1

IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA TH?EAeE*IA

AEAAeAI?ss

Aeanaiei Aeieo?i Eineiiae/

OAeE 321.6

Nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue ?aeaae?ciaaieo

iiaeaeae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?

nenoaie.

23.00.02 — Iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa

i?ioeane

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ii?nueeiio oi?aa?neoao?,
eaoaae?a o?einio??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?ieo Ieaen?e
Ieoaeeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith o?einio??

Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ii?nueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? ?aae?i Ieaen?e A?eaae?eiae/,
caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?einio?? Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai??.

Eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio ?iae?iiia ?oei sseiae/, eaoaae?a
o?einio?? oa iaoiaeieia?? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoie/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa :

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a iie?oieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 aeiaoiy 1998 ?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.09. i?e
Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? (270009, i.Iaeana, aoe.
I?iia?nueea, 2).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? (270009, i. Iaeana, aoe I?iia?nueea,
2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 aa?aniy

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ___________________ Nooei A.?.

(i?aeien)

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia aoaea
ia?aaieueoaiiyi oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aaeee? ciiie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny
ia iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi?i, o o?e aai iioee i??? aieeaathoue ia aeiei
i?aeoe/ii anio aeeoae?a Caie?. Caiaene oeieeii c?icoi?eee iioa?an aei
ia?aaeinoi?i? nenoaiieo o?ainoi?iaoeie ia oa?eoi?i? eieeoiueiai
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, iioa?an aei i?e/ei ieiioiueiai e?eciaiai noaio
noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa oa ia?niaeoeaai ?o nioe?aeueiiai iiiaeaiiy.

Aino?a iio?aaa e?eciaiai noniieuenoaa a naiiiiciaiii i/aaeaeia. Iaeiae
iaaaaaoi iaio i/aaeaeieie oyaeythoueny oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy oei?? iaoe.
Oae, iai?eeeaae, iaeaieueo caaaeueiii?eeiyoa i?aeoeea aiaeico
nioeiaeueieo i?ioeania iiaea aooe cia?aaeaia o aeaeyaei neiaeoth/i?
noaie. Ca anooiiith i?aaiaoeith, ui ie?aneth? eiei aeineiaeaeaiiy,
aeeeaaea?oueny aiii?e/iee iaoa?iae, ui iieaco? aeeaeio aeiiii?/ii? oa
iieioe/ii? e?ece. Iiney iieaco i?e/ei oa ianeiaeeia e?ece, ui ia aeoieo
cia/iiai eiea aaoi??a ? ?acoeueoaoii iani?iiiaeiinoi eo?na ioeoeieiiai
ea?iaieoeoaa, eaea i?iiiceoeiy eiiieaena aioee?eciaeo caoiaeia. I?e
oeueiio, a yeinoi iaeiiai c aeniiaeia, iayaii, aea oeieeii iaeiicia/ii
oi?ioeth?oueny nai??iaeia aeeeaia: aai i?eeiyooy noniieuenoaii ?o
iiaeaei ?icaeoeo aeiiiiiee ( ui caaacia/o? caaaeueia i?ioeaioaiiy),
aai ?aii?oaaiiy oeeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie i, ye ianeiaeie, — iac/eneaiii eeoa.

Aacnoiiiaii, aieueoinoue aeaiaioia oei?? noaie (iai?eeeaae, aiae?c
aii??e/iiai iaoa?iaeo, i?iiiceoe?y iiaeae? ?aoi?i, yea iaa?oioiao?oueny
oeei aiae?cii) ia iiaeooue aooe aioeueiaaii a ?iaioi, ui i?aoaiaeo? ia
iaoeiainoue. Iaeiae aeaiia noaia nioeiaeueiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ia? i nai?
iaaeieiee.

Aieiaiee c ieo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iieyaa? o oiio, ui i?e oeueiio oei?
oai?aoecoaaiiy ?ica?aeiino? a oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ?aaeyinueeiai oa
iino?aaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa iaaecae/aeii aaeee?. I?aeoe/ii eiaeiee
aaoi? aiineoue uinue nai?, iiaa, o ?icoiiiiy i?e/ei, ianeiaee?a oa
ia?niaeoea aeoiaeo c e?eciaiai noaio. Aacoiiaii, a noia?a/oei
ia?iaeaeo?oueny inoeia, i /a?ac oea iiaeiaiee ieth?ae?ci aeoiie iiaeeeai
aoei a oieueee aioaoe. Iaeiae neooaoeiy, ui neeaeanue ye a aeiiii?oei,
oae a iieioeoei, oae i a aeooiai?e noa?i, ia aea? aii iaeiaioi?
iiaenoaae ciaoiaeeoe iiceoeaio caeaaeiinoue iiae iaaieiiei c?inoaiiyi
eieueeinoi aioee?eciaeo eiioeaioeie oa ?aaeueiei aeoiaeii noniieuenoaa c
aacaeoiaeia ?icaeoeo.

Oaeei /eiii, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? i?ciaiiy
iaei??? c iaea?eueoeo a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie e?ece iio??aai ia no?euee? ua
iaeei, 1001 aai ae 1002 aa??aio iiyniaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, ia no?euee? ua iaeia
iiaeaeue aioee?eciaeo ae?e, ne?eueee iiyniaiiy oiai, /iio oeeo
iiaeaeae oae aaaaoi, /ei aiie a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii?, yeeie
iiaeooue aooe e?eoa??? ?o ioe?iee oa aeai?o na?aae ieo iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueieo. Aaoi? aaaea?, ui o?eueee i?ney oe??? “i?aeaioia/i?” ?iaioe
aoei a ei?aeoiei aeine?aeaeaiiy naii? ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?
oaaenoiaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoe/iiai ieaio. Iaeiae iaeii/ania
ii?iaiyiiy oiai, ye ?icii iiaeae? iiyniththoue oaeo aaeeeo i?iaeaiaoeeo,
? aeineoue oyaeeei. Ioaea, ei?aeoiinoue ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iiaea aooe caaacia/aia o?eueee i?e
eiie?aoecaoe?? oiai c??co ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?, eio?ee
iieno?oueny o??th /e ?ioith iiaeaeeth noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

A aeai?e ?iaioi iiaeiaia eiie?aoecaoeiy a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac aea/aiiy
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy e?ece ia iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi?i. A
o?iiieia?/iiio ieaii oeae ia?iiae ioiieth? /an inioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie.

Caa?oaiiy aei aeinaiaeo aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
aeooaeueii i ii iioei i?e/eiai. E?eciaa noniieuenoai i?aae’yaey?
iniaeeai aeiiae aei aoaeoeaiinoi oi?aaeiinueei? aeiyeueiinoi, iacaeaaeii
aiae oiai, /e oi ? aea?aeaaia neoaeaa, /e oi i?aoey o aaeeeie
ei?ii?aoei?. Aiaeic i?iaeai, c yeeie noeeathoueny oi?aaeiioei anio
?iai?a, iiaeeeaee ia iiaenoaai aeineiaeaeaiiy aaaaoueio noniieueieo
iinoeoooia, aea oieueee a oiiaao aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oei
i?iaeaie aeyaeythoue naaa o iaeaieueo /enoiio, caaino?aiiio aeaeyaei.

O eiioaenoi iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiinoi oaie ia iiaeia ia aiaecia/eoe ua
iaeio iniaeeainoue oeueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. ?aaeueii inioth/ee
aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oa ni?iae noai?aiiy iaeaaeiciaaieo iiaeaeae,
iiynithth/eo oeae iaoaiici, ia’?eoeaia ?aaeuei?noue oa ?? a?aeia?aaeaiiy
a na?aeiiino? noa’?eoa ? ??cieie aniaeoaie aoooy. Iaeiae, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, c oeueiai oaa?aeaeaiiy cian?i ia aeo?ea?, ui oaea ae
iaoioiaei?noue ?nio? iii?ae iaoiaeieia?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo
oaiiiai?a. Ae?enii, aoaeue-yea aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeueii ?nioth/i?
iiaeae? aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?icii/aoa c /enoi i?aeoe/ieie oe?eyie,
iaiiaeeeaa aac iaaii? naii?aoeaen?? noa’aeoa i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
ii-yniaiiy /iio i?ioean eiai i?ciaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?aieao naia
o???, a ia ?ioi? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae?. Eia?ea ae iiae?aiiai iiyniaiiy
? i?/ei ?ioei, ye iaoiaeieia??th ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ??cieo
i?aeoiae?a aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ia’?eoa, iaoiaeieia??th a?eueo aeuiai,
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai ??aiy.

C ?ioiai aieo, ?icaeyaeath/e ??ci? ?aeaae?ciaai? iiaeae?, ui
iienothoue oie naiee ia’?eo, cae?enithth/e ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo
iaoiaeieia?e, noa’?eo i?aeaea? aiae?co ia o?eueee ?aeaae?ci-aai?
iiaeae? ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?, aea e ?icaeyaea?, ye ae o ??cieo
?aeo?nao, nooo?a? ca’ycee, yeino? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naiiai ia’?eoa.
Aea ca?aene aeoiaeeoue, ui i?e ii??aiyii? ??cieo ?aeaae?ciaaieo
iiaeaeae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie o oieon? oaaae noa’?eoa
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? iaieio/a aeyaey?oueny ? naia oey Nenoaia,
ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino?, i?e/ei cieeiaiiy ? iane?aee?a ?? iaioaaiiy,
ia?niaeoeae iiaeieaiiy e?ece. Oaeei /eiii, iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy
??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy ia’?eoa aeiionea? ? iaa?oue i?eionea?
ia?ao?ae a?ae ??oaiiy caaea/ aeiyoeiai oai?aoe/iiai ieaio aei
cai?iiiioaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoith aeineiaeaeaiiy ? iiooe iaeaieueo aaeaeaaoii? aei
?noi?e/ieo ?aae?e iiaeae? aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aaeiiiy
noniieuenoaii. Aeaiee iiooe ia ? naiioeieeth, a i?iaiaeeoueny aeey
iiyniaiiy no/anii? aaiethoei? e?eciaiai noniieuenoaa oa aaoi?nueei?
eiioeaioeii ai?ioueae c iieioe/iei iaoaiiciii aeaoi?iaoei? aeiiii?/ieo
?aoi?i a Oe?a?ii.

?aaeicaoeiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaoiiaeth? iaiaoiaeiinoue iinoaiiaee oa
ae?ioaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaea/:

n aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeaieueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo iaeaae?ciaaieo
iiaeaeae aaeiiiino?a-oeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aaeiiiy;

n ia iiaenoaa? ?ioaiiy iiia?aaeiuei? caaea/? aeineiaeaeai? nooo?ai
ca’ycee, aeanoeainoi oa aiaeiineie naii? aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie;

n i?iaiae?ciaaie i?e/eie, ui iaoiiaeththoue ??cia ?icoi?iiy aoaeoeaiino?
aaei?i?no?aoeaiieiiaiaeieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith;

n aeine?aeaeaii, yeee aa??aio aieeao iie?oeee ia aeiiii?eo a oiiaao
aaei?i?n?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ? iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei;

n a?aeia?aaeai? o?oaeiiui oa oi?iaeueii-eia?/ii noia?a/iino?, c yeeie
noeea?oueny iaeaieueo ?iciianthaeaeaia e?aa?aeueia eiioeaioeiy
?aoi?ioaaiiy noniieuenoaa;

n ia iiaenoaa? ?ioaiiy iiia?aaeiuei? aeineiaeieoeueei? caaea/?
cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoe/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aioee?eciaiai oa?aeoa?o.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia; ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?icii iaeaaeiciaaii iiaeaei, a yeeo
aiaeicothoueny aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oa iino?aaeyinueea
noniieuenoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a a oeieiio iieyaa? o
iaa?oiooaaii? iiaeo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue oa ae?ioaiii aeooaeueieo
i?iaeai, ui ia iaaoee aeinoaoiuei? ?ic?iaee a iieioieia?/i?e eioa?aoo?i.
Eiie?aoii oey iiaecia aeyaey?oueny o oiio, ui:

n io?eiaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeineiaeaeaiiy i?e/ei inioaaiiy
iaoiaeieia?/iiai ieth?ae?cio o nioeiaeueiiio iiciaiii;

n aia?oa i?iaaaeai ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic inioth/eo iaeaaeiciaaieo
iiaeaeae aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie;

n ?iciiai/ii iaa?oioiaai aeai? iioeiaeueieo iaeaaeiciaaieo iiaeaeae
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oa iino?aaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa;

n aia?oa caeieniaia ii?iaiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeaaeiciaaieo iiaeaeae
«eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee» oa «ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio»;

n i?iaiaeiciaaia nooiinoue oi?iaeueii-eia?/ieo noia?a/iinoae
eiaa?aeueii-iaieeane/ii? noaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa;

n iaea?aeaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oa iaa?oiooaaiiy eiiieaen
iao?aaeeoeieieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie uiaei iiaeieaiiy no?oeoo?ii? e?ece a
Oe?a?ii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy aeyaey?oueny o oiio, ui
aeniiaee, yei c?iaeaii o aeena?oaoei?, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
ae?iaeaiii oa ?aaeicaoei? noaaieicaoeieieo i?ia?ai ia
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio oa ?aaiiiaeueieo ?iaiyo, aeey i?aai?caoei?
ia?aaeaeai?/eo eiiiaiie, i?e ?ic?iaoei ie?aieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
noniieuenoaiciaa/eo iaoe (oaeeo, ye aeaea?aea aoaeoeaiinoi
ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo, iioeiaeueiee ia’?i iiaiiaaaeaiue aea?aeaaieo
no?oeoo? a ia?iiae caeieniaiiy aioee?eciaeo i?ia?ai, niiaaiaeiioaiy
ieaiiaeo oa ?eieiaeo iniia o i?aaiicaoei? ae?iaie/i? aeiyeueiinoi), a
oaeiae o i?ioeani aeeeaaeaiiy iieioieiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? oai?i? o aeu?e
oeiei. *anoeia iieiaeaiue, ui aeeeaaeaia o aeena?oaoe?? ia?
aeeneon?eiee oa?aeoa? ? iiaea neoaeeoe aacith aeey iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai?
?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?einio?? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ii?nueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/aii a aeena?oaoeith, iaia?iaeiaai? ia: 1) ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioei? «Iie?oeea oa aeaaea», ui i?ioiaeeea
20-21 eaioiy 1993 ?ieo a i.Caii?iaeae?; 2) ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioei? «E?eciaa noniieuenoai: iieioeea,
nioeiieiaiy, nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy» (Oe?a?ia iaia?aaeiaeii OOI aieo)»,
ui i?ioiaeeea 21-22 eaioiy 1994 ?ieo a i.Caii?iaeae?; 3)
Caaaeueii?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioei? «Iaioaeioao
oa noia?a/iino? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa: iieioieiai/ii,
nioeiieiai/ii, eoeueoo?ieiai/ii aniaeoe», ui i?ioiaeeea 27-28 aeiaoiy
a i.Caii?iaeae?; 4) Iiaeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioei?
«I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee aeiiii?/ieo eaae??a a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo», ui i?ioiaeeea 3-4 /a?aiy 1995 ?ieo a
i.Caii?iaeae?; 5) Oai?aoe/iiio naiiia?i eaoaae?e oieinioi? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ii?nueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo, ui i?ioiaeeea 14 ni/iy 1998 ?ieo
a i.Iaean?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? a o/aiaiio
i?ioeani i?e aeeeaaeaiii eo?nia aeiiii?/ii? oai?i? oa iieioieiai? a
Caii?icueeiio th?eaee/iiio iinoeooo? o 1996 ?ioei.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o aeaio
cai?ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue i o naie oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeie.
Iaeii oace iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeie aoee iiaeaioiaeai? o
ni?aaaoi?noai c i?ioani?ii *a?ieoii I.I. I?e i?aeaioiaoe? oeeo oac
aaoi?ii aoa c?iaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /ano i?eeiyooy aaaeeea?oeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aiaeia?/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? a Oe?a?i? oa o ?in??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia iaoith oa caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
neeaaea?oueny ?c /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia, ye? ia’?aeiothoue o?noue
i?ae?icae?e?a, anooio, aeniiae?a, o yeeo aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Aeena?oaoeiy ia? ianya 165 noi?iiie, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — niiiaaeoeyoue noi?iiie. O nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae iae?/o?oueny aeainoi i’yoaeanyo /ioe?e aeaea?aea.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaaaeaii iioeaiaaia iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aii? oaie
aeena?oaoe??, ?ice?eoi nooi?noue, noai oa cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny i?aenoaae aeey ?iaioe iaae ia?aiith oaiith,
iaoa, caaea/?, i?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny
iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei “Nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie”, ?icaeyaea?oueny
nooiiiue ?ic?iaeaiinoi i?iaeaie. Iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui eioa?aoo?a, yea
iaiaoiaeia aeey ?iaioe iaae oaiith aeena?oaoei?, iiaeiey?oueny ia /ioe?e
aaeee? /anoeie — ii-ia?oa, oea eioa?aoo?a caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/iiai
ieaio; ii-ae?oaa, eioa?aoo?a, a ye?e aeeeaaeathoueny iaeaieiai/i?
eiioeaioei?, ia iniiai yeeo aenoaathoueny ?icii iaeaaeiciaaii iiaeaei
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie; ii-o?ao?, oea eioa?aoo?a, a ye?e
iieno?oue-ny aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia c oi/ee ci?o oi?? /e
iioi? iaeaaeiciaaii? iiaeaei; ii-/aoaa?oa, eioa?aoo?a aii??e/iiai
ieaio, oa eioa?aoo?a, yea aeicaiey? i?iaanoe ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic
iaeaaeiciaaieo iiaeaeae oa aea?aoe c ?o /enea iaee?auo.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a oeieiio, ?iaioe, yei
caeieniththoueny a onio aeuacaaaeaieo iai?yieao, neoaeaoue
iaiaoiaeiith oa ia’?eoeaiith canaaeith aeey ii?iaiyeueiiai aiae?co
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeaeae aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie,
aeineiaeaeaiiy ?o i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy a eiioaenoi iiaeieaiiy
no?oeoo?ii? e?ece a Oe?a?ii. Iaeiae oeieiniiai oyaeaiiy ii aeai?e
i?iaeaii aeini ia ae?iaeaii.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoe/ii iiaia aiaenooiinoue ?ia?o, o yeeo aiae?co?oueny
i?ioean aeai?o iioeiaeueii? iaeaaeiciaaii? iiaeaei ?aaeyinueeiai oa
iino?aaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa, c iaiaoiaei?noth aecia/a? i aieiaii
iai?yiee aeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, iai?yiee, yei aoee noi?ioeueiaaii a
iaoi oa caaea/ao aeena?oaoei?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Iaoiaeieia?y ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iiaeaeae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie”,
i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi iaoiaeieiai?. Ony iaoiaeieia?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea a
?iaioi ca?oiiaaia o aeaa aaeeeeo iiae?icaeiee. O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei
“Iiiyooy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie o noni?eueieo iaoeao”,
?icaeyaeathoueny ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaeieia?/ii aniaeoe i?iaeaie, ca’ycaii
c aecia/aiiyi iiiyooy «aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia». Aeey
anaai/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
aiaeicothoueny aieiaii aoaie ?? noaiiaeaiiy, ?? iaeaieueo nooo?ai ?ene,
ui aeyaeeenue ua o noa?iaeaaiueiio naioi. Ie?ii oeueiai o ia?oiio
iiae?icaeiei ?icaeyaeathoueny oaei aaaeeeai ieoaiiy, ye:
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa?iiiia «oioaeioa?eci» oa «aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia», aoe/ii iniiae ooieoeiiioaaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei ?iaeyoueny aeniiaee, ui
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiith iiaeeeai iacaaoe oaeo nenoaio, a ye?e
inio?: a) aia?ao aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy ye ?aeeiee nioeiaeueiee noa’?eo
noniieuenoaa; a) iiaia aoaoicaoeiy aeiiiii/iiai oa iieioe/iiai aeeooy;
a) cai? oa aiaeic oni?? iiaiioe aeiiiii/ii cia/eii? iioi?iaoei? o
?aeeiiio ea?iaiiio «Oeaio?i»; a) aee?aeoeaia aecia/aiiy «Oeaio?ii»
no?oeoo?e oa ianyaia ae?iaieoeoaa; ae) eiio?ieue «Oeaio?o» ca
aeeiiaiiyi aeanieo aee?aeoea.

A ?acoeueoaoi aeineiaeaeaiiy inoi?e/ieo aeaea?ae aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei
aeniiaeia, ui ia?oi noniieuenoaa, yei a a iiai?e ii?i aiaeiiaiaeaee
onii oeei aeiiaai, aeayeee /an inioaaee ua o noa?iaeaaiueiio naioi — o
Ooia?i (||| aeeianoiy O?a, 2112-2003 ?.?.aei i.a.), Eeoa? (Iiia?iy Oeii,
222-207 ?.?. aei i.a.), i?e/iio eeoaenueei i?eoeeueieee
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeieo iaoiaeia aia?oa o naioi ?ic?iaeee aeaoaeueio
aeieo?eio iiaii? aoaoicaoei? noniieueiiai aeeooy.

Aeineoue aaaeeeaei ? ieoaiiy uiaei aaeeaaiiy iaeaieueo ei?aeoiiai
oa?iiio, yeee ae iicia/aa oeieeii aoaoiciaaia noniieuenoai. O iaoeiaie
i?aeoeoei iaeiaeiai oe?iei iioe?ai? aeaa oa?iiie — “oioaeioa?eci” i
“aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia” nenoaia. A ?iaioi aiaecia/a?oueny, ui o
noniieueiiciaa/eo iaoeao aiaenooii ye?nue caaaeueiiaeciaii e?eoa?i?,
yeeie o?aaa ei?enooaaoenue i?e aeai?i oiai /e iioiai oa?iiio. Aea
aiaeic noniieuenoaiciaa/i? eioa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui aeayei ithaine
canoinoaaiiy oeeo oa?iiiia ?. Ia?oee oa?i?i (oioae?oa?eci) a iaaiie
ii?i iana aieueo aiioeieia iaaaioaaeaiiy, aieiaia, ia ui caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa i?e aeineiaeaeaiii oioaeioa?ecio — oea iaoai?ci i?eaiiaeaiiy
ethaeeie, ?? aiaeiinoi. Oi ae aaoi?e, ui aeineiaeaeothoue
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio nenoaio, oaaao, a ia?oo /a?ao, caa?oathoue
ia i?aaiicaoeieii-oi?aaeiinueei, aeiiii?/ii aniaeoe ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aoaoiciaaiiai noniieuenoaa. Aeoiaey/e c iiaeii/aieo caeiiiii?iinoae,
aaoi? aaaaea? aeioeieueiei aeei?enoaiiy oa?iiio
«aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia».

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie /a?ac
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo iiaeaeae oeueiai oaiiiaia iio?aao?
/?oeiai aecia/aiiy oiai, ui oaea ?aeaae?ciaaia iiaeaeue, ye?
/eiieee iaoiiaeththoue o?eaaea ni?a?nioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeaeae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, oa ye? iiaee a aooe e?eoa???
aeai?o iaee?aui? aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiaeae?. Oeei ieoaiiyi iaoiaeieia??
i?enay/aiee ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo
“Caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee noai?aiiy ?aeaae?ciaaieo iiaeaeae oa
i?iaeaie iaoiaeieia?/iiai ieth?ae?cio a nioe?aeueiiio i?ciaii?”.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?aeoeea — oea ae?enii e?eoa??e ?noeie, aea
iaeiinoaeii ioe?ieoe ?acoeueoaoe naii? i?aeoe/iie ae?yeueiino? aeoaea
iai?inoi. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui aeey oiai, ui a i?aeoeea iineoaeeea
e?eoa???i, ui a?aeae?ey? ?noeio a?ae iiieeeiai? aeoiee iio??aai
iiooe e?eoa???a, ii yeeo aoaea ioe?ithaaoueny naia i?aeoeea. Aea eiee
i?eoeeueieee iaei??? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae? iae?athoue iaei?
e?eoa??? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a i?eoeeueieee iaoiaeieia?? ?ioi? —
e?eoa??? cian?i ?io?, oi eiaeia c iiaeaeae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie iieieoueny aioo??oiuei ianoia?a/eeaith, aea noia?a/auae nai?e
aeueoa?iaoea?. On? iiaeae? aoaeooue ae/a?iii iiynithaaoe aoaeue-ye?
iiae?? ?aaeueiiai aeeooy, ?iaeoe iaai? i?i?ieoaaiiy a?aeiinii
?aoi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oa ciaoiaeeoe
ia?aeiieea? iiyniaiiy, /iio oe? i?i?ieoaaiiy ?ieiee ia caoaathoueny.
Oaeei /eiii, iaoiaeieia?/iee ieth?ae?ci o nioe?aeueiiio i?ciaii?
iiai?noth iiaeieaoe iaa?yae /e iiaeeeai. Aea o i?ioean? ii??aiyiiy
?aeaae?ciaaieo iiaeaeae c ae?eni?noth iaei? c ieo iinooiiai io?eiothoue
a?eueoo a?aoiaioiaai?noue nai?o iiceoe?e, ?io? ae aeiaiaeeoueny iino?eii
ei?aeooaaoe, iiynithaaoe, ooi aeiai o oiio, ui neeaeenue oae? oiiae, i?e
yeeo aeaia iiaeaeue iaae??caeaoia. A?aoo?-?aoo, iiyniaiue iiaea noaoe
oae caaaaaoi, ui aiie, i?yii ia ni?inoiaoth/e naio iiaeaeue, iiaeooue
i?eaanoe aei oi?iaeueii-eia?/ieo noia?a/iinoae oeio: «Aeey oiai, uia
c?i-aeoe A, iaiao?aeia iayai?noue B, aeey oiai, uia c?iaeoe B,
iaiao?aeia iayai?noue C, a aeey oiai, uia c?iaeoe C, iaiao?aeia
iayai?noue A». ? oi/ iaa?oue o oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?oiaeiene o??? aai
?ioi? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae? ia a?aeiiaeyoueny a?ae nai?o ia?aeiiaiue,
a?aoiaioiaai?noue ?o iiceoe?e aoaea iaaeoi iineaaeaia.

ssea c ?aeaae?ciaaieo iiaeaeae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
aeyaeoueny a?eueo a?eueiith a?ae iaoyaoaaiue, ciooaieo aeiiouaiue oa
iiooe?a aeiieo? A?aeiia?aeue ia oea ieoaiiy aoaea iiaeeeaa i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? a?eueo oe?iei? ?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?, aeine?aeaeaii? ia
o?eueee aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ei-iaiaeii? nenoaie, aea ? oiai noni?euenoaa,
yea neeaeiny ia ?? caeeoeao.

sse aeniiaie ae?oaiai, iaoiaeieia?/iiai ?icae?eo, aecia/a?oueny
iaea?eueo iioeiaeueia no?oeoo?a onueiai iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?iaaaeaiee iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c aeicaiey?
iicia/eoe ? iaea?eueo iioeiaeueio eiioeaioe?th onueiai iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. sse iaoiaeieia??, oae ? noai?ai? ia ?o iniia?
?aeaae?ciaai? iiaeae?, ?icaeyaeathoueny ii i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaeo noaiao.
Nii-/aoeo aeeeaaeathoueny aacia? iinooeaoe o??? aai ?ioi?
iaoiaeieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??. Ae?oaei aoaiii ? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiai, yeei
/eiii oe? iinooeaoe ?aae?cothoueny ia eiie?aoii iaoeiaiio ??ai?, i?e
aoaeoaaii? iaaii? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie. Ia o?ao?e noaae?? ?ic-aeyaeathoueny iiaeeeaino? aii??e/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeaii? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae?, ? ia /aoaa?o?e —
i?ioiaeeoue ?? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c ?aeaae?ciaaieie iiaeaeyie,
noai?aieie ia iniia? ?ioeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo ia?aaeeai. Aiae?c aea
?ica?aeiinoae o iiyniaii? i?ioean?a, ui i?ioiaeeee o
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai?, aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ? ?ica?aeiino?
o ?icoi?ii? no/anii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ?ica?aeiino? o ?icoi?ii?
iie?oe/iiai iaoai?cio aeaoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i oa oeyo?a eiai
iiaeieaiiy. ?icaeyaeo aeaieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie i?enay/aiee inoaii?e
?icae?e aeena?oaoe??.

Ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic ?icieo oi/ie ci?o ia aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio
nenoaio aiaeaoaa?oueny o o?aoueiio ?icaeiei «Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia ye ia’?eo aeueoa?iaoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue». Aaoi? aeaeiey? aeai
iaeaieueo aioaaiiinoe/ii iaeaaeiciaaii iiaeaei, ui iienothoue
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio nenoaio. Ia?oa c ieo — oea iiaeaeue
«eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee», ae?oaa — «ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio». O
anooii aei ia?oiai ?icaeieo caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui eiaa?aeici,
aia?oici, eeane/iee ia?eneci oa ia?eneci aiioe o.ca. «ia?aaoaeiae» —
iiaeyaee a aaaaoueio aiaeiioaiiyo i?ioeeaaeii, i?e aeineiaeaeaiii
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie aeei?enoiaothoue aeoaea noiaei iiae
niaith iaeaaeiciaaii iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee», «eaca?iiaiai
nioeiaeicio». I oi/ ii oaeiio ieoaiith, ye niiaaiaeiioaiiy nioeiaeicio
oa aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, ii aa/aiith oiai, ui iiaeiii
i?eeoe ia ciiio oeie nenoaii, aeuacaaaeai? iaoiaeieiai? nooo?ai
?ic?iciythoueny, ?aeeia nenoaia iaa?oiooaaiiy nai?o iiaeyaeia, iaeiaeiai
aiii?e/ii oaeoe, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeieaco aeanieo oaa?aeaeaiue
aeicaiey? ia’?aeiaoe aiaeic eiaa?aeueieo, ia?enenonueeeo oa
aia?o?nonueeeo iiaeyaeia a iaeiiio iiae?icaeiei. Ae?oaa ae iiaeaeue
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, iiaeaeue «ath?ie?aoe/iiai
ei?ii?aoea?cio» a iaeaieueoie nooiaii aiaeiiaiaea? iieiaeaiiyi
iinoeoooeiiiaeueii? iaoiaeieiai?. Aiia aoaea ?icaeyiooa o ae?oaiio
iiae?icaeiei.

A ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei «?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie ?aeaae?ciaaiith iiaeaeeth “eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee”,
aiaecia/a?oueny, ui iaeaieueoo aiaeiiinoue iaea?aeaea
eiaa?aeueii-iaieeane/ia iiaeaeue aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie,
iiaeaeue, yea aoea noai?aia oaeeie aiaeiieie i?eoeeueieeaie ?eieo ye
O.Oae?e, I.O??aeiai, Aeae.Naen. A e?eoeoei aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oei aeineiaeieee nie?athoueny ia aaciai iinooeaoe ?eieiaiai
eiaa?ae?cio, caiaeii c yeeie aeiaeia aea?aeaaia no?oeoo?a ia ni?iiiaeia
iiciaoe onth iiaiioo aeiiii?/ii cia/eii? iioi?iaoei?, iiciaoe ??, i ia
oeeo canaaeao i?aai?coaaoe aoaeoeaia ieaioaaiiy ainiiaea?/i?
aeiyeueiino?. ?aeeiei iinoeoooii noniieuenoaa, ui aeicaiey? iaeaaiaeeoe
noaaieueia ooieoeiiioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? ?eiie, a ?aeeia
iioi?iaoeiy, yea iio?iaia ainiiaea?/ei iaeeieoeyi — oea iioi?iaoeiy i?i
oeiie, ui noeoieii aeieeathoue a oiiaao iiaii? eiieo?aioei?.

Ia iiaenoaai aeineiaeaeaiiy i?aoeue Oae?ea oa iioeo eiaa?aeia
oi?ioeththoueny ianooii? iaeaieueo nooo?ai ?ene iaeaaeiciaaii? iiaeaei
«eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee»: 1) A no/anio aiioo aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia a iaea?eueo aeineiiaeiio aeaeyae? ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeaeooy o
nioe?ae?noe/ieo noniieuenoaao, nioeiaeici aea iaieio/a aaaea aei
iiyae oeie Nenoaie; 2) ?aeeiei niiniaii eii?aeeiaoei? aeiyeueiinoi
aeiiiii/ieo aaaioia aenooiathoue aea?aeaaia ieaioaaiiy oa eiio?ieue; 3)
Ieaioaaiiy oa eiio?ieue caeieniththoueny oeaio?aeueieie ieaiiaeie
i?aaiaie; 4) Ieaie ia i?eeiathoue aei oaaae iioa?ania ieae/anoiy/eo
eaiie i /a?ac oa ia aiaeiiaiaeathoue aeiiaai aeiiiii/ii? aeioeieueiinoi;
5) Aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia — oea noaoe/iee ia’?eo, aoaeue-yei
ciiie a yeiio iathoue ia i?eioeeiiaee oa?aeoa? i ia ca/iiathoue ?? nooi
(aeea.i.i.2-4); 6) Aieea iieioe/ieo /eiiee?a ia aei-iiii/io nenoaio
noniieuenoaa cia?aaea?oueny o oi?ii yei?nue eiinoaioe, iaciiiio
nooiinoue ye?e (naia nooiinoue, a ia eiie?aoii i?iyae) aai aeinoaoiuei
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaeei ?ac, aai aeaanoe ca iaaei noniieuenoaiciaa/iai
aiaeico acaaaei, ai?ii?ii i?eionoea, ui iieioe/ii /eiieee aaaeooue aei
aeaoi?iaoei? iioeiaeueii? aeiiiii/ii? iiaaaeiiee nioeiaeueiiai noa’?eoa;
7)sse aieueo iici? iieiaeaiiy aecia?oueny aoaeoeaiinoue
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie o aeiaaeeo, eiee oeiei /ioei
aecia/ai? oa iathoue i?inoo no?oeoo?o (o.ca. «iiaieicaoeieia
aeiiiiiea»).

A ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei iaaiaeyoueny aii??e/ii aeaii, yei
iiaeoaa?aeaeothoue oai?aoe/ii ?ic?iaee i?eoeeueieeia eiaa?aeueii? oi/ee
ci?o ia aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio nenoaio. Ia?o ca ana, oea /eneaiii
iiieeee oeaio?aeiciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy a ia?oi aeanyoe?i//y inioaaiiy
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, aeai? iaai?ieo ieaiiaeo i?i?ioe?ia, aeinyaiaiiy
yeeo aoaeue-yeith oeiiith i?eaiaeeei ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai aei aeoaea
aaaeeeo ianeiaeeia (ianiaa aoaeiaieoeoai ia?iaicia caiaeii c iaeacii
N1042 O?ioeueeiai, noaeiinueea «iiaeoeueinooaaiiy» oa «iiaenoueiaoaaiiy»
a ?iee ia?oi? i’yoe?i/ee oa caaaaaoi iioiai). Ii-ae?oaa, oea
iani?iiiaeiinoue ciaeoe ia oieueei iaeaieueo aeioeieueii iai?yiee
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, aea e e?eoa?i? ca yeeie iiaeiai i?aai?ciaoaaoenue
iaeie oa eiio?ieue ca aea?aeaaiei ae?iaieoeoaii. Oae, aeei?enoaiiy aeey
oeeo oeieae aaeiaeo iieacieeia o iineyai?iii ?iee noi?ioaaei o.ca.
«aeiiiiieo aeo?aoiiai oeio», ao?aoe aiae iaioaaiiy yei? a aeaeieueea
?acia ia?aaeueee oni ao?aoe aiae Aaeeei? Aio/eciyii? aieie. ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui oni iieiaeaiiy eiaa?aeueii? iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee»
iathoue aeineoue aaaiia aiii?e/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy.

A iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiy iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee» i?aoeth? i oie oaeo,
ui ie?ii iaieeaneee ?? iieiaeaiiy ?icaeaathoue i iaoiaeieiai? ia
caaaeueiiaeciaio aeoieo cianii i?ioeeaaeii — aia?oici, ia?eneci
eeane/iee oa ia?eneci o.ca. «ia?aaoaeiae». A ?iaioi aiaeicothoueny
nooo?ai ?ene iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee» a iioa?i?aoaoei? oeeo
iaoiaeieiaie. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui oeae ?iciiaeae iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii?
aeiiiiiee» aeoaea noiaeee c iaieeane/iei, ca aeiyoeii iiyniaiiy i?e/ei
ae-ieeiaiiy oa iaoiaeia ai?ioueae c aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiith
nenoaiith. Eiee a iaieeane/i?e ii-aeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee»
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia aeyaey?oueny iaieio/ei ianeiaeeii
?icaeoeo ii nioeiae?noe/iiio oeyoo, oi ia?enenonueei-eaiiinueea
iaoiaeieiaiy ia?aaeaa/a?, ui noniieuenoai ni?iiiaeia iiciaoe iaiaoiaeio
aeey oi?aaeiiiy aea?aeaaiith aeiiiiieith iioi?iaoeith, iiciaoe ?? i ia
oeeo canaaeao i?aai?coaaoe oeieani?yiiaaia ae?iaieoeoai-?iciiaeie oni??
iaiaoiaeii? aeey ethaeeie i?iaeoeoei?, i?aai?coaaoe iieioe/iee eiio?ieue
iaae aeiyeuei?noth iiaeea?aea. Aeieeiaiiy ae aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie («eaca?iiaiai nioeiaeicio» ii oa?iiiieiai? oeeo iaoiaeieia?e)
iia’yco?oueny ia c ieaiiaith aeiyeuei?noth o ianooaaao onueiai
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a c iaaaoeaieie iniaeeainoyie ath?ie?aoi? — ??
aaaeaiiyi aeaeaoe aeanii iioa?ane ca caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii, iaiaaaiiyi aei
iiaiiaeaiiy ia?an?/iiai a?iiaaeyieia. Eiee iaieeane/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei?
ai?ioueae c aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiith nenoaiith ia?aaeaa/athoue
eiio?ieue ca ath?ie?aoi?th c aieo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa, c aieo
aeanieea iacaeaaeieo aiae ath?ie?aoi? caniaia ae?iaieoeoaa, oi ia?enenoe
i?iiiiothoue (o iaaeao aeoaea noiaeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa)
ia?aaea/o eiio?iethth/i? ooieoei? i?ieaoa?ith, i?aaiicaoeiy oa
ea?iaieoeoai o?oaeiaith aeiyeuei?noth yeiai caeienith?oueny
eiio?iethth/ith iei aea (sic!) ath?ie?aoi?th. Oea noia?a/eeaa iieiaeaiiy
ia caeeoeeiny iica oaaaith aia?o?noia. Iiaeaeue «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee»,
yea aoea noai?aia ieie aiae ia?enenonueei? aiae?iciy?oueny eeoa oei, ui
aia?oinoe i?iiiiothoue ii?ith ai?ioueae c aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiith
nenoaiith ia i?ieaoa?nueeee eiio?ieue ca ath?ie?aoi?th, a iiaia cieuaiiy
oei?? nioeiaeueii? a?oie.

Cia/ia oaaaa a ?iaioi i?eaeiey?oueny «ia?aaoaeiaiie» iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii?
aeiiiiiee». Aiaecia/a-?oueny, ui ii aaaaoueio ia?aiao?ao aiia aieueo ca
iioi ?iciiaeaee «?aaiethoeieieo iaoiaeieiaie» noiaea c eiaa?aeueiith, a
ii aei?noeino? oa aiioeieiinoi a?aoiaioaoei? i?ioe
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ia?aaeuo? iaaioue i?oiaeienaeueiee
?eieiaee eiaa?aeici. Iniaeeai iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui naia ia?aaoaeiaia
e?eoeea aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie aeiiiiiaea aia?eeainueeei
i?eoeeueieeai i?oiaeienaeueiiai ?eieiaiai eiaa?aeicio iaea?aeaoe o naaa
ia Aaoueeiaueii ia?aeiieeao ia?aiiao iaae i?eoeeueieeaie iioeo, a?eueo
iii??eiaaieo, iai?yiia o nia?oieiai?.

Oni ?iciiaeaee iiaeaei «eiiaiaeii? aeiiiiiee» ia’?aeio? iaeay
aeioeieueiinoi yeiiiaa aieueoiai in-eaaeaiiy oioaeioa?ii? aea?aeaae, aea
naia a «ia?aaoaeiaiie» iiaeaei aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nen-oaie oey
aeieo?eia i?ineiaeaeo?oueny iaeaieueo /ioei. O ?iaioi ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui ony iaoi-aeieiaiy, oai?iy i i?aeoeea ia?aaoaeiae, oni
i/ieoaaiiy ?aoi?iaoi?ia aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie aeoiaeeee c
oace, ui i?eeiaeanue ca aeniiio, c oace iaeaieueo ei?ioei e iiaii
aeneiaeaii? I.A.Aoie/ai: «Naiinoieiinoue ni?ey? naiiaeenoeeieiii».

sse aeniiaie ia?oiai iiae?icaeieo aiaecia/a?oueny, ui aeey anio
aa?iaioia iiaeaei “eiiaiaeii? aei-iii?ee” oa?aeoa?ii aei?noea
i?ioeiinoaaeaiiy “aeia?a” oa “cea”, aia/aniaiai oa oi?aa?naeueiiai
“iiceoeaiiai” noni?eueiiai eaaeo ? oaeiai ae noni?eueiiai eaaeo
“iaaaoeaiiai”. ? eiee o oiio, ui ? “iiceoeaiee” noni?eueiee eaae
oe? iaoiaeieia?? aeoaea ?ic??ciythoueny, oi aeaeyae iaeiiai c
“iaaaoeaieo” noni?euei?o eaae?a aeey an?o ieo ?aeei — oea
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia. ?icaeyae aea, a ye?e i???
aeioe?eueia oaea iaeiinoaei?noue, iiaeiai i?iaiaeeoenue ia canaaeao
cian?i ?ioi? iaoiaeieia??, cia-n?i ?ioi? ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae?.
Aiae?co oe??? iiaeae? i?enay/aiee ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e o?aoueiai
?icae?eo — “I?iaeaia aoaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a
?aeaae?ciaai?e iiaeae? “ath?ie?a-oe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeueoa?iaoeaia iiaeaeue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie o iaea?eueo?e i??? a?aeiia?aea?
iieiaeaiiyi ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei?e iaoiaeieia??, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?i?
e?eoe/ia a?aeiioaiiy aei ?aeaieia?? ?eieiaiai e?aa?ae?cio, aenoiaiiy
aeieo?eie “noni?eueiiai ?ioa?ano”, eiee aea?aeaaa iiaeiia cae?enithaaoe
ooieoe?? ?ic?iaee e?eoa???a noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
e?aa?ae?a, a?aeiiee i?aaeoa/a ?inoeoooe?iiae?cio A.Aaaia? ua o 1883
?ioe? noi?ioethaaa “caeii c?inoath/i? ?ie? aea?aeaae”.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeueoa?iaoeaia oi/ea ci?o ia Nenoaio, ui
?icaeyaea?oueny, ia? aea? aeaui noia?a/eea? iniaeeaino?. C iaeiiai
aieo, oaaaa ia oeth iiaeaeue caa?oa?oueny aeoaea iacia/iith e?euee?noth
noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a, ? ye iane?aeie oeueiai ?aii?oaaiiy, aaaaoi ye?
iieiaeaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiaeae? ? cian?i ia?ic?iaeai?. I?ioa, ia
aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui iiaeaeue “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio” ia?
cia/io e?euee?noue ia?ic?iaeaieo aniaeo?a, i?ae iath oa o?aaeeoe?eiith
iiaeaeeth aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie /?oei aeyaey?oueny
eeth/iaa ??cieoey, yea iaoiiaeth? oe?eeiaeoi ?ioa ni?eeiyooy on?o
aniaeo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie.

Ia iiaeyae i?ea?/iee?a iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”,
eeane/ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia ?nioaaea eeoa i?e Noae?i?.
??ciiaeae oe??? Nenoaie, ui aeiee i?ci?oa, nenoaia “ath?ie?aoe/iiai
ei?ii?aoea?cio”, a?ae??ciyeanue a?aenooi?noth ?aeeii? oi?aae?inueei?
aa?oeeae?: “aeaaea oa i?aai i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy i?ae ?iciiae?eai? i?ae
aeueie ia?o?eieie ?inoaioe?yie oa ei?ii?aoeaieie ooai?aiiyie ??ciiai
??aiy. sseui aoaeue-ye? ??ciiaeaee iiaeae? “eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee”
oe?eeiaeoi iaeiicia/ii aeoiaeyoue c ia?aaeoiiae iino?eii? iayaiino?
aei?noei? oa iaci?iii? oi?aae?inueei? aa?oeeae?, yea ? oi?iinoai?thth/ei
aeaiaioii on?o iaaaoeaieo ?en noaoe/ii? oa canoeaei?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, oi iiaeaeue “ath?ie?aoe/iiai
ei?ii?aoea?cio” iieaco? ae?aeaeoe/iee ?icaeoie aia?aoo aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, ia?aoai?thaaiiy ?aeeii? oi?aae?inueei? aa?oeeae? “?aiiuei?”
aaei?i?n?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie o ath?ie?aoe/ii-ei?ii?aoea?nueeo
no?oeoo?o 60-80-o ?ie?a.

Oa, ui ?aooa iieiaeaiue iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio” cia/ii
ia?ic?iaeaia, iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ??oaiiy o ?aieao oe??? iiaeae?
i?eiaeii? o?ueio iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue. Ia?o? c ieo — oea ieoaiiy i?i
aeaea?aea ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?icaeoeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oa
aeaea?aea, ye? aaia?othoue o oe?e Nenoai? ae?aeaeoe/i? noia?a/iino?.
Ae?oaa ieoaiiy i?noeoueny o aii??e/i?e aa?eo?eaoe?? aeueoa?iaoeaii?
iiaeae?. ? o?ao?, iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa, ieoaiiy i?i oa, ye ia iniia?
iieiaeaiue aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiaeae? o?aaa c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie e?eceno
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, i?e/eie, c yeeo i?ioean
nioe?aeueiiai iaiiaeaiiy o no/ani?e Oe?a?i? noeea?oueny c aaeeeeie
o?oaeiiuaie.

Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aeaea?aeii aeeiai?cio
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ? ae?aeaeoe/ii noia?a/i? ii/aoee,
oa?aeoa?i? aeey ath?ie?ao?? ye nioe?aeueii? a?oie. sseui iiaeaeue
“eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee” a?oioo?oueny ia iieiaeaii?, ii yeiio ath?ie?ao??
aac eiio?ieth ?? c aieo a?iiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa i?e/aoi? eeoa
iaaaoeai? ?ene, oi aiae?c ?iaio I.Aaaa?a oa ?.E.Ia?oiia aea? i?aenoaao
aaaeaoe, ui o oe?e nioe?aeuei?e a?oi? ae?aeaeoe/ii ciaaathoueny
i?eiaeii? aea? ia?e oaiaeaioe?e. Ia?oa ia?a — oea c?oeiaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo oa iao??a?oaeueieo ii/aoe?a, ae?oaa ia?a — c?oeiaiiy
ii/aoe?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa aeenooieoe?iiaeueieo. Ia?aaaaa
?aoe?iiaeueieo oa aeenooieoe?iiaeueieo ii/aoe?a o ae?yeueiino? aia?aoa
oi?aae?iiy oi?ioaaei aoaeoeaii ae?th/o naiino?eii, aea ia aoaeoeaio
uiaei aeiia aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino?, oi?aae?inueeo aa?oeeaeue,
aa?oeeaeue, yea a?aeiia?aea? iaeii/anii iieiaeaiiyi e?aa?aeueii?,
ia?enenonueei? oa aia?o?nonueei? iiaeaeae “eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee”;
iaioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii/aoe?a i?eaiaeeoue aei
iiyae ? aoaeoeaii i?aoethth/i? naiino?eii ? aoaeoeaii? a?aeiinii aei
aeiia oi?aae?inueei? aa?oeeae?. Aiane?aeie oiai, ui ia?aaaaeathoue
iao??a?oaeuei? ii/aoee, oi?aae?inueea aa?oeeaeue neaaia, oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia iaaoaa? oi?io, yea a?aeiia?aea?
?inoeoooe?ei?e iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”. Iaiao?aeii
iniaeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui on? o?e a?aecia/ai? oaiaeaioe?? aeyaeyeenue o
iiai?e a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eioeeiaie ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?icaeoeo: i?eiee ia
ci?ithth/e iaeia iaeio ieoo?ai, i?eiee iiai?noth ia aeii?ioth/e, aea ?
i?eiee iiai?noth ia cieeath/e, caia?a/oth/e naio naaa oa naith
i?ioeeaaei?noue.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aaoi?ii cae?enith?oueny aii??e/ia aa?eo?eaoe?y
iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”. I?eaiaeeoueny aaaaoi oaeo?a,
ye? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaa?oue a oiiaao, eiee ae?yeuei?noue
ath?ie?ao?? i?ooi ia eiio?ieth?, ana?aaeei? ia? niinoa??aa?oueny
iino?eia i?aaiaiiy a?aeoi?aiooe iaoai?ci ainiiaea?thaaiiy, yeee
neeaany, oa i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie. Ia?aaaaeath/a a?eueo?noue iaaaoeaieo yaeu o “i?ci?e”
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai? aeieeaei aiane?aeie a?aenooiino?
?aaeueii? oi?aae?inueei? aeenoeeie?ie, iaaeeiiaiiy ieae/eie eaieaie
aeoaea iio??aieo oa nai?/anieo ??oaiue, ye? i?eeiathoueny ia naiiio
aeuiio ??ai?.

Ii??aiyiiy iiaeaeae “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio” oa “eiiaiaeii?
aeiiii?ee” cae?eniaii o aeniiaeo ae?oaiai i?ae?icae?eo. A?aecia/a?oueny,
ui iaeaea? iiaeae? aeciathoue aeiiii?/io iaaoaeoeai?noue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, aea i?eioeeiiai ?icieiathoueny o
ioe?ithaaii? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/iiai iaoai?cio Nenoaie, yea
?icaeyaea?oueny. Iiaeaeue “eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee” aeaeea?o? noaoe/i?noue
oa iaci?ii?noue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, a no?eeee caa?ooeaio?ae?ci oa
ia-eiiiaoaioi?noue “Oeaio?a” — aieiaia ia?aoeiaea ia oeyoo aoaeoeaiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. On? iaaaoeai? iniaeeaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie ? iane?aeeii oiai, ui aac aieeao a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
ath?ie?ao?y nai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? ?aae?coaaoe iani?iiiaeia.

A ?ioa?i?eoaoe?? iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio” oaae naia
iie?oe/ia nenoaia iaaoaa? oe?eeiaeoi ?io? aeanoeaino?. Ia?o ca ana, oea
aeeiai?/ii ?icaeiooa yaeua. Aeeiai?ci iie?oe/ii? nenoaie caaacia/o?oueny
i?aaiaiiyi iioei?coaaoe ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa, i?aaiaiiyi, yea
aeeeeea?oueny ii/oooyi iaia’yceo ath?ie?aoa. I?ioa aiane?aeeo ai?ioueae
ca aeaaeo aeyaey?oueny c?oeiiaaia ?aeeia oi?aae?inueea aa?oeeaeue,
a?aeaoaa?oueny e?ea?aeaoe?y ?aaeueiiai oeaio?ae?cio, yeee oa?aeoa?iee
aeey “eeane/ii?” aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. Ei?ii?aoea?ci,
yeee iineeth?oueny, oa, ye iane?aeie oeueiai, ?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe?
aai?noe/ieo ?ioa?an?a ei?ii?aoeaieo a?oi /eiiaiee?a — aieiaia i?aiiia ia
oeyoo aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy. I?ioa ni?iae /eiiaiee?a iioei?coaaoe
ainiiaea?/o ae?yeuei?noue aoee ia ie?aieie nii?aaee/ieie oa iaaaeaeeie
aeoaie, a no?eeith oa aeoaea oa?aeoa?iith aeey
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oaiaeaioe??th. On? iaaaoeai?
iniaeeaino? oe??? Nenoaie ? iane?aeeii i?iyaeaiiy ath?ie?aoaie nai?o
iao??a?oaeueieo oa ?aoe?iiaeueii-aeenooieoe?iiaeueieo aeanoeainoae, an?
iiceoeai? ?ene — iane?aeeii i?iyaeaiiy aeanoeainoae
?aoe?iiaeueii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo, ui iiaeeeai (oi/ ? aeoaea ne?ooii) ? aac
iioei?coth/iai ae?yiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, o neeo
aioo??oiuei? eia?ee ?icaeoeo ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaeaea? iiaeae? ? aioo??oiuei ianoia?a/i? ?
aeinoaoiuei ae/a?iii iiyniththoue iaea?eueo nooo?a? ?ene
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. sse?e aea c oeeo aeaio
?aeaae?ciaaieo iiaeaeae a?aeaeaii ia?aaaao? Oea iiaeeeai aeyaeoe i?e
aiae?c? i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??
i?ney cieeiaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. Oe? ieoaiiy
?icaeyaeathoueny o /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Iiaeae? “eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee”
oa “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio” o eiioaeno? ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i». O
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Eia?/i? noia?a/iino? e?aa?aeueieo noai
?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa» a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ii ?aoeaioo ?aeaae?ciaaii? iiaeae?
“eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee” ii?iaeaeo? na?eici? oi?iaeueii-eia?/i?
i?ioe??//y: aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeniei?icaeiooiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa
iaiao?aeia iiyaa ae?eiaeo ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa ?o
?ioaa?aoe?y o iie?oe/io nenoaio; aeey oi?ioaaiiy ii-ni?aaaeiueiio
aoaeoeaieo ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iaiao?aeia
?icaeiooa nenoaia oeaio?enueeeo ia?o?e; iineeaiiy oeaio?enueeeo ia?o?e a
ciic? caaacia/eoe cia/iee i?ioa?ie na?aaeiueiai eeano; iiyaa ae
na?aaeiueiai eeano iiaeeeaa ia aac? aeniei?icaeiooiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?ia?o i?eoeeueiee?a ?eieiaiai
e?aa?ae?cio aaoi?ii ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a
aeaii? i???ioaoe?? ia caaino?th? oaaao ia oe?e noia?a/iino?, cae?eniaiiy
ae ia/eneaiieo i?iiiceoe?e ii iiaeaeaiith aeuacaaaeaiiai caieiaiiai eiea
a oiiaao ?aae?e iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o iaeieiia??ii.

*iio o e?aa?aeuei?e noai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy iino?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
aeieeathoue oi?iaeueii-eia?/i? noia?a/iino?? Ni?iaa a?aeiia?ae? ia oea
caieoaiiy cae?eniaia o ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo
«Aoaeoeaia aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy — aecia/aeueiee oaeoi? noaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee» ? aaco?oueny ia iieiaeaiiyo aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiaeae?
“ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui i?eeiyooy
aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiaeae? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui aoei a
e?aei?i ni?iuaiiyi aa/eoe o aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai? ye
cina?aaeaeaiiy eeoa iaaaoeaieo ?en, oae ? a a?iiaaeyinueeiio
noni?euenoa? ?aeeio neeo, yea caeaoia noaoe aeaea?aeii iiaea?i?caoe??
noni?euenoaa. A oiiaao, eiee oaeaeei e?ei?iae?co?oueny aeiiiieea, oa, ui
ua a??oa, noni?eueia na?aeii?noue, neeith, yea ?ooa? iiaea?i?caoe?th
noni?euenoaa, iiaeiia noaoe ia ae?ae aeaoi?iiaaia eaac?a?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai, a ath?ie?ao?y, yea aieiae?? ii/aoeiai eiino?oeoeaiei
iioaioe?aeii. Aacia?a/ii, i?iyaeaiiy oeueiai oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?ae
cao?oaeiaia, eiio i?ioenoiyoue aeenooieoe?iiaeuei? oa iao??a?oaeuei?
?ene noo? ath?ie?ao??. Aea, ye iieaco? aeina?ae ?iaioe aeiiii?ee, yea
e?ei?iae?co?oueny, ?aaeueieo aeueoa?iaoea aei iineeaiiy ath?ie?aoe/iiai
eiio?ieth ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iaia.

Noia?a/i?noue aa??aioa, yeee i?iiiio?oueny aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa, i?noeoueny o oiio, ui a oiiaao e?ei?iae?ciaaii?
aeiiii?ee, oeae ath?ie?aoe/iee eiio?ieue o?aaa iai?aaeoe a ia?oo /a?ao,
a?aeiinii aei naieo aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, i?ioeaio ei?oioe?? na?aae yeeo,
ii aeaiei NAO, aeinoaoiuei aenieee. ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai i?ioe??//y aaoi?
aa/eoue o iineeaii? ?ie? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a /a?ac i?eo?ae aei aeueo
aeai?ieo iinaae o aea?aeaa? iie?oee?a, ye? o?nii ca’ycai? c neeiaeie
no?oeoo?aie.

Aacnoii?aii, nenoaia, i?e ye?e aei aeaaee ia aeai?ao i?eoiaeyoue
iie?oeee, ye? i?ieoee oeieo niaoeneoaea, ia? cia/i? iaaeie?e?, aea a
oiiaao e?ei?iaeueii? aeiiii?ee oa aeaa?aaeoth/i? noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?, a oiiaao, eiee aei oeueiai /ano ia cai?iiiiiaaii ?aaeueia
??oaiiy eia?/ieo noia?a/iinoae e?aa?aeueieo noai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa, oea iiaea aooe ?aeeiei ?aaeueiei aa??aioii iiaea?i?caoe??
noni?euenoaa, aa??aioii c aaeeeeie, aea o oie aea /an uiiaeiaioeie
aeo?aoaie.

Oaeiae aacnoii?aii ? oa, ui iiae?aia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia iineoe
oei/aniaee oa?aeoa?. Ii i??? iiyae na?aaeiueiai eeano oa iiaeieaiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai iaioae?oaoo aoaeooue c?inoaoe aeiiae aei iie?oee?a, aei
?o ii?aeueieo oa ae?eiaeo yeinoae, ui aeicaieeoue iiaeieaoe caieiai?
eiea ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia aeineiaeaeaiiy iieaco?, ui i?aeoe/ii oni ca’ycee,
aeanoeainoi oa aiaeiineie aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie iiaeooue
aooe iiyniai? aac aeoiaeo ca iaaei aeaio iaeaaeiciaaieo iiaeaeae:
“eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee” oa “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”. Iaeaea?
iiaeae? ia iathoue aioo??oi?o noia?a/iinoae oa i?aeoe/ii oioiaeiuei
iiyniththoue i?e/eie e?ece Nenoaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iiaeaeue “ath?ie?aoe/iiai
ei?ii?aoea?cio” iiynith? a?eueo oe?iea eiei oaeo?a, ? oiio aiia a?eueoa
i?enoiniaaia aeey ?icoi?iiy ? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, ?
o??? nenoaie, yea aeieeea ia ?? ?o?iao.

Aaaeeeaee aeniiaie, aei yeiai i?eoiaeeoue aaoi? ia i?aenoaa?
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”, iieyaa? o
ianooiiiio: aeaea?aeii iiaea?i?caoe?? iino?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
iiaeiii noaoe ia iai?ae?ei?iaeueia a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, a ie?ai?
ath?ie?aoe/i? no?oeoo?e, ye? caa?aaee na?e ooieoe?iiaeueiee iioaioe?ae.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

1. Aeanaiei Ae.E. Ath?ie?aoey a ?innee e ia Caiaaea // Iieeoieiaey:
iaoa?eaeu e eaeoeeyi. — Caii?iaeuea: Ecae. CAO, 1993. — 0,4 I.E.

2. Aeanaiei Ae.E. Aeeaeaeoeea yeiiiieee e iieeoeee (Iaoiaeieiaey
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca) //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo noni?eueii?
aeoiee oa i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — aei.2 —
Caii??aeaey: ?AI’’Aeaeaaaoeue’’, 1996. — N.62-69, — 0,5Ae.A.

3. Aeanaiei Ae.E., *a?iuo A.I. E noaa?aiiie Oe?aeia — a ?inneeneii
oa?aaoa?a. // O?oaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. Iieeoeea e
aeanoue. — Oii 2. — Caii?iaeuea: CAO, 1993. — N.3-4. — 0,1I.E.

4. Aeanaiei Ae.E. Iieeoe/aneee i?iaiic i?aaeauai?iie ai?ueau a e?eceniii
iauanoaa//I?aoe? ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“E?eciaa noniieuenoai: iieioeea, nioeiieiaiy, nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy
(Oe?aiia iaia?aaeiaeii XXI aieo)”. — Oii 1. — Caii?iaeaey: CAe?A,1994.
— N.52. -0,1 Ae.A.

5. Aeanaiei Ae.E. Aeeyiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea noeioeu e o?oaeo a e?eceniii iauanoaa
//I?aoe? ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “E?eciaa
noniieuenoai: iieioeea, nioeiieiaiy, nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy (Oe?aiia
iaia?aaeiaeii XXI aieo)”. — Oii 1. — Caii?iaeaey: CAe?A,1994. — N.97.
— 0,1 Ae.A.

6. Aeanaiei Ae.E. Iniaaiiinoe nenoaiu ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea //I?aoe? caaaeueiioe?aiinueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioei? ”Iaioaeioao oa i?ioe?i//y no/aniiai oe?aiinueeiai
noniieuenoaa:iieioieiai/ii, nioeiieiai/ii, eoeueoi?ieiai/ii aniaeoe”. —
Oii 2. — Caii?iaeaey: CAe?A,1994. — N.13. — 0,1 Ae.A.

7. Aeanaiei Ae.E. E aii?ino i iaeioi?uo ooieoeeyo ainoaea?noaa
iinonioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa //I?aoe? caaaeueiioe?aiinueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? ”Iaioaeioao oa i?ioe?i//y no/aniiai
oe?aiinueeiai noniieuenoaa:iieioieiai/ii, nioeiieiai/ii,
eoeueoi?ieiai/ii aniaeoe”. — Oii 3. — Caii?iaeaey: CAe?A,1994. — N.16 —
0,1 Ae.A.

8. Aeanaiei Ae.E.Aeaoi?iaoeey e iioeiecaoeey acaeiinayce yeiiiieee e
iieeoeee: i?iaeaia e?eoa?eaa //O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee ”I?iaeaiu yeiiiieee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iiaeaioiaee yeiiiie/aneeo eaae?ia a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo”. — Oii
2. — Caii?iaeuea, CEYEO,1995. — N.88-90. — 0,1 I.E.

9. Aeanaiei Ae.E. ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa a enoi?ee ?innee.
(Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu)// I?aoe? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oa
nooaeaio?a CAeO. — Oii 2. — Caii??aeaey: CAeO,1992. — N.111. -0,1 Ae.A.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeanaiei Ae.E. Nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue ?aeaae?ciaaieo iiaeaeae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane. —
Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y, Iaeana,1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aeueoa?iaoeaieo
oi/ae ci?o ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio nenoaio, aeei?enoaiith
?acoeueoao?a oeueiai aiae?co aeey ae?iaeaiiy aioee?eciaeo eiioeaioe?e a
Oe?a?i?. ?iaioa ?icaeaa? iao?aaeeoe?eiee iai?yiie o aea/aii?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, yeee aaco?oueny ia iieiaeaiiyo
iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”. ?iaeoueny i?eiouaiiy oa
aii??e/ii iaa?oioiao?oueny oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui “eeane/ia”
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia aieiae?ea iaaiei iioaioe?aeii,
cieeiaiiy yeiai o 60-? — 70-? ?iee noaei iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei
e?ece ?aaeyinueei? aeiiii?ee o na?aaeai? 80-o ?ie?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeno?aiieyoe?? ?aeae iiaeae? “ath?ie?aoe/iiai
ei?ii?aoea?cio” anaa?/ii iaa?oioiaothoueny ? i?iiiiothoueny caoiaee
aioee?eciaiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? aeo?eathoue c eiioeaioe?? i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy iiaea?i?caoe??
noni?euenoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia, iiaeaeue
“eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee”, iiaeaeue “ath?ie?aoe/iiai ei?ii?aoea?cio”,
ath?ie?ao?y, ?aeeia oi?aae?inueea aa?oeeaeue, oi?aae?inueea
aeenoeeie?ia, iiaea?i?caoe?y noni?euenoaa.

Aeanaiei Ae.E. Nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue eaeaaeece?iaaiiuo iiaeaeae
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu. —
Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaea-iey, Iaeanna,1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
oi/ae c?aiey ia aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeioth nenoaio, eniieueciaaiey
?acoeueoaoia yoiai aiaeeca aeey nicaeaiey aioee?eceniuo eiioeaioeee a
Oe?aeia. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iao?aaeeoeeiiiia iai?aeaiea a eco/aiee
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, iniiaaiiia ia iieiaeaieyo iiaeaee
“ath?ie?aoe/aneiai ei?ii?aoeaecia”. Aeaeaaony aeiiouaiea e yiie?e/anee
iainiiauaaaony ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi “eeanne/aneay”
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia iaeaaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiui
iioaioeeaeii, en/aciiaaiea eioi?iai a 60-70-a aiaeu iineoaeeei iaeiie
ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei e?ecena niaaoneie yeiiiieee a na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia.

Ia iniiaaiee yeno?aiieyoeee eaeae iiaeaee “ath?ie?aoe/aneiai
ei?ii?aoeaecia” anano?iiia iainiiauaathony e i?aaeeaaathony ia?u
aioee?eceniiai oa?aeoa?a, iniiaaiiua ia eiioeaioeee iiauoaiey ?iee
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey iiaea?iecaoeee
iauanoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia, iiaeaeue
“eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee”, iiaeaeue “ath?ie?aoe/aneiai ei?ii?aoeaecia”,
ath?ie?aoey, aaeeiay oi?aaeai/aneay aa?oeeaeue, oi?aaeai/aneay
aeenoeeieeia, iiaea?iecaoeey iauanoaa.

Vlasenko D.I. Ideal models’ social effectiveness of administrative and
command system.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 23.00.02 — political
institutes and processes. — Odessa State Academy of Law of Education
Ministry of Ukraine, Odessa, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to comparative analysis of alternative
points of view on administrative and command system. It is devoted to
the results of this analusis’ usage for concrete conceptions’ making in
Ukraine. A new direction in administrative and command system’s study is
elaborated which based on the conception of the “bureaucratic
corporativism” model.

There is established that classic administrative and command system had
got the potential which disappeared in sixties and seventies and became
one of the main causes of the Soviet economy’s crisis in the middle of
eighties.

Anticrisis measures based on the conception of the administrative and
command system’s importance increasing during the period of society
modernization. These measures are proposed on the base of extrapolation
of the idea of the “bureaucratic corporativeness” model.

Key words: administrative and command system, bureaucracy united
administrative vertical line, administrative discipline, modernization
of society.

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