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeieo caaaeaiue ?, cie?aia,
i?iaeaie noai?aiiy noaa?eueieo oa iaae?eieo i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a.
O oeueiio iai?yieo iaeiie/aiee cia/iee aenia?eiaioaeueiee oa oai?aoe/iee
iaoa??ae, oi/a iniiaia ieoaiiy i?i o?ce/iee iaoai?ci aaia?aoe??
aeaeo?iaeoeaieo oeaio??a iin?yie no?oio aei oeueiai /ano inoaoi/ii ia
ae??oaia. ?nioth/? iiaeae?, ocaiaeaeoth/enue o aieiaiiio
(aaaaoinoaae?eia ?aaeoe?y ca o/anoth i?ii?aeieo /anoeiie), ia i?iyniyee
i?eioeeiiaeo iiiaio?a – i?e?iaea i?ii?aeii? /anoeiee oa ?ieue
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a i?ioeanao ?? ca?eueiaiiy oa aca?iiae?? c S?-I
ca’yceii.

Aoaeoe iia’ycai? ?c ianooaaieie ia?aaoaeiaaie no?oeoo?e ieneaeo
niinoa??aaeenue, iai?eeeaae, i?e oa?i?/iiio ieeneaii? e?aii?th
(aecia-/ath/e iaiaeii??aei?noue aeanoeainoae SiO2 ii oiauei?), a oaeiae
i?e ?iii?e ?iieaioaoe?? a ie?aee ieeneo. Aea/aiiy i?ioean?a oaeeo ci?i
no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith, aecia/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?o i?io?eaiiy ia?
ooiaeaiaioaeueia iaoeiaa cia/aiiy o o?ceoe? aii?oiiai noaio, a oaeiae
ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy aaaeeeaeo i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, iia’ycaieo,
cie?aia, ?c i?iaeaiith eiio?ieueiaaiiai io?eiaiiy oa??a SiO2 oa
ieaia?ieo nenoai Si-SiO2 c iaia?aae caaeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A oie
aea /an io?eiaieo a oeueiio iai?yieo ?acoeueoao?a iaaeinoaoiuei aeey
?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a no?oeoo?ieo ia?aaoaeia, aei oiai ae ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
no?oeoo?o, ye i?aaeei, iaea?aeoaaeanue iai?yiei oeyoii ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? /anoi iaocaiaeaeai?, aai noia?a/eea?. Oea
iia’ycaia, aieiaiei /eiii, ?c neeaaei?noth nenoaie Si-SiO2, niaoeeo?eith
no?oeoo?e neeiiiae?aiiai ieneaeo ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?c iaaeinoaoi?ie
iaoiaee/ieie iiaeeeainoyie ?? oa?aeoa?ecaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei iaoeiaei iai?yieai ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, cae??ieaiei eiai Noaoooii, ?
aeeiio-aaeanue a ?aieao oai:

-“O?ce/i? i?eioeeie IAeI nenoai ye aaciaeo no?oeoo? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai?
?ioaa?aeueii? iioi- ? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee” — ?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceae?? IAI
Oe?a?ie a?ae 25.12.1980 ?. ? 604;

— -“Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ? iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae
i?e?i-aeaeo?iiieo no?oeoo? IAeI oa ?ic?iaea ia ?o iniia? iioiaeaeo?iiieo
i?eno?i?a aeey ia?aoai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??” — ?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceae?? IAI
Oe?a?ie a?ae 27.12.1985 ?. ? 474;

-“Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo yaeu ia iiaa?oi? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa iaaeao
?icae?eo oac, ia?niaeoeaieo aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo i?eeeaaeieo i?eno?i?a” —
iinoaiiaa Ath?i A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceee ? ano?iiii?? IAI Oe?a?ie a?ae
19.12.1989 ?. ? 10;

-“Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy ia??aiiaaaeieo aeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a
ianiia?aiino ? no?oeoo?ii-oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue ia iiaa?oi?
iai?a-i?ia?aeiee?a oa o oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao. ?ic?iaea ia ?o iniia?
iiaeo i?eeaae?a ? oaoiieia?e” — iinoaiiaa Ath?i A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceee ?
ano?iiii?? IAI Oe?a?ie a?ae 20.12.1994 ?. ? 9.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Aeyaeaiiy o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue o
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao e?aii??ai? oa e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace oa?oaaoeo nenoai
e?aii?e-ieneae, ui iaoiiaeai? ci?iith no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith ye ia
??ai? noai?aiiy oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a, oae ? a ianooaaao ia?aaoaeiae
e?eaoeue S?I4 oao?aaae??a aai iieaeoey?ieo e?aii?e-eeniaaeo eiiieaen?a;
aecia/aiiy oiia, ye? a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ca icia/ai? i?ioeane; ?ic?iaea
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaiith anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae
o oaoiieia?? i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo ieaia?ieo aaaaoioa?iaeo nenoai ia iniia?
e?aii?th.

Aeey aecia/aiiy o?ce/iiai iaoai?cio noai?aiiy oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue i?ioeane aaia?aoe?? aeaeo?iaeoeaieo oeaio??a a
iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 ?iaeaeoiaaieie aeaeo?iiaie. I?e oeueiio c
iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo iniaeeainoae icia/aiiai iaoai?cio
iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue ?ie? aeii?oeiai-no?oeoo?iiai oaeoi?a oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. O yeino? noeioethth/i? ae?? aoea aea?aia
oioi?iaeaeoe?y aeaeo?ii?a, yea (ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaieo eaaeiii? ?iaeaeoe?? aai iieueiai?

ai?n??) caaacia/o? ?icae?eaiiy no?oiiai? oa iieueiai? eiiiiiaio ?aaeoe??
noai?aiiy aeaoaeo?a. O ?yae? aeiaaee?a aoea aeine?aeaeaia oaeiae ae?y
neeueiiai eieaeueiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aeaeo?io?ce/i? ia?aiao?e IAeI
nenoai, aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a
aeniei/anoioieo N(V) oa?aeoa?enoee oa oioi?iaeaeoe?? (aonoeia ieeniiai
ca?yaeo, aonoeia oaeaeeeo oa iia?eueieo noai?a iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 ),
ii??aithaaeenue c aeaieie ian-niaeo?ineii?? aoi?eiieo eeanoa?ieo ?ii?a
(eiioeaio?aoe?y Si-Si oa S?-O ca’yc-e?a, eiiieaen?a S?II oa SiI) oa AI?.

I?e aea/aii? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue, iia’ycaieo ?c ci?iith nenoaie
?icoaooaaiiy aoii?a iino?aeiaiai eenith, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaoiieia?/i?
ia?iaee (a?aeiaee, oa?i?/ia ieeneaiiy e?aii?th, ?iiia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy aai
?iieaioaoe?y, a oiio /ene? ?ii?a eenith), ye? aeicaieythoue
oe?eani?yiiaaii aieeaaoe ia icia/ai? i?ioeane. A yeino? iniiaiiai
iaoiaea aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ?*-niaeo?ineii?y (cie?aia,
aei??thaaiiy neeueii? nioae iiaeeiaiiy ia aaeaioieo eieeaaiiyo Si-O
ca’yceo), i?e/iio aoa ?ic?iaeaiee ? canoiniaaiee iaoiae oa?aeoa?ecaoe??
no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith o neeiiiae?ai?e e?aii?e-eeniaa?e oac?,
caniiaaiee ia eiii’thoa?iiio aiae?c? oi?ie icia/aii? nioae.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae ? ?io? no?oeoo?ii-/ooeea? iaoiaee aiae?co:
aaaaoieooiaa niaeo?aeueia ae?iniiao??y, Iaea-niaeo?ineii?y, cai?ioi?
?icn?yiiy ?ii?a, a?aa?iao??y, iioe/ia oa aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y. Oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaeinue eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy no?oeoo?e neeiiiae?aieo
eeanoa??a SiO2 , ui a?ae??ciyeenue no?oeoo?iei noaiii eenith, c iaoith
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a S?I4 (?iciiae?e
eoo?a ca’yceo S?-I-S?, ?ici??e e?eaoeue).

Eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo ai?iaiaaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee, i?iaaaeaiiy aei???a o aaoiiaoeciaaiiio
?aaeei?, eiii’thoa?ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o aiae?c ia aac? no/anieo
oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae c o?aooaaiiyi iioeaie aei???a, aeniea
a?aeoai?thaai?noue oa?aeoa?ieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ?o
ocaiaeaeai?noue c ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a oa e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie – ana oea caaacia/oaaei iaae?ei?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

1. Aeyaeaiee ? aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaiee aoaeo iieueiai? aaia?aoe??
i?ioii?a a ieene? IAeI nenoai, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noai?aiiyi a
iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo aeaoaeo?a,
oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a oa eiiieaen?a S?II. Aecia/aia cia/aiiy
ii?iaiai? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (~1,3 IA/ni). Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iieueiaa ai?n?y i?ioii?a i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caei-io Ioea-O?aieaey.

2. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaeo?iaeoeaieo
aeaoaeo?a a IAeI no?oeoo?ao i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a, ui aaco?oueny ia
aaaaoinoaae?ei?e ?aaeoe?? ca o/anoth ca?eueiaieo aeaeo?e/iei iieai
i?ioii?a ? ineaaeaieo ca’yce?a Si-O.

3. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeaiaioa?ieo neeaaeiaeo iniiaii?
nioae iiaeeiaiiy neeiiiae?aii? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace, yea iia’yco?
icia/ai? i?io?e? c aaeaioieie eieeaaiiyie aoii?a iino?aeiaiai eenith o
neeaae? 4- oa 6-/eai-ieo e?eaoeue SiO4 oao?aaae??a (o aeiaaeeo SiO2 )
aai iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a Si-Oy-Si4-y c 1y4 (o aeiaaeeo SiOo ).

4. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui iiaeeo?eiaaiee iecueeiaia?aaoe/iei ?iiiei
aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi iiaa?oiaaee oa? ie?aie SiO2 ia? oi?io nioae
?*-iiaeeiaiiy, ui ?aeaioe/ia oae?e aeey ie?aie S?Io , oa iiaee i?e o
niaeo?? Iaea-aeaeo?ii?a (91 aA), yeee aeanoeaee aeaiaioa?iiio e?aii?th.
Oe? oaeoe iaa?oioiaothoue iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o, ui
iniiaaia ia aeiaaeeiai ?iciiae?eaieo iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaenao Si-Oy-Si4-y
(0y4), ye? noai?ththoueny ?c oao?aaae??a SiO4 aiane?aeie aaia?aoe??
?iiaie aaeain?e eenith o a?aooe? ieeneo.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaeeo?eiaaiee ?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi iiaa?oiaaee oa?
ie?aee SiO2 ? oioi/ooeeaei o aeecueeiio oeueo?ao?ieao? (i?e iiaeeiaiiy
~3,6 aA). Aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaiee aoaeo noeioeueiaaiiai na?oeii
a?aeiaeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe iaoai?ci aeaiiai
yaeua, yeee aaco?oueny ia no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo Si-Oy-Si4-y a
SiO4 ca ?aooiie aia?a?? eaaio?a na?oea, ui iiaeeia?oueny ia aeeth/aiiyo
aeaiaioa?iiai e?aii?th.

6. Iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?i? oa aeaeo?io?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeoiieiai
oa?o ieeneo nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae /ano ieeneaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aonoeia ieneaeo, iaoai?/i? iai?oaeaiiy a ie?aoe? oa

aaee/eia aaoaeiaaiiai a ieenae iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo ci?iththoueny a
i?ioean? oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy e?aii?th iaiiiioiiii ? ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c
ci?iith no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith. Cai?iiiiiaaia ? iaa?oioiaaia
no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue noai?aiiy aaoaeiaaiiai iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo, ui
aaco?oueny ia caoiieaii? ?ii?a e?aii?th 4-/eaiieie e?eueoeyie SiO4
oao?aaae??a.

7. ?aeaioeo?eiaaiee ?yae iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo noai?a i?aoeei?oiaaiiai a
e?aii?? eenith: a?i aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo 4- oa 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue S?I4
oao?aaae??a, a oaeiae eeanoa??a Si-O2–Si2 , i?e/iio inoaii?
c’yaeythoueny i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?i?e ia?iaoe? e?enoae?a Nz-S?.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue ooeneo i?e oa?iiia?iaeao cia/ii i?aeneeth?
aoaeoeai?noue noai?aiiy i?aoeei?oiaaii? oace.

8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a aoaeaoeth ii?yae ?c ?iiaie eenith
nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue noai?aiiy i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SiO2. Aia?oa
iieacaii ?nioaaiiy o i?eoiaaieo oa?ao ieneaeo, iaea?aeaiiai ca
iaeii-noaae?eiith SIMOX oaoiieia??th, iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a Si-O-Si3,
ye? ? eieaeueieie aeaoaeoaie a?aoee ieneaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. Ciaeaeaii ? aeine?aeaeaii aoaeo ?iaeaeoe?eii-oa?i?/iiai
oii?yaeeoaaiiy iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 — i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaeaeoe??
aeaeo?ii?a oa ianooiiiai oa?iia?aeiaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai
ciaioaiiy aonoeie oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a oa oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai?
?aeiia?iaoe?? iainiiaieo iin??a ca?yaeo.

2. Noai?aiee iiaee aeaiaio iai’yo? ia iniia? e?aii??ai? aaaaoioa?iai?
ieaia?ii? no?oeoo?e c oioiaeaeo?aoii GaIo , yeee o ii??aiyii? c
a?aeiieie aiaeiaaie ia? a?eueoo ?icae?eueio caeaoi?noue oa nooo?ai
a?eueoee /an caa??aaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??.

3. ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith a
e?aii?e-eeniaa?e oac?, yeee aaco?oueny ia aiae?c? oi?ie nioae iiaeeiaiiy
ia aaeaioieo eieeaaiiyo Si-O ca’yceo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaiee iaoiae,
iiaeia aecia/eoe iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeaeiueiai oa na?aaeiueiai
ii?yaeea neeiiiae?aii? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace aae aei noai?aiiy
aaiiao?e/ii? ea?oeie ?? no?oeoo?e.

4. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia iioeiaeueia aeey aeei?enoaiiy o i?eeaaeao oiaueia
(~15 ii) iaaeoiieeo ie?aie oa?i?/iiai SiO2: ieneaee c cacia/aiith
oiaueiith iathoue i?i?iaeueiee aaoaeiaaiee iiceoeaiee ca?yae oa
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?i?iaeueieie iaoai?/ieie iai?oaaie.

5. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae ioe?iee eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aoeei?oiaaiiai
a e?aii?? eenith (a oiio /ene? oaeiai, ui ciaoiaeeoueny o ??cieo
no?oeoo?ieo noaiao), yeee aaco?oueny ia aiae?c? ?ioaineaiinoae aaoniaeo
i?io?e?a, io?eiaieo i?e iaoaiaoe/iiio ?iceeaae? Si-O nioae iiaeeiaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie. A aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo ye iniaenoi aaoi?ii [16,32,34], oae ?
ni?eueii ?c ni?aaaoi?aie. O ni?eueieo ?iaioao [4-15, 17-31, 33, 36]
aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iinoaiiaea caaea/?, aea?? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia ia?iaea ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaienaiiy a?eueoino? ?ia?o, a oaeiae o/anoue a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??ao. A ?iaioao [1-3, 35] aaoi?ii i?iaaaea-aeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae c?ac-e?a,
cai?iiiiiaaii ? a i?ioean? iaaiai?aiiy ?icaeiooi a?aeiia?aei? iiaeae?.
Cia/ia /anoeia io?eiaieo a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeiiia?aeaeanue
aaoi?ii iniaenoi ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

18 Eiioa?aioe?y c i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee (Ljubljana, Yugoslavija, 1990); 37
I?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi c iieueiai? ai?n?? (Albuquerque, USA, 1990); 15
Eiioa?aioe?y c i?eeeaaeii? e?enoaeia?ao?? (Cieszyn, Poland, 1992); 8
Eiioa?aioe?y «Insulating Films on Semiconductors» (Delft, Netherlands,
1993); 9 I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y c ian-niaeo?ineii?? aoi?eiieo ?ii?a
(Yokohama, Japan,1993); Neiiic?oi «Amorphous Insulating Films II» EMRS
Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, France, 1994); Neiiic?oi «Photon-Assisted
Processing of Surfaces and Thin Films» (EMRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg,
France, 1994); I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y «Optical Diagnostics of
Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro- and Quantum Electronics» (Kiev,
Ukraine, 1995); 40 I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiaee eieiea?oi (Ilmenau, Germany,
1995); 10 I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y c ianniaeo?ineii?? aoi?eiieo ?ii?a
(Munster, Germany, 1995); 7 I?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi
“Silicon-On-Insulator Technology and Devices” (Los-Angeles, USA, 1996);3
I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Physics and Chemistry of SiO2 and Si-SiO2
Interfaces” (Los-Angeles, USA, 1996); NATO Advanced Research Workshop on
Fundamental Aspects of Ultrathin Dielectrics on Si-based Devices:Towards
an Atomic Scale Understanding, (St.Petersburg, Russia, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 36 iaoeiaeo
?iaioao, aeeth/ath/e 2 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa (3 ?iaioe — iaeiiin?ai?),
?o ia?ae?e i?noeoueny o e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a oa caaaeueieo aeniiae?a. ?? ianya neeaaea? 257 noi??iie
iaoeii-ieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 92 ?enoiee ? 13 oaaeeoeue.Nienie
oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 235 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

Anooi i?noeoue iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? ?iaioe, a oeueiio ?icae?e?
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiaia iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe, ui ae??ooaaeenue aeey ??
aeinyaiaiiy, aiae?co?oueny ? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? ia’?eo?a oa cania?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
?iaioe, iaaea?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeoeaieo aeaoaeo?a o ie?aeao oa?i?/iiai SiO2 oa a
iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2, ui a?aeaoaathoueny aiane?aeie ?iaeaeoe??
aa?y/eo aeaeo?ii?a a ieneae IAeI no?oeoo?. A?aeiia?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie
aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iniiaia oaaaa aeine?aeaeaiue i?eae?eyeanue
aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia aaia?aoe?th ?
ia?aca?yaeaeaiiy iia?eueieo noai?a. Aeey noeioethaaiiy icia/aieo
i?ioean?a aoea aeei?enoaia oioi?iaeaeoe?y (OO ii?ii?iaiiy c aia?a??th
eaaio?a h?5 aA i?e iaeii/anii i?eeeaaeai?e aei IAeI nenoaie aeaeo?e/i?e
iai?oc? VG). Oeae aea?? iioeaoaaany oei, ui oioi?iaeaeoe?y, ia a?aei?io
a?ae cae/aeii aeei?enoiaoaaii? eaaeiii? ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a, aeicaiey?
ci?ithaaoe ciae

iioaioe?aeo iieueiaiai aeaeo?iaea, a ia a?aei?io a?ae iieueiai? ai?n??
aeicaiey? caiia?aaoe iiyae neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a a iaeano? iaae?
?icae?eo Si-

SiO2, ye? iiaeooue o ?yae? aeiaaee?a i?eaanoe aei noi?iii?o aoaeo?a.
Aeaeo?io?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee (aonoeia iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo a ia’?i?
ieeneo, aonoeia iiceoeaiiai ieeniiai ca?yaeo iiaeeco iaae? ?icae?eo SiO2
-Si, aonoeia oa aia?aaoe/iee ?iciiae?e oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a iaae?
?icae?eo Si-SiO2) aecia/aeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi N(V) oa oioi?iaeaeoe?eii?
iaoiaeee. Oa?aeoa?enoeee aeii?oeiai-no?oeoo?iiai noaio ieeneo oa iaae
?icae?eo Iaoae-SiO2 ? Si-SiO2 (o oiio /ene?, eiioeaio?aoe?y oa ?iciiae?e
eiiieaen?a S?II ? S?I) aecia/aeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo
ian-niaeo?ineii?? aoi?eiieo eeanoa?ieo ?ii?a. O ?yae? aeiaaee?a
aei??thaaeenue oaeiae niaeo?e AI? (aiae?coaaeanue ?ioaineai?noue neaiaeo
c g-oaeoi?ii 2,000, yea iia’ycaia ?c eiioeaio?aoe??th aaeain?e eenith o
ie?aoe? oa/aai eiiieaen?a aaeain?e o e?aii??). C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?ie?
oa?iiaeoeaa-oe?eieo i?ioean?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? ? i?e oaiia?aoo?? ??aeeiai acioo.

Iieacaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ieenieo ianoie
iniiaia /anoeia oaeaeeeo noai?a (oae caai? oeaio?e S-II) oa iia?euei?
noaie ia noai?ththoueny i?e iecueeeo (80 E) oaiia?aoo?ao. Eiioeaio?aoe?y
oa oaeaee?noue aaia?aoe?? iia?eueieo noai?a caeaaeaoue ye a?ae aaee/eie
iai?oae, i?eeeaaeaii? aei IAeI nenoaie, oae ? a?ae aonoeie aaaaeaiiai
?iaeaeoe??th iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo. Oaeaee?noue noai?aiiy iiceoeaiiai
ca?yaeo (caoii-eaiiai ia iia?eueieo noaiao) i?e VG<0 nooo?ai aeua i?ae i?e VG>0, ui iia’ycaii c i?ioeanii ?ic?yaeaeaiiy iia?eueieo noai?a
aeaeo?iiaie ?c Si, yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny o inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo.
Ciaeaeaii, ui i?ioean noai?aiiy iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo oa oaeaeeeo noai?a
S-?? o aeiaaeeo ?iaeaeoe?? i?e VG>0 noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaaeii
eiiieaen?a SiOH o i?eiiaa?oiaa?e iaeano? SiO2, yea iaaeo? c iieueiaei
aeaeo?iaeii, a oaeiae ia?ai?uaiiyi aiaeith a iaeanoue iaae? ?icae?eo
Si-SiO2 ? ca?eueoaiiyi ooo eiioeaio?aoe?? SiOH a?oi. Iaeii/anii
niinoa??aa?oueny iiyaa no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo
Si-SiO2, ui o?eno?oueny INA? o aeaeyae? c?inoaiiy aeoiaeo ?ii?a Si+ .

Ciaeaeaii, ui ?iaeaeoe?eii-oa?i?/i? ia?iaee (?iaeaeoe?y iin??a ca?yaeo a
ieneae IAeI nenoai ? ianooiiee iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeiae) caeaoi?
nooo?ai iie?auoaaoe noai iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
ciaioaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? eeniaaeo aaeain?e a SiO2 oa/aai eiiieaen?a

aaeain?e o i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? Si ? o a?aeiia?aeiiio cieaeaii? aonoeie
oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a (aei 30 %) oa oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai?
aaia?aoe?? iainiiaieo iin??a ca?yaeo (aei 2 ?ac?a). Icia/aiee aoaeo
iiaeia iiynieoe ca?eueiaiiyi aiaeith a ieene? i?ae /an ?iaeaeoe??
aeaeo?ii?a oa eiai ianooiiith aca?iiae??th i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao
c aeaoaeoaie iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o ianeaaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?ieue aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a
i?ioeanao noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a. Aeei?enoaiiy OO ii?ii?iaiiy
aeyaey?oueny aeioe?eueiei, oae ye aeicaiey? ?icae?eeoe aeaeo?iiio oa
iieueiao eiiiiiaioe. Iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo ae?? iieai (i?e iiceoeaiiio
iioaioe?ae? ia aeaeo?iae? caoai?o: VG >0) ia IAeI no?oeoo?e, a ieene?
yeeo iiia?aaeiuei aoa noai?aiee i?inoi?iai ?iciiae?eaiee a?ae’?iiee
ca?yae, niinoa??aa?oueny aoaeo aaia?aoe?? oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a
S-II oa iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo oeaio??a o iaae? ?icae?eo SiO2-Si.
Iaeii/anii niinoa??aa?oueny ?iciaae eiiieaen?a SiOH o ciai?oiuei?
iiaa?oi? ieenea oa ?o noai?aiiy a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo SiO2-Si.
Iieacaia iayai?noue ei?aeyoe?? i?ae eiioeaio?aoe??th ca?eueiaiiai
aiaeith, c iaeiiai aieo, oa aonoeiith noai?aieo iiaa?oiaaeo
aeaeo?iaeoeaieo oeaio??a, c ae?oaiai. Oe? aooaeoe iathoue i?noea o?eueee
i?e iieueiaeo ia?iaeao c VG>0 i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??. Aoaeoeai?noue
i?ioean?a aeae?eo aiaeith oa noai?aiiy iiaa?o-iaaeo aeaoaeo?a
aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith VG. ?ica’ycie ??aiyiiy Ioaniia iieacaa, ui i?e
oiiaao aeine?ae?a aeaeo?e/ia iiea ia??aiii??ii ?iciiae?-eaia a ieene? —
iaeneiaeueia iai?oaeai?noue iiey aeinyaa?oueny ia iaae? ?icae?-eo SiO2
-Iaoae. Naia ooo a?aeaoaa?oueny ? ?iceeaae eiiieaen?a S?II, yeee
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ca?eueiaiiyi aiaeith. Aiae?c e?iaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae
i?ioean?a noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a, ye? aei??thaaeenue i?e ??cieo
VG, aeicaieea aecia/eoe ii?iaiaa cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? iiey a?ey
eeaeo?iaea caoai?o: aiii neeaaea? aaee/eio ~1,3 IA/ni .

I?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy i?ioean?a noai?aiiy oaeaeeeo iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a
S-II ? iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ieenieo oeaio??a, a oaeiae ci?ie
aeii?oeiai-no?oeoo?iiai noaio ieeneo ye i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a, oae ?
i?e iieueiaeo ia?iaeao. Aoei iieacaii, ui i?e iaeiaeiaeo iieueiaeo
oiiaao (??ai? cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a ieene? a?ey

eeaeo?iaea caoai?o) aoaeoeai?noue icia/aieo i?ioean?a ?aeaioe/ia a iaio
aeiaaeeao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? io?eiaiiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo
iaaiai?ththoueny iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeoeaieo no?oeoo?ieo
aeaoaeo?a a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 ca o/anoth ?iaeaeoiaaieo
aeaeo?ii?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeae? oa aeey
eiie?aoecaoe?? aeaoaeae iaoai?cio aaia?aoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo oi/eiaeo
aeaoaeo?a (oaeaeeeo (S-??) oa iia?eueieo noai?a) iaiao?aeii a?aoe aei
oaaae oae? oaeoe, ui aoee aeyaeai? o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a oaeiae o
?iaioao ?ioeo aaoi??a:

— oeaio?e S-?? ? aiiiaeueiee iiceoeaiee ca?yae noai?ththoueny o?eueee a
no?oeoo?ao c ieneaeii, ui i?noeoue aiaeo aai aiaeaiue;

— noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a niinoa??aa?oueny ia oii? ia?ai?uaiiy
aoii?a (/e ?ii?a) aiaeith aei iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 ; i?e
oeueiio a?aeaoaa?oueny ?iceeaae SiOH eiiieaen?a ye a ia’?i? ieenea, oae
? o ciai?oiuei? eiai iiaa?oi?, a oie /an ye a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo
Si-SiO2 eiiieaene SiOH, iaaiaee, aeieeathoue;

— aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? a?aeiaeo oeaio??a S-?? (0,71 ?A) i?aeoe/ii
ni?aiaaea? c aia?a??th aeoeaaoe?? aeeooc?? aoii?a aiaeith a ie?aeao
SiO2 (0,69 aA);

— iiaa?oiaa? aeaoaeoe noai?ththoueny i?e ia?iaoe? no?oeoo? Si-SiO2 o
aiaei?, aea oeae aoaeo a?aenooi?e i?e ia?iaoe? no?oeoo? Si-SiO2-Si3N4;

— noai ciai?oiuei? /anoeie ieenii? ie?aee oa iaoa??ae aeaeo?iaea caoai?o
nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia iaaiai?thaai? i?ioeane: aoaeoeai?noue noai?aiiy
aeaoaeo?a iaaaaaoi aeua a no?oeoo?ao, iiaa?oiy ieneaea a yeeo aoea
i?aeaeaia ?iiiiio aiiaa?aeoaaiith, a oaeiae o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy a
yeino? iaoa??aeo iieueiaiai aeaeo?iaeo ieaoeie;

— oaiia?aoo?a ? i?eioeeiiaei oaeoi?ii: oi?ioaaiiy ye iiceoeaii
ca?yae-aeaieo ianoie, oae ? oeaio??a S-II ia niinoa??aaeinue i?ney
ia?iaie i?e 80 E;

— aoaeoeai?noue noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie
iai?oae aeaeo?e/iiai ci?uaiiy, a oaeiae a?ae aonoeie aaaaeaiiai a ieneae
iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo;

— ?aaeoe?y noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny e?iaoeeith
ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo, oiaoi ? aaaaoinoaae?eiith;

— ?iaeaeoe?y aeaeo?ii?a a ieenae i?eioeeiiaa ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??
i?ioeano aeaoaeoiooai?aiiy, o iiaeaeueoiio ?? ?ieue aecia/a?oueny ciaeii
iioaioe?aeo caoai?a: o aeiaaeeo VG >0 aeaoaeoe noai?ththoueny c iaei??th
aoaeoeai?noth ye i?e iayaiino? iioieo ?iaeaeoiaaieo aeaeo?ii?a, oae ?
i?e eiai a?aenooiino? (/enoi iieueiaa ae?y); o aeiaaeeo VG<0 aeey noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a ?iaeaeoe?y iaiao?aeia. Iaaaaeai? oaeoe aeicaieeee i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui oi?aa?naeueiiai noeaia??th i?ioeano noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a a IAeI no?oeoo?ao ca o/anoth ?iaeaeoiaaieo a ieenae aeaeo?ii?a i/aaeaeii ia ?nio?. Aeaoae? oeueiai i?ioeano caeaaeaoue ye a?ae oiia oi?ioaaiiy oa ia?iaie no?oeoo?e, oae ? a?ae ?aaeeio ?iaeaeoe??. A oie aea /an iathoue i?noea aeaa caaaeueieo i?eioeeiiaeo iiiaioe - (1) aaaaoinoaae?ei?noue ?aaeoe?? oa (2) o/anoue a i?e aiaeith. Aeey aeiaaeeo ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a ?c iaoaeo (VG<0) caeeoa?oueny ni?aaaaeeeaith cai?iiiiiaaia ?ai?oa iiaeaeue noai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a, ui aaco?oueny ia aca?iiae?? aoiia?iiai aiaeith ?c ca’yceaie Si-O a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2. Aiaeaiue aeae?ey?oueny a ia’?i? ieeneo aiane?aeie ?aaeoe?? ?iaeaeoiaaieo aeaeo?ii?a c eiiieaenaie oeio SiOH a i?ioean? noai?aiiy iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ianoie oa aeeooiaeo? a iaeanoue iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2. Aeey aeiaaeeo ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a ?c Si aai iieueiaeo ia?iaie (VG>0)
no?oeoo? c ?iciiae?eaiei a ieneae? a?ae’?iiei ca?yaeii cai?iiiiiaaio
iaoai?ci iieueiaiai ca?eueiaiiy i?ioii?a ?c eiiieaen?a oeio SiOH a
iaeano? ieenea, ui iaaeo? c aeaeo?iaeii caoai?a. Ae?aeo I+ aei iaae?
?icae?eo Si-SiO2 oa ianooiia eiai aca?iiae?y c aeoeaiaaieie
(iai?oaeaieie) ca’yceaie Si-I aaaea aei ooai?aiiy ye iiaa?oiaaiai
aeaoaeoo Si3+ , oae ? eiiieaena SiOH. Aiae?c e?iaoeee iaeiie/aiiy
iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo a iaeano? iaae? ?icae?eo Si- SiO2 aiane?aeie
iieueiai? ae?? aeicaieea aia?oa anoaiiaeoe, ui i?ioean ca?eueiaiiy
i?ioii?a i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caeiio Ioea-O?aieaey.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c no?oeoo?iiai
noaio eenith o ie?aeao oa?i?/iiai aeeieneaeo e?aii?th ?
ianoeo?iiao?e/ieo ieene?a e?aii?th ci?iiiai neeaaeo. Aeey oeueiai aoei
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie SiO2 oiaueiith 7-1150 ii
(a?aeiii, ui ?o no?oeoo?a

ci?ith?oueny c oiaueiith) ? ie?aie SiOo c ??ciei ci?noii eenith
(0,05×1). Iniiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea aea?aia
?*-niaeo?ineii?y, aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y io?eioaaeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a a?aa?iao???, aaaaoi-eooiai? ae?iniiao???, cai?ioiueiai
?icn?yiiy ?ii?a oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?i-neii??. Iniaeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
?*-niaeo?ineii?? iieyaaea a oiio, ui aiae?coaaeinue ia iieiaeaiiy
iniiaii? nioae iiaeeiaiiy (ye oea cae/aeii ?iaeoueny a e?oa?aoo??), a
oi?ia nioae aaeaioieo eieeaaiue Si-O ca’yceo. Aeey oeueiai icia/aia
nioaa iaoaiaoe/ii ?iceeaaeaeanue ia aeaiaioa?i? neeaaeia? aaoniai?
oi?ie, ?, aeei?enoiaoth/e a?aeiiee ca’ycie i?ae /anoioith aaeaioieo
eieeaaiue oa aaee/eiith eooa ca’yceo Si-O-Si (?), aecia/aeenue eooe,
oa?aeoa?i? aeey eiaeiiai i?io?eth. Ciaeaeai? cia/aiiy ? aiae?coaaeenue a
?aieao iiaeae? aeiaaeeiaeo ca’yce?a (RBM), ui iieno? no?oeoo?o aii?oiiai
noaio, c iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio (??ciiai oeio
e?eueoey oao?aaae??a SiO4 o aeiaaeeo ie?aie SiO2 ? iieaeoey?i? eiiieaene
Si-Oy-Si4-y (1y4) o aeiaaeeo ie?aie SiOx (x<2)), a?aeiia?aeii aei eiaeiiai ?c ciaeaeaieo i?io?e?a. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue i?iaeai? iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a ?iceeaaeo. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o iaeiicia/iino? aoa aeei?enoaiee a?aeiiee i?aeo?ae Aeaioeaaa-Oiea. Ci?ia oi?ie niaeo?aeueii? e?eai? aeinyaaeanue ca ?aooiie aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie c ??ciith aeieath no?oe-oo?ieo eiiiiiaio (oe?ieee ae?aiacii oiauei ie?aie SiO2 aai ?iaeaena noao?iiao??? oa??a SiOx), a oaeiae aa??aoe?? eooa iaae?iiy ?* na?oea (i?iyaa aoaeoa LO-TO ?icuaieaiiy). Iieacaii, ui iniiaia nioaa iiaeeiaiiy ie?aie SiO2 i?noeoue a?ae aeaio (i?e oiaueiao ieenea iaioeo ~40 ii) aei oanoe aaoniaeo i?io?e?a, i?e/iio a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo o?e neeaaeia? iaeaaeaoue aei iiia?a/ii?, a o?e - aei iiacaeiaaeiuei? iiaee eieeaaiue ? iiia?ii a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeiei ? oei aea eooai Si-O-Si ca’yceo. Oaeei /eiii, a?aoea oiieeo ie?aie SiO2 oa?ae-oa?eco?oueny iayai?noth aeaio iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio, a a?aoea oianoeo - o?ueio. C iaoith ?o ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aecia/ai? eooe ca’yceo ni?anoaa-eyeenue c oaeeie, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey ??cieo iie?ii?o aeeieneaeo e?aii?y, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeeinue eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy no?oeoo?e ieenea (caaea-aaeenue ??ci? niieo/aiiy 3-, 4-, 5- ? 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue SiO4 oao?aaae??a) ? aecia/aany ?iciiae?e eoo?a ? aeey eiaeiiai oeio no?oeoo?iiai eeanoa?a. Oea aeaei ciiao i?eienaoe i?io?eyi iaoaiaoe/iiai ?iceeaaeo eiie?aoi? no?oe-oo?i? eiiiiiaioe: 4- ? 6-/eaii? e?eueoey oao?aaae??a, a oaeiae e?i?ei? o?aa-iaioe Si-O-Si /e aeeth/aiiy a-e?enoiaae?oo. Oaea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y io?eiaea aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy: ieiua i?io?ey, ui iia’yco?oueny iaie c 4-/eaiieie SiO4 e?eueoeyie (iniiaiee no?oeoo?iee aeaiaio eiac?oo – iae-a?eueo aonoiai c a?aeiieo iie?ii?o SiO2), ei?aeth? c aonoeiith ieeneo; inoaiiy aeinyaaea cia/aiue aeecueeeo aei aonoeie eiac?oo aeey c?ace?a, o nioc? iiaeeiaiiy yeeo icia/aiee i?io?eue aeii?ioaaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie SiO2 o oe?ieiio aeeaiacii? oiauei aeicaieeei i?ine?aeeoaaoe o?ainoi?iaoe?th no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith o neeiiiae?aiiio oa?i?/iiio ieene?. Aieiaieie no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie eiai a?aoee ? 4- ? 6-/eaii? e?eueoey oao?aaae??a SiO4, ai?no yeeo ci?ith?oueny c oiaueiith ie?aee: iiaeeco a?ae iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2 ia?aaaaea? ai?no 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue, o ?ac? a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae iiaa?oi? Si ai?no 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue ca?eueoo?oueny - aiie aeii?iothoue a ia’?i? ieeneo. Iniiaia nioaa iiaeeiaiiy ie?aie SiOo i?noeoue /ioe?e aieiai? neeaaeia?, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei iiia?a/ii? iiaee aaeaioieo eieeaaiue S?-I ca’yceo, o?e c ieo ia iathoue aiaeia?a o aeiaaeeo ie?aie aeeieneaeo e?aii?y. Ioaea, no?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeaieo ie?aie ia iiaea aooe iienaia iiaeaeeth noi?o? oac Si ? SiO2. ?ic?aooiee a ?aieao RBM noaoenoeee aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe cia/aiiy eoo?a ca’yceo Si-O-Si, aeanoea? eiaeiiio oeio iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a Si-Oy-Si4-y (1y4). Ni?anoaaeaiiy oeeo cia/aiue c aaee/eiaie ?, ?ic?aoiaaieie ?c iieiaeaiue iaeneioi?a aeaiaioa?ieo i?io?e?a, aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe a?aeiia?aeiee eiaeiiio c ieo oei iieaeoey?iiai eiiieaena. A ?aieao RBM noaoenoeee aoee ?ic?aoiaai? oaeiae eiia??iino? ?nioaaiiy eiaeiiai oeio icia/aieo e?aii?e-eeniaaeo eiiieaen?a (?y) a caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiiy ?iaeaeno noao?iiao???. Aeyaeeinue, ui ai?no a?aeiia?aeieo neeaaeiaeo o caaaeueiiio iiaeeiaii? ia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c e?eaeie ?y (o): aeine?aeaeai? ie?aee i?noeee eiiieaen?a c y=1, 2 iaioa, a c y=3, 4 a?eueoa, i?ae oea ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iiaeaeeth aeiaaeeiaeo ca’yce?a. Oeae oaeo aeicaieea i?eionoeoe, ui a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy ie?aee SiOx (oaoiieia?y NVD, 620 iN) aoiie eenith ?iciiae?eythoueny ia aeiaaeeiai, a iaiaaathoueny caeiyoe i?noea iiaeeco a?ae aaea ?nioth/eo eeniaaeo i?noe?a – yaeua, aiaeia?/ia i?aoeei?oaoe?? eenith o iiiie?enoaeao Nz-Si. Iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ioaea, ?nioaaiiy a oa?ao SiOx aeeth/aiue neeueii ieeneaiiai e?aii?th. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie, ia?iaeaieo o ?ic/ei? HF, c aeei?enoaiiyi ?*-niaeo?ineii?? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??, iieacaei, ui oae? i?e?i-aeeth/aiiy (?ici??ii aei 2 iei) ae?enii ?niothoue. O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny no?oeoo?ii-oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy a ie?aeao SiO2, ui a?aeaoaathoueny aiane?aeie ?iiiiai aiiaa?aeoaaiiy. Oa?e oa?i?/iiai aeeie-neaeo e?aii?th oiaueiith 7-609 ii aiiaa?aeoaaeenue ?iiaie Ar+ c aia?a??th 2,7 EaA aeicith 21016 ni-2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi ?* niaeo?ineii?? c aiae?cii oi?ie nioae aaeaioieo eieeaaiue S?-I ca’yceo, aaaaoieooiai? niaeo?aeueii? ae?iniiao???, Iaea-niaeo?ineii??, i?io?eiiao???. Iieacaii, ui icia/aia ia?iaea noai?th? ia iiaa?oi? ie?aee oa? ieenea (oiaueiith ~19 ii) c iiaeeo?eiaaieie no?oeoo?ith oa neeaaeii. Oeae oa? ia? aenieee iieaciee caeiieaiiy (1,8 i?e e=632,8 ii) oa iiaeeiaiiy a aeeaeiueiio OO aeeaiacii? (i?e iiaeeiaiiy i?e 3,55 aA). Iniiaia nioaa iiaeeiaiiy aiiaa?aeiaaieo ie?aie cnoaa?oueny o iecueei/anoioio iaeanoue, ? i?e ?? ?iceeaae? ia aaonia? i?io?e? i?iyaeythoueny iia? neeaaeia?, ye? aeanoea? ie?aeai SiOo. ?oiy /anoea a iiaeeiaii? ci?ith?oueny c oiaueiith ie?aee a iaeano? oiauei 7-19 ii. A Iaea-niaeo?ao c’yaey?oueny i?e 91 aA, aeanoeaee aeaiaioa?iiio e?aii?th. Aeai? ?* niaeo?ineii?? aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe na?aaei?e neeaae iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o: oaca SiOo c o1. sse ?acoeueoao aeeeaaeaiiai aeua aiae?co aoea cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e iiaeeo?eiaaiiai ieneaeiiai oa?o. A?i iaiaeii??aeiee ii oiauei?: ciai?oiy iaeanoue (oiaueiith ~7 ii) neeaaea?oueny a iniiaiiio c eiiieaen?a Si-Oy-Si4-y c y=1, 2 ? 3 oa Si-Si4 oao?aaae??a; aioo??oiy /anoeia oa?o (oiaueiith ~12 ii) ii?o/ c oao?aaae?aie SiO4 i?noeoue e?aii?e-eeniaa? iieaeoey?i? eiiieaene c y=3. Oaea no?oeoo?a iiaeao aooe noai?aia o?eueee aiane?aeie aeaeaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie iino?aeiaiai eenith c aoce?a a?aoee SiO2 a i?aeaoceiaeie. Ia iniia? iayaiino? neeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy c i?eii i?e 3,55 eA anoaiiaeaii, ui ina?oeaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o OO eaaioaie caeaoia aeeeeeaoe ?aeaenaoe?th eiai neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e. Iieacaii, ui aiane?aeie ii?ii?iaiiy aiiaa?aeiaaieo ie?aie na?oeii ?oooii? eaiie aai N2-eaca?a oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o (iieaciee caeiieaiiy, eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy, iieiaeaiiy oa oi?ia nioae aaeaioieo eieeaaiue Si-O ca’yceo) i?aeoe/ii iiaa?oathoueny aei oaeeo, ui aeanoea? ie?aeai SiO2. Oaeei /eiii, na?oei noeioeth? ia?aoai?aiiy SiOo a SiO2. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiee iaoai?ci oeueiai yaeua – noai?aiiy oao?aaae??a SiO4 aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? eiiieaen?a Si-Oy-Si4-y (1y4) c i?aeaoceiaeiieie aoiiaie eenith ca ?aooiie aia?a?? na?oea, ui iiaeeia?oueny ia aeeth/aiiyo aeaiaioa?iiai e?aii?th. O oinoiio ?icae?e? aea/athoueny i?ioeane no?oeoo?ii-oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? e?aii?th ? eenith i?e oa?i?/iiio ieeneaii? e?aii?th. Aeey oeueiai i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaeoiieeo (7-22 ii) ie?aie SiO2, ui ae?iuoaaeenue a aoiinoa?? nooiai eenith i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 900 oa 1000 iN. Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?*-niaeo?ineii?y c aiae?cii oi?ie iniiaii? nioae iiaeeiaiiy ieneaeo, aaaaoieooiaa ae?iniiao??y, a?aa?iao??y, ?aioaai?anueea niaeo?iiao??y, iaoiae aeniei/anoioieo N(V) oa?aeoa?enoee oa aeonoi-aeaeo?iiiee iaoiae. Iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?i? ? aeaeo?io?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeoiieiai ieeneo nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae /ano ieeneaiiy. ?oi? ci?ie ? iaiiiioiiieie, i?e/iio iaea?eueo cia/iee aaiacen ia?aiao??a SiO2 a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaeano? oiauei aei ~15 ii iacaeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieeneaiiy. Aeoaea oiie? ieeni? ie?aee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie aonoeiith, nooiaiai iaoa-i?/iiai noeniaiiy, ai?noii 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue SiO4 oao?aaae??a oa eii-oeaio?aoe??th o?eniaaiiai iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo. Ioaea, ii/aoeiaee aoai oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy e?aii?th iia’ycaiee c ia?aaaaeiei oi?ioaaiiyi u?eueiioiaeiaaieo 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue e?aii?e-eeniaaeo oao?aaae??a, ui ? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaio aonoeio oa aenieo nooi?iue iaoai?/iiai noeniaiiy ie?aee ieeneo a i?ioean? ?inoo. Oaea no?oeoo?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith aia?a??th oa ? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii ia??aiiaaaeiith. Iiaeaeueoa ieeneaiiy aeeeeea? ?aeaenaoe?eiee i?ioean, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ic?yaeee noai?aieo iai?oa. A?aoea ieeneo o?ainoi?io?oueny iiaeeco aeayei? e?eoe/ii? aaee/eie, a naia, eiee /anoeia 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue e?aii?e-eeniaaeo oao?aaae??a ia?aoai?th?oueny o 6-/eaii? e?eueoey ? a?aeiia?aeii ciaioothoueny aonoeia oa nooi?iue aeaoi?iaoe?? ieeneo. Oe? iniaeeaino? ci?ie no?oeoo?e ieeneo iiaeii? a?aeaeaaoeny ia oaeaeeino? eiai ?inoo. E?i?ooth/ei oaeoi?ii i?e oa?i?/iiio ieeneaii? e?aii?th ? ianoa/a a?eueiiai ia’?ia aeey noai?aiiy ie?aee ieneaeo; inoaii?e iiaea aooe noai?aiee, cie?aia, aiane?aeie “a’ycei? oa/??” SiO2. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a’yce?noue ieeneo a naith /a?ao nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai no?oeoo?e ? ca?aeii c ?ic?aooieaie aeey ie?aie, ui neeaaeathoueny c 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a SiO4 , ia 2-3 ii?yaeea aaee/eie iaioa, i?ae aeey oa??a, ye? noi?iiaai? c 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue, iiaeia /aeaoe, ui ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ieeneaiiy oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy e?aii?th aoaea aeuith. Oeae aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ye aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie a aeai?e ?iaio?, oae ? e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie. Iieacaii, ui iaoai?/i?, iioe/i? oa aeaeo?io?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee SiO2 ci?iththoueny a i?ioean? ieeneaiiy ocaiaeaeaii, i?e/iio aeaeo?io?ce/i? ia?aiao?e ye?nii ei?aeththoue ?c no?oeoo?ieie. Inoaii?e oaeo aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe iiaeaeue aaia?aoe?? aaoaeiaaiiai a ieneae iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo, ui aaco?oueny ia caoiieaii? ?ii?a e?aii?th 4-/eaiieie e?eueoeyie e?aii?e-eeniaaeo oao?aaae??a. I?iaaaeaii eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaeethaaiiy no?oeoo?e SiO2 ? aecia/ai? ?ici??e a?eueiiai i?inoi?o a iaaeao e?eaoeue ??ciiai oeio. Aeyaeeinue, ui 4-/eaii? e?eueoey oao?aaae??a (ia a?aei?io a?ae 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue) ae?enii iai?ici?? aeey ?ii?a e?aii?th. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe i?aeoe/iee aeniiaie: ci?ithth/e /an ieeneaiiy (i?e caaeai?e oaiia?aoo??), iiaeia io?eioaaoe oiie? ieeni? oa?e ?c aaaeaieie nooo?ai ??cieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. O nueiiiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny no?oeoo?ii-oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy a e?aii??, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue i?ioeane i?aoeei?oaoe?? eenith aae aei noai?aiiy caoiaaiiai ieeniiai oa?o. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia c?aceao Cz-Si c aeei?enoaiiyi ?* niaeo?ineii?? c aiae?cii oi?ie nioae aaeaioieo eieeaaiue Si-O ca’yceo, Iaea-niaeo?ineii?? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??. I?ioeane i?aoeei?oaoe?? ye aeaniiai, oae ? niaoe?aeueii aaaaeaiiai oeyoii ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? eenith noeioethaaeenue oa?iiia?iaeaie a aeeaiacii? oaiia?aoo? 450-1127 iN, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?e iayaiino? neeueiiai a?ae?inoaoe/iiai noeneo c?ace?a. Aoei iieacaii, ui nioaa aaeaioieo eieeaaiue Si-O ca’yceo iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaeyae? noie no?eeeo aeaiaioa?ieo i?io?e?a aaoniai? oi?ie, iniiaiee c yeeo (1107 ni-1) iia’ycaiee c i?aeaoceiaeiiei eeniai, a ?io? iathoue aiaeiae o ?iceeaae? iniiaieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy ie?aie SiO2 oa SiOo. Iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? (80 E) aei??e ?* niaeo??a iieacaee, ui oe? i?io?e? ae?enii iaeaaeaoue aei e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oe? oaeoe, aoee ?aeaioeo?eiaai? iniiai? no?oeoo?i? noaie i?aoeei?oiaaiiai eenith: a?i aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo oace SiO2 ?c no?oeoo?ith, ui oyaey? niaith noi?o 4- e 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a SiO4 , a oaeiae eeanoa??a, ui neeaaeathoueny c iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a Si-O2-Si2. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aiae?c ieiu? aeaiaioa?ieo i?io?e?a, iia’ycaieo c e?aii?e-eeniaaith oacith, oa a?aoiaoth/e aoaeoe ?icn?yiiy ?* na?oea ia i?e?iaeeth/aiiyo oe??? oace, aoa io?eiaiee aeineoue i?inoee ae?ac aeey ioe?iee eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aoeei?oiaaiiai eenith. Oea aeicaieeei i?iaanoe e?euee?niee aiae?c i?ioean?a i?aoeei?oaoe??. Iieacaii, ui o aeo?aeieo ceeaeao aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a a?ae 20 aei 30% iino?aeiaiai eenith, ui i?noeoueny o e?enoae?, ? eiiiiiaioii i?aoeei?oiaaii? oace, yea yaey? niaith iaeano? SiO2, ui oi?ioaaeeny a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy ceeoea. I?e oeueiio ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith o i?aeaoceiaeiao ca?eueoo?oueny ? eiioeaio?aoe?y i?aoeei?oiaaiiai eenith, i?e/iio o aeine?aeaeaiiio aeeaiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e (5- 111017 ni-3) oey caeaaei?noue ? i?aeoe/ii e?i?eiith. I?ioeane i?aoeei?oaoe?? a?aeaoaathoueny c iaioith aoaeoeai?noth o ceeoeao iaioaai ae?aiao?a, i?e oeueiio ye i?aeaoceiaeiiee, oae ? i?aoeei?oiaaiee eenaiue ?iciiae?eythoueny aeineoue ??aiii??ii ii ieiu? ieanoeie. Ianooii? oa?iiia?iaee aeeeeeathoue aeaeaeaiiy aoii?a eenith c i?aeaoceiaei ? ??no oace SiO2 c iaeiaeiaith aoaeoeai?noth ii an?e oiauei? ceeaeo. E?iaoeea ?inoo SiO2 oace oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth ?iaeoeoe?eii? ae?eyiee, i?eoa-iaii?e aaaaoinoaae?eiei ?aaeoe?yi. Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia ia?iaea (1050 iN) i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae a Si eeanoa??a Si-O2–Si2. Iayai?noue noeneoth/i? iai-?oae i?e i?iaaaeaii? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? oa?iiia?iaee (1050 /e 1127 iN) aeeeeeaea noai?aiiy i?aoeei?oao?a, ui i?noeee i?eaeecii oo ae eiioeaio?aoe?th i?noeiaiai eenith, ye ? o aeiaaeeo a?aenooiino? noeneo, aea i?ioean noai?aiiy e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace nooo?ai (ia iaio i?ae ia ii?yaeie aaee/eie) i?enei?thaaany. ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a eenith (aeica 1,21017 ni-2 ) oa aoaeaoeth (aeice 1,21015 aai 3,51015 ni-2 ) ? ianooiiee aenieioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeiae (1150 iN, 2 aiae.), iniaeeai a eiia?iaoe?? c iecueeioaiia?aoo?iith ia?iaeith (650 iN, 2 aiae.) i?eaiaeea aei iiyae i?eoiaaiiai a e?aii?? ieeniiai oa?o. Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai aoei: iiyaa a niaeo?? iiaeeiaiiy ?ioaineaieo i?io?e?a, i?eoaiaiieo ie?aeai oa?i?/iiai aeeieneaeo e?aii?th; aeeoa?aioe?eiee niaeo? oaeiai c?acea (oiaoi a?aeianaiee aei niaeo?o aeo?aeiiai e?enoaeo) oa?aeoa?ecoaaany nioaith c iieiaeaiiyi iaeneioia ~1080 ci-1 , ui aeanoeai eaa?oeaaiio neeo; aoiie eenith, ca?aeii c aeaieie Iaea-niaeo?ineii??, eieae?ciaai? o aocuee?e iaeano? (~22 ii). Ioe?iee oiaueie oeueiai oa?o (22-27 ii), aeeiiai? c aeei?enoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa iiaeeiaiiy SiO2, i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaee c aeaieie Iaea aiae?co. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaiethoe?th no?oeoo?e e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy i?eoiaaiiai oa?o a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?iieaioaoe?? oa oa?iiia?iaie. ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a eenith ? aoaeaoeth i?eaiaeeoue aei aeayeiai c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith ye a i?aeaoceeiao e?aii??ai? iao?eoe?, oae ? o neeaae? i?aoeei?oiaaieo aeeth/aiue. Aoaeoeai?noue ianooiii? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ia?iaee neeueii caeaaeeoue a?ae aeice ?iieaioiaaiiai aoaeaoeth. O aeiaaeeo ii??aiyii iecueei? aeice (1,21015 ni-2 ) a?aeiae i?e 1150 iC i?eaiaeeoue o?eueee aei nooo?aiai c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? i?aoeei?oiaaii? oace, aea i?eoiaaiee oa? ia noai?th?oueny. sseui aeica ?iieaioiaaiiai aoaeaoeth cia/ia (3,51015 ni-2), i?eoiaaiee oa? oi?io?oueny. Oeae aoaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie noai?aiiy i?e ?iieaioaoe?? aoaeaoeth e?aueo oiia aeey aeoioeyoe?? eenith o aeinoaoiuei aocuee?e iaeano? oa eiai ianooiii? aca?iiae?? c a?aoeith e?aii?th. Aoei i?iaaaeaii oaeiae ni?anoaaeaiiy no?oeoo?e i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiO2, iaea?aeaieo aiane?aeie iaeii- ? o?e-e?aoieo ?iieaioaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Aeyaeeinue, ui a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo no?oeoo?a ieeneo oaea ae, ui ? o aeiaaeeo oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy e?aii?th. Iaeiae i?eoiaaiee oa?, yeee oi?io?oueny ii iaeiinoaae?eiiio i?ioeano, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?yaeii iniaee-ainoae. Nioaa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo eieeaaiue iii?oii cnoiooa o a?e iaioeo oaeeueiaeo /enae - oaea cieaeaia cia/aiiy (455 ni-1) niinoa??aaeinue o niae-o?ao iiaeeiaiiy ie?aie SiOo iaa?oue i?ney aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? oa?ii-ia?iaee. Iniiaia nioaa iiaeeiaiiy i?noeoue aeiaeaoeiaee aaoniaee i?io?eue (~997 ni-1), iia’ycaiee c iieaeoey?ieie eiiieaenaie Si-O-Si3. Aeaeo?i-iia i?e?ineii?y iieacaea iayai?noue a i?eoiaaiiio oa?? iaeano? (~10 ii a?ae iiaa?oi? i?aeeeaaeeiee), yea i?noeoue i?e?iaeeth/aiiy n-Si ?ici??ii 10 - 50 ii, ?icoaoiaai? iaeia a?ae iaeiiai a na?aaeiueiio ia 300 ii. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oioi?iaeaeoe?eio iaoiaeeeo, aaeaeinue onoaiiaeoe, ui iaeiie?aoii ?iieaioi-aaiee oa? i?noeoue oaeiae aioioa?i? aeaoaeoe, ye? nei??o ca ana iia’ycai? c iaiieeanoa?aie a-Si. ?oi?e ?ici??, ioe?iaiee ?c cia/aiiy ia?a??co caoiieaiiy aeaeo?ii?a, neeaaea? 1-3 ii. I?iaaaeai? ioe?iee iieacaee, ui aonoeia iaaeeeoeiaiai e?aii?th, iia’ycaia c eiiieaenaie Si-O-Si3 , nooo?ai ia?aaaaea? aonoeio aoii?a Si ia iiaa?oi? ye aeeth/aiue n-Si, oae ? iaiieeanoa??a a-Si. Oeae oaeo aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeyaeai? eiiieaene Si-O-Si3 ?niothoue aieiaiei /eiii ye naiino?ei? aeaoaeoe o a?aooe? i?eoiaaiiai oa?o. O aeniiaeao noenei i?iaiae?ciaaiee noai ieoaiiy, ?ice?eo? iaoiaee ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie, aeeeaaeai? iaea?eueo aaaeeea? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ? noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o iaoeiaiai oa i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy. AENIIAEE 1. Noai?aiiy o i?eaiiaei?e /anoei? ieneaea IAeI no?oeoo? neeueiiai eieaeueiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (Aa> 1,3 IaA/ni) i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icaaeo
ooo eiiieaen?a SiOH, i?a?aoe?? i?ioii?a a iaeanoue iaae? ?icae?eo
Si-SiO2 ? aaia?aoe?? oaeaeeeo oa iia?eueieo noai?a.

2. I?ioean aaia?aoe?? oaeaeeeo oa iia?eueieo noai?a a iaeano? iaae?
?icae?eo Si-SiO2 i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a ?c e?aii?th iia’ycaiee ?c
aaaaoinoaae?eiith ?aaeoe??th, a ye?e ?iaeaeoiaai? aeaeo?iie noai?ththoue
iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeai? ianoee a ia’?i? SiO2, noia?iiceoe?y ca?yaeo ianoie
?c ciai?oi?i aeaeo?e/iei ci?uaiiyi oi?io? neeueia aeaeo?e/ia iiea o
ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? ieneaeo, iiea i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueiaiiy i?ioii?a
oa ?o ae?aeoo aei iaae? ?icae?eo Si-SiO2, aea aiie ?aaaothoue ?c Si-O
ca’yc-eaie, noai?thth/e aeaeo?iaeoeai? aeaoaeoe oa eiiieaene SiOH.

3. Oa?i?/iee a?aeiae, ui noi?iaiaeaeo? ?iaeaeoe?th aeaeo?ii?a a ieneae
IAeI nenoai, iii?oii ciaioo? aeo?aeio aeaoaeoi?noue iaae? ?icae?eo
Si-SiO2. Oeae aoaeo iia’ycaiee c ianeaaoe??th ?ic??aaieo ca’yce?a
e?aii?th oa eenith aiaeiai, yeee aeae?-ey?oueny a ieneae? aiane?aeie
?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a.

4. No?oeoo?iee noai eenith a neeiiiae?ai?e e?aii?e-eeniaa?e oac? iiaea
aooe aecia/aiei ia iniia? aiae?co oi?ie iniiaii? nioae iiaee-iaiiy.
Aeaiaioa?i? neeaaeia? icia/aii? nioae iia’ycai?, aieiaiei /eiii, ?c
aaeaioieie eieeaaiiyie aoii?a iino?aeiaiai eenith, ui aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo 4- oa 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a SiO4 (o aeiaaeeo oace SiO2)
aai iieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a Si-Oy-Si4-y c 1 y 4 (o aeiaaeeo oace SiOx).

5. Iecueeiaia?aaoe/ia ?iiia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ie?aie SiO2 aeeeeea?
o?ainoi?iaoe?th oao?aaae??a SiO4 a iieaeoey?i? eeanoa?e Si-Oy-Si4-y (0 y
4) aiane?aeie noai?aiiy ?iiaie aaeain?e eenith o a?aooe? ieenea.
Icia/aiee aoaeo iicia/a?oueny, cie?aia, ia oi?i? ?*- oa Iaea- niaeo??a.

6. I?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy eeanoa??a Si-Oy-Si4-y o oao?aaae?e SiO4 a
iiaeeo?eiaaiiio ?iiaie oa?? ieneaeo iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny i?ae aieeaii
eaaio?a na?oea (h?3,6 aA), yea iiaeeia?oueny ia aeeth/aiiyo
aeaiaioa?iiai e?aii?th. Iaiao?aeiee aeey icia/aiiai i?ioeano eenaiue
i?enooi?e o a?aooe? iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o o aeaeyae? i?aeaoceiaeiieo
aoii?a.

7. I?ioean oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy e?aii?th ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?
iaiaeii??aeiee ?, a?aeiia?aeii, iaoai?/i?, iioe/i?, aeaeo?io?ce/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeoiieeo ie?aie SiO2 nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae o?eaaeino?
ieeneaiiy. ?oi? ci?ie iaiiiioiii? ? aca?iiocaiaeaeai?. Iaea?eueo
iii?oiee aaiacec ia?aiao??a ieneaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaeano? oiauei aei
15 ii. A?eueo oiie? ie?aee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie aonoeiith,
nooiaiai iaoai?/iiai noeniaiiy, ai?noii 4-/eaiieo e?eaoeue oao?aaae??a
SiO4 oa eiioeaio?aoe??th o?eniaaiiai iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo.

8. Nioaa aaeaioieo eieeaaiue iino?aeiaiai eenith a e?aii?? iiaea aooe
i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaeyae? noie iaaieo aeaiaioa?ieo i?io?e?a aaoniai?
oi?ie, iaeei c yeeo iia’ycaiee c i?aeaoceiaeiieie aoiiaie eenith, a ?io?
– c eeniai o neeaae? i?aoeei?oiaaii? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace. Inoaii?
iathoue aiaeiae o ?iceeaae? iniiaieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy ie?aie SiO2 oa
SiOx. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oeae oaeo, aoee ?aeaioeo?eiaai? iniiai? no?oeoo?i?
noaie

i?aoeei?oiaaiiai eenith oa ioe?iaia eiai eiioeaio?aoe?y. Cie?aia, o
aeine?aeaeaieo c?aceao aoea anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue i?aoeei?oiaaii? oace
SiO2 ?c no?oeoo?ith, ui yaey? niaith noi?o 4- oa 6-/eaiieo e?eaoeue
oao?aaae??a SiO4, a oaeiae eeanoa??a Si-O2-Si2.

9. No?oeoo?iee noai eenith o?ainoi?io?oueny a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SiO2 a e?aii?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?iieaioaoe?? oa
ianooiieo oa?iiia?iaie. Aeiaeaoeiaa ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a aoaeaoeth
nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace ca
?aooiie ooai?aiiy ia?aaaaeieo oiia aeey aeoioeyoe?? eenith oa eiai
ianooiii? aca?iiae?? c a?aoeith e?aii?th.

10. I?eoiaai? oa?e SiO2, iaea?aeai? i?e iaeiie?aoi?e ?iieaioaoe??
eenith, i?noyoue aeaoaeoe, iia’ycai? c iaaeeeoeiaei e?aii??i
(Si-O-Si3), i?i ui na?ae/aoue, cie?aia, cieaeaia /anoioa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
eieeaaiue aoii?a eenith, oa neaaea nioaa iiaeeiaiiy i?e ~997 ni-1.
O?ee?aoia ?iieaioaoe?y eenith aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe i?eoiaaiee oa? SiO2
?c no?oeoo?ith, oioiaeiueith oae?e aeey ie?aie oa?i?/iiai ieneaeo.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

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20. E?nianueeee ?.I., Eeoia/aiei A.A., Oaoueei A.A., Eiceinueeee A.A.,
Oi?aeo I.A., A?iiaoaanueeee A.E., Nii?inueeee I.A., ?oiae I.A.,
Oaoueyiaiei I.?. Aeanoeaino? iaaeoiieeo ie?aie SiO2, iaea?aeaieo
oa?i?/iei ieeneaiiyi e?aii?th // Oe?. oic. aeo?i.-1994.-O.39,
N6.-N.730-736

21. Einianueeee ?.I., Eeoia/aiei A.A., Eiceinueeee A.A., Oi?aeo I.A.
Iaoiae iioe/iiai eiio?ieth no?oeoo?e oa neeaaeo iaaii?yaeeiaaieo ie?aie
// Oe?. oic.aeo?i.-1994.- O.39, N 7,8.- N. 892-893.

22. Lisovskii I.P., Litovchenko V.G., Lozinskii V.B., Melnik V.P.,
Frolov S.I. Structure of the modified surface layer formed by ion
bombardment of SiO2 films // Thin Solid Films.-1994.-v.247. -P. 264-270.

23. Romanjuk B.N.,Klui N.I.,Lisovskii I.P.,Popov V.G.,Misiuk A.,
Adamchewska J. Defects and stresses in annealed/strained Cz- Si single

crystals investigated by electroreflectance spectroscopy // Prace
Institutu Technologii Electronowej.-1995.-N 1. -P. 1-12.

24. Lisovskii I.P.,Litovchenko V.G.,Lozinskii V.B.,Flietner H., Fussel
W.,Schmidt E.G. IR study of short-range and local order in SiO2 and SiOo
films // J.Non-Cryst.Solids.- 1995.-v.87.-P. 91-95.

25. Lisovskii I.P., Romanova G.P., Schmidt E.G. Field mechanism of
defect generation at Si-SiO2 interface under hot electron injection //
J.Non-Cryst.Solids.-1995.- v187.- P.186-189.

26. Lisovskii I.P.,Litovchenko V.G.,Lozinskii V.B. Effect of UV
annealing of radiation damage in SiO2 films // Appl.Surf.Sci. -1995.-
v.86.- P. 299-302.

27. Lisovskii I.P.,Litovchenko V.G.,Lozinskii V.B.,Mischenko E.V.,
Fussel W. Optical characterization of SIPOS layers structure // SPIE.-
1995.- v.48.- P. 165-170.

28. Litovchenko V.G.,Lisovskii I.P.,Lozinskii V.B.,Romanyuk B.N., Melnik
V.P. IR study of buried layer structure on different stages of
technology // Physical and Technical Problems of SOI Structures and
Devices, ed. by J.P.Colinge, V.S.Lysenko and A.N.Nazarov, Kluwer Acad.
Publ., Dordrecht /Boston/ London.-1995.- P.157-162.

29. ?iiaithe A.I., I?n?oe A., Aaeai/aanueea ss., Eethe I.?., E?nianueeee
?.I. Iiiia A.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii aeaeo?ia?aeaeooy aieeao
oa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a ? a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo ia aeaoaeoe ? iaoai?/i?
iai?oaeaiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th // Oe?. o?c.
aeo?i.-1995.-O.40, N3.- N. 222-227.

30. Eeoia/aiei A.A., Eenianeee E.I., Ao?aiia A.A., Ai?aaithe O.E.,
Oeiainee Ae., Aa?aei/aa C., Ei?iaoeeee I. I i?e?iaea
aaeni?ai-yeaeo?e/aneiai yooaeoa a no?oeoo?ao Pd-Si3N4-SiO2-Si i?e
aaeni?aoeee iieaeoe aiaei?iaea // Iiaa?oiinoue. Oeceea, oeiey, iaoaieea.
– 1995.- N11.- N. 5-16.

31. Lisovskii I.P., Revesz A.G., Hughes H.L. Infrared absorption study
of buried oxide of single- and triple-implanted SIMOX structures //
Proc. Electrochem. Soc. — 1996.- v.96-3.- P. 133-142.

32. E?nianueeee ?.I. Aiae?c no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith a e?aii?? iaoiaeii
eiii’thoa?ii? ?io?a/a?aiii? niaeo?ineii?? // Oe?. o?c. aeo?i.-
1997.-O.42, N 9.- N. 1487-1495.

33. Litovchenko V.G., Evtuch A.A., Lisovskii I.P., Kiziak A.Yu.,
Pedchenko Yu.M. Electrical and structural characteristics of ultrathin
dielectric films of SiO2 // Ukr.J.Phys.-1998.- v.43, N5.- P. 607-613.

34. E?nianueeee ?.I. Aoaeo aaeiia?aoe?? eenith o ie?aeao S?Io ,
io?eiaieo ca NVD-oaoiieia??th // Oe?. o?c. aeo?i.- 1998.-O.43, N8.- N.
949-953.

35. A.n. 1274510 NNN? / Yeaiaio iaiyoe/ Aeanaiei I.A., Eenianeee E.I.,
Iaca?aieia O.A., Oiiee/ A.I./ 1986.-4 n.

36. A.n. 1403901 NNN?/ Niinia ia?aaioee no?oeoo? e?aiiee-aeaoieenue
e?aiiey/ E?iiiai Ae.E., Eenianeee E.I., Eeoia/aiei A.A., Iaca?aieia
O.A., Oiiee/ A.I./ 1988.- 6 n.

AIIOAOe?ss

E?nianueeee ?.I. No?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
e?aii??ai? oa e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.10 – o?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?
ae?aeaeo?ee?a.- ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue a iaeanoyo neeiiiae?aii? e?aii?e-eeniaai? oace, ui
iaoiiaeai? ci?iith no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith ye ia ??ai? noai?aiiy
oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a, oae ? a ianooaaao ia?aaoaeiae e?eaoeue S?I4
oao?aaae??a aai iieaeoey?ieo e?aii?e-eeniaaeo eiiieaen?a. Aoaeoe,
iia’ycai? ?c noai?aiiyi aeaeo?iaeoeaieo oeaio??a, noeioethaaeenue
?iaeaeoe??th aeaeo?ii?a aai neeueieie eieaeueieie aeaeo?e/ieie iieyie.
Ianooaaia no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa aea/aeanue ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?
oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy e?aii?th, i?e ?iieaioaoe?? eenith a e?aii?e c
ianooiiei aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii oa i?e ?iiiiio aiiaa?aeoaaii?
ie?aie ieneaeo. ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee iaoiae oa?aeoa?ecaoe?? no?oeoo?iiai
noaio eenith a aii?oi?e S?-I oac?. Cai?iiiiiaai? oa iaa?oioiaai? iiaeae?
o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a i?ioean?a ci?ie no?oeoo?iiai noaio eenith.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?aii?e, ieneae e?aii?y, i?aoeei?oaoe eenith, oiie?
ie?aee, ?* niaeo?ineii?y, no?oeoo?a, aeaoaeoe.

ABSTRACT

Lisovskii I.P. Structural Transformations in Surface Layers of the
Silicon and Silicon-Oxygen Phase.-Typescript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree in physics and mathematics by speciality
01.04.10 — physics of semiconductors and dielectrics.- Institute of
Semiconductor Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the study of the physical mechanisms of
structural transformations in silicon-oxygen phase due to change in
oxygen structural arrangement both resulting from Si-O bond breaking or
creation and

in the scale of rearrangement of SiO4 tetrahedra rings or of molecular
silicon-oxygen complexes. The effects connected with electrically active
centers generation were stimulated by electron injection and by strong
local electric fields. Structural transformation was studied on the
early stage of silicon thermal oxidation, after oxygen implantation with
high-temperature post-annealing and due to ion bombardment of silica
films. The new method of oxygen structural arrangement characterization
in vitreous Si-O phase has been developed. The models of the physical
mechanisms of changes in oxygen structural arrangement have been
proposed and backgrounded.

Key words: silicon, silicon oxide, oxygen precipitates, thin films,
?R-spectroscopy, structure, defects.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eenianeee E.I. No?oeoo?iua i?aa?auaiey a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo e?aiieaaie
e e?aiiee-eenei?iaeiie oacu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.10 — oeceea iieoi?iaiaeieeia e
aee?eaeo?eeia. Einoeooo oeceee iieoi?iaiaeieeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth oece/aneeo iaoaieciia no?oeoo?iuo
i?aa?auaiee a iaeanoyo noaeeiia?aciie e?aiiee-eenei?iaeiie oacu, eioi?ua
iaoneiaeaiu niaiie no?oeoo?iiai ninoiyiey eenei?iaea eae ia o?iaia
nicaeaiey oi/a/iuo aeaoaeoia, oae e i?e ia?ano?ieea eieaoe S?I4
oao?ayae?ia eee iieaeoey?iuo e?aiiee-eenei?iaeiuo eiiieaenia. I?e
eco/aiee yooaeoa aaia?aoeee oi/a/iuo aeaoaeoia enneaaeiaaeenue i?ioeannu
nicaeaiey yeaeo?iaeoeaiuo oeaio?ia a iaeanoe a?aieoeu ?acaeaea Si-SiO2
eiaeaeoe?iaaiiuie yeaeo?iiaie. Yeae-o?ioece/aneea ia?aiao?u IAeI nenoai,
ii?aaeaeaiiua n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia aeniei/anoioiuo N(V)
oa?aeoa?enoee e oioieiaeaeoeee, niii-noaaeyeenue n aeaiiuie
iann-niaeo?ineiiee aoi?e/iuo eeanoa?iuo eiiia e YI?. Iaia?oaeai e
aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaai yooaeo aaia?aoeee i?ioiiia a iee-nea IAeI nenoai
iiae aeaenoaeai neeueiiai eieaeueiiai yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey, eioi?ue
nii?iaiaeaeaaony nicaeaieai a iaeanoe a?aieoeu ?acaeaea Si-SiO2

iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiuo aeaoaeoia, auno?uo iiaa?oiinoiuo ninoiyiee e
eiiieaenia S?II. I?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo
aeaoaeoia a IAeI no?oeoo?ao i?e eiaeaeoeee yeaeo?iiia, iniiaaiiue ia
iiiainoaaeeeiie ?aaeoeee i?e o/anoee inaiaiaeaeaiiuo iieai i?ioiiia e
ineaaeaiiuo naycae Si-O. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?iaaaeaiea eiaeaeoeee
yeaeo?i-iia e iineaaeothuaai oa?iiioaeeaa i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio
oiaiueoaieth ieioiinoe auno?uo iiaa?oiinoiuo ninoiyiee e nei?inoe
iiaa?oiinoiie ?aeiiaeiaoeee iainiiaiuo iineoaeae ca?yaea. I?e eco/aiee
no?oeoo?iuo i?aa?auaiee, naycaiiuo n eciaiaieai n?aaeiaai ii?yaeea,
eniieueciaaeenue ia?aaioee, iicaieythuea oeaeaiai?aaeaii aeeyoue ia
yoio i?ioeann (ioaeeae, ieeneaiea e?aiiey, eiiiay aiiaa?aee?iaea eee
eiieaioaoeey), I?eiaiyeenue EE-niaeo?ineiiey, iiiaioaeiaay niaeo?aeueiay
yeeeiniiao-?ey, Iaea-niaeo?ineiiey, ia?aoiia ?annayiea eiiia,
a?aaeiao?ey, iioe/an-eay e yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, a oaeaea
eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea no?oeoo?u eeanoa?ia noaeeiia?aciiai SiO2.
I?aaeeiaeaia eioa?i?aoaoeey ninoaaeythueo iniiaiie iieinu iiaeiuaiey
noaeeiia?aciie e?aiiee-eenei?iaeiie oacu, eioi?ay naycuaaao oeacaiiua
aaonniau i?ioeee n aaeaioiuie eieaaaieyie aoiiia iinoeeiaiai eenei?iaea
a ninoaaa 4- e 6-/eaiiuo eieaoe SiO4 oao?ayae?ia (a neo/aa SiO2) eee
iieaeoey?iuo eiiieaenia Si-Oy-Si4-y n 1y4 (a neo/aa SiOo).
I?iaeaiiico?e?iaaii, /oi iiaeiaiue eiiiuethoa?iue aiaeec oi?iu iieinu
iiaeiuaiey yaeyaony oaeiaiui ia?ac?ooathuei iaoiaeii oa?aeoa?ecaoeee
no?oeoo?iiai ninoi-yiey eenei?iaea a noaeeiia?aciie
e?aiiee-eenei?iaeiie oaca. Iieacaii, /oi iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
ieceiyia?aaoe/iie eiiiie aiiaa?aee?iaeie iiaa-?oiinoiue neie ieaiie SiO2
eiaao no?oeoo?o, iniiaaiioth ia neo/aeii ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo iieaeoey?iuo
eiiieaenao Si-Oy-Si4-y (0y4), eioi?ua nicaeathony ec oao?ayae?ia SiO4
aneaaenoaea aaia?aoeee eiiaie aaeainee eenei?iaea a ?aoaoea ieenea.
Iieacaii, /oi ieioiinoue ieneaea, iaoaie/an-eea iai?yaeaiey a ieaiea e
aaee/eia ano?iaiiiai a ieenae iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea eciaiythony a
i?ioeanna oa?ie/aneiai ieeneaiey e?aiiey iaiiii-oiiii e niaeanothony ni
niaiie no?oeoo?iiai ninoiyiey eenei?iaea. Onoaii-aeaia iioeiaeueiay aeey
eiieueciaaiey a i?eai?ao oieueia (~15 ii) naa?o-oiieeo ieaiie
oa?ie/aneiai SiO2. I?aaeeiaeaia e iainiiaaia no?oeoo?iay

iiaeaeue nicaeaiey ano?iaiiiai a ieenae iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea,
iniiaaiiay ia caoaaoa eiiia e?aiiey 4-/eaiiuie eieueoeaie SiO4
oao?ayae?ia. Eaeaioeoeoee?iaai ?yae iniiaiuo no?oeoo?iuo ninoiyiee
i?aoeeieoe?iaai-iiai a e?aiiee eenei?iaea. ?ac?aaioai iaoiae ioeaiee aai
eiioeaio?aoeee, iniiaaiiue ia aiaeeca oi?iu iieinu iiaeiuaiey 1107 ni-1.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiieaioaoeey eiiia oaea?iaea ia?yaeo n eiiaie
eenei?iaea nouanoaaiii iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue nicaeaiey ne?uoiai a
e?aiiee neiy SiO2. A ne?uouo neiyo ieneaea, iieo/aiiiai ii
iaeii-noaaeeeiie SIMOX oaoii-eiaee, iaia?oaeaiu iieaeoey?iua eiiieaenu
Si-O-Si3.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: e?aiiee, ieneae e?aiiey, i?aoeeieoaou eenei?iaea,
oiieea ieaiee, EE- niaeo?ineiiey, no?oeoo?a, aeaoaeou.

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