35

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO AA?A?II? AEIIII?EE

I?EAOEE Ieoaeei
Eocueiiae/

OAeE 631.1:301

NIOe?AEUeIA NOA?A NAEA

OA AEIIII?*IEE IAOAI?CI

?AAOETHAAIIss ?? ?ICAEOEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy,

ieaioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

AOAOOeUeEEE
Ieaen?e Aiae??eiae/ –

?inoeooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI,

aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiaeaio OAAI

AIA?INIA Aieiaeeie? sseiae/ — ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee

OAAI caa?aeoaa/ Oa?uee?anueeiai a?aeae?eo
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo

oi?ioaaiue;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e
OAAI

AI?UAANUeEEE Iao?i I?ieiiiae/ — ?aaea i?iaeoeoeaieo nee

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aieiae ?aaee;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe IIEAeAAAI Ethaia Aanee?aia —

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?ee AIE

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 16 » ethoiai 1999 ?. i 12
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.350.01 ii
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (252127, i.Ee?a- 127, aoe.
Aa?i?a iai?iie, 10, eiioa?aioe-cae, 3-e iiaa?o).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (i.Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 10, 2-e iiaa?o).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 15 » n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAE?E I.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Na?aae aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo naea /?eueia
i?noea iin?aea? eiai nioe?aeueia noa?a. A ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
?aa?ii?a aiia ? iniiaiei oaeoi?ii aieeao ia ae??oaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo
aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue naea, cie?aia, a?aeoai?aiiy ? noaa?e?caoe??
/enaeueiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, iie?ioaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe??, i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy naeyi, ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aaeocae
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e oa aoaeoeaiino? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oea, a
naith /a?ao, iio?aao? ae??oaiiy eiiieaeno ieoaiue uiaei ?ic?iaee
eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a oaeineiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea. ?acii c oei ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea
?icaeyaea?oueny ye niaoeeo?/ia ? iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi
ae?iaie/eo oa i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a.

A inoaii? ?iee oiia?eueieeany ?icaoaeiaa nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea,
yea cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny ??aiai ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeai?noth
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Iacaaaeath/e ia i?eeiyooy
Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i i??i?eoaoi?noue nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea ?
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?», ?ic?iaeo
«Eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea ia 1995-2005
?iee», oa ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue cae?eniaiiy
ye?nieo ci?i ??aiy aeeooy o?oae?aiee?a naea oa iiaeieaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
aeeni?iii?oe?e a caaacia/aii? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieie aeaaaie ? noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia aeey
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea oa oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai aeeoo?aiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey naeyi, ae?y i?eeiyoeo caeii?a oa iinoaiia oiaei nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo naea a oiiaao caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa o?iainiai?
e?ece caeeoa?oueny iaeiaoaeoeaiith, a aeaye? iieiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo aeo?a
iaa?oue ia aeeiiothoueny.

A?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaii? iie?oeee ia?iaeiianaeaiiy a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie, iacaaeia?euei? oiiae i?aoe? ? iiaooo cia/ii
oneeaaeiththoue aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th, iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia
iinaeainueeo ia?aaeo ? aeiaaathoue aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?/ieo iai?yi?a
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. A?eiaee neeaae
ianaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui naei eaoano?io?/ii noa???. O?aoeia naeyi —
iain?iia?e. Neooaoe?y iia??oo?oueny, oaeiae aenieei ??aiai
aeaiiioeyoe??.

A inoaii? ?iee i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei
aoaeoeaiino? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a nioe?aeueio noa?o naea ? ?icaeoie
?? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a aeo?aoe ia ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? noa?e AIE i?iaeiaaeoaaee nei?i/oaaoenue. Ia i?eae?eyeiny
aeinoaoiuei? oaaae oaeei aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi, ye caeaaeiino? ??aiy
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e a?ae oiia oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a. sseui ?ai?oa i?e oi?ioaaii? i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo
aeei?enoiaoaaany ii?iaoeaiee i?eioeei, oi iei? oeae i?ioean caeaaeeoue
aieiaiei /eiii a?ae ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? oeo aaeocae aeiiii?ee, ye?
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? i?noeaaei ?aaeai. Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, ianai?/ani?
o?iainia? ?ic?aooiee aea?aeaae c i?aei?e?inoaaie aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno ca caeaio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th oiui cia/ii
ciaioothoue ?? aeioiaeio /anoeio ? aeaeaoee i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo, ye?
iiaeii? iai?aaeyoenue ia ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. A oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece aaaeei ciaeoe
aeey oeueiai eiooe a i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoao /e caeo/eoe oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
aei iaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aeiiiiiae.

O ca’yceo c aeuaaeeeaaeaiei iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea, iaa?oiooaaiiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ? iai?yi?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ?ioa?anao noaa?e?caoe?? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa
a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo naea. Ii noo? aeo?ae c e?eciaiai
noaio nioe?aeueii? noa?e iiaeeeaee eeoa ca oiiae nenoaiii? ?aae?caoe??
eiiieaeno caoiae?a c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo,
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?ic?iaee iaoai?cio ?ai?aai?caoe??
ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e oa o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy
?icaeoeo ?? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace ia ia?niaeoeao. Ana oea ?
coiiaeei aea?? oaie ? no?oeoo?io iiaoaeiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa ??
aeooaeuei?noue.

Noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Ia ??cieo aoaiao noaiiaeaiiy iaoi?
aea?aeaae iaaiee aeeaae o iaoeiao ?ic?iaeo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo,
i?eeeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e aianee a/ai? Oe?a?ie: A.ss.Aia?inia, Ae.I.Aiaeiy,
I.I.Ai?uaanueeee, I.A.Aoaooeueeee, I.O.Aaeiae/aiei, A.?.Aeioeaiei,
A.?.Eoiaeiaa, I.A.Eaeei, A.I.E?aaiiaa, A.?.Eeoeeaiei, I.E.Iae?e,
I.I.Iaoiaiei, I.?.Ieaei?e, N.?.Ie?iaeeia, ?.A.I?ieiia, A.N.Noaoaiei,
A.N.Ooiiia, E.I.Oaiioueei, A.A.Oaaoeue, E.?.sseoaa oa ?io? aeine?aeieee.
I?iaeaie ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie ia nae?
a?aeia?aaeai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo A.I.Aeo?oua, N.E.Caaaaenueeiai,
A.I.Ia-eana, E.A.Iieaeaaai, I.?.Ia?acoeiaa, ?.O.Noaiaiaiea,
A.A.TH?/eoeia.

?acii c oei a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie ? iniaeeai ieoaiiy iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeai? ye a oai?aoe/iiio, oae ? a
i?eeeaaeiiio ieai?. Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue ?ia?o i?iaeaia a
eiiieaen? caeeoa?oueny iaeiaeine?aeaeaiith ? ianaiia?aae a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae cacia/eoe, ui a
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaeao a?aenooi? ?aeeia canoinoaaiiy eaoaai??e «nioe?aeueia
noa?a», «nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a» ? o?eaa? aeeneon?eiee i?ioean
ooi/iaiiy noo? oa ooieoe?e oeeo eaoaai??e. Ia iaea?aeaa iaeaaeiiai
aecia/aiiy iaoiae ioe?iee ??aiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e oa e?eoa???a
?? aoaeoeaiino?. Ia ae??oaieie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy eiiieaeniiai
?icaeoeo n?euenueeeo oa?eoi??e, oiaoi c?inoa? iio?aaa o aea/aii?
oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea. Ana oea iio?aao? iiooeo iiaeo i?aeoiae?a
aei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa ?? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ui coiiaeth? aenieo
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa ?? ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeo
cia/ei?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? oa ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c
?ic?iaeith caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie «Eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea ia 1995-2005 ?iee», a oaeiae c aeeiiaiiyi
oaiaoeee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, yea eii?aeeioaaeany a?aeiia?aeieie
caaaeaiiyie ia ia??iae 1979-1997 ?ie?a:

· «?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith aeeoo?aiai ??aiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy ? ia?aoai?aiith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?aoe? a
??ciiaeaei?noue ?iaeono??aeueii?» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
79007293; 1978-1980 ??.);

· «?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii aecia/aiith iio?aae, ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
cae??ieaiith iaoai?caoi?nueeeo eaae??a a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (ca caaaeaiiyi I?i?noa?noaa n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa O?N?; 1979-1982 ??.);

· «?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe?? ii i?enei?aiith
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea, caeeaeaiith iaoa??aeueieo oa
eoeueoo?ii-iiaooiaeo oiia aeeooy i?nueeiai ? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 018200800690; 1981-1985
??.);

· «?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo naea Oe?a?inueei? ?N?
a oiiaao aa?ii?iieneiai? ?ioaa?aoe??» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0085093; 1986-1990 ??.);

· «?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo naea a
oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei» (ia caiiaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? i?iaeiaieuenoaa Oe?a?ie, 1992-1993 ??.);

· «?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii a?aeoai?aiith o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa iie?ioaiiy oiia aeeooy ia
nae?» (ia caiiaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
i?iaeiaieuenoaa Oe?a?ie, 1994-1995 ??.;

· «?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa
o?iainoaaiiy» (?icae?e «Oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai aeeoo?aiai na?aaeiaeua
a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?), 1997?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy ieoaiue
noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a ioe?iee ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia nae? oa oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii naea;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? oa iieaciee?a, ye? aecia/athoue
??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

· aiae?c no/anii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? oa
e?euee?nia ioe?iea oaiaeaioe?e oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo naea;

· i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co noeoiieo aeioiae?a n?euenueeeo
o?oae?aiee?a, ?o oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy;

· aeyaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae nenoaiith n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy ?
??aiai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a oi?ioaaiiy n?euenueei? nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e oa o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? iniiae ?? ?icaeoeo;

· aecia/aiiy iio?aae ? no?oeoo?e eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a iniiai?
ia’?eoe nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea ia ia?niaeoeao;

· ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaeieia?/i? ? i?eeeaaei? ieoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aenooia? nioe?aeueia noa?a naea Oe?a?ie oa ??
nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeai? ia?aieno ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie ca 1959-1989 ??., iaoa??aee noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? Aea?aeaaiiai
eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie, aiae?oe/i? iaeyaee Iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a IAI Oe?a?ie,
aeai? ??/ieo ca?o?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iaeanoae,
?aeii?a ? ie?aieo ainiiaea?noa, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a, e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea oiui.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/iith ?
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? ae?aeaeoe/ia eia?ea,
iieiaeaiiy iaoa??ae?noe/iiai ?icoi?iiy ?noi??? oa nenoaiiee ?
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi
??cieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie, a oaeiae iaoeia? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea. O ?iaio?
oe?iei aeei?enoaia niaoe?aeueia aeaiia?ao?/ia, aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia
e?oa?aoo?a, a oaeiae Caeiie Oe?a?ie ? Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie uiaei ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno oa nioe?aeueii? noa?e
naea. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? oae? caaaeueiiiaoeia? i?eeiie ? iaoiaee, ye
aiae?c ? neioac, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ocaaaeueiaiiy, ii??aiaiiy,
iiaeaethaaiiy. sse ?ino?oiaio i?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaii? iaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaoaaeenue iaoiaee a?oioaaiue, iiiia?ao?/iee,
aenia?aiaioaeueiee oa a?ao?/iee niiniae aiae?co noaoenoe/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy
no/aniiai noaio ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea
?ic?iaeaii aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. ?iaioa ioiieth? ?yae iiaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ?
iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

· ooi/iaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? oa ci?noo eaoaai??e «aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea», «nioe?aeueia
noa?a naea»;

· ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieiae/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea a ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

· aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ia nae? oa oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

· oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei
?icaeoeii naea a oiiaao aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e naea;

· aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e;

· ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ioe?iee ??aiy ?icaeoeo ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e
c o?aooaaiiyi aecia/aiiyi ?ioaa?aeueiiai (eiiieaeniiai) iieacieea ;

· ioe?iea oaiaeaioe?e oa i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee ?icaeoeo ? o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace n?euenueei? nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?;

· ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a oaeinei
iaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea ? ?ai?aai?caoe?? ?? i?aei?e?inoa
ia ia?niaeoeao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee i?iaaaeaii aia?oa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e
naea oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Cai?iiiiiaaia eiiieaenia ioe?iea ??aiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia a ia??iae ia?aaeieaiiaiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea ia ??cieo ??aiyo
oi?aae?iiy. ?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiaaia ia eiiieaenia ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ?
aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea: cie?aia, iie?auaiiy
a?aeoai?aiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa aoaeoeaio ae?th aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy n?euenueei?
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aiooaaeeny
? ia?aaeaaaeeny aee?aeoeaiei oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aaiai
Oe?a?ie aeiiia?aei? caienee, aiae?oe/i? iaeyaee, i?iiiceoe?? oiui. Aei
iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo c ieo ne?ae a?aeianoe: Ieai aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
Nieaeuenueeiai ?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano? ia 1986-1990 ??.(1986 ?.);
i?iiiceoe?? ii ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea ia OO
i’yoe??/eo ? ia a?eueo a?aeaeaeaio ia?niaeoeao (1987 ?.); Eiiieaeniee
ieai aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa Noaaeuainueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? ia 1986-1990 ??.;
aeiiia?aeia caienea «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae noaa?e?caoe??
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy»
(1989 ?.); aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c «Noai ? iniiai? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo niaoe?ae?caoe??, eiiia?aoe?? oa ?ioaa?aoe?? a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? ?anioae?ee» (1990 ?.); aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c «I?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e A?iieoeueei?
iaeano?» (1990 ?.); aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c «Nioe?aeuei? oa aeiiii?/i?
oaeoi?e i?a?aoe?eiiai a?aeieeao n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai
iieiae?, i?iiiceoe?? ii noai?aiith ?i iaiao?aeieo oiia i?aoe? oa
iiaooo ia ae?iaieoeoa?, cae??ieaiith a ainiiaea?noaao» (1990 ?.);
i?iiiceoe?? i?i aaeineiiaeaiiy eiiiainaoe?eieo aeieao ia nioe?aeueia
ia?aaeaoooaaiiy naea i?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ? i?aai?caoe?yie ca
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea (1990 ?.); aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c
«?icaeoie n?euenueei? eiioiaeueii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie» (1992 ?.);
aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c «Aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea» (1992 ?.); ?icae?e «O?oaeia? ?ano?ne ?
nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie naea») a aeiiia?ae?-aiae?c? «N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie o 1992 ?.» (1992 ?.); aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c «?icaeoie
neoaeae iiaooo ia nae?» (1994 ?.); ?icae?e «Nioe?aeueiee noai naea» a
aeiiia?ae?-aiae?c? «?eiie i?iaeiaieuenoaa, ?io?ano?oeoo?a ? iaoai?ci
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei» (1994 ?.); aeiiia?aeia caienea »I?i noai
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea», 1998 ?.

Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaeiiin?ai?e ?
eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo, ie?aieo ?icae?eao ? i?ae?icae?eao eiea,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, ii?iaoeaii-aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, cie?aia, iniaenoi ?
o ni?aaaoi?noa? i?aeaioiaeaii:

· Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee ii i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith ?
nioe?aeueiith noa?ith ia iniia? ?icoe?aiiy i?aa naiioi?aae?iiy oa
naiio?iainoaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? n?euenueei? (naeeuii?) ?aaee ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a, 1990 ?.;

· Iaoeiai-aiae?oe/ia ?ic?iaea «Nioe?aeueia noa?a naea», 1992?.;
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo naea a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, 1993 ?.;

· Iaoeiaa noaoenoeei-aiae?oe/ia ?ic?iaea «Aeiiii?/iee ? nioe?aeueiee
noai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a Oe?a?ie», 1997?.;

· Iaoeiai-aiae?oe/ia aeaeaiiy «Aa?ii?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai: noai ?
oaiaeaioe?? (1990-1997)», ?icae?e 1O, 1997 ?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
noa?e naea a Oe?a?i?, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ia?niaeoea?. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa i?iaeai aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?aaoethaaiiy ?? ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia, ?ic?iaeai?
eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e ia ia?niaeoeao,
ii?aoeueiaaii iaoai?ci ?ai?aai?caoe?? ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? o ca?oao a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo naea ?
AIE Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a »?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ii
nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo naea a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei».
Aaoi? a?aa oaeiae o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i
i??i?eoaoi?noue nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea oa aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie», a ?iaio? oaeeo
i?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e c ieoaiue nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea: Ee?a? (1977 ?.,
1982 ?., 1983 ?., 1984 ?., 1989 ?., 1991 ?., 1993 ?.), Iieoaa? (1979
?.), Oiaeueieoeueeo (1980 ?.), Iae?oc? (1982 ?.), Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo
(1982 ?., 1993 ?.), Oaee?ii? (1984 ?.), Aeia-Ao? (1985 ?.), Oaeai?iae?
(1987 ?.), Iiainea??nueeo (1990 ?.), *aeya?inueeo (1990 ?.), Oiai? (1992
?.), Eueaia? (1993 ?.), Aeiiaoeueeo (1993 ?.), Aaoeiaoii? (1997 ?.).
E??i oiai ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
aaaaoueio nai?ia?ao oa ia?aaeao.

Ia aeooaeuei? ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi? ia? caeeth/aiiy ? a?aeaoee I?i?noa?noaa
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, ie?aieo iaeanieo, ?aeiiieo
aa?ii?iieneiaeo ia’?aeiaiue, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?aeoe/io
cia/ei?noue i?iaaaeaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ioae?eaoe?? c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ii oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 131 iaoeiao i?aoeth caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 128
ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue 75,3 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eooa. ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ioae?eaoe?e — iaeiiin?aia iiiia?ao?y
(11,5 ae?oe.a?e.); 7 eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e (?icae?ee ? i?ae?icae?ee);
12 a?ioo?; 3 ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e; 41 noaooy a aeo?iaeao ? iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao
oiui.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. ?? ianya noaiiaeoue 385 noi??iie
eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 79 oaaeeoeue, 34 ?enoiee. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 265 iaeiaioaaiue.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe :

ANOOI.

?icae?e 1. OAI?AOE*I? OA IAOIAeIEIA?*I? INIIAE AEIIII?*IIAI
IAOAI?CIO ?AAOETHAAIIss NIOe?AEUeII? NOA?E NAEA. 1.1.Iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy ??
?icaeoeo. 1.2.Ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e. 1.3.Iniaeeaino? iaoiaeieia?? ?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy. 1.4.Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ??aiy ?icaeoeo iniiaieo
ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea.

?icae?e 2. AIAE?C NOAIO A?AeOAI?AIIss N?EUeNUeEIAI IANAEAIIss.
2.1.Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y ia nae?. 2.2.?icnaeaiiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy. 2.3.Iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a.

?icae?e 3. IOe?IEA ??AIss ?ICAEOEO INIIAIEO AAEOCAE N?EUeNUeEI?
NIOe?AEUeII? ?IO?ANO?OEOO?E. 3.1.Aaeoc? nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy. 3.2.Aaeoc? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

?icae?e 4. EIIOeAIOOAEUeI? INIIAE ? IAI?ssIE OAeINEIIAEAIIss
AEIIII?*IIAI IAOAI?CIO OI?AAE?IIss ?ICAEOEII OA OOIEOe?IIOAAIIssI
NIOe?AEUeII? NOA?E NAEA. 4.1.I??i?eoaoi? iai?yie ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
noa?e. 4.2.?aoi?ioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a
nioe?aeuei?e noa?? naea a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
4.3.Iaoai?ci ?ai?aai?caoe?? ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. 4.4.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii
naea. 4.5.I?iaiic ?icaeoeo ? o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea.

AENIIAEE. NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE. AeIAeAOEE.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — »Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea» — ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy
oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy
?? ?icaeoeo, iniaeeaino? iaoiaeieia?? oa iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue,
ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
noa?e.

A iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaeaiai nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea
iaaea?oueny aaaaoi oaaae, iniaeeai a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ia no/aniiio aoai? c?inoa?
iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea oa eiai neeaaeiaeo — aeiiii?/ieo,
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei, ye?
iaoiiaeththoue a oe?eiio a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
noa?e naea.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? — iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea. A aaaaoueio ?aa?iiao e?a?ie aiia
noaea aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii ae??oaiiy oaeeo aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue, ye
iie?ioaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, i?aeaeuaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai
aeia?iaooo naeyi oiui.

Nioe?aeueia noa?a naea ? neeaaeiaith aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee, yea
a?aeia?aaea? iaaia eiei niaoeeo?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaaeathoue ?aeeio
nenoaio. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea ye aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai??? ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?ioeanao, ui caaacia/othoue
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie o noni?euenoa?. Oiiaii ?? iiaeia iiae?eeoe
ia /ioe?e aeiee: n?euenueea ianaeaiiy, iinaeainueea ia?aaea,
iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo ? nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

Aeo?aeieie iiceoe?yie oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue aooe:

· ae?aeaeoe/ia ?aei?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue yaeu ? eiai ioi/aiiy. Nooue
oeueiai yaeua iieyaa? a oiio, ui nioe?aeueia noa?a naea ?icaeyaea?oueny
ye neeaaeiaa nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, o aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie
aeaeaie a?aeiinei, iine?aeiaiiio ? aeeiai?/iiio ?o ?icaeoeo,
o?aooaaiiyi ??ciia?/iiai aieeao ??cieo a?oi oaeoi??a naieo a?aeiinei, a
oaeiae yaeu ? i?ioean?a, ui ?o ioi/othoue;

· ?aeaieia?/ia i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue ?ioa?anai naeyieia (ethaeeie)
ye noa’?eoa a?aeiinei. Ii noo? aoaeue yea aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?
i?iaiaeeoeny a ?ioa?anao ethaeeie, aeey caaeiaieaiiy ?? iio?aa;

· a?aooaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie, ye? i?yii /e
iiina?aaeeiaaii noinothoueny aea/aiiy aeaieo yaeu.

I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a ? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii? noa?e
naea oa iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ??
?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaii? iaoiiaeee eia?/io noaio ? iine?aeiai?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?yaeie ?icaeyaeo ie?aieo ieoaiue,
no?oeoo?io iiaoaeiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Oi?ioaaiiy ia nae? no/anii? aeniei?icaeiaii? nioe?aeueii? noa?e, yea
ni?iiiaeia iaeneiaeueii caaeiaieueieoe ianaeaiiy a ??ciiiai?oieo
iineoaao, iie?ioeoe oiiae i?aoe? oa i?iaeeaaiiy naeyi ?icaeyaeaeeny a
aeena?oaoe?? ye no?aoaa?/iee iai?yi ?? ?icaeoeo. A ?iaio? canoiniaaii
a?oioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ii ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ieo
?aa?iiao, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino?, ye? ?noi?e/ii,
aeiiii?/ii, aeaiia?ao?/ii e eoeueoo?ieia?/ii neeaaeaeeny a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie (Aaee/eia, Aieeiue, Caea?iaooy, Aoeiaeia, Iiae?eey,
Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, I?eaei?i?ia’y, Neiaiaeaiueia, Aeiiaan, I?e/i?iiii?’y ?
E?ei).

Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii aeiiii?ee ooieoe?iioth/eo
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, iiaeeeainoae
aeae?eaiiy ieie iaiao?aeieo eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ? iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a a nioe?aeueio ?io?ano?oeoo?o. Oea aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue
aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo ieoaiue ?icaeoeo i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy n?euenueei? nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
?ic?iaee aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
noa?e naea.

Iiiyooy »aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e
naea», ie ?icaeyaea?ii, ye eiiieaenio nenoaio niaoeeo?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a ? aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e
(aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua, oa?eoi??aeueia ?ici?uaiiy, ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i?
oa aoi?/i? ?aa?iie, aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y, o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae oa
?icnaeaiiy n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a, ?o iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo, aa?o?noue
iaaeaieo iineoa ianaeaiith, oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie, oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?) oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
(aaeoc?, i?aeaaeoc?, ia’?eoe nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaiai i?ecia/aiiy oa
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy) yea iaoiiaeth? a oe?eiio
a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea.

No/ania nenoaia aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueiei
?icaeoeii naea aeeth/a? aeiiii?/i?, i?aai?caoe?ei? oa i?aaia? aaaeae?.
E??i oiai aiia iio?aao? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy eiaeiiai c aaaeae?a,
aeciath/e i?e oeueiio eiai ?ieue ? i?noea a aeiiii?/i?e no?aoaa??, yea a
caaacia/eea aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia iiaeieaiith
e?eciaeo yaeu o nioe?aeuei?e noa?? naea.

?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? noa?e, a?eueo iiaia caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo iio?aa
ethaeeie caeaaeeoue a?ae ?? iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo, yeee a naith
/a?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. A
i?ioean? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee ia o?eueee iaea?aeo?
ca?ia?oio ieaoo ca naith i?aoeth, a e aa?a o/anoue o oi?ioaaii?
aeaniino? (eai?oaeo), i?eaooeo oa oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii. Noai?ai? a
aaeocyo iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??aeuei? oa o?iainia? ?ano?ne a
iiaiiio ianyc? iiaeii? iai?aaeyoenue oaeiae ia oo?eiaiiy ? ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea. ? /ei aoaeoeai?oa ni?aoeueiao?
ae?iaieoeoai oei a?eueoa a?ae?aooaaiue iinooia? a athaeaeao
(aea?aeaaiee, i?noeaaee), a oiio /ene? ia ?icaeoie ? aoae?aieoeoai
ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e.

O caaaeueiiio iaoai?ci? aca?iiae?? ae?iaie/i? oa iaae?iaie/i? noa?
aaeocae aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? iioeiaeuei?noue
?iciiae?eo iaoa??aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae ?o
ia?a?iciiae?e o ?icaeoie oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
Ca?aene ?acoeueoaoeai?noue iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa caeaaeeoue ia
o?eueee a?ae eiai i?aai?caoe??, aea e a?ae oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii oa?eoi???. Iioeiaeueiee
aa??aio ?icaeoeo ia?aae? nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e /a?ac cai?ioiee
ca’ycie aieeaa? ia nooi?iue ?aae?caoe?? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?aa?iio
(?aeiio). Naia oaeee ?icaeyae aca?iiae?? nenoai aea? i?aenoaao
cina?aaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oaeineiiaeaii? iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie, ye /eiieea iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
(?en.1).

Aeey eiiieaeniiai aecia/aiiy no/aniiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, a oaeiae i?e i?iaiicoaaii? ia ??cieo i?e?i- ?
iae?i??aiyo aaoi? i?iiiio? ia/eneaiiy ?ioaa?aeueiiai eiao?oe??ioa.

?nioth/a nenoaia iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ia?
aeaye? iniaeeaino?, aiie a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, ?o ia
iiaeia ni?anoaaeyoe i?ae niaith, Iai?eeeaae, aeeoei aei??y?oueny
eaaae?aoieie iao?aie; aeioe?euei? aeeoy/? caeeaaee – i?noeyie a naaeeao
oa yneao; caaaeue-iiina?oi? oeiee – o/i?anueeeie i?noeyie; oi?a?aey –
eaaae?aoieie iao?aie oi?aiaaeueii? ieiu?; a?iiaaenueea oa?/oaaiiy –
iinaaei/ieie i?noeyie; e?ea?i? – e?aeei-i?noeyie; iie?ee?i?/i? caeeaaee
– a?aea?aeoaaiiyie a ci?io oiui. Oiio iaoiaee/ia iniiaa
?ic?aooie?a iieyaa? o

aeei?enoaii? ocaaaeueiaiiai e?eoa??th – iaoiaeo caaaeaii? noie. Aeey
i?eaaaeaiiy ie?aieo e?eoa???a aei ?aeeii? ?ici??iino? /anoi
aeei?enoiaothoue ii?iaoeai? ?o cia/aiiy:

N =a W? ??o / ??N
( 1 )

aea: N — ei?enoue ocaaaeueiaiiai e?eoa??th;

W? — aaaa (aaaeeea?noue) ?-ai e?eoa??th;

??o ,??N — a?aeiia?aeii oaeoe/ia ? ii?iaoeaia cia/aiiy ie?aiiai

e?eoa??th.

I?ney ia?aoai?aiiy ie?aieo iaoo?aeueieo iieaciee?a a ocaaaeueiaiee
iieaciee caaea?oueny ye na?aaei? aaiiao?e/ia ie?aieo iieaciee?a. sseui
oi/a a iaeei c ieo ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiia, oi yeeie a ia aoee aaeeeeie
?io?, ocaaaeueiaiee iieaciee aoaea iaaenieei.

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???2A1/4???=?O? ???2Al?????O? ???2AU ?????O? ???2A?????O?
???2AW?????O????uath??????1/4????? Antiqua?oM???-??????
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-?????????????

Iaoaiaoe/i? ?ic?aooiee, c?iaeai? ca oi?ioeith (1) aeicaieeee io?eiaoe
aac?ici??i? iieacieee, ye? o?eueee a oaeiio aeaeyae? iiaeia ni?anoaaeyoe
i?ae niaith oa aeaaaoe ii??aiyeueio aai ocaaaeueiaio ioe?ieo ??aiy
?icaeoeo ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea. A iaoiio aeiaaeeo
eiiieaeniee iieaciee ?icaeoeo iniiaieo ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea
a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? noaiiaea 43,3 a?aenioea. A oie aea /an na?aae
?aa?ii?a aenieee ??aaiue iaaaaeaiiai iieacieea niinoa??aa?oueny ia
Aieei? (40,4 %), Aaee/ei? ? Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? (40,1 %), iecueeee — ia
Aeiiaan? oa E?eio, a?aeiia?aeii 31,2 ? 28,9 a?aenioe?a (?en. 2).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – »Aiae?c noaio a?aeoai?aiiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy» — i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? eiai neeaaeia?:
aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane ia nae?, ?icnaeaiiy, iaoa??aeueiee
aeia?iaoo n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c iiaeeaeaiiyi e?eciaeo
yaeu caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
caaino?th?oueny aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y. Oae, ia ii/aoie 1998 ?. ia nae?
iaoeaei 16,3 iei. /ie., aai 32,2% anueiai ianaeaiiy aea?aeaae. I?ioyaii
1970-1997 ??.

/enaeuei?noue n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a ciaioeeanue ia 5,1 iei. /ie.
Nei?i/aiiy

noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iecueeei ??aiai ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, aenieith
nia?oi?noth oa ?ioaineaiei noa??iiyi n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Iei? o
eiaeiiio /aoaa?oiio nae? ia ia?iaeaeothoueny ae?oe, a eiaeiiio aeanyoiio
iaia? ae?oae a?eii aei 5 ?ie?a, a a eiaeiiio aeaaiaaeoeyoiio –
iieiae? (16-29 ?ie?a).A

?en.2. ??aaiue ?icaeoeo iniiaieo ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii?

noa?e naea, a?aenioe?a

?ic?aooieo ia aea? n?euenuee? n?i’? i?eiaaea? eeoa iaeia aeeoeia a?eii
aei 16 ?ie?a. Iiiaae 120 n?euenueeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a
a?aeianai? aei ciie aeaiia?ao?/ii? oa iinaeainueei? e?ece. Iaeii/anii
ia nae? a?aeaoaa?oueny caoaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? aace. sseui o 1970 ?. a
?ic?aooieo ia 100 /ie. i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo i?eiaaeaei 45 iain?iia??a,
oi o 1997 ?. a?aeiia?aeii 60 /ie. iioeeiai a?eo (oaae.1).

Ca 1970-1998 ??. na?aaei?e a?e n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?aeaeueany ia
14,1% ? o 1997 ?. noaiiaea 39,7 ?ie?a, a oiio /ene? o /ieia?e?a –36,1
oa o ae?iie – 42,8 ?ie?a, a a ii??aiyii? c i?nueeei ianaeaiiyi — iaeaea
ia 5 ?ie?a aeuee. Iaea??oei oeae iieaciee ? a *a?i?a?anuee?e,
Oiaeueieoeuee?e, *a?eanuee?e, Noinuee?e oa A?iieoeuee?e iaeanoyo, aea
na?aaei?e a?e n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy aei??aith? 43-47 ?iee.

I?e?iaeia nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?,
iia??oaiiy eiai noaoaai-a?eiai? no?oeoo?e, i?a?aoe?eiee ?oo ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia no?oeoo?o n?euenueei? iinaeainueei? ia?aae?. sse
iane?aeie, aaeee? naea ia?aoai?ththoueny a na?aaei?, na?aaei? – a
iaaaeee?, iaaaeee? – a ae??ai?.

C nioe?aeueii? oi/ee ci?o n?euenuee? ianaeai? ioieoe ? na?aaeiaeuai
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo. Ia ii/aoie 1998 ?. a
e?a?i? iae?/oaaeinue 28,8 oen. iae. n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a.
Na?aaei?e ?ici?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo ca 1970-1997 ??.
ciaioeany c 684 aei 569 /ie., aai ia 17,1%.

AEeoae? a?eueoino? n?e (57%) caeiyo? ia?aaaaeii a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, 12,3% — i?aoeththoue ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao, 2,6% — o aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo, 3,4% —
ia o?ainii?o? oa ca’yceo ? 19,1% — a aaeocyo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? caeiyoiai n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy 26,5% i?aoeththoue ca iaaeaie naiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo.

A n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ia oa?eoi??? 10,9 oen. ianaeaieo ioieo?a
(38,1%) ?icoaoiaai? naiino?ei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa,
16,8 oen. n?e (58,7%) – ie?ai? aa?a?i? ae?iaie/? i?ae?icae?ee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, 8,2 oen. n?e (28,7%) –
i?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa, eiiia?aoeae, i?aeniai? i?aei?e?inoaa oa
i?iienee, 1,1 n?e (3,8%) – i?aei?e?inoaa o?ainii?oo, 966 n?e (3,5%) –
aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe??.

Iaeia ?c nooo?aeo i?e/ei ca?eueoaiiy iaeeo n?e — a?aenooi?noue
ae?iaie/eo i?ae?icae?e?a, ui cia/ii caoaeo? noa?o i?eeeaaeaiiy
i?aoe?

aeeoae?a oeeo n?e ? ? ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai iieiae?, a ?io? ianaeai? ioieoe. Oae, ca aeaieie
nooe?eueiiai ianoaaeaiiy ia 1 n?/iy 1996 ?. o 7058 n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo
ioieoao (24,7%) ia ?icoaoiaaii i?yeeo ae?iaie/i-oi?aae?inueeeo
i?ae?icae?e?a oa

Oaaeeoey 1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa

iinaeainueei? ia?aae?

Iieacieee1970 ?.1990 ?.1997 ?.*enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy,
iei./ie.21,116,916,3

No?oeoo?a ianaeaiiy ca a?eii,

a?aenioe?a:

iieiaeoa i?aoeacaeaoiiai

i?aoeacaeaoia

noa?oa i?aoeacaeaoiiai

28,3

49,4

22,3

22,2

49,2

28,6

21,6

49,1

29,3Ia 1000 /ie. i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo i?eiaaea? in?a:
iai?aoeacaeaoieo102210341041 a o./. noa?oa i?aoeacaeaoiiai
a?eo451583597Na?aaei?e a?e ianaeaiiy, ?ie?a34,839,839,7 a oiio /ene?:

/ieia?e?a31,335,936,1 ae?iie

37,243,042,8Na?aaei?e ?ici?? n?i’?, /ie.3,63,43,2Eiao?oe??ioe
i?e?iaeiiai a?aeoai-?aiiy ianaeaiiy (a ?ic?aooieo ia1000 /ie.):
ia?iaeaeaieo14,512,710,3 iiia?eeo10,516,119,0 i?e?iaeia
nei?i/aiiy (i?e??no) +4,0-3,4-8,7 oetha?a8,47,96,2
?iceo/aiue0,81,61,9

E?euee?noue n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, oen.iae.

31,7

28,6

28,8*enei aeeoae?a ia iaeei n?euenueeee

ianaeaiee ioieo, /ie.

684

591

569ia’?eo?a. Oea ianaiia?aae naea c ethaei?noth aei 200 /ie. (75,5%).

N?euenueea iinaeainueea ia?aaea ia? o?e iniiai? oi?ie ?icnaeaiiy:
ae??aii-, na?aaeiuei- ? e?oiiinaeainueeo. Aei ae??aiinaeainueei? nenoaie
?icnaeaiiy oa?eoee ?aa?iie (iaeano?) c aaeeeith /anoeith iaeeo n?e c
/enaeuei?noth aeeoae?a aei 200 /ieia?e. A?eueo?noue iaeeo n?e
cina?aaeaeaia a oaeeo ?aa?iiao, ye Neiaiaeaiueia (Noinueea iaeanoue –
59% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? n?e, Oa?e?anueea – 53,4% ? Iieoaanueea –
49,3%), I?eaei?i?ia’y (Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iaeanoue – 51,2%) oa
Iaaeaei?i?yiueia (*a?i?a?anueea iaeanoue – 49,5%). A oie aea /an e?oiieo
n?e, c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy iiiaae 1000 /ie., iaea?eueoa ?icoaoiaaii
ia Aoeiaei? (*a?i?aaoeueea iaeanoue – 55%), Caea?iaoo? (Caea?iaonueea
iaeanoue – 49,3%) oa Aaee/ei? (?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaeanoue – 44,4%).

Na?aae /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e
naea aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo naeyi. A eiai iniia?
– oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy noeoiiiai aeioiaeo n?i’?, niiaeeaaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeiaieue/eo ? iai?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a,
caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy iineoaaie oiui.

A inoaii? ?iee ci?ieeanue no?oeoo?a aeioiae?a n?euenueeeo n?iae. ??cei
i?aeaeueeenue aeioiaee a?ae ?o iniaenoiai i?aeniaiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
aeioiaee c ?ioeo aeaea?ae. A oie aea /an nei?ioeeeny o?oaeia? aeioiaee
oa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae noni?eueieo oiiae?a niiaeeaaiiy. sseui a 1990 ?.
iieaoa i?aoe? a eieaini? oa ca?ia?oia ieaoa /eai?a n?i’? caeiaea a
noeoiiiio aeioiae? 59,4%, oi o 1997 ?. o?oaeia? aeioiaee n?iae, ye?
i?iaeeaathoue o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, aei??aithaaee 23,2%;
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae iniaenoiai i?aeniaiiai ainiiaea?noaa – a?aeiia?aeii
28,8 ? 52,7%. *anoea aeo?ao ia iaeiie/aiiy ciaioeeanue ca aeacaiee
ia??iae c 21,4% aei i?ion 0,1% (?en.3).

Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeioiae?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? iniaeno?
i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa (IIA). Aiie iathoue aaeeea
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee ainiiaea?noai naeyieia
caaaeaee aaaaeaeinue iaeaaaeeea?oith neeaaeiaith niiniao eiai aeeooy ?
oi?ioaaiiy n?iaeiiai athaeaeaoo. A oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ?ieue oeeo
ainiiaea?noa cia/ii i?aeaeueeanue.

Ia ii/aoie 1998 ?. ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy iaee i?enaaeeai? ae?eyiee
caaaeueiith ieiuath 4020 oen.aa, a ieo aoei 3743 oen.aie. aaeeei?

?iaaoi? ooaeiae, c ieo 2817 ei??a, 5699 oen. naeiae, 1492 oen. iaaoeue
oa e?c, 95 iei.aie?a ioeoe? on?o aeae?a. O no?oeoo?? ae?iaieoeoaa ieoiia
aaaa ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe?? a IIA ianaeaiiy a caaaeueiiio ?? ianyc? a
1997 ?. noaiiaeea 55,6% i?ioe 29,4% o 1990 ?., a ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa
ca?eueoeeeny i?ioe 1990 ?. ia 7 %.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo aeaea?ae noeoiieo aeioiae?a n?euenueeeo
aeeoae?a ?

????»?~?1/4??3/4??????A?Oi?ioaaiiy noeoiiiai aeioiaeo

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