2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA IOCE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE ?i. I.?.*AEEIANUeEIAI

Noaiainueea Ieaenaiae?a Noai?neaa?aia

OAeE 781.5

NEIA’ssINUeEA I?OIEIA?ss ssE OAEOI? NOEEAOOAI?AIIss

A OE?A?INUeE?E ? ?IN?ENUeE?E IIA?? Ae?OAI? IIEIAEIE O?O NOI??**ss.
”??CAeAssIA I?*” EENAIEA OA “II*Ue IA?AAe ?IAEAeANOAII”

?EINUeEIAI-EI?NAEIAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.03 – ioce/ia ienoaoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii?
e?eoeee

Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai,

I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?

Oeoei Na?a?e A?oae?eiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oai??? oa
?noi??? eoeueoo?e

Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?,

Caaaeeaae/ Ia??y Iao??aia,

?inoeooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia??

?i. I.?eeuenueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e ioceeiciaanoaa, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee-eiinoeueoaio
(Ee?a)

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, a.i. aeioeaioa

Naeaei Ieaia Aanee?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, eaoaae?a
?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? ioceee (Ee?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeuee aea?aeaaiee ioce/iee ?inoeooo ?i. I.A.Eenaiea,
eaoaae?a

?noi??? ioceee (Euea?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 4 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. 30 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.005.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe o
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, ca
aae?anith: i. Ee?a-1, aoe. Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3, 2-e iiaa?o, aoae. 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? IIAO ?i.
I.?.*aeeianueeiai, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 2 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aeioeaio Eioaiee
?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A ioceeiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo?? inoaiiueiai noie?ooy iaiaeii?aciai
c”yaeyeeny ni?iae c?noaaeoe oai?/?noue eiiiiceoi??a
I.?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oa I.Eenaiea. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey oaeiai
ii??aiyiiy iiaeia aaaaeaoe o?e /eiieee: 1) “aiaie?anueea” oaia, ye?e
a?aeaeaee iaeaaeia a nai?e oai?/ino? iaeaeaa ieooe?; 2) iaa/aiiy
Eenaiea o ?einueeiai -Ei?naeiaa a Iaoa?ao?c? i?ioyaii 1875-1876 ??.; 3)
aeinoaoiuei “neio?iii?” oai?/? oeyoe iaio eiiiiceoi??a, aienai? a
?noi??th ??aeii? ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e. Oe?ieia?aeiieie ? oaeoe caa?oaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi??a aei iia?noae I.Aiaiey “Iaeneay
ii/ue” oa “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, ia nthaeaoe yeeo iaeaeaa noai?eee
nai? iia?e: ?einueeee-Ei?naeia “Iaeneoth ii/ue” (1878) oa “Ii/ue ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii” (1894), Eenaiei -“??caeayio i?/”(1872-1876) oa “Ooiieaio”
(1884). Aiaeii/an, oaeo iaa/aiiy Eenaiea o ?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi?a
io?eiaa iaaaeaeaaoio ioe?ieo, i?eiaeii? a ioceeiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo??
?aaeyinueeiai /ano. C iaeiiai aieo, ooiaeaoi?a oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii?
eeaneee a?aeiineee aei oiai ae iai?yieo, aei yeiai iaeaaeaee ?
?einueeee-Ei?naeia, ? any “Iiao/ay eo/ea” a oe?eiio. C ?ioiai — ?c
ni?eeoaaiiy aeaio ieooe?a aoei c?iaeaii, ia iao iiaeyae, aeaui ooo/i?
aeniiaee i?i aieea ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ia Eenaiea oa eiai iia?o
“??caeayia i?/”. A?i ia ?icaeyaeaany a ?noi?e/ii-/aniaiio aniaeo? ? ia
cian?i a?aoiaoaaa oai?/? iane?aeee ?oi?o eiioaeo?a. Oea ni?e/eieeiny aei
oi?ioaaiiy aeayeeo noa?aioei?a ioceeiciaa/i? aeoiee, ye? i?aaethaaee
iaai? iniaeeaino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oeyoo Eenaiea ye iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiiiiceoi?a ? ye?, aac noii?ao, iio?aaothoue no/aniiai ia?ainieneaiiy.

Aniaeo ia?aeaeueiino? aeeoo?aeo oa oai?/?o oeyo?a oe?a?inueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi??a iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeoaaany a ioceeiciaa/eo
i?aoeyo. Ia iao iiaeyae, a?i ? ie?aeiei c oi/ee ci?o ii??aiyeueiiai
ioceeiciaa/iai ii?aoethaaiiy ye niaaeueie aeaio ieooe?a, oae ? oeo
noni?eueieo eoeueoo?ii-iaoeiaeo ?aeae, ye? i?eaa?oaee ?oith oaaao ?
oi?ioaaee noiae? oai?/? ?iioeuene.

Cacia/ai? aniaeoe oieonothoueny a ia?ai?e oai?, yea ?ice?eaa? i?aeo?ae
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oa Eenaiea aei neia’yinueei? i?oieia?? ? aieea
oeueiai oaeoi?o ia i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
noeeaooai?aiiy. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey ?? ?ice?eooy ? ia?aaeon?i iayai?noue
a oai?/ino? eiaeiiai c eiiiiceoi??a iia?ieo oai??a, a nthaeaoao yeeo
i?inoaaeothoueny i?oieia?/i? iioeae, a oaeiae oe?iea eiei ca’yce?a
Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa c a/aieie, ui aeine?aeaeoaaee ieoaiiy
i?oieia?? neia’yi ? iaeaaeaee aei i?oieia?/ii? aai ?ioeo aeaaeai?/ieo
oe?e. Neia’yinueea i?oieia?y a iacaaieo iia?ao ae?? ia ??ai? ci?noiaiiio
? cae??ieth?oueny ye nai???aeia ia?acia noa?a, yea, ca?nii, iio?aao?
iiaeo ioce/ieo cania?a, ?e aaeaeaaoieo. Oaeei iiaei eiiieaenii ioce/ieo
cania?a ? iaea?eueo a?oa?/i? oieueeei?i? oa?e, a naia — ioce/iee
ia?yaeiaee oieueeei?. Eenaiei ? ?einueeee-Ei?naeia caa?oathoueny aei
noa?iaeaai?o ia?yae?a oa ?oi?o ioce/ieo ao?eaiue. Eiiiiceoi?e ooeathoue
oaeiae oeie ioce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aaeaeaaoieo iia?e ia?aci?e noa??.
Oiio a caaaeueiiio ieai? iaeaea? iia?e aenooiathoue neeaaeieie
ioce/ii-noeai?/ieie i?aai?ciaie, ui a?aeaeaathoue i?ioean ?iiaioe/iiai
ii?aeiaiiy aeanoeainoae e??eei-eii?/iiai aeai?o c yne?aaei
iaoe?iiaeueii-i?oieia?/iei nthaeaoii. Aea ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue
eiaeiiai c eiiiiceoi??a, a oi/i?oa — iaaiee aoai eiai ?icaeoeo,
nei?eaiaaiee iaoe?iiaeueiei oa ?noi?e/iei ioce/ieie noeeyie, aiineoue
iaai? iniaeeaino? a ioce/ii-noeai?/ia “i?i/eoaiiy” eiaeiei c
eiiiiceoi??a aiaie?anueeiai nthaeaoo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia a?aenooi?noth
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neia’yinueei? i?oieia?? ye oaeoi?a
noeeaooai?aiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e iia??, cie?aia, o niaaeuei?
Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa. Aiia aienaia a eiioaeno
ioce/ii-noeeueiaeo ?ic?iaie a aaeoc? ia o?eueee oe?a?inueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai, aea e ?a?iiaenueeiai iia?iiai ienoaoeoaa. E??i oiai,
aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iaoiiaeth?oueny ? ?? ca’yceaie c eieii
iaeno/ani?oeo ieoaiue eoeueoo?ieia??, ni?yiiaaieo ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?e?niino? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Ca”ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiai-oaiaoe/iiio i?io?eth eaoaae?e ?noi???
ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii? e?eoeee IIAO ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. O aeena?oaoe?? noaaeoueny ca iaoo oi?ioaaiiy
iiaiai iiaeyaeo ia iia?e Eenaiea “??caeayia i?/” oa ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa
“Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, a yeeo nthaeaoii- ? aeai?iai-noeeueiaeie
/eiieeaie aenooiathoue i?oieia?/i? iciaee, a oaeiae ia “onoaeai?” yaeua
oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e, iia’ycai?, a ia?oo /a?ao c
ae?yeuei?noth Eenaiea. O ca’yceo c oeei ciaoiaeeoueny ??oaiiy eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue, na?aae yeeo:

— iiooe ni?eueieo oa i?ioeeaaeieo ?en a oai?/ino? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa —
Eenaiea, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a oe?ieiio eiioaeno? eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oa
ioceeiciaa/eo ca’yce?a oa oieonothoueny o ao?eaii? i?oieia?/ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee a ?oi?e iia?i?e oai?/ino?;

— aiae?c e?oa?aoo?iiai ia?oiaeaea?aea — iia?no? I.Aiaiey “Ii/ue ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii”, a ye?e i?o ? eaeaiaea?ia ia?yaeia?noue iaoiiaeth? ?
?aaeaiaioo? ?icaeoie nthaeaoo;

— ioce/ii-noeeueiaee aiae?c iia? “??caeayia i?/” Eenaiea ? “Ii/ue ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii” ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii- oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-noeeueiai? noiaeino? oa a?aei?iiino? o ao?eaii?
nthaeaoo c i?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe ioiieth? eoeueoo?ieia?/i? oa ioceeiciaa/?
aniaeoe ? i?inoaaeo?oueny a o?ueio iniiaieo iai?yieao.

Ia?oee iieyaa? o eiioaeno? oe?ieeo ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo
eiie?aoecaoe?e, aaaaeaiiy a ia?a ioceeiciaanoaa iiaeo oaeo?a ?
a?aeoai?aiiy iiaeo ca’yce?a, ye? aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe oi?ioaaiiy
?ioa?ano Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa aei neia’yinueei? i?oieia??.
Naia aiie aeathoue ciiao i?ene?ieea?oa i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?ioean
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeaooai?aiiy ? ?icaeyaeaoe
neia’yinueeo i?oieia?th ye iaeei c oaeoi??a ?oiueiai oi?ioaaiiy.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a ?aea? o?iiieia?/iiai c?noaaeaiiy
oai?/eo oeyo?a Eenaiea e ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ye a eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio,
oae ? a ioce/ii-noeeueiaiio ?aeo?n?, iniaeeai a ia??iae 60-70-o ??. O?O
no. A oeueiio aniaeo? ie?aeiei aeyaeeiny ii??aiyiiy “Noa?i? a?iiaaee” ?
“Iiao/ae eo/ee”, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ia ?aeaieia?/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio
??aiyo a?aeaeca?eaethaaea no/ani? eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie, na?aae yeeo
i?iaeaie i?oieia?? caeiaee iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue. Oaeiae aeiiiaiaii
oa ?icaeiaii ?aeath Ae.?aaooeueeiai i?i iaiiaeeea?noue ?aaeeeaeueiiai
aieeao ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ia Eenaiea a ia??iae iaa/aiiy inoaiiueiai a
Iaoa?ao?cuee?e eiina?aaoi???; o ca’yceo c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy a
aeena?oaoe?? oey ?aeay iioe?th?oueny ia iia?o Eenaiea “??caeayia i?/”;
iaoii?noue, c?iaeaia ni?iaa “ii??aiyoe” cia/ou?noue aca?iini?eeoaaiiy
aeaio eiiiiceoi??a ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?oi?o iioaioe?eieo oai?/eo
iiaeeeainoae ia oie /an.

Ii-o?ao?, iaoeiaa iiaecia i?inoaaeo?oueny ? a canoinoaaii?
iaonoaeaiiai iaoiaeo aiae?co iia? c i?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie, yeee iieyaa?
o iiooeo i?oieia?/iiai i?iia?aco, a?oaoeio , ui i?aeii?yaeeiao? nia?
ioce/ii-?ioiiaoe?eiee ?icaeoie nthaeaoo ? noai?th? i?ea?iaeueiee oei
ioce/ii? ae?aiaoo?a??. Oeae iaoiae aeyaey?oueny ie?aeiei ? eia?/ii
iaoiiaeaiei o?eueee a eiioaeno? aaeeei? eoeueoo?ii-iaoeiai? iaii?aie.

Aieiaieie iaoiaeaie, ye? canoiniaai? a ?iaio?, ?:

— ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae, aeyaeaiee a o?iiieia?/iiio oa
?aeaeii-oaiaoe/iiio c?noaaeaii? oai?/eo oeyo?a Eenaiea ?
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, ae?yeueiino? “Noa?i? a?iiaaee” ? “Iiao/ae eo/ee”,
?in?enueei? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee ? oe?a?inueeiai i?oieia?/iiai iai?yieo,
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? iaii?aie a ?in?? oa Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
noie?ooy.

— iaonoaeaiee iaoiae ioceeiciaa/iai ?ioiiaoe?eiiai aiae?co. O?
iniaeeaino?, ye? aeieeathoue ? i?inoaaeothoueny a iaio iia?ao ia
nthaeaoii-ae?aiaoo?a?/iiio oa aeai?iai-noeeueiaiio ??aiyo, ? ?
?acoeueoaoii i?iieeiaiiy i?oieia?? a iia?o, ?iiae? ia iiaeooue aooe
ie?aeii aeyaeai? o?aaeeoe?eieie iaoiaeaie ioceeiciaa/iai aiae?co. Oiio,
ii?yae c onoaeaieie oi?iaie, a aeena?oaoe?? canoiniao?oueny ? aeaui
iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ioce/ieo iniaeeainoae “??caeayii? ii/?” oa “Ii/e
ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, yeee iieyaa? o ?icaeyaeaii? aioo??oi?o yeinoae
i?oo ye ia?aco ieneaiiy, na?oiaeyaeo, a?oaoeio a ?oi?e i?iaeoe?? ia
aeai?iai-noeeueia? iciaee iia?iiai oai?o, ae?aiaoo?a?th ?
ioce/ii-?ioiiaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ne?ae aaaaeaoe ?aea?, ui i?noyoueny
o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeyo aeae?eueeio iai?yie?a. Ia?oee iia”ycaiee c
?ice?eooyi i?iaeaie ioce/iiai noeeth a eiai iaoe?iiaeueiiio, ?noi?e/iiio
oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aa??aioao a i?iaeoe?? ia iia?ia ienoaoeoai,
cie?aia, iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e, na?aaeeie-e?ioey O?O no. (aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.Ai?tho?ii?, ?.Eioaiee, N.Oeoea, I.*a?eaoeii?). Ae?oaee ioiieth? oa?
aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue i?oieia?? a ?? oai?aoe/iiio oa
?noi?eei-iaoeiciaa/iio inieneaii? (i?aoe? I.Acaaeianueeiai,
N.Aaa??ioeaaa, A.?aaiiaa, E.Eaa?-No?ina, I.Ein?aa, ?.Iaeaoeinueeiai,
A.I?iiia, A.Oiii?iaa), a oaeiae — iaoeia? i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo oa
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo i?oieia?/ii? oa ?ioeo e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo oa
oieueeei?enoe/ieo oe?e (I.Aoaianue?aa, O.Aonea?aa, I.Aanaeianueeiai,
I.Eioey?aanueeiai, I.Einoiia?iaa, I.I?eea?a, I.Iioaai?). Aei o?aoueiai
iai?yieo iiaeia a?aeianoe oe?eee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c
?noi???th oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Na?aae ieo cacia/eii ?yae i?aoeue,
?ice?eaath/eo: a) o?einio?th, ?noi??th noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? (I.A?ooaanueeee, N.?o?aiia,
I.Einoiia?ia, Ae.*eaeaanueeee); a) aeeiai?eo noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?thaaiiy
ee?anueei? “Noa?i? a?iiaaee” ye eoeueoo?ii-iaoeiaiai ina?aaeea,
aaaeeeaiai aeey oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ? ioce/iiai noeeth Eenaiea
(I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.AEeoaoeueeee, I.I/?eea, I.?onia, N.?oniaa,
I.Noa?eoeueeee, I.*oaeinueeee); a) iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie,
iia’ycai? c iiaeieaiiyi ooo/ii? “?ic??aaiino?” ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e (N.A?eoea, ?.Eyoaiei), a ?onei yeeo “aienai?” iniiai? aniaeoe
aeena?oaoe??. E??i oiai, aaoi? nie?a?oueny ia oa?e ioceeiciaa/i?
e?oa?aoo?e uiaei oai?/ino? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oa Eenaiea (E.A?o?iiae/,
A.Anaoue?a, O.Aoeao, C.Aaneeaiei, A.Aicaiioae, I.Ai?ae?e/oe,
I.A??i/aiei, A.Aoaecaiei, I.Eaiaeeinueeee, O.Eeaaiiaa, I.I?eiaa,
A.Ia?ai, Ae.?aaooeeee, A.Nieiaoeia, A.Noania, A.Oeoeea?iai,
A.ssai?nueeee, A.ss?onoianueeee). Ie?aiei aeieii ne?ae aaaaeaoe
e?oa?aoo?o, ui ?ice?eaa? i?iaeaie oai?/ino? Aiaiey (A.A?eee,
Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeee, TH.Iaii, I.E?ooeeiaa, ?.Oaia), a oaeiae o? i?aoe?,
ui aeine?aeaeothoue ioce/ii-aoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ceiiaiai oeeeeo
eaeaiaea?iiai ?ieo (A.Aioianueeee, I.Aeae ?.Caioeianueeee,
A.?aaieoeueeee, E.Ea?oea, N.Eeeeiiee, E.Ninaiei, A.*e/a?ia).

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ?? iaoa??aee oa
?acoeueoaoe iiaeia aeei?enoaoe o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao oai??? oa ?noi???
na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oa na?oiai?
ioceee, a i?aeoeoe? iia?ieo iinoaiiaie “??caeayii? ii/?” Eenaiea ? “Ii/e
ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa. Aeaye? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
ioceee oa ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo ioce/ieo eoeueoo? ia oaeoeueoao?
ioceeiciaanoaa EAeAIO ?i. ?.I.Ae???a (Ee?a).

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia eaoaae??
?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii? e?eoeee Iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai. Iniiai? ?aea? oa
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ciaeoee a?aeaeooy a aeiiia?ae? ia eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaa
a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao: i?iaeaii? iai?yiee, aeine?aeaeaiiy, e?oa?aoo?a”
(Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?oueny a o?ueio iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (214 iiceoe?e) oa iioieo i?eeeaae?a (??. 1-26).
Ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo — 173 noi??iee, iioieo i?eeeaae?a — 17 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie, ?? aeooaeuei?noue ?
iaoeiaa iiaecia, aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy e iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aoiaioo?oueny oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “NOAAEAIIss EENAIEA OA ?EINUeEIAI-EI?NAEIAA AeI
NEIA’ssINUeEI? I?OIEIA?? OA ?? IOCE*IIAI AO?EAIIss” ii??aith?oueny
inieneaiiy oaie a oe?a?inueeiio ? ?in?enueeiio ioceeiciaanoa? o
a?aeiioaii? aei oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai ieooe?a. Ia a?oio? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e eiinoaoo?oueny aeaye? ia??aiicia/i?noue oa aneiao?e/i?noue,
ye? ?niothoue ? a iaioa?ii-ai?noiey?iiio ?ice?eoo?, ? a ioceeiciaa/iio
aeine?aeaeaii? aeaii? oaie. sseui neia’yii-i?oieia?/ia e?i?y oai?/ino?
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa aea/aia aeineoue ?aoaeueii, oi aiaeia?/iee iai?yiie
a niaaeuei? Eenaiea ua /aea? ia nai? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiaeii/an,
ni?eueiith i?iaeaiith a ioceeiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo?? i?i oe?a?inueeiai ?
?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi??a ? iaaeinoaoi? aena?oeaiiy ca’yce?a ?oiuei?
oai?/ino? c no/anieie iaoeiaeie oai??yie.

I?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo ?aii?oaaany aieea ia
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ?aeae ?in?enueei? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee.
Ae?yeuei?noue ?? ooiaeaoi?a O.Aonea?aa oa eiai iine?aeiaiee?a —
I.Aoaianue?aa, I.I?eea?a, ?. Ooaeyeiaa, I.Eioey?aanueeiai — io?eioaaea a
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? nei??oa iaaaoeai?, i?ae iiceoeai? a?aeaoee. Oea
ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? a ioceeiciaa/eo i?aoeyo. O?eueee o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo 80-o ??. OO noie?ooy c”yaeeeny ni?iae iia”ycaoe
i?oieia?/io oeieo ye iai?yiie a eoeueoo?ieia?? c ?in?enueeith ioce/iith
eoeueoo?ith, cie?aia — c ?einueeei-Ei?naeiaei (I.Eaiaeeinueeee,
N.Oeoei). I?iaeaia noaaeaiiy Eenaiea aei neia”yinueei? i?oieia?? a
i?iaeoe?? ia eiai iia?io oai?/?noue i?aeoe/ii ia aena?oethaaeany. I?e/ei
aei oeueiai ?nio? aeae?eueea. sseui a “Eaoiiene” ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa
/?oei a?aeia?aaeaiee eiai oai?/ee oeyo a?ae caoe?eaaeaiiy i?naiiei
niiy/iei eoeueoii aei noai?aiiy iia? “neia’yinueei? oao?aeia??” (a?i nai
ieoa i?i na?e iaioa?noe/iee na?oiaeyae, caaaeo? ?iaia Aoaianue?aa,
Oaeia), oi a ai?noiey?iiio aei?iaeo Eenaiea i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai ciaeoe
oae? a?aeiiino? noiniaii i?oieia?/ii? oeiee. I?ioa, caeo/aiiy aei ianyao
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?ieiai eiea ai?noiey?ieo oa ?noi?eei-iaoeiciaa/eo
aeaea?ae, ye? ?ai?oa ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a ioceeiciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeaei ciiao iaa?oiooaaoe i?iaeaio, caaaaoeaoe
a?ia?ao?th Eenaiea iiaeie “caaooeie” iiae?iaeoeyie, ui aeicaieythoue
ii-iiaiio ?icaeyaeaoe eiai oai?/ee i?ioean. Oae, a?aeiii, ui eiiiiceoi?
ni?eeoaaany c “iieiaeoeie i?oieiaaie”- oe?a?ioeai ca iioiaeaeaiiyi,
I.Eioey?aanueeei oa ?in?yieiii I.I?eea?ii. E??i oiai, aaeeea cia/aiiy
aeey Eenaiea iaee ae?eia? ? oai?/? eiioaeoe aaciina?aaeiuei c ae?y/aie
oe?a?inueei? aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee, ye? i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
ni?yiiaoaaee eiai ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oai?/ino? no/anieo
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo ?aeae.

I?i aeeaeiio ni?euei?noue iacaaieo iia?ieo oai??a Eenaiea ?
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa na?ae/aoue aeaye? a?aeaoee, ye? eiinoaooaaee
a?aenooi?noue “aeeaeo ethaeae”, iaeiiieaiia?noue, onoaeai?noue
ia?niiaae?a, ?oi?o ioce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Oea ni?yioaaei o?ae
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iiooe ia?aeiiiai i?oieia?/iiai a?oaoeio c aeoiaeii ia
oa?e oai?aoe/ieo oa ?noi?eei-iaoeiciaa/eo i?iaeai c i?oieia?? ?,
cie?aia, i?oieia?/ii? oeiee.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “I?oieia?y oa i?oieia?/ia oai??y a
oe?a?inueeiio oa ?in?enueeiio iaoeiaiio i?inoi?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
no.” iiaea?oueny eiiieaen iniiaieo no/anieo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai iaoee
i?i i?o c aeoeaiooaoe??th ia no?oeoo?? i?oo (?.Iaeaoeinueeee,
E.Eaa?-No?in) ye iniia? aeey aeaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoi? iaoiaeeee aiae?co
iia? “??caeayia i?/” oa “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. A ?noi?e/iiio
?aeo?n? ?icaeyaea?oueny ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?oieia?/ii? iaoee a
?in?? (i?oieia?/ia oeiea) ? a Oe?a?i? (i?oieia?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea),
?ice?eaa?oueny nooue ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiaeo, ui aoa ai?iaaaeaeaiee oa
canoiniaaiee i?oieiaaie a ?iaio? c oieueeei?ii-e?oa?aoo?iei iaoa??aeii.
E??i oiai, eiinoaoo?oueny a?eueia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?aeae,
iacaeaaei?noue iaoeiaeo iiooe?a ?in?enueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo oa
ni?euei?noue ?oi?o iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiaiaeeoueny ia i?eeeaaeao
Einoiia?iaa — Aonea?aa, Iioaai? — Aoaianue?aa oiui.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? aeoiee
neia”yii-i?oieia?/ieo ?aeae a oai?/ino? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oa Eenaiea”
aena?oeththoueny aeecuee? eiiiiceoi?ai aea? eoeueoo?ieia?/i? noa?e, ui
a?aeaeaaee ?aea? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee — oieueeei?enoeea oa
neia”yiiciaanoai. A aaeoc? oieueeei?enoeee caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia
ni?eueia aeey Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oyae?iiy aei eaeaiaea?iiai
oeeeeo ? iaea?eueo noa?iaeaai?o ia?yaeiaeo i?naiue, ui ciaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o noai?aii? eiaeiei c ieo eaeaiaea?ii-i?naiieo ca??ie.
Iaeaeaio oe?eaaeee iaeaeaai?o?, ia c?iniaai? no/anieie aieeaaie ac??oe?
ia?iaeiii?naiii? oai?/ino?. Ni?eueia aa?aaeeeaa a?aeiioaiiy eiiiiceoi??a
aei i?naiiiai iaoa??aeo a i?ioean? eiai a?aeai?o oa ia?iaie
ii??aith?oueny c iaoiaeeeith i?oieiaa O.Aonea?aa.

A noa?? neia’yiiciaanoaa (a?iiaaenueea oa iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue,
oai?/?noue) aeyaeaia aeayea ia??aiicia/i?noue a ioiieaii? no/anieo
ioce/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo yaeu Eenaieii oa ?einueeei-Ei?naeiaei. sseui o
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa a e?ioe? 60-o-ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a neia’yinueea
oaia io?eiaea ao?eaiiy o?eueee a oai?/ino? (“Na?aneay oaioacey”), oi
Eenaiei nai aeoeaii aeeth/eany o ?icaeoie i?aeneia’yinueeeo a?aeiinei —
iaeaaiaeaeoaaa eiioaeoe c? neia’yinueeeie a/aieie, a?aa o/anoue a
Neia”yinueeeo eiioea?oao, i?iiaaoaaa neia’yinuee? i?ni?, noai?thth/e
?oi? ia?iaee ? aeani? oai?e. Naia a noa?? i?aeneia’yinueeeo eiioaeo?a
Eenaiea niinoa??aa?oueny eiia??iee aieea ?aeae i?oieia?/ii? oeiee, a
iaaeao yei? i?aoethaaee a/ai?-oieueeei?enoe *ao??, Neiaa//eie, Na?a??.

Aeey ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa oa Eenaiea ?aciiaoi?aie ?aeae, ui
iioe?thaaea i?oieia?/ia oeiea, noaee ? o? oa?oiiaaiiy, o ae?yeueiino?
yeeo aiie a?aee o/anoue a e?ioe? 60-o — na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a. Ii??aiyiiy
a?ia?ao?e iaio eiiiiceoi??a a oeae ia??iae a eiioaeno? oe?iei? iaii?aie
aeooiaiiai aeeooy a?ae?aco a?aee?eee o? i?iaaeeie, ye? aein? ?niothoue a
ioceeiciaa/iio, a ?iiae? — ? a eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio inieneaii?. Ii-ia?oa,
yeui noinoiee ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa c “Iiao/ae eo/eie” ? aea/aiith
oaiith, yea aeicaiey? aoaeoaaoe eaioethaeee ?noi?eei-ioceeiciaa/eo
ca’yce?a, oi a?aeiineie Eenaiea c? “Noa?ith a?iiaaeith” a oe?a?inueeiio
ioceeiciaanoa? i?aeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaeaeeny. Oiio oe?e i?iaeai?
i?enay/o?oueny ie?aiee i?ae?icae?e aeaae. Ii-ae?oaa, oa cia/aiiy, yea
iaee a aeeoo? iaio eiiiiceoi??a a iaeei ? oie naiee /an iaeaeaa
oa?oioaaiiy aieeioei ia ?aeath ii??aiyiiy “Iiao/ae eo/ee” oa “Noa?i?
a?iiaaee”. Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino?, iaoiiaeai? ??ciei noaiii oa
?noi?e/ieie iio?aaaie eoeueoo? (ioce/iee ? ia?iaeiciaa/ee iai?yiee),
iaeaea? i?aai?caoe??, ii ia?oa, ia?aaeeee iaeaea iaeii/anio aeeiai?eo
noai?aiiy, ?icea?oo ? ?iciaaeo (na?aaeeia 60-o — ii/aoie 80-o ??.);
ii-ae?oaa, ia”?aeiaee ??cieo ca oaoii iieiaeeo ethaeae; ia?aoo?, iaee
nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a (Ae?iea, Aea?aiieaenueeee; Einoiia?ia, Oaa/aiei,
Iaeneiiae/) oa e?aea??a-?aeaieia?a (Noania, Aaeae??aa; Ae?aaiiaiia,
AEeoaoeueeee). ? aieiaia — iniiaiith aeey iaio ina?aaee?a noaea
i?iaeaia i a oe ? i i a e ue i i a i. I?ioa, ??ci? noaie eoeueoo? ?
??ci? i???ioaoe?? “Iiao/ae eo/ee” ? “Noa?i? a?iiaaee” iaoiiaeee nooo?ao
??cieoeth a iai?yiao oi?ioaaiiy ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ? Eenaiea: ia?oee
nie?aany ia i?oei? i?ioan?ei? ioce/i? o?aaeeoe?? oa ?icaeaaa ?o, ae?oaee
oaeiae ?o ? oi?ioaaa, i???iooth/enue ia ia?iaeiciaa/ee aeina?ae
(iaaea?ia Eenaiea aaaaeathoue ooiaeaoi?ii oe?a?inueei? eeane/ii?
ioceee).

A i?ae?icae?e? caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia ni?euei?noue aeayeeo aeao a
aeeoo? Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, ui na?ae/aoue i?i noiae?noue
?oi?o oai?/eo i???ioaoe?e e?ioey 60-o — ii/aoea 70-o ??. (iai?.,
caoiieaiiy nthaeaoii “Iaeneie ii/e” Aiaiey o 1871 ?.). Ie?aii
aena?oeth?oueny aeaui ia?aaeienaeueia ?ieue A.Noaniaa a inyaiaii?
?einueeei-Ei?naeiaei i?oieia?/ieo ?aeae. C iaeiiai aieo, ?in?enueeee
e?eoee aoa ciaeiiee c Aonea?aei, eenooaaany c iei, i?ioa naia a ia??iae
eiioaeo?a aeaio a/aieo (1862-1865 ??.) ca’ycee ?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi?a
c “Iiao/ae eo/eie” aoee iineaaeai? ?c-ca eiai ia?aaoaaiiy ia ee?ia??
“Aeiac”. E??i oiai, Noania aoa i?eoeeueieeii ia i?oieia?/iiai iai?yieo,
i?ioe yeiai aenooiaa, a oai??? caiice/aiiy, ? iaeiei c ia?oeo canoinoaaa
?? a aeine?aeaeaii? “I i?ienoiaeaeaiee ?onneeo aueei” o 1868 ?. Iaei??th
c caaaeueieo “eo/eenonueeeo” ni?ia ioce/ii a?aeoai?eoe neia’yinueeo
i?oieia?th iiaeia aaaaeaoe oa???th “Ieaaea”(1872 ?.), aea aiia ye
ioce/ia yaeua ia a?aeaoeany, ? a iiaeaeueoiio, ie??i
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, i?eiai c eo/eeno?a ia caoe?eaaeea. A 60-o? ae
?iee, ye? aoee aeey eiiiiceoi?a aoaiii noaiiaeaiiy, a?i ciaoiaeeany i?ae
aieeaii ?aeae “Iiao/ae eo/ee” ? iniaeeai Aaeae??aaa. Iai?yiie iaoeiaeo
niinoa?aaeaiue Noaniaa ? eiai iaeaaei?noue aei oeiee caiice/aiiy oaae ia
aieeioee ia i?ci?oa caoe?eaaeaiiy ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa
neia”yinueei-i?oieia?/iith oaiaoeeith. Iaaiaee, ioce/ii-noeeueiaee
iiai?io, yeee noaany a na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a ? ca?any c iai?oaeaiith
naiiina?oith eiiiiceoi?a, iaeaea an? eo/eenoe ioe?ithaaee ye a?aeo?ae
a?ae ?ioa?an?a ao?oea. Caa?ioaoenue aei iiai? aeey naaa ia?acii? noa?e,
?einueeee-Ei?naeia aea/aa i?aoe? oeo aaoi??a, aei yeeo aeineoue
ciaaaaeeeai noaaeany Noania (iai?., A?eueoa?ae?iaa /e Aacniiiaa).
O?eueee a?i a?ae/oa o oa?? neia’yinueei? i?oieia?? iiao ia?acii-ioce/io
noa?o, aaeaeaaoio nai?io eiiiiceoi?nueeiio iaooiaiith. Aea noaeiny oea
o?eueee a na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a, eiee aec??ee iaai? ia?aaeoiiae. Na?aae
ieo, ie aaaaea?ii, ia inoaiith ?ieue a?ae?a?aei ni?eeoaaiiy
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa c Eenaieii a ia??iae iaa/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai
eiiiiceoi?a a Iaoa?ao?cuee?e eiina?aaoi???.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Noa?a a?iiaaea” o oi?ioaaii? iiaeyae?a
Eenaiea ia i?o ? ia?yae” — eiinoaoo?oueny cia/aiiy ia’?aeiaiiy o
eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, aiineoueny ooi/iaiiy uiaei
ni?aa?aeiinaiiy eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? oeiee (Iaeneiiae/, Einoiia?ia) ?
i?oieia?/iiai iai?yieo, aieea yeiai ia Eenaiea aeiaiaeeoueny a
aeena?oaoe??; aeoeaioo?oueny ?ieue “A?iiaaee” ye ?aeeiiai iiaeeeaiai
ina?aaeea aeyao ioce/iiai oaeaioo eiiiiceoi?a. Oaeiae
?icaeyaeathoueny o? aeoe?? “Noa?i? a?iiaaee”, ye? a ??ci?e i???
a?aeaeaaee aai aeine?aeaeoaaee aniaeoe i?oieia?? neia”yi. Oaeeie aoee:
1) Aeniaaeeoe?y *oaeinueeiai a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee e?ae (1871 ?.),
yea na?aae ?ioiai aeyaeyea i?oieia?/iee oieueeei? oe?a?ioe?a; 2)
A?aee?eooy oa ae?yeuei?noue I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai A?aeae?eo ??AO, yeee
aeine?aeaeoaaa oa aiooaaa aei ae?oeo iiae?ai? iaoa??aee; 3) ???
A?oaieia?/iee c”?cae, ia yeiio cao/aee aeiiia?ae? c i?oieia??. Na?aae
iniaenoeo eiioaeo?a, ye? aeyaeeeny iaea?eueo ie?aeieie a aeaiiio
iai?yieo cacia/eii: 1) Ni?eeoaaiiy c aeooiaiei iiia?aaeieeii A?iiaaee,
aaoi?ii “Neaayineie ieoieiaee” I.Einoiia?iaei; 2) Oai?/? noinoiee c
?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeei, yeee noai?ea iaeio c ia?oeo i?aoeue i?i na?oiaeyae
oe?a?ioe?a, ca ?aeayie aeecueeo aei aeine?aeaeaiue i?oieia?a; 3) Oai?/?
? iniaeno? eiioaeoe c I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei, yeiai oe?eaaeee i?iaeaie
i?oieia??. Caa?iaia iniaeeaa oaaaa ia aaaeeeao ?ieue oe?a?inueeeo
eieyaeie ye iaea?eueo noa?iaeiiiai i?oieia?/iiai oieueeei?iiai
iaoa??aeo, ia ui aeacoaaee an? caaaeai? aeine?aeieee. Oaeiae
aaaeeeaei aeey Eenaiea ne?ae aaaaeaoe ni?eeoaaiiy c i?oieiaaie
Eioey?aanueeei ? I?eea?ii, ui a?aeaoaaeiny a iaaeao a?iiaae?anueeeo
aeoe?e.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ciaeaeaieo iaoa??ae?a aaeaeiny i?inoaaeeoe ia
o?eueee ca’ycie Einoiia?iaa ? Eenaiea ia ??ai? niaaeeiaino?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, a ? aeyaeoe nooi oai?/? ?oi? eiioaeoe. Naia aiie
noinoaaeeny eiia??ieo iaaiai?aiue ieoaiue neia”yinueei? i?oieia?? oa
ia?yaeiaino? i?ae /an cono??/ae a Ee?a? oa Iaoa?ao?c?. E??i oiai,
ni?eeoaaiiy c ?noi?eeii o 1872 ?. a?aeaeeiny ia oai?/ino? eiiiiceoi?a,
yeee a?ae?aco noai?ea aeae?eueea nieini?a?a ia neiaa O.Oaa/aiea ?
caoe?eaaeany iia?iei aeai?ii, iaienaaoe “*i?iiii?oe?a” ? “??caeayio
i?/”. Nie?ath/enue ia oe? oaeoe, aaeaeiny ie?aneeoe ?ieue I.Einoiia?iaa
a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy Eenaiea ye iia?iiai eiiiiceoi?a ? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? iia?e a oe?eiio.

*eaie “A?iiaaee” ?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee oa I. Ae?aaiiaiia
aeayeee /an oai?/i i?aoethaaee c Eenaieii. Ae?aaiiaiia a?aa o/anoue o
aoiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo “A?iiaaee”. *an noai?aiiy eiai
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeue, a yeeo a?i iaaieiooaaa ia
noa?iaeaaiino? eieyaeie, ca?aa?oueny c /anii noai?aiiy ia?oi? oa ae?oai?
?aaeaeoe?e “??caeayii? ii/?”. Noi?nia i?aoey Eenaiea c
Ia/o?i-Eaaeoeueeei iaae ieaiii iia?e “Ia?ony Aiaoneaaea” i?eiaea a
aeeoo? ienueiaiieea ia i?aeaioiaeo eiai “Na?oiaeyaeo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo”, a a a?ia?ao?? Eenaiea — ia /an ia?a?iaee “??caeayii? ii/?”.
Oiio iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i aacoiiaiee aieea Ae?aaiiaiiaa ?
Ia/oy-Eaaeoeueeiai ia inyaiaiiy eiiiiceoi?ii na?oo neia”yinueei?
i?oieia??.

An? iacaai? iicaioce/i? eiioaeoe neeaee a?oio aeey caa?iaiiy Eenaiea ia
ii/aoeo 70-o ??. aei nthaeaoo aiaie?anueei? iia?no? c yne?aaeie
i?oieia?/ieie iioeaaie, yeee aoa oai?/i ao?eaiee nii/aoeo a iia?ao?, a
iio?i — a iia?? “??caeayia i?/”. Aenoaaa oeueiai oai?o a Ee?a? o 1874 ?.
a eiai ae?oa?e ?aaeaeoe?? noaea oaae iaei??th c aeaeaoieo aeoe?e
A?iiaaee. Iia?a ia o?eueee a?aeia?aceea iaai? yaeua ? ?aea?, ui
iaioaaee a oe?a?inuee?e eoeueoo?? a oie /an, aiia noaea oaeiae yne?aaei
i?eeeaaeii ?oiueiai oai?/iai “ia?aoiaeo” a ioce/iee noeeue Eenaiea.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “NEIA’ssINUeEA I?OIEIA?*IA EIIOeAIOe?ss O AeAIO
IAOe?IIAEUeII-NOEEUeIAEO AA??AIOAO. “??CAeAssIA I?*” EENAIEA OA “II*Ue
IA?AAe ?IAEAeANOAII” ?EINUeEIAI-EI?NAEIAA” aiae?co?oueny, ye
oe?a?inueeee ? ?in?enueeee eiiiiceoi?e i?ae?eoee aei nthaeaoo Aiaiey.
I?inoaaeaii, ye? c i?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa?eoee o e?a?aooi eiaeii?
iia? ? ye aiie o?ainoi?ioaaeeny o ca’yceo c iaoe?iiaeueiei-noeeueiaei
ao?eaiiyi nthaeaoo. C o?aooaaiiyi iiaeaiiai ?ai?oa iaoa??aeo c i?oieia??
i?iaiae?ciaaia ioce/ii-noee?noe/ia ao?eaiiy i?oo ia ??cieo ??aiyo a
iia?ao, aeyaeai? ?oi? ni?euei? oa a?aei?ii? ?ene. Ia iniia? aiae?co iia?
neia’yinueea i?oieia?y ?icaeyaea?oueny noeeaooai?thth/ei /eiieeii.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?oieia?/ii-ia?yaeia?
iniaeeaino? iia?no? Aiaiey “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” c o?aooaaiiyi
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo eiioeaioe?e. sse neie?aoe/ia yaeua neia’yinueea
i?oieia?y a iia?no? ?nio? ye iaea?oa?/i?oee oa?, nai???aeiee a?oaoei ?
ia? aeae?eueea i?iya?a, aaaeeeaeie c yeeo ? o?eoioii?/ia nenoaia
Einiino, i?oieia?/i? ia?niiaae?, aa?i?-iaae?aoi?e ?
eaeaiaea?ii-ia?yaeiaa i?aea?oioy. O?eoioii?/ia nenoaia (?iciiae?e
Einiino ia o?e noa?e — Iaai, Caieth, I?aecaiiee na?o) ?nio? a iia?no? ia
a iiaiiio aeaeyae? — a?aenooiy Iaaania noa?a. I?aaenoaaiee I?aecaiiiai
na?oo — oea *i?o. Nieioa ? Iaoethe — aa?i?-iaae?aoi?e, oiaoi,
ii?aeiothoue iciaee aeaio noa? — Caie? oa I?aecaiiiai na?oo.
I?enoinoaaiiy ae?? iia?no? aei eaeaiaea?iiai nayoa ??caeaa iaoiiaeth?
ae?? aa?i?a ? ?icaeoie nthaeaoo.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oaiaeaioe?? aca?iiaieeao
Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, ye? oieono? “??caeayia i?/”. I?ae /an
iaa/aiiy a eean? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa a Iaoa?ao?c? Eenaiei i?aoethaaa
iaae ?? o?aoueith ?aaeaeoe??th. Oiio a ?aaeyinueeiio ioceeiciaanoa? aoa
noi?iiaaiee iiaeyae, ui ia iia?o aieeioa ?in?enueeee eiiiiceoi?. I?ioa,
c oeei ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny. A Iaoa?ao?c? Eenaiei ia?a?iaeya “??caeayio
i?/”, yea aaea aenoaaeyeany c oni?oii ia ee?anuee?e noeai? o 1874 ?ioe?.
O ia??iae iaa/aiiy o ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ia eiioeaiooaeueiiio ??ai? a
iia?? ia a?aeaoeiny i?yeeo ci?i. Eiioeaioe?y “??caeayii? ii/?”, yea
ai?noeea ??ci? ia?iaeiciaa/? oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? oaiaeaioe??,
neeaeany ua o ae?oa?e ?aaeaeoe??. A eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo ?a?iiaenueeiai
iia?iiai ienoaoeoaa “??caeayia i?/” neiaie?coaaea noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iia?iiai oaao?o. Caaaa/aiee aeina?aeii ia?iaeiciaanoaa a
eiai oe?ieiio niaeo??, Eenaiei iineeth? a nai?e iia?? ia?yaeiao noi?iio
eaeaiaea?iiai i?oa, caeeaaeaiiai a aiaie?anuee?e iia?no?. Eieyaeee,
yne?aai e nieiaeoi iiaeai? a iia??, aeyaeythoueny ?? nai???aeiith
noeeueiaith iciaeith. Iaa?oue ia oii? eiiiiceoe?eii? aaiethoe?? iia?e
a?ae ia?oi? aei o?aouei? ?aaeaeoe?? ?? oieueeei?ia, eieyaeii-i?oieia?/ia
noi?iia caeeoaeany iniiaiei oeaiaiooth/ei iiiaioii. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
ieoaiiy “aieeao” caa?iaii oaaao ia oai?/o a?ia?ao?th naiiai
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa. Ii-ia?oa, ye aeeeaaea/-ii/aoeiaaoeue, ui ia iaa
i?ioan?eii? ioce/ii? ina?oe, nai iio?aaoaaa ciaiue ? aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
aeina?aeo, a?i ia i?a ia oie /an ?aaeeeaeueii aieeiooe ia oai?/ee
i?ioean Eenaiea (ye a?aeiii, ca iea/eia oe?a?inueeiai ieooey aoea aaea
Eaeioe?anueea eiina?aaoi??y). Ii-ae?oaa, o na?aaeei? 70-o ??.
?einueeee-Ei?naeia ciaoiaeeany o noai? oai?/i? e?ece, aeo?ae c yei?
iae?aneeany a 1875-76 ??. caaaeyee ciaoiaeaeaiith iiai? ia?acii? noa?e
— eaeaiaea?ii-ia?yaeiaiio oieueeei?o ? neia”yinueei? i?oieia??. Naia a
oeueiio iai?yi? ia?iaeiciaa/ee oa neia”yiiciaa/ee aeina?ae oe?a?inueeiai
eiiiiceoi?a i?a ni?e/eieoeny aei iiai?ioo o oai?/ino? ?in?enueeiai
ieooey ia oeyoo aeoiaeo eiai c e?ece. *a?ac oe?a?inueeo oieueeei?io
niaaeueio, ?? iaea?oa?/i?o? oa?e, ciaaoeai yeeo “?cna?aaeeie” aoa
Eenaiei, ?einueeiio-Ei?naeiao iiaee a?aee?eaaeeny ia o?eueee iiaa
?ioiiaoe?eia noa?a, aea e aeeaeii? iaoe?iiaeuei? eoeueoo?i? i?ioeanne.
Oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui oea aoei naia oae. ?in?enueeee eiiiiceoi? caienaa c
aieino Eenaiea e?eueea ia?iaeieo i?naiue. Oe?a?inueeee oieueeei? a?i
aeei?enoaa a iacaaa?oai?e “Iaei?inneeneie oaioacee”, a iia?ao “Iaeneay
ii/ue”, “Ieaaea”, “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. Oe?a?inueea e?i?y noaea
nai???aeiei aoaiii ia oeyoo aei iaieiae?iiy ?einueeei-Ei?naeiaei
neia”yinueei? eoeueoo?ii-ioce/ii? niaaeueie, oai?/i ao?eaii? a iia?i?e
“neia”yinuee?e oao?aeia??”.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Neia”yinueea i?oieia?y a nthaeaoao oa
?ioiiaoe?ei?e ae?aiaoo?a?? iia? “??caeayia i?/” Eenaiea oa “Ii/ue ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii” ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa” aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iaeaea? iia?e
a?aeia?aceee aeaa ??cieo oai?/eo i?aeoiaee aei ?aeeiiai nthaeaoiiai
aeaea?aea, aeaa iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?ace na?oo. Aaeeeo ?ieue a oeueiio
a?ae?a?aee aoaie oai?/iai oeyoo eiaeiiai c eiiiiceoi??a, ia yeeo
noai?thaaeenue iia?e “??caeayia i?/” ? “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? e?a?aooi Eenaiei ? Noa?eoeueeee aee?aneeee c iueiai
iaeiiai c iniiaieo ia?niiaae?a iia?no? Aiaiey — *i?oa. I?ioa,
a?aenooi?noue ia?aco *i?oa a “??caeayi?e ii/?”, a /iio iaiaeii?aciai
aei??eaee Eenaieo, a ?iaio? iiynith?oueny oaeeie oaeoi?aie:
i?oieia?/ieie oyaeaiiyie oe?a?ioe?a, ca yeeie /i?o — oea eii?/ia,
aeaetha?aeia ?noioa, a ia aeaiii; o?aaeeoe?yie eii?/ii? iia?e ?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?yaeiaiai oaao?o, a yeee iiae?ai? ia?niiaae? io?eioaaee
a?ioaneia? oa?aeoa?enoeee; iaiiaeeea?noth ao?eaiiy ia oe?a?inueeeo
noeaiao a oie /an aeiaaeueieo caaeoi?a. E??i oiai, aeiaaaeaia iayai?noue
*i?oa a na?aeiiino? aa?i?a, a oaeiae eiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eaeoiioeai?e
nenoai? iia?e. Ioce/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaiiiieia?/ii? noa?e, yea ? nooi
?ino?oiaioaeueiith, a?aeiia?aea? i?oieia?/iiio oyaeaiith — ci?iththoueny
a?aeo?iee i?e caaaeuei?e noaa?eueiino? ia?aco, eaeo-aeaiaioe a?eueii
eiia?iothoueny a ??cieo neooaoe?yo, ia ci?ithth/e nai?? nooiino?.
Nai???aeio ioce/ii-ae?aiaoo?a?/io o?aeoiaeo io?eiathoue Aaeoea ?
Iaoethe, a oa?aeoa?enoeeao yeeo aeyaeaii ?ene aa?i?a-iaae?aoi??a. A
?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaai? ioce/i? iniaeeaino? ?oiuei? “iina?aaeieoeueei?”
ooieoe??. A ia?o?? Iaoethea ?ioiiaoe?eii /?oei a?aeia?aaeai? aea?
i?ioeeaaei? noa?e, icao/ai? ?ioiiaoe?yie oe?a?inueeeo eicaoeueeeo
i?naiue ? “iioiea?/ieie” iioeaaie (iai?., “oaiith oi?eueiiai iaiith”),
ye? caeaaeii a?ae nthaeaoii? neooaoe?? eiai i?acaioothoue. O Aaeoee
?ene aa?iy-iaae?aoi?a aeyaeythoueny ia i?yii, a aeaui iiina?aaeeiaaii:
a?i ? ca?o/ieeii nai?o iaeeeo ii/ooo?a aei Ienaie, ye? aaaaea? i?iyaii
“ia/enoi?” neee. Naia oiio a?i a?ae?eaa?oueny a?ae a?iiaaee a
nae?aiaioaeueiee /an eieyaeoaaiiy — iiiaio ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii ?
i?e?iaeith. ?icaeoie ia?aco Aaeoee ye aa?iy-iaae?aoi?a iiaeia ie?aneeoe
oaeei /eiii: a?ae iaaeeiieaiiai noaio — /a?ac aeinyaiaiiy iaoe — aei
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeooaaii? aa?iii?? oa ?aeiaiiy c a?iiaaeith. ?ioiiaoe?eii
oey noaia i?aee??ieaia oae: ?iaeea?aeoaeueia noa?a, yea ia? aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai c eaeoiioeaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith “/i?o?ai?”(i?ii?, iiieaeaiiy
uaae?a, ieaaaeuei?noue, o?eaeieuei?noue, ciaioaiee eaae) — ei?ioei/aniee
aieea eicaoeueeeo ?ioiiaoe?e — eoeuei?iaoe?y ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? noa?e —
ye?niee ia?ao?ae (iaaei?iee eaae, ia?oia?noue — ?V ae., Iiia?aeaiiy
Aaeoee) — aa?iii?eia ii?aeiaiiy c? noa?ith ia?iaeieo neaaeeueieo
?ioiiaoe?e (?V ae., Caeeth/iee oi?).

Oaeiae ?icaeyiooi ioce/ia ao?eaiiy “i?e?iaeii?” a?ia?ii? iiiceoe??
“Caa??thoa — Iiaiee i?nyoeue”(? ae?y, ae?oaa ea?oeia), i?inoaaeaii ??
ca”ycie c eaeaiaea?iei i?oii, aeyaeaii eiio?anoi? ioce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?? neeaaeiaeo. A noeaiao Caa??thoe aeii?io? iioeaiee oaiaoeci
?ino?oiaioaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ?ioiiaoe?eii aeecueeee eaeoiioeaai
“aeaiiiieia?/ii?” noa?e. Ia oii? o?aiiethth/eo naeoiaeiaeo oa ieoaaieo
?ioiiaoe?e o ??cieo ?ino?oiaio?a aeieeathoue i?e?iiioeae, ye?
aienothoueny a caaaeueio ea?oeio “aeeai? noeo??” ? noai?ththoue
o?iiaoe/i? “oaee?” niaaeo oa i?aeeiio. Iaaiaee, ai?ciae “Iiaiiai
i?nyoey” — oea ioceea niieith ? niiaeyaeaeueiino?. Ia ci?io o?iiaoeoe?
i?eoiaeeoue noai?a aa?iii?/ia “aa?oeeaeue”, oi?aeuei?noue c aa?aaie
noa?iaeiieo eaae?a. Oao?aoi?aei? oiaee oa eaaeiaa ia?ai?ii?noue
?ioiiaoe?eii iia’ycothoue ?? c eieyaeeaie.

?einueeee-Ei?naeia ii-?ioiio i?ae?eoia aei nthaeaoo Aiaiey.
Caaaa/aiee ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieie ciaiiyie c i?oieia??, aeiaooeie c
aeine?aeaeaiue ?in?enueei? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee oa /a?ac i?aoeth c
eaeaiaea?ii-ia?yaeiaei oieueeei?ii, ?einueeee-Ei?naeia cia?acea Einiin o
eiai oe?e?ni?no?: Iaai — Caiey — I?aecaiiee na?o. Eiiiiceoi? noai?ea
“aa?oeeaeueio” no?oeoo?o i?oo, oa?aoe iiiceoe?th *i?oo ? Niein? o
aeaeyae? Ianaiy ? Eieyaee, /ei aeiaoaeoaaaaa o?eoioii?/io nenoaio
Einiino, a?aenooith o Aiaiey. I?oieia?/ii-?eooaeueiee ia?niiaae Ianaiue,
aaaaeaiee aei ia?e neia’yinuee?e Eieyae?, iaaeaa iia?? iaoe?iiaeueiee
?in?enuee?e a?aeo?iie. A iane?aeie neeaaeii? aca?iiae?? iia?ii?
ae?aiaoo?a?? oa ia?yaeo, inoaii?e iaaoaa? aeai?iai-ocaaaeueiaiiai
aeaeyaeo (oiaoi, iia?a-ia?yae, iia?a-eieyaeea), ui ii?aeio?oueny c
?nioth/ei eieyaeiei ia?yaeii ia nthaeaoiiio ??ai?. Oea i?eoaiaiia
iiia?aaei?i iia?ai “neia”yinueei? oao?aeia??”, cie?aia, “Ieaae?”. A
?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ioce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?o?/ieo ia?niiaae?a ?
aa?i?a-iaae?aoi??a, aeey yeeo iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeiith oi?iith aeyaeany
eaeoiioea, i?aee?aneth?oueny eiai neiaie?/ia i?e?iaea (a?aeiia?aei?noue
aioo??oiy (i?o?/ia nooi?noue) ? ciai?oiy (ioce/ia ao?eaiiy)). Ine?eueee
eiaeia c o?ueio eaiie o?eoioii?/ii? nenoaie ia? naith, eiio?anoio aei
?ioi?, ?ioiiaoe?eio noa?o, eaeoiioeae ?icaeyioo? a ?o iaaeao. Oae, a
I?aecaiio eaieo ?ioiiaoe?eii aienai? eaeoiioeae *i?oa, Nieioe, Iaoethea.
Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ii aieaeueii-?ino?oiaioaeueiee aeeeaae, ciaioai? eaaee,
?ioa?aaee oa aei?aee, inoeiaoi?noue ai?eciioaeueia /e aa?oeeaeueia ia
??ai? ni?aa?aeiioaiue caoe?a, iaeeo iioea?a, oai. An? eaeoiioeae c?a?ai?
oe?eeii a A?n?anuee?e eieyaeoe? (??? ae?y, /aoaa?oa ea?oeia). Iaaaniee
na?o ia ia? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oiniaeaiue, oiio eaeoiioeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee io?eiothoue ie?ai? a?oie ia?niiaae?a, aea a oe?eiio aiie
i?ioenoiyoue noa?? I?aecaii?e. Eiioeaio?aoe?y ? eaeii?ci ioce/iiai
oaiaoecio, ui eaea a?ae nooiino? i?oo, noai?th? i?ea?iaeueiee oei
ioce/ii? ae?aiaoo?a?? a iia??, aea iniiaiith ?oo?eiith neeith ?
a?ia?i?noue, eiio?ano ia ??ai? iioea?a, oai, ai?ciae?a, noeai, ea?oei.

A ie?aiiio i?ae?icae?e? ii??aiththoueny eieyaei? ia?yaee
“??caeayii? ii/?” oa “Ii/e ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. Eaeaiaea?iee i?o,
iieeaaeaiee a iniiao iia?no? Aiaiey ia o?eueee iaoiiaeth? ? ?aaeaiaioo?
iiaaae?ieo aa?i?a ? nthaeaoi? neooaoe??, a?i oaeiae ?aae?co?oueny a
?eooaeueieo ae?yo. Eieyaeiee ia?yae a iia?ao ? eiie?aoecaoe??th
niiy/ii-a?ieia?/iiai /anii?inoi?iaiai aei??o oieueeei?o, a?i iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a aniaeo? a?aeiiaeaiiy eini?/ii? oii?yaeiaiino?, yea
ii?ooo?oueny a iiiaio iaeaaaii?oeo eaeaiaea?ieo nayo (a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
— ??caeai, ia?iaeaeaiiy Niioey, iiai?io Niioey ia e?oi). Naia oaeo
ooieoe?th oii?yaeiaiiy Einiino ? na?oo ethaeae, a?aeiaaeoaaiiy a?ae
aeaiiiieia?/ii? noa?e ianooue a nia? eieyaei? ia?yaee “??caeayii? ii/?”
oa “Ii/e ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. A o?aeooaaii? eieyaeieo ia?yae?a aeaiia
eiiiiceoi?aie i?inoaaeothoueny iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?, oi/a iaeaeaa
caa?oathoueny aei oe?a?inueeiai aa??aioo eieyaeie. O
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ia?yae iaiia ae ia?aaiaeeoue /an o i?ino?? ?
?icina?aaeaeo?oueny ii o?ueii eini?/iei noa?ai. Aea /anoea eiie?aoii?
eieyaeii? ae?? ciaioo?oueny. O Eenaiea eieyaeiee ia?yae ?icai?oa?oueny
ai?eciioaeueii, e?iaa?ii, iiaeeiath/e nthaeaoiee ?icaeoie.

Oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaai? ioce/i? iniaeeaino? eieyaeie, aeei?enoaieo
eiiiiceoi?aie, aeoeaioo?oueny ?oi? ni?eueiino? ? a?aei?iiino? o a?aeai??
? ia?iaoe? iani?a?a, o i?eioeeiao ?oiueiai i?iaaaeaiiy a iia?ao. Eenaiei
a?aeae?a? eieyaeee oea?eiaii? oaiaoeee, a ?einueeee-Ei?naeia
i???ioo?oueny ia a?eueo noa?iaeaai? c?acee c yne?aai ae?aaeaieie
a?oa?/ieie ?enaie. sse i?aaeei, Eenaiei a?aeie?aieth? eieyaeee iaeio
a?ae iaeii?, iiaeath/e ?o ye naiino?ei? ooaeiaei? iaeeieoe?.
Ni?aathoueny aiie a?oiaie aiein?a o aeaeyae? aeaio-o?ueio eoieao?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iniaeeainoae ia?iaeii? i?aeaieineiai? iie?oii??.
?einueeee-Ei?naeia “cae?a?” eieyaeee o?eueee a aeaio noeaiao. A ieo
eiaeia a?oia aiein?a ni?aa? naith eieyaeeo, aea iaeiiaieinii, aac
aioo??oiueiai ?iciiae?eo ia aeae?eueea ia?o?e. Ni?eueieie ?enaie aeey
iaio iia? ? ?iciiae?e ia ae?ii/? oa /ieia?/? eieyaeee, caa?aaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?iiai iiiaioo caa?oaiiy, ae?aeia oi?iaeo a?oi, ?a?iaee i?aeoaeno.

O AENIIAEAO aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oa?a?aaoe iaai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iia?iiai ienoaoeoaa
oa iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, iia?e a?aeaeee iniaeeaino? i?oo ye
na?oiaeyaeii? iiaeae? ? neie?aoe/iiai ooaeiaeiueiai yaeua. O iacaaieo
iia?ao ?in?enueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai ieooe?a i?o ia?aie?oa?oueny c
??cieie ?iaeiaeie oa aeaeiaeie aeai?iaeie iciaeaie (aiin, e??eea;
ae?aia, eiiaae?y) ? aenooia? ia”?aeioaaeueiei no?eaeiai. Naia i?o
ei?eao? ioce/io ae?aiaoo?a?th, aeeeeeath/e aei aeeooy i?ea?iaeuei?
iia?i? oai?e, ye? oai?/i a?aeaeee eoeueoo?ii-iaoeiao ? ienoaoeueeo
neooaoe?th ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.

I?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii- ? iaoe?iiaeueii-noeeueia?e a?aei?iiino? a
“??caeayi?e ii/?” ? “Ii/e ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” iiaeia aeyaeoe ?yae iciae
ia ??ai? ioce/ii? ae?aiaoo?a??, ye? aeacothoue ia aeai?iao
naiino?ei?noue oai??a. Oaeeie ?:

— iayai?noue i?oieia?/ieo ia?niiaae?a (*i?o), ioa?aeoa?eciaaieo
eaeoiioeaieie nenoaiaie, a?aeiia?aeath/eie ?oi?e nooiino? (??aiiaaaa
ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai) c iaaiith naiaioeeith ioce/ieo cania?a;

— aa?i?a-iaae?aoi??a, ui ii?aeiothoue iciaee ??cieo iiethn?a
(i?eie?ththoue ?o), a a ioce/iiio aniaeo? — i?ioeeaaeieo ?ioiiaoe?eieo
noa? (Aaeoea, Iaoethe, Nieioa);

— a?aeoai?aiiy i?oieia?/iiai ono?ith na?oo — o?eoioii?/ii? nenoaie — a
oe?e?niiio aai iaiiaiiio aeaeyae? c iaaeaiiyi eiaei?e c eaiie
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?ioiiaoe?eii? oa?aeoa?enoeee (iiaii — o
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, iaiiaii — o Eenaiea);

— aecia/aiiy ia? a?ia?ieo iiiceoe?e ia ??aiyo eaiie o?eoioii?/ii?
nenoaie (?einueeee-Ei?naeia), I?e?iaee (Eenaiei), ia?niiaae?a (iaeaeaa
eiiiiceoi?e);

— iayai?noue ?eooaeueii-ia?yaeiai? ae??, yea a eaeaiaea?iiio i?o? ?
iin??i aieiaii? ?aea?, a?aeoai?aiiy ?? /a?ac iaeaeaai?o? oa?e oieueeei?o
— eieyaeee. Ia?yaeia? noeaie a iia?ao aenooiathoue iieacieeii
“c?iuaiino?” ia?iaeiiai ? i?ioan?eiiai ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
noeeth, a aanue eiiieaen neia’yii-i?oieia?/ieo ?aeae, ?aae?ciaaieo /a?ac
a?oa?/i? eieyaei? ia?yaee — eiai aeeiai?/iei eiiiiiaioii.

Oaeei /eiii, iniaeeaino? iia? Eenaiea ”??caeayia i?/” oa
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, ui ? iane?aeeii ye
?oiueiai i?oieia?/iiai i?aeoaenoo, oae ? aaaaoianiaeoieo yaeu
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe ?o i?ea?iaeueieie
ioce/ii-noeai?/ieie oai?aie, aienaieie a ?iiaioe/io aeai?iai-noeeueiao
iaii?aio ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.

I?oieia?/i? ?aea?, caeeaaeai? oa oai?/i ?aae?ciaai? a “??caeayi?e ii/?”
oa “Ii/e ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, ? iaaeae? aeyaeeeny ie?aeieie ye aeey
oai?/ino? iaio eiiiiceoi??a, oae ? aeey oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei?
ioce/ieo eoeueoo? a oe?eiio. Iaeaea? iia?e aaaaeathoueny ?oa?aeieie o
oai?/?e a?ia?ao?? Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa. Aaeaea, caa?ioaoenue
aei nthaeaoo c i?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie, iaeaeaa ieooe? c?aooith i?eeoee
aei iiaeo cania?a ioce/ii-noeeueiaiai ?icaeoeo. “??caeayia i?/”
neioacoaaea noeeueia? iiooee Eenaiea ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? oai?/ino? ?
caeeaea iniiae eiai c?inoaiiy ye iaoe?iiaeueiiai iia?iiai eiiiiceoi?a.
Ia aeeaeiiiio ??ai? i?o?/ia oi?aa?nae?caoe?y aeyaeeany a aeai?ia?e
naiaiae?, a ?iaeoa — a aeai?ia?e aaaaoiaei??iino? ia?oi? iia?e
oe?a?inueeiai eiiiiceoi?a. I?ney o?aouei? ?aaeaeoe?? “??caeayii? ii/?”
(1883 ?.) Eenaiei noai?th? “Ooiieaio”(1884) (ciia ca Aiaieai),
i???ioiaaio ia ioce/ii-ae?aiaoe/iee oaao?, a ye?e, c iaeiiai aieo,
nie?a?oueny ia nai? iiia?aaei? iaaeaaiiy, a c ?ioiai, — ooea?
a?aeiia?aeieo oi?i aeey ie?aneaiiy iiaiai aeai?o i?naiii? iia?e.

“Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” caaa?oeea “neia’yinueeo oao?aeia?th”
?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ? aeaaea ?in?enueeiai eiiiiceoi?a c oai?/i? e?ece
80-o ?ie?a. Aiia iae?aneeea iia? oeyoe, iia”ycai? c neioii?caoe??th
iia?iiai aeai?o ? iiaith ia?aciith eaaei-aa?iii?/iith noa?ith (cie?aia,
aeine?aeieee a?aecia/athoue aaciina?aaei?e ca”ycie ioce/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee “iioiea?/ii? noa?e” c oa?aeoa?enoeeith “ei?ie?anoaa
Eauay” c “in?iiuei? eaci/ee”). Ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? ? oa, ui “Ii/ue”
i?aeaiooaaea iiyao “Naaeei” o 1895 ?. ? iaeaea ia?aeaeueii c iei
noai?thaaeany, a caiaeii, o 1904 ?. ?? i?oieia?/i? “ia?inoee” i?i?inee a
ai?ei- i?oieia?ciaai?e iia?i?e o?anoe? “Neacaiea i iaaeaeeiii a?aaea
Eeoaaea”.

?aeay ao?eaiiy i?oa a ioceoe? aeyaeeany aeineoue ie?aeiith ? aeey
ianooiieo iieie?iue eiiiiceoi??a, /ey oai?/?noue ?icaeaaeany a e?ioe?
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. ?icaeyioo? iia?e Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa
ni?eyee ?icaeoeo aeae?eueeio oaiaeaioe?e . Na?aae ieo oae?:

— caa?iaiiy aei aeaaiueineia’yinueeeo ia?aeac?a ? eaaaiae c aeaiaioaie
ia?yaeiaino? (A.I?aeai?aoeueeee “Eoiaeueia ?ne?a”, I.Eaiioiae/ “Ia
?onae/ei aaeeeaeaiue”, A.Eyoioeinueeee “Cieioee ia?o/”);

— caa?iaiiy acaaae? aei ia?yaeo, ui aenooia? i?ioioeiii
ioce/ii-noeai?/iiai oai?o. sse i?aaeei, aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii a ieo ?
?eooaeuei?noue c i???ioaoe??th ia i?aena?aeii?noue, ui ii?iaeaeo?
“noeo?ei?noue” ioce/ieo cania?a (neia”yinoai, ne?onoai)(N.I?ieio”?a
“Neeoneay ntheoa”, ?.No?aaeinueeee “Aania nayuaiiay”, “Naaaeaaea”);

— ioce/ia ao?eaiiy iniaeeainoae caaaeueiiai i?oiieneaiiy aac
iaoe?iiaeueii? eiie?aoecaoe??, na?aae yeeo iaoiiaeai?noue iiae?e,
caeaaei?noue ethaeae a?ae “aeueo nee”, oiui (N.Oai??a “I?anoay”,
?.No?aaeinueeee “Oea? Aaeei”).

Oai?/ee ?icaeoie o?aaeeoe?e ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa ? Eenaiea, iia’ycaieo
?c aeai?iai-nthaeaoieie ? ioce/ii-ae?aiaoo?a?/ieie ciao?aeeaie a iia?? c
i?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie, iiaeia niinoa??aaoe a oai?/ino? eiiiiceoi??a
na?aaeeie-e?ioey OO no. — A.Aoaa?aiea, A.Ee?aeea, E.Aee/ei,
?.Noaieiae/a, TH.Aooeea, E.I?eaiaeeia.

Ia?ae?e iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. I.?einueeee-Ei?naeia oa I.Eenaiei: ?noi??y oai?/eo noinoie?a //
Ioceea. — 1997. — ? 3. — N. 23 – 25.

2. I.Eenaiei o aeca?eae? ee?anueei? “Noa?i? A?iiaaee”// Oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy eoeueoo?ieia??: Ca??ea noaoae. — E.:”Eiain”, 1997. —
*. 1. — N. 16-22.

3. I.Eenaiei oa I.Einoiia?ia: aeeoo?a? oa oai?/? ia?aeae?// Ee?anueea
ioceeiciaanoai: Ca. Noaoae. – Aei. 1. – E.: EAeAIO ?i. ?.I.Ae???a, 1998.
– N. 34-43.

Noaiainueea I.N. Neia’yinueea i?oieia?y ye oaeoi? noeeaooai?aiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e iia?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O noi??//y.
“??caeayia i?/” I.Eenaiea ? “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”
I.?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.03. — Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai. —
Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aeo?ae Eenaiea ? ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa
aei neia”yinueei? i?oieia?? oa ?? aieea ia i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeaooai?aiiy. I?aee?aneth?oueny cia/aiiy
?in?enueei? i?oieia?/ii? oeiee ? oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?oieia??
a i?ioean? caa?iaiiy iaio eiiiiceoi??a aei na?oo aeaaiueiai neia”yinoaa.
I?inoaaeo?oueny aieea ? aeya i?oo ye na?oiaeyaeii? iiaeae? a “??caeayi?e
ii/?” oa “Ii/e ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. Aeey oeueiai canoiniaaii
iaonoaeaiee iaoiae iiooeo i?oieia?/iiai a?oaoeio ? a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy eiai
a ioce/i?e ae?aiaoo?a?? iaio iia?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?o, neia’yinueea i?oieia?y, o?eoioii?/ia nenoaia
einiino, aa?ie-iaae?aoi?, noeeue, iaoe?iiaeueia noeeaooai?aiiy,
ia?yaeiaee oieueeei?.

Stepanska A.S. Slovenic miphology as a factor of style-forming in the
Ukrainian and Russian opera of the second half of the 19tn century. “The
Cristmas night” by N.Lysenko and “The night befor Cristmas”
N.Rymsky-Korsakov. – Manuskript.

Dissertation on the research of the academie degree of the Doctor of
arts as pet speciality 17.00.03 — Music art. — National Music Academy of
Ukrain Tchaikovskiy, Kyiv, 1999.

The item of Dissertation is the approach of Lysenko and Rymsky-Korsakov
to the Slovenic mythology and its influence of the process of the
national and individual style-forming. The importans of the Russian
mythological school and the Ukrainian recearches in mythology is the
process approach of both composers to the world of ancient Slovenic
culture is stressed. The influence and recognition of the mythas the
world-type in “The Cristmass night” and “The night befor Cristmass”is
followed. For this the special method of search for the mythology
arhytype and its reflection in the music dramaturgy in the both operas
was used.

The Key-words: myth, slovenic mythology, three-parts system of the
Univers, heroe-mediator, style, national style-forming, ritual
folk-lore.

Noaiaineay A.N. Neaayineay ieoieiaey eae oaeoi? noeeaia?aciaaiey a
oe?aeineie e ?onneie iia?a aoi?ie iieiaeiu O?O noieaoey. “??caeayia i?/”
I.Eenaiei e “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” I.?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.03. — Iocueaeueiia eneonnoai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu ei. I.E.*aeeianeiai, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony iiaeoiae Eenaiei e ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa e
neaayineie ieoieiaee e aa aeeyiea ia i?ioeann iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai noeeaia?aciaaiey. A iniiao aeenna?oaoeee iieiaeai
n?aaieoaeueiue iaoiae, eioi?ue aue iiaeneacai enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iie
neooaoeeae aoi?ie iieiaeiie O?O aaea, a eiaiii, ia?aeeaeueiui e
iaeiia?aiaiiui ?acaeoeai eae ieoieiae/aneie iaoee a ?innee e a Oe?aeia,
oae e oai?/aneei noaiiaeaieai Eunaiei e ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa. A
aeenna?oaoeee iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi ia?auaiea oe?aeineiai e ?onneiai
eiiiiceoi?ia e nthaeaoai n ieoieiae/aneeie iioeaaie auei anoanoaaiiui
?acoeueoaoii iauaaa?iiaeneie e a oi aea a?aiy – iaoeeiiaeueiie
eoeueoo?ii-iao/iie aoiinoa?u, a eioi?ie iaeia ec aaaeoueo ?ieae
i?eiaaeeaaeaea ieoieiae/aneie oeiea (eee a aieaa oe?ieii niunea –
ieoieiae/aneiio iai?aaeaieth). Ia iniiaa aiaeeca oai?/aneeo aeia?aoee
oe?aeineiai e ?onneiai eiiiiceoi?ia naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi iooue e
iia?ai n yeaiaioaie neaayineie ieoieiaee i?ieaaae o eaaeaeiai /a?ac
ciaeiinoai n ia?yaeiaui oieueeei?ii e nicaeaiea nai?ieeia iaeaieaa
ae?aaieo ia?iaeiuo ianai, eioi?ua io?aaeaee ieoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea e
iaeaieaa a?oae/iia iocueaeueiia iuoeaiea. E?iia oiai, ?aciiaoi?aie
ieoieiae/aneeo eaeae aeey Eunaiei e ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa noaee oa
iauaaeeiaiey, a eioi?uo i?ioiaeeei eo ie?iaicc?ai/aneia e oai?/aneia
noaiiaeaiea – “Coa?ay a?iiaaea” e “Iiao/ay eo/ea”. Aeaaiaea?y
iiiaia?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe Eunaiei a A?iiaaea a 60-o – na?aaeeia 70-o a
aai oai?/anoaa ?aiaa ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa nic?aee i?aaeiinueee aeey
ia?auaiey e nthaeaoo ni neaayineeie ieoieiae/aneeie iioeaaie. Iiyoiio
aai iia?a “??caeayia i?/” ?anniao?eaaaony a aeenna?oaoeee eae
i?iecaaaeaiea, noieone?iaaaoaa ana aiciiaeiua iai?aaeaiey aai
a?iiaaeianeie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea eae ciaiaiaoaeue noi?ie?iaaiiiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai noeeae, iaeiei ec aianoeeaauo
oaeoi?ia eioi?iai noaea neaayineay ieoieiaey a a?
iaoeeiiaeueii-oe?aeineii oieueeei?ii-ia?yaeiaii aa?eaioa. Iie?aynue ia
oaeoth eiioeaioeeth, a ?aaioa i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue
ia aii?in acaeiiaeeyiee ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa e Eunaiei, auoaeaaoee ec
oaeoa iao/aiey oe?aeineiai eiiiiceoi?a a eeanna ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa a
Iaoa?ao?aneie eiina?aaoi?ee a 1875-1876 aa. e iieo/eaoee a niaaoneii
iocueiaaaeaiee iaeiicia/ioth o?aeoiaeo. Eunaiei iiaeij ?anniao?eaaoue
eae iaeiiai ec iioaioeeaeueiuo “iineoaeae” iiaie aeey ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa
ia?aciie noa?u (nieia/iue eoeueo, neaayineay ieoieiaey), eioi?ay aioea a
oai?/anoai ?onneiai eiiiiceoi?a a na?aaeeia 1870-o aa., auaaea aai ec
oai?/aneiai e?ecena e niinianoaiaaea nicaeaieth iia? “neaayineie
oao?aeiaee” – “Iaeneie ii/e”, “Niaao?i/ee”, “Ieaaeu”, “Ii/e ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii”.

Aiaeeoe/aneoth /anoue ?aaiou ninoaaeyao eioiiaoeeiiii-ae?aiaoo?ae/aneia
n?aaiaiea iia? “??caeayia i?/” Eunaiei e “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”
?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa. I?ineaaeeaaaony aeeyiea e i?iyaeaiea caeiiia ieoa
eae ie?iaicc?ai/aneie iiaeaee a “??caeayi?e ii/?” e“Ii/e ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii”. Aeey yoiai i?eiaiai iao?aaeeoeeiiiue iaoiae iienea
ieoieiae/aneiai a?oaoeia e io?aaeaiey aai a iocueaeueiie ae?aiaoo?aee
iia?.

A iiaanoe Aiaiey “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”, iieiaeaiiie a iniiao aeaoo
iia?, iaia?oaeaiu i?eciaee eaeaiaea?iiai ieoa. Iie au?aaeathony a
“i?acaeie/iie” i?eo?i/aiiinoe nthaeaoa, iaoneiaeaiiinoe aai ?acaeoey e
aeaenoaee ia?niiaaeae, cia/eiinoe ia?yaeiauo noeai. A iia?ao Eunaiei e
?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa nio?aiaiu ieoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eeoa?aoo?iiai
ia?aienoi/ieea. Iaeiaei a?aiaiiay aeenoaioeey (70-a e 90-a aa.),
iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee, yoaiu ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iocueaeueiiai noeeae aiinyo naie ei??aeoeau a
iocueaeueii-noeaie/aneia i?i/oaiea aiaieaaneiai nthaeaoa. Iaueie
iiiaioaie a iia?ao yaeyaony i?eaioaoeey ia eaeoiioea eae iaeaieaa
niioaaonoaothuoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ieoieiae/aneiai ia?aca e ia?auaiea e
iaeaieaa ae?aaiei eieeaeoeaiui ianiyi ceiiaai oeeeea – eieyaeeai,
eioi?ua y?ei io?aaeatho ieoieiae/aneia iuoeaiea. Ii o?aeoiaea
ieoe/aneiai a?aiaie-i?ino?ainoaa e eioa?i?aoaoeey eieyaeiiai ia?yaea
eae aai iniiaiiai au?aceoaey a iia?ao oe?aeineiai e ?onneiai
eiiiiceoi?ia ioee/ia. A iia?a Eunaiei eieyaeiue ia?yae ?acai?a/eaaaony
eeiaa?ii, “ai?eciioaeueii”, aieaoaynue a nthaeao e ?aciueaynue a iaai.
Yoi iaoneiaeaii nio?aiaieai yoiia?aoe/aneeo iiae?iaiinoae, ia/eiay io
iocueaeueiiai oaiaoecia e i?eioeeiia aai ?acaeoey aei neooaoeaiiai
iiaaaeaiey aa?iaa. ?eineee-Ei?naeia, iaiai?io, aa?oeeaeueii
no?oeoo?e?oao nthaeao e ioaaouaaao aanue ieoieiae/aneee Einiin,
iocueaeueii oa?aeoa?ecoy o?e noa?u Iaaanioth, Caiioth , Iiaecaiioth.
Iiyoiio ae?aiaoo?ae/anee eieyaeiue ia?yae ?ann?aaeioa/eaaaony ii iei, a
iocueaeueiue oaiaoeci iaiai?io, naeeiaaony, eiioeaio?e?oynue a
eaeoiioeau.

Ana yoe iniaaiiinoe iicaieytho aiai?eoue i aeeyiee e i?iyaeaiee
aioo?aiieo ea/anoa ieoa eae ie?iaicc?ai/aneie iiaeaee a iia?ao Eunaiei e
?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieo, neaayineay ieoieiaey, o?eoioiie/aneay nenoaia
einiina, aa?ie-iaaeeaoi?, noeeue, iaoeeiiaeueiia noeeaia?aciaaiea,
ia?yaeiaue oieueeei?.

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