OA?E?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

CAE?CIE*IIAI O?AINII?OO

I??ioi?/aiei Na?a?e Aaea??eiae/

OAeE 691.54: 678.078.2

Neeaaee ia iniia? oeaiaioo, EAN oa aenieiye?nieo niie

aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? ? e?eoaaiiy o??uei ? oa?a

05.23.05 — aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ? ae?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, eiino?oeoe?e oa
nii?oae Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo
I?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieoa?i A?eaae?e Ieeieaeiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, eiino?oeoe?e oa nii?oae.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ionoiaieoia Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith aoae?aaeueii? iaoai?ee;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Ni???i TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aiaiao?ea?a, caa?aeoth/ee
eaai?aoi???th oaoiieia?? iaaiac?aeueieo aiaiao?ea?a,

o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieo ? no?oeoo?ii-oaciaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e (i. Iae??aea).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 1300 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.820.02 Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i.
Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i.
Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 14 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?.I.??iae

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeiaaia?/iino?
aenieoaoiaaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ? aaoiiieo ca??ieo eiino?oeoe?e, a oiio
/ene? cae?cie/ieo ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae, ia? iaae?eia ?cieyoe?y a?ae
i?iieeiaiiy aiaee ana?aaeeio nii?oaee e??cue oae a noeeao, o??ueie a
nai?e eiino?oeoe??, a o aeiaaeeo i?aecaiieo nii?oae — e??cue o??ueie
a??nueeeo ii??ae. A ca’yceo c oeei ne?ae aeae?eyoe iniiai? ae?eyiee
aa?iaoecaoe?? a oaeeo nii?oaeao:

— oae i?ae ca??ieie aeaiaioaie eiino?oeoe?e;

— o??ueie a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?yo;

— o??ueie a a??nueeeo ii?iaeao, ui ioi/othoue eiino?oeoe??;

— ii?iaeieie a caia?iaiiio i?inoi?? ooiaeueieo oa ?ioeo i?aecaiieo
nii?oae.

Ca?aeii c i?ecia/aiiyi nii?oae caaeooy ? caiiaiaiiy icia/aieo
ae?eueieoeue ia?aaeaecia/aia:

— aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? a?ae i?iieeiaiiy aiaee e??cue oae ? noeee a ca??ieo
eiino?oeoe?yo;

— aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? neeiaeo o??uei;

— aeey ci?oeiaiiy iaaeieeoi?o a??nueeeo ii??ae;

— aeey caiiaiaiiy ii?iaeiei a caia?iaiiio i?inoi??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai ? i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o aoee cae?eniai? a
?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie IAe? «?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo iniia
aeiaaia?/iino? ooo/ieo nii?oae ia cae?cie/iiio o?ainii?o?».

Iaoith aeena?oaoe??, iai?aaeaii? ia ??oaiiy icia/aii? i?iaeaie, ?
noai?aiiy aeaoaaeo iaae?eieo aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a aeey noee?a
cae?ciaaoiiieo ca??ieo eiino?oeoe?e ? iaaiaeiaieo cae?cie/ieo ooiae?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaac?eieo ? ?aieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeey eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo oiia.

?icaeoie oyaeaiue i?i iaoai?cie o??ueiiooai?aiiy a aa?iaoecoth/eo
neeaaeao, aca?iiae?e i?ae eiiiiiaioaie oeeo neeaae?a, i?iieeii?
caeaoiino? oeaiaioii-aiaeieo noniaic?e a o??ueie a??nueeeo ii??ae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae eai’yiiaoa?eueii? niiee ?
eiiiiceoe?e ia ?? iniia?.

?ic?iaea aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a aeey noee?a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e
? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a.

A?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?e ? ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeaiaio?a aeey
aa?iaoecaoe?? noee?a ? oaiiiiaaeo o??uei a a??nueeeo ii?iaeao ca
ia?iaeith ooiaeth.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe neeaaeathoue:

— iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy: — a’yceino? iie?ia?ieo ?
iie?ia?eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?o aaee/ei; —
aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? aeey eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue; —
ioe?iee aeiaaia?/iino? aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a, a oiio /ene? ia iaeao?
noeeo, ca eiiieaeniei aieeaii ?oeioth/eo /eiiee?a;

— aa?iaoecoth/? neeaaee AN-1 ia iniia? EAN-IAO aeey aeaoi?iiaaieo noee?a
ca??ieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e;

— noia?ieanoeo?eiaaia oeaiaioii-aiaeia noniaic?y NIOeAN ? oaoiieia?/i?
?aaeaiaioe oaiiiioaaiiy o??ueioaaoeo iaaiaeiaieo a??nueeeo ii??ae c
aeei?enoaiiyi NIOeAN;

— ?icaeioo? oyaeaiiy: — i?i iaoai?ci o??ueiiooai?aiiy a aa?iaoecoth/iio
neeaae? o noeeo; — i?i i?iieeio caeaoi?noue oeaiaioii-aiaeieo neeaae?a,
ui oaiiiiothoueny a o??ueie a??nueeeo ii??ae; — i?i iaoai?ci aca?iiae??
i?ae EAN, IAO ? iaiiaithaa/ai; — i?i i?oei?noue oeaiaioii-aiaeieo
nenoai;

— aeai? i?i i?oeiini?, aaeaac?ei? ? ?aieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee EAN ?
eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? EAN;

— aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e EAN oa
?*-niaeo?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?e a nenoai? EAN-IAO.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

— ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeaioiaeaiith ? canoinoaaiith
aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo AN-1 aeey i?iaiiiaeo nii?oae iino?a c
aacaaeaniith ?caeith;

— a?aei?aoeueiaai? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie aeey iaai?oaiiy ? oaiiiioaaiiy
noia?ieanoeo?eiaaiie OeAN a o??ueie a??nueeeo ii??ae, noeee ? oae
ia?iaee ooiaeth;

— ?ic?iaeai? ae?iaie/? aa?iaoecoth/? neeaaee aeey noee?a ca??ieo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e;

— a?aei?aoeueiaaia oaoiieia?y ? cae?eniaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaenii?
a?ae?i?cieyoe?? iaaiaeiaiiai ooiaeth ia ia?aaii? ssai?a — Oo?ea
Euea?anueei? cae?cieoe?;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeth/ai? a ieai eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo
ooiaeth ia ia?aaii? ssai?a — Oo?ea oa ?ioeo iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a
Euea?anueei? cae?cieoe?;

— ?ic?iaeai? aa?iaoecoth/? neeaaee ? eiiieaenia oaoiieia?y
a?ae?i?cieyoe?? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a ?aeiiaiaeiaai? V eii?n??th INC ii
eie?? ? ooo/iei nii?oaeai aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia iaaiaeiaieo cae?cie/ieo
ooiaeyo e?a?i — /eai?a INC;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaee aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe aaciaeo
?ooo ii?cae?a ? iaae?eio iano/o caeaoi?noue iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a.

Iniaenoee aeeaae ani??aioa. An? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. A ni?eueii ?ic?iaeai?e (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c N. ?. Aiciaiei) iaoiaeeoe? e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy
a’yceino? (aeey eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue) ca aeiiiiiaith
iaiao?iiao?a aaoi?ii aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ei?aeyoe?? aeaieo c a’yceino?, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith iaiao?iiao?a, c
aeaieie io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeaaeo ?aa?iaea?a-Aaeea?a, a oaeiae
aea?ae iaoaiaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy caeaaeiino? aeeiai?/ii? a’yceino? a?ae
aeeaeie ? oaeaeeino? caio?aiiy aieee iaiao?iiao?a.

A iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? ?ia?o aaoi?ii aeeiiaii: — aeine?aeaeaiee
iaoai?ci oa/?? aeenia?nieo nenoai a u?eeiieo oiieeo eai?ey?ao; —
aeaaaeaia iniiaia ??aiyiiy i?iieeii? caeaoiino? oeaiaioii-aiaeieo
nenoai; — aeaaaeaia ??aiyiiy noaoe?iia?iiai iioieo aiaee /a?ac
i?eeiaeueiee iao?oaie; — aeeiiai? iaoo?i? aenia??iaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?
iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

Ia?aae? aenia?o?a V eii?n?? c eie?? ? ooo/ieo nii?oae I?aeia?iaeii?
i?aai?caoe?? ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa cae?cieoeue, Eacaonoai, Aeiaoe, 16-20
/a?aiy 1997?.

Eiioa?aioe?? c oaoi?/ii? o?i??. Oa?e?a, aeiaoaiue, 1997?.

VI iaoeia?e oeie? e?a?i NIAe «Aea?ioaoiieiaey-96», Iaeana, 9-14 aa?aniy
1995 ?.

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo eaoaae? aeaaeai?? ? oao?aoe?a
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, 1995-1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c?iaeai? 4
ioae?eaoe??, ui aoiaeyoue a ia?ae?e AAE (2 — a ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, 2 iaa/aeueieo iin?aieea) ? oace aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
6 ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 149 iaeiaioaaiue ia
12 noi??ieao. ?iaioa neeaaea? 132 noi??iee iniiaiiai oaenoo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii, iieacaia ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? aaeoc? ?aae?caoe??.

A ?icae?e? 1 aeeeaaea?oueny noai ieoaiiy ? aeina?ae aa?iaoecaoe??
ooo/ieo nii?oae, a oaeiae iaaaaeaiee aiae?c iaoa??ae?a, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey oeueiai.

Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiei niiniaii aa?iaoecaoe?? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a
oa ?ioeo iiae?aieo i?aecaiieo nii?oae ? iaai?oaiiy ca ia?iaeo oeaiaioieo
neeaae?a ? oaiiiioaaiiy o??ueioaaoeo a??nueeeo ii??ae. Aieiai? aeiiae,
ui i?aae(yaeythoueny aei oeeo neeaae?a, — aeniea nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy
ii?iaeiei, ou?eueiaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae, a?ae?i?cieyoe?y ?
i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe??. Iaeiae ?nioth/? iaoa??aee ?
niiniae aa?iaoecaoe?? iaaiaeiaieo i?aecaiieo nii?oae ia aeathoue
iaiao?aeiiai aoaeoo ?c-ca ?icoa?oaaiiy oeaiaioieo ?ic/ei?a ? noniaic?e
i?e iaai?oaii?, ?o iaiaeii??aeiino? ? iaaeniei? aaeaac?? aei no?iie
o??uei. Oae? oeaiaioi? neeaaee ia aeeeth/athoue iiai?noth cai?ioia
o?eueo?oaaiiy /a?ac caoaiiiiiaaio ii?iaeo ? ia caaacia/othoue
aeiaaia?/i?noue a?ae?i?cieyoe??. Onoiooe oe? iaaeie?ee iiaeia ia iniia?
oyaeaiue i?i i?ioeane oaiiiiaaeo c iiceoe?e o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee
aeenia?nieo nenoai oeyoii oi?aae?iiy ?aieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
neeaae?a, cie?aia a’yce?noth ? i?iieeiith caeaoi?noth.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? ? aeanoe/i? iaoa??aee.
Iaeiae, ?c-ca ?o aeniei? aa?oino? ? a?aenooiino? a Oe?a?i? a oaia??oi?e
/an ?o oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ia ? iiaeeeaei. ?c-ca oaeaeeiai noa??iiy ia ?
iiaeeeaei oaeiae oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a?ooiieo iaoa??ae?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii
cai?noue aeanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaoue ieanoiaeanoe/i?,
c?iaeai? ia iniia? a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeie.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?iaioaie Cieioa?ueiaa, A?ao/oia, oa ?i.,
ieanoiaeanoe/i? aa?iaoeee iiaeia noai?eoe ia iniia? aeaoaai?
eai’yiiaoa?eueii? niiee (EAN), yeo iiaeia iiaeeo?eoaaoe aenieiye?nieie
neioaoe/ieie iie?ia?aie — aiieneaeiith niieith (AAe) aai
iie?a?i?eoei?eaeii (IAO), o iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?, ui aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ieanoiaeanoe/i? iaoa??aee c iaaenieith aa?o?noth.

A ?icae?e? 2 aea?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o oa oa?aeoa?enoeee iniiaieo
iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae iiaeo oa aaeineiiaeaieo iaoiaeee, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue.

A yeino? iaiiaithaa/a a ieanoiaeanoe/ieo neeaaeao, a oaeiae a yeino?
ca’ycoth/eo a oeaiaioii-aiaeieo neeaaeao aeei?enoiaoaaany
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio I400.

Iniiaiei eiiiiiaioii (ca ianith) aeey noai?aiiy ieanoiaeanoe/ieo
aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a aeei?enoiaoaaeany EAN. Aea?? EAN coiiaeaiee
aeia?ith noi?ni?noth c AAe ? IAO, aeinooii?noth, iecueeith oe?iith,
aiaeia?aeooiaooth/eie aeanoeainoyie.

Aeey iie?ioaiiy yeinoae eai’yiiaoa?eueii? niiee aeei?enoaee AAe ? IAO.
Aea?? AAe coiiaeaiee iacia/iith eaoo/?noth, eaae?noth caoaa?aeiaiiy,
iacia/iith onaaeeith i?ney caoaa?aeiaiiy, aenieith aaeaac??th, aenieeie
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie, cia/iith aiaeino?ee?noth. Aea?? IAO
coiiaeaiee aeinooii?noth, aeia?ith noi?ni?noth c EAN.

A yeino? caoaa?aeaeoaa/a aeey aiieneaeieo niie aeei?enoaee OI-583. Eiai
aea?? ca’ycaiee c oei, ui a?i ia ?ic/eiy?oueny a aiae?, aeicaiey?
aeei?enoaoe AAe ia aieiaeo ? iie?eo iiaa?oiyo, a oaeiae o ca’yceo c oei,
ui a?i ae?iaey?oueny a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aaeaac?? aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo aei i?aeeeaaeie
a?oioo?oueny ia AINO 26589-85 c i?ea’yceith aei ieanoiaeanoe/ieo
neeaae?a. ?acoeueoaoe aei???a ia?iaeyeeny ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue ia ii?icino?ee?noue a?oioo?oueny ia ci?i?
aio/eino? neeaaeo i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (-20 SYMBOL 176 \f «Symbol»
\s 14 ° N), i?e oeueiio ioe?iea aio/eino? cae?enith?oueny ca ae?aiao?ii
no?eaeiy, ui iaeia?oueny oiieei oa?ii oeueiai neeaaeo. Aeey aecia/aiiy
a’yceino? aiae?ciaaieo neeaae?a aoee ?ic?iaeai? 2 iaoiaeeee (ca
aeiiiiiaith iaiao?iiao?a ? a?neiceiao?a), ui aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe
aeeiai?/io a’yce?noue aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a o oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae?
a’yceino? ? /ana. Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy a’yceino? ca iiaeie
iaoiaeeeaie c ?acoeueoaoaie aecia/aiiy a’yceino? ca i?eeaaeii
?aa?iaea?a-Aaeea?a iieacaei ?o aeia?o noiaeei?noue. Aeaaaeai? oi?ioee
aeey ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?/ii? a’yceino? oae?:

— aeey iaiao?iiao?a:

, (1)

aea SYMBOL 100 \f «Symbol» \s 14 d — oiaueia no?oeoo?iaaiiai oa?o
neeaaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, i; t — /an caio?aiiy aieee, nae; h —
aeeaeia caio?aiiy aieee, i.

— aeey a?neiceiao?a AC-1

, (2)

aea t — /an aeo?eaiiy ??aeeie c a?neiceiao?a, nae; SYMBOL 114 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 r — u?euei?noue ??aeeie, ea/i3.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaooa?iino? neeaaeo a aiae? aoea aeei?enoaia
iaoiaeeea ca AINO 14791-79 c o?aooaaiiyi i?ea’ycee aei neeaae?a, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ao?aoe eaoth/eo ?a/iaei ?c aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai noa??iiy, aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, nooue yei?
iieyaa? a aecia/aii? ao?aoe iane c?ace?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? 600 (5 SYMBOL
176 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ° N.

No?ee?noue aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo a noeeo aei iaoai?/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e
ioe?ithaaeany ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith aei?iaoaaiue ia aeoeoeeiiao??
(AINO 15836-79), i?e oeueiio aei?iaoaaiiy aeeiioaaeeny i?e a?eueo
iecuee?e oaiia?aoo?? (00N).

Aeey aecia/aiiy no?eeino? oaa aei oaiia?aoo?iiai aieeao ?
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aoa ?ic?iaeaiee iaeao oaa, ui
i?ioiaeea oeeee?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ii /a?c? ia ae?th i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo? (600 SYMBOL 177 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ± 50N), aiaee, iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? (-300 SYMBOL 177 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ± 20N), a oaeiae
ae?th OO-ii?ii?iaiiy.

Aei?iaoaaiiy caaa?iaoeciaaieo noee?a ia aiaeii?iieei?noue aeeiioaaee
oaeiae ia ?o iaeao?. Aa?iaoe/i?noue oaa ioe?ithaaee ca aiaeii?iieei?noth
W.

A ?icae?e? 3 iaaaaeai? ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy oa ?o ?icaeoie i?i i?oei?ni?,
?aieia?/i? ? o?eueo?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?iaoecoth/eo iaoa??ae?a.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? nenoaie ? aeenia?nieie. A iaoai?oe? nooe?eueieo
na?aaeiaeu aeiaiaeeoueny, ui o aeiaaeeo ianoeneeaeo iaoa??ae?a (yeeie ?
?icaeyaeoaai? aeenia?ni? nenoaie), an? aeaee aeaoi?iaoe?e iiaeia caanoe
aei iniiaii? — aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao i?ae ae??th iai?oae cnoao SYMBOL 116
\f «Symbol» \s 14 t . Oa/?y ?aeaaeueii a’yceeo o?e iieno?oueny caeiiii
Iuethoiia (ioieoe?ia e?i?y ia ?en.1):

, (3)

— oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe??.

?en.1. Caeaaei?noue a’yceino? a?ae ia’?iii? /anoee aeenia?nii? oace aeey
aacno?oeoo?iiai (I) ? no?oeoo?iaaiiai (II) cie?a.

sseui a iuethoii?anueeo nenoaio aaanoe aeenia?n?eio neeaaeiao, aeieea?
caeaaei?noue, io?eiaia Aeiooaeiii (I ia ?en. 1).

SYMBOL 104 \f «Symbol» \s 14 h = SYMBOL 104 \f «Symbol» \s 14 h 0
SYMBOL 215 \f «Symbol» \s 14 * (1+2,5 SYMBOL 215 \f «Symbol» \s 14 *
SYMBOL 106 \f «Symbol» \s 14 j )
(4)

aea SYMBOL 106 \f «Symbol» \s 14 j — ia’?iia /anoea aeenia?nii? oace.

O aeiaaeeo, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiae?y i?ae /anoeieaie, nenoaia
aaaea naaa ye no?oeoo?iaaiee cieue (II ia ?en.1) ? iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi
oa/?? Oaaaeiaa-A?iaaia:

(5)

Iaoai?ci oa/?? oaei? nenoaie ?icaeyiooee iaie ca I.A.Ieoaeeiaei.

Aeieeiaiiy aeenia?nii? oace ? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oeaiaioii-aiaeii?
nenoaie ?icaeyiooa ia iniia? a?aeiieo oyaeaiue i?i i?ioeane oaa?ae?iiy
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo, ?icaeiaieo iaie noiniaii aei ?icaeyaeoaaii?
noia?ieanoeo?eiaaii? oeaiaioii-aiaeii? nenoaie (NIOeAN). O?aaeeoe?ei?
oyaeaiiy, ye a?aeiii, a?oioothoueny ia iine?aeiaii ?ic?iaeaieo oai??yo
Ea Oaoaeue?, I?oaae?na, Aaeeiaa ? ?aa?iaea?a. Caiaeii ie?ai? o?aaiaioe
oeeo oai??e ?icaeaaeeny a na?o? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oyaeaiue
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, o?ceee ? o?i?? iiaa?oiiue,
e?enoaeio?i?? oa ?i., ui iaaeeaeathoue i?ioean oaa?ae?iiy aei ?aaeueieo
iiaeaeae ? noai (Iieae, I/aaeeia-Iao?inyi, Ne/ia, Oieiiaa, ?etho?i,
Oaeei?, Aaaooe?i, Ethaeaea, Eaeionae oa ?i.). Cia/iee ?icaeoie oai??y
oaa?ae?iiy iaea?aeaea o ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii yeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (Oieiiaa, Eioieaiae ? Iaa?aae, Eao ? Ao?ao, Ei?aioe ?
?eoa?oe, Eiiaei, Aeaeiii oa ?i.).

Cia/iee aeeaae a ?icaeoie no/anieo oai??e c iiaeeaeaiiyi ie?aieo
oyaeaiue i?i a?ae?aoaoe?th ? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, a oiio /ene? i?ioean?a
? yaeu ia iiaa?oiyo ? a cii? eiioaeo?a, ca’ycaiee c ?iaioaie inoaii?o
?ie?a (Ieuea?inueeee, Naieoeuee?e, Ooa?ia-Ia?oae, Iaoa??iei,
*a?iyanueeee oa ?i.).

Iiaeeaeaiiy iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i i?ioeane oaa?ae?iiy ? i?oeiino?
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith a?oiooaaeiny ia canoinoaaii? o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
iaoai?ee aeenia?nieo nenoai oa ?aeae ?aa?iaea?a (A?aieianueeee, Aaaia?,
E?oaeeoeuee?e, Ae?a?ia).

Aniaeoe e?euee?nii? oai??? oaa?ae?iiy ? i?oeiino? ooai?thaaeeny ?iaioaie
Iieaea, Ae?iaeiaa oa ?i. ia iniia? aia?aaoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeo?aeieo ?
i?ia?ae?aoiaaieo i?ia?ae?a oeaiaioiiai ee?iea?o, canoinoaaiiy oyaeaiue
i?i aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaa? yaeua ? aeanoeaino? a aeenia?nieo nenoaiao ?
caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee aeenia?nieo nenoai
aeicaieeee ?icaeiooe e?euee?ni? iniiae oai??? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy,
i?oeiino?, ?oeioaaiiy ? aeiaaia?/iino? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith ?
aaoiio (A.I. Ieoa?i ? ni?aaaoi?e).

Oi?ioaaiiy oeaiaioiiai eaiaith iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aeaa iniiaieo
i?ioeane: o?i?/iee — a?ae?aoaoe?y /a?ac ?ic/eiaiiy c aeieeiaiiyi
oiieiaeenia?nii? oace; eiei?aeii-o?i?/iee — no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ca
?aooiie aca?iiae?? /anoeiie aeenia?nii? oace, ui coiiaeth? i?oei?noue
no?oeoo?e.

A?oiooth/enue ia aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo ci?ieao, ye a?aeiieo
(Oieiiaa, Eao ? Ao?ao oa ?i.), oae ? io?eiaieo o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
(ni?eueii c Oieiaeiei), no?oeoo?o oeaiaioiiai eaiaith ne?ae oyaeyoe ye
aaaaoi??aiaao no?oeoo?o, ui aecia/a?oueny ?ici??aie
no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a:

— i?e?i??aaiue — oeaiaioi? /anoee ?c na?aaei?i ?ici??ii a?ey 30 iei;

— noai?e?i??aaiue — /anoee e?enoaeia?ae?ao?a ?c na?aaei?i ?ici??ii 0,5
iei, a oaeiae aaeaa? /anoee — iaio i?ae 0,1 iei.

A?aeiia?aeaeueieie ca i?oei?noue a icia/ai?e aaaaoi??aiaa?e no?oeoo?? ?
aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaii? aca?iiae?? i?ae i?ioeeaaeii ca?yaeaeaieie /anoeaie.
Aaciina?aaeiy aca?iiae?y cae?enith?oueny /a?ac aeoeai? oeaio?e AOe ia
iiaa?oi? no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a (NA). Aeey oeaiaioiiai eaiaith
? eiai NA aeoeaieie oeaio?aie ? iioaioe?aeaecia/aeuei? ?iie (IA?) —
ai?iie II- (a?ae?inee?eaoe eaeueoe?th ? iai?i?aaaiaai? oeaiaioi? ca?ia)
? eao?iie eaeueoe?th Na2+ (e?enoaeia?ae?aoi? i?iaeoeoe a?ae?aoaoe??).
Aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaiiee oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
??ciiiai?oieie ca ciaeii iioaioe?aeaie i?ia?ae?a oeaiaioiiai ee?iea?o
(aei??e Aaaooe?ia ? Iia?eiai?), a oaeiae oa?aeoa?ii aaeni?aoe?? NNA ?
noia?ieanoeo?eaoi??a, ui ? ai?iiieie i?oeaeiooai?thth/eie IA? ?
ai?iiieie iie?aeaeo?ie?oaie.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c o?ceei-o?i?/iith oai???th i?oeiino? i?e ?icoyc?
aeenia?nieo nenoai ?aa?iaea?a-Uoe?ia ? aeeeaaeaieie oyaeaiiyie,
?ic?iaeai? iniiae o?ceei-o?i?/ii? oai??? i?oeiino? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith ?
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?oeiino?:

(6)

aea h — a?aenoaiue i?ae IA? a eiioaeo?; h( — a?aenoaiue i?ae IA? ?
iieaeoeith aiaee; ( — aeeiieueiee iiiaio iieaeoee aiaee; ?iaeaene 1 ? 2
— a?aeiia?aeathoue IA? ia iiaa?oiyo eiioaeooth/eo /anoie; (1 —
iioaioe?ae iiaa?oi?; d1 — a?aenoaiue i?ae oa?ii IA? ? oa?ii i?ioe?ii?a o
IAO.

Aaee/eia ( aecia/a?oueny ye aeiaooie iiaa?oiaaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e (a
iiaa?oi? ?ic??aaiiy oeaiaioiiai eaiaith) e?enoaeia?ae?aoieo ? aaeaaeo
/anoie:

(7)

aea k=4,5a2AA(oe(a/(e(a; Oe, A e Ao — iane oeaiaioo, aiaee ? o?i?/ii
ca’ycaii? aiaee, ui i?eiaaeathoue ia iaeeieoeth ianyao oeaiaioiiai
eaiaith; a — nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo; A ? A — noao?iiao?e/i? c
iane oeaiaioo /anoee, a?aeiia?aeii, e?enoaeia?ae?aoieo ? aaeaaeo
i?iaeoeo?a a?ae?aoaoe?? (Oaee?i); (e, (a, (oe, (a — ?noeii? u?eueiino?,
a?aeiia?aeii, e?enoaeia?ae?aoieo ? aaeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a a?ae?aoaoe??,
oeaiaioo ? aiaee.

?en. 2. Aea?aaeaioia noaia aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaiieo eiioaeo?a i?ae /anoeieaie
(a) ? i?ae iioaioe?aeaecia/aeueieie ?iiaie (a). E — e?enoaeia?ae?aoia
/anoeiea; Oe — oeaiaioia /anoeiea; A — aaeaaa /anoeiea; ?1, ?2 — IA?; Ae
— aeeiieueia iieaeoea aiaee.

Oyaeaiiy i?i aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaii? aca?iiae?? i?ae i?ioeeaaeii
ca?yaeaeaieie iiaa?oiyie aeei?enoai? iaie oaeiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?cio a’yceino? oeaiaioii-aiaeieo nenoai ? iaoai?cio ?o i?iieeii?
caeaoiino?. I?iieeia caeaoi?noue i?e oeueiio oyaeaia aeaaaeaiei ia
iniia? caeiio Ioacaeey aeey ieineeo eai?ey??a ??aiyiiyi:

(8)

aea l — aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy ?ic/eio a o??ueio, i; hO — oe?eia o??uei;
SYMBOL 104 \f «Symbol» \s 14 h — aoaeoeaia a’yce?noue ?ic/eio.

C (8) aeaeii, ui i?e iaeiaeia?e oe?ei? o??uei hO ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaii?
a’yceino? ?ic/eio i?ecaaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ?o caiiaiaiiy.
Ciaioeoe aoaeoeaio a’yce?noue aeenia?nii? nenoaie (oeaiaioii? noniaic??,
ui iaai?oa?oueny) iiaeia ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oeneo iaai?oaiiy aai ca
?aooiie a?a?aoe??. Ia?oa ia iiaea aooe aeeiiaiei ?c-ca aeieeiaiiy
a?aeeaco (anoaiiaeaia i?e aei?iaoaaii?), a ae?oaa — oaoi?/ii.
Cai?iiiiiaaii c?oeioaaoe no?oeoo?o oeaiaioiiai ?ic/eio, ui
iaai?oa?oueny, ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?a.
Aaeni?aoth/enue ia iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ae?eyieao (N3A e N4AF)
oeaiaioieo ca?ai, iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeai? /anoee noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?a, ui ?
ai?iiiei iie?aeaeo?ie?oii (aai i?oeaeiooai?thth/eie IA?),
ia?aca?yaeaeathoue iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeai? ae?eyiee ia iaaaoeai?. I?e
oeueiio onoaa?oueny aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaiia aca?iiae?y i?ae /anoeaie
oeaiaioo, oiaoi ?oeio?oueny no?oeoo?a aeenia?nii? nenoaie. Cai?noue
aeaeo?iaaoa?iaaiieo ca’yce?a aeieeathoue neee a?aeooiaooaaiiy, ui ?
coiiaeth? aoaeo noia?ieanoeo?eaoe??. A’yce?noue oaei? aeenia?nii?
nenoaie i?e oeueiio cieaeo?oueny aei a’yceino? a?aie/ii c?oeiiaaii?
no?oeoo?e, aai aei a’yceino? aiaee.

Aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo oeaiaioiiai ?ic/eio aeii?oie noia?ieanoeo?eaoi??a
aeicaieeoue oaeiae ciaioeoe oe?eio o??uei, ui caiiaiththoueny
?ic/eiii, c 0,2 iei aei 0,05 iei ca ?aooiie iaioecaoe?? /anoie.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?aieia?/ieo,
aaeaac?eieo oa ?ioeo aeanoeainoae iie?ia?eiiiiceoe?eieo ?
oeaiaioii-aiaeieo nenoai, aeeiiaieo c iaoith aeai?o ?iai/eo
aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a a ieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?o? EAN-AAe iieacaei, ui caeaaei?noue Raae
a?ae a?aeiioaiiy EAN/AAe ia? aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? c iaeneioiii Raae =
2,5 IIa. Iiyniaiiy oeueiai iacae/aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy Raae aiieneaeii?
niiee i?e aaaaeaii? a ia? cia/ii? e?eueeino? ??aeeiiiiae?aii? EAN, yea
naiino?eii ia oaa?ae??, aeaii ia i?aenoaa? ia?aoai?aiiai iaie ??aiyiiy
Aethi?a:

(9)

aea Rn – eiaac?eia i?oei?noue neeaaeo, IIa; ( — e?aeiaee eoo cii/oaaiiy
i?aeeeaaeee, a?aae.

sse aa/eii, Raae caeaaeeoue a?ae eiaac?eii? i?oeiino? neeaaeo, a oaeiae
a?ae ?ico?ea?iino? oeueiai neeaaeo ii i?aeeeaaeoe? (/ei iaioa aaee/eia (
, oei e?aua ?ico?ea?i?noue ? oei aeua Raae).

I?e ca?eueoaii? a?aeiioaiiy EAN/AAe aei 60% aaee/eia cos( ca?eueoo?oueny
oaeaeoa, i?ae ciaioo?oueny Rn. I?e EAN/AAe SYMBOL 62 \f «Symbol» \s 14
> 60% cieaeaiiy aaee/eie Rn noa? ia?aaaaeath/ei, ui ? aecia/a?
aeno?aioi o caeaaeiino? Raae = f (EAN/AAe).

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeeny i?e EAN/AAe = 80-100%.
Iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aeanoeainoae AN a oeeo a?aieoeyo cae?enithaaeiny oeyoii
aeiaeaiiy a noi?o oeaiaioiiai iaiiaithaa/a. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe neeaae, a
yeiio EAN/AAe = 60%, iaaeioe?eueii, oae ye iie?ia?ecaoe?y AAe
i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai aeniei? i?oeiino? ? iaaeaoi?iiaaiino?.

Aeina?aeii anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa e?euee?noue AAe a
oaeiio neeaae? neeaaea? 10%, oiaoi i?e EAN/AAe = 90%. I?e a?eueo
iecueeiio cia/aii? EAN/AAe aeieea? /a?ac aeayeee /an i?ney eiai
i?eaiooaaiiy iai?eionoeia oaa?ae?iiy neeaaeo. I?e a?eueoiio, i?ae 10%,
a?aeiioaii? EAN/AAe noi?o noa? ??aeeiiiiae?aiith, ao?a/ath/e nai?
ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino?.

Aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai caaouaiiy (aac oaa?ae?iiy) ? ca?eueoaiiy
aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? a neeaae EAN/AAe i?e EAN/AAe = 90% aaiaeeee
iaiiaithaa/ (oeaiaio). I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo oeaiaioo i?oei?noue
aaeaac?? Raae oaae ci?ithaaeany aeno?aiaeueii. I?e Oe/(EAN+AAe) = 100%
cia/aiiy Raae = 0,42 IIa noa? iaeneiaeueiei.

Aeey aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai ai?noo oeaiaioo a aa?iaoecoth/iio neeaae?
aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? aeeiai?/ii? a’yceino? a?ae ai?noo
oeaiaioo a neeaae? Oe/(EAN+AAe). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui
i?e Oe/(EAN+AAe) iaiueo i?ae 60% nenoaia iiaiaeeoueny ye iuethoii?anueea
??aeeia. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi Oe/(EAN+AAe) iiiaae 80% nenoaia iiaiaeeoueny ye
no?oeoo?iaaiee cieue ca ?aooiie aeieeiaiiy ca’yce?a i?ae /anoeaie
iaiiaithaa/a, ? iaaoaa? ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae (?en. 1). Ia i?aenoaa?
oeeo aeniiae?a neeaae c Oe/(EAN+AAe) = 100% ia?aii ye ?iai/ee aeey
ianooiieo aei?iaoaaiue eiai a /an?. Oe? aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e
iie?ia?ecaoe??, neeaae ao?a/a? nai? ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? ? /a?ac 7
i?nyoe?a noa? iai?eaeaoiei aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? aeaoi?iiaaieo noee?a. A
oie aea /an, o ca’yceo ?c caa?aaeaiiyi nai?o aaeaac?eieo aeanoeainoae,
ui aa?iaoecothoue, a?i iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee aeey canoinoaaiiy a
iaeiaeaoi?iiaaieo noeeao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaae?a EAN-IAO ?c ai?noii IAO 3 ? 5% a ??ciiiai?oieo
oiiaao iieacaee, ui iaee?au? aaeaac?ei? aeanoeaino? iaee neeaaee, ui
aiooaaeeny i?e oaiia?aoo?? 100iN c aeo?eieith i?e oe?e oaiia?aoo?? ia
i?ioyc? 1 aiaeeie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaae?a EAN-IAO ia ii?icino?ee?noue, oaieino?ee?noue, ia
aeia?iaoaaiiy eaoth/eo ?a/iaei ? aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue (i?e -30iN),
aeeiioaaeeny aeey neeaae?a c? ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioa?aaeo ai?noo IAO aei
(10%). I?e oeueiio iieacaii, ui ii?icino?ee?noue neeaaeo cia/ii aeua i?e
ai?no? IAO a noi?o? a?ae 3 aei 7%. sse ciaioaiiy IAO a noi?o? aei 1%,
oae ? ca?eueoaiiy aei 8 ? 10% iia??oeei aio/e?noue neeaae?a,
a?aeiia?aeii d = 30 ii ? d = 20 ii. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo i?e/eiith ?
ciaioaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? noi?o?, a a ae?oaiio – i?aeaeuaiiy ??
a’yceino?, ca?eueoaiiy aei?noeino? ? ciaioaiiy caeaoiino? aei
cii/oaaiiy.

Ca?eueoaiiy ii?icino?eeino? ? oaiia?aoo?ino?eeinoe iiaeooue aooe
iiyniai? no?oeoo?oth/ei aoaeoii IAO ca oeiii i?e?iaeenia?niiai
a?ioaaiiy.

Aoaeo aeenia?niiai a?ioaaiiy EAN a?ae IAO noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaeiae
o?ceei-o?i?/iei ca’ycoaaiiyi ? no?oeoo?oaaiiyi EAN iiaa?oiath
aenieiaeenia?nii? oace – IAO, ui i?ieoea oaieiaa (i?e 100iN ia i?ioyc? 1
aiaeeie) iiaeeo?eoaaiiy, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca’ycoaaiiy eaoth/eo o
EAN. I?e ca?eueoaii? ci?noo IAO a?ae 0 aei 10% e?euee?noue eaoth/eo
cieceeany c 3 aei 0,5%.

Caeaaei?noue aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? noi?o? EAN-IAO a?ae ci?ie ai?noo IAO,
ye ? aeey ii?icino?eeino?, iineoue aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? c
aeinyaiaiiyi iaeneioia Raae = 2,25 IIa i?e ai?no? EAN 5% (?en.3). I?e
cieaeaii? ai?noo IAO aei 1% ? ca?eueoaii? aei 7% (aeae? Raae
ciaioo?oueny ia?noioii) Raae ciaioo?oueny o 4.5 ?ace. sse ? aeey
ii?icino?eeino?, oaea ci?ia Raae coiiaeaia a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo ciaioaiiyi
eiaac?eii? i?oeiino? noi?o?, a a ae?oaiio – ciaioaiiyi ?ico?ea?iino?
neeaaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiy coiiaeee aea?? iioeiaeueiiai
aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo (AN) EAN-IAO c? ci?noii inoaiiueiai 5%.

Aeia?iaoaaiiy eaoth/eo ?a/iaei a AN, oi/a ? ??cei cieaeaia aaaaeaiiyi
IAO, aea ia aeeeth/aia iiai?noth, ui a oiiaao iaeneiaeueieo oaiia?aoo?
cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo ae?oeo (60iN) iiaea i?ecaanoe aei noa??iiy (ca
?aooiie oaa?ae?iiy ? o??ueiiooai?aiiy ia i?ioyc? o?eaaei?
aenieoaoaoe??).

?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue i?oeiino? aaeaac?? (R) aei aaoiio i?e -30iN a?ae
ai?noo IAO.

A ca’yceo c oeei aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee aeia?iaoaaiiy eaoth/eo
?a/iaei c EAN ? noi?o? EAN-IAO ia i?ioyc? o?eaaeiai /ano i?e
??ciiiai?oieo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeey EAN-IAO
i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 4.

A ia?o? aiaeeie aeia?iaoaaiiy oaeaee?noue ciaioaiiy iane ?a/iaei, ui
aeia?iaothoueny, iaeneiaeueia, i?ney oeueiai ieaaii ciaioo?oueny (?en.
4).

Oaeee oa?aeoa? aeia?iaoaaiiy iiaea aooe coiiaeaiee aeieeiaiiyi iioie?a,
ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue aeia?iiio, ui a naith /a?ao coiiaeaia
oaa?aeiiiae?aiith ie?aeith, ui aeieea? ia iiaa?oi? oa ca?eueoo?oueny.

A oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo noeeo a ie?aoe? aeieeathoue
ie?ai? o??ueie. Aaaaeaiiy o neeaae EAN-IAO aeeaooeeooaeaoa aeeeth/a?
ooai?aiiy oaa?aeiiiae?aii? ie?aee, ui coiiaeei caa?aaeaiiy ieanoe/iino?
? no?eeino? neeaaeo i?ioe eiaaoethaaiiy a cii? ooai?aiiy ie?ae?.
A?aeiia?aeii aeeeth/a?oueny ? ooai?aiiy o??uei.

Iie?eooy AN ie?aeith i?ia?aeueiiai ianea ?noioii cieaeo? oaeaee?noue
aeia?iaoaaiiy. Oeae aoaeo cieea? ia i?ioyc? i?nyoey ? iiaoi?th?oueny i?e
iiaoi?iiio iie?eoo? AN ie?aeith i?ia?aeueiiai ianea.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiue aeicaieythoue ineaaeoe (aai
aeeeth/eoe) i?ioean noa??iiy oeyoii aeiaeaiiy a neeaae aeeaooeeooaeaoa
aai iie?eooy neeaaeo ie?aeith i?ia?aeueiiai ianea. Ia?oee niin?a
ia?aaaaeiee ca nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieie i??eoaaiiyie.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? aei noa??iiy
(aeia?iaoaaiiy) ? oa?iino?eeino? oeyoii iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
iaiiaithaa/a a neeaae aaiaeeee: oeaiaio (10 ? 20 %), i?nie, oiieiiaeaiee
i?nie ? aoiiao e?eoeo (ii 10%). Iaeiae aaaaeaiiy oeeo iaiiaithaa/?a ia
aieeioei ia oaeaee?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy ? o??ueiino?ee?noue. A oie aea /an
iia??oeeany ii?icino?ee?noue (c d = 15 ii aei d = 20-30
ii) ? ?icoyaei?noue (c 70-80 ni aei 20-40 ni). I/aaeaeii, oea coiiaeaia
ooai?aiiyi a?eueo a?oai? aeenia?nii? no?oeoo?e c ?ic??aaiiyi
nooe?eueiino? i?e?iaeenia?nii? no?oeoo?e IAO. Oea ca?eueoeei
aei?noe?noue no?oeoo?e, ciaioeei ?? aio/e?noue i?e iecuee?e oaiia?aoo??
? ?icoyaei?noue.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aeanoeainoae AN
ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiaithaa/?a aeey ca?eueoaiiy oa?iino?eeino? ? no?eeino?
i?ioe noa??iiy (aeia?iaoaaiiy) ia oyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe oyaeaiiy i?i
iaoai?ci noa??iiy (ca ?aooiie aeia?iaoaaiiy) aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo
EAN-IAO. Iaa?oiooaaiiy oeueiai iaoai?cio iiaoaeiaaia ia aiae?c? aeaio
iioie?a eaoth/eo ?a/iaei – aeia?iiai (aei oa aeeooc?eiiai jaeeo,
a?aeiia?aeii:

,
(10)

, (11)

aea W – aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaia iana eaoth/eo ?a/iaei EAN ,ui
aeia?iaothoueny, ca /an t, ea; D – eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? iieaeoe eaoth/eo
?a/iaei (noiniaii aaicieo), i2/n; S – ieiua a?aee?eoi? iiaa?oi? c?acea,
i2; N – eiioeaio?aoe?y eaoth/eo ?a/iaei a EAN (24%); O – iooue aeeooc??,
i.

Eiao?oe?aio aeeooc?? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith Aeiooaeia:

, (12)

aea R – oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa noaea (8,31 Aeae/iieue(a?aae); O –
oaiia?aoo?a, E; SYMBOL 104 \f «Symbol» \s 14 h — a’yc-e?noue, I SYMBOL
215 \f «Symbol» \s 14 * n/i2; r – ?aae?on iieaeoee ?ic/eiaii?
?a/iaeie, i; N – /enei Aaiaaae?i (6,02 SYMBOL 215 \f «Symbol» \s 14 *
1023 1/iieue).

Ca E?ooaeai, ?aae?on iieaeoee iiaeia aecia/eoe:

(13)

aea I – iieaeoey?ia aaaa eaoth/i? ?a/iaeie, a/iieue; SYMBOL 114 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 r — u?euei?noue eaoth/i? ?a/iaeie a/ni3.

?en.4. E?iaoeea aeia?iaoaaiiy eaoth/eo ?a/iaei c EAN-IAO.

1 – i?e 600N; 2 – i?e 200N.

A?ao?e (?en. 4) aeicaiey? aecia/eoe W.

I?e??aithth/e iaeaeaa iioieo Iaei = Iaeeo (jaei = jaeeo), ui
a?aeiia?aea? oiia? aacia?a?aiino? iioie?a, io?eia?ii ae?ac aeey O

(14)

?ic?aooiie (i?e i?aenoaiiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo aeaieo) aeicaieea
aecia/eoe:

, O = 0,5 ii.

, O = 0,4 ii.

I?e oeyoo aeeooc?? O20 < 0,5 ii ? O60 < 0,4 ii u?euei?noue aeia?iiai iioieo jaei < jaeeo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oeyoo aeeooc?? O aei ?ic?aoiaaieo cia/aiue ? anoaiiaeaiith ??aiino? aeeooc?eiiai ? aeia?iiai iioieo, i?ney /iai i?ioean aeia?iaoaaiiy cae?enith?oueny ca ?aaeeiii aeeooc?eiiai iioieo, ui ia? caoooath/ee oa?aeoa? c iino?eiei ca?eueoaiiyi O (?en. 4). Aenia??iaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? i?ae ianith eaoth/eo ?a/iaei ,ui aeia?iaothoueny, W ? aeiaaio?eaae?noth aeia?iaoaaiiy t aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe aeiaaia?/i?noue aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii iienaoe aca?iica'ycie iaoaiaoe/ieie ae?acaie aeaeo t=f (W). Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ioe?iee aeiaaia?/iino? i?eeiyoee iie?iii /aoaa?oi? noai?i?: t = a·W + b·W2 + c SYMBOL 215 \f "Symbol" \s 14 * W3 + d·W4 + e (15) Neeaaeath/e ca aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeaiei nenoaio /ioe?ueio ??aiyiue ? ae??ooth/e ??, io?eia?ii inoaoi/ia ??aiyiiy aeey /ano t, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia aeia?iaoaaiiy eaoth/eo a e?eueeino? W. A aa?iaoecoth/iio neeaae? e?euee?noue eaoth/eo ?a/iaei, ui aeia?iaothoueny a iaaaaeoe? 50 a i?e ieiu? iiaa?oi? 283 ni2, W = 12 a. I?e 600N oey e?euee?noue aeia?iao?oueny, ca (15), /a?ac 144 aeiy, ui a ?aaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ieo oiiaao aea?aaeaioii 15 ?ieai aenieoaoaoe??. Ioaea, oaeee aa?iaoecoth/ee neeaae iiaea neoaeeoe aac eiai cai?ie a?ae eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo aei eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo (15 ?ie?a). Aeey caaacia/aiiy ua a?eueoi? iaae?eiino? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny /a?ac 1 ??e aenieoaoaoe?? aaanoe ia iiaa?oith aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue aeeaooeeooaeaoa. A?i a?aeiiaeoue aeanoe/i?noue iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o AN ? a?aeaa?ia aeieeiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo o??uei a iueiio. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e, i?oeiino? ? ?aieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeaiaioii-aiaeieo nenoai ia?aa??ai? aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 5. sse aa/eii, oa?aeoa? ci?ie i?oeiino? a?ae A/Oe iaeiaeiaee ye aeey ?ic?aooieiaeo, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aaee/ei. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia ??aiyiiy i?oeiino? (6), aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe iieacieee – nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe??, ni?a-a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?iaeoeoaie a?ae?aoaoe??, ?o aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaa? oa?aeoa?enoeee – aeey oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanaie oaa?ae?iiy oeaiaioiiai eaiaith ? eiai aeanoeainoyie, cie?aia oeyoii canoinoaaiiy noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?a ca?eueoeei i?oei?noue oeaiaioiiai eaiaith i?e A/Oe=0,25 aei cia/aiiy, aeecueeiai aei ?ic?aooieiaiai (140 IIa). I?e oeueiio i?oei?noue ia caei ca?eueoeeany ia 30%, a i?e noeneo – ia 50%. I?e icia/aiiio A/Oe niinoa??aaeany oaeiae iaeneiaeueia aiaeiiai?iieei?noue. ?en.5. Caeaaei?noue i?oeiino? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith R a?ae A/Oe. a - ?ic?aooieiaeo i?e noeneo; a, a - aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?e noeneo ? caei?. Aeey inoaoi/iiai aeai?o A/Oe a NIOeAN aeey iaai?oaiiy aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae, cie?aia a'yceino? ? i?iieeii? caeaoiino?. Iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee na?ae/aoue i?i ??cea cieaeaiiy ( NIOeAN, o ii??aiyii? c aacaeii?oeiaith oeaiaioii-aiaeiith noniaic??th (OeAN). I?e oeueiio, ca ?en.6, a, cae/aeia oeaiaioii-aiaeia noniaic?y i?e ( = 0,25iiaiaeeoueny ye no?oeoo?iaaiee cieue c? cia/ieie ca'yceaie i?ae /anoeaie oeaiaioo. Noia?ieanoeo?eiaaia oeaiaioii-aiaeia noniaic?y iiaiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae? a?ae (=0,25 aei ( = 0,45 ye cieue c a?aenooi?ie ca'yceaie i?ae /anoeaie oeaiaioo ? c a'yce?noth a?aie/ii c?oeiiaaii? no?oeoo?e, oiaoi a'yce?noth aiaee. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ni?eyoeea? aeanoeaino? NIOeAN aeey ?? iaai?oaiiy a o??ueie a??nueeeo ii??ae ? oae a ia?iaoe? i?e iaaenieeo A/Oe. ?aoe?iiaeueiei aiaeioeaiaioiei a?aeiioaiiyi aeey oeueiai, ca ?en.6, a, ? A/Oe = 0,3-0,4 i?e aeiaeaaaii? noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?a 0,5 ( 0,75%, ui caaacia/eoue i?iieeiaiiy NIOeAN a o??ueie 0,2 ii ia aeeaeio 1 i ca 10 oaeeei. A i'yoiio ?icae?e? aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo /eiiee?a ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? ? ?aieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a oa ?o aeiaaia?/i?noue. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, aeoiaey/e c ?ic?aoiaaii? o?eaaeino? ia??iae?a i?ae eai?oaeueieie ?aiiioaie ?aeeiai? eie??, iaa?oioiaai? oaiia?aoo?ii-oei/ania? ia?aiao?e ? e?euee?noue oeeee?a aei?iaoaaiue ia aeiaaia?/i?noue (O = -300C, n = 15 oeeee?a). I?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? aei?iaoaaiiy aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo AN-1 ia ae?th ee?iaoe/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo /eiiee?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee neeaaeo AN-1 i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieeeny i?ae aieeaii icia/aieo /eiiee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaae?eio aeiaaia?/i?noue oeueiai neeaaeo. ?en.6. Caeaaei?noue aeeiai?/ii? a'yceino? oeaiaioiiai ?ic/eio, SYMBOL 104 \f "Symbol" \s 14 h , I SYMBOL 215 \f "Symbol" \s 14 * n/i2 a?ae: a - aiaeioeaiaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy A/Oe; a - ia'?iii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oaa?aei? oace ( A oinoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue oa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai?: - ?ino?oeoe?y c i?eaiooaaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo AN-1; - oaoi?/i? oiiae ia aeine?aeio ia?o?th aa?iaoecoth/iai neeaaeo AN-1; - ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?ano?nicaa??aath/ei oaoiieia?yi ?aiiioo ooiae?a; - ?ino?oeoe?y c iaai?oaiiy ca ia?iaeo ooiaeth; - iai'yoea INC c oo?eiaiiy iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a. Aeine?aeii-aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? aa?iaoecaoe?? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a ? iiaeo oeaiaioieo ? iie?ia?eiiiiceoe?eieo a?ae?i?ciethth/eo iaoa??ae?a cae?enithaaeenue o na?ii?-aa?ani? 1998 ?ieo a neeueii iaaiaeiaiiio ooiae? ae?eyiee Naia??-Nyiee (ia?aa?i ssai?a-Oo?ea) Euea?anueei? cae?cieoe?. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aei?iaoaaiue ?ai?oa neeueii iaaiaeiaia 10-iao?iaa ae?eyiea ooiaeth noaea iiai?noth nooith. INIIAI? AENIIAEE I?e/eiith iacaaeia?eueiiai noaio aaaaoueio cae?ciaaoiiieo ? eai'yieo ooo/ieo nii?oae ? i?iieeiaiiy aiaee e??cue noeee eiino?oeoe?e , a oaeiae e??cue o??ueie a??nueeeo ii??ae ? oae a ia?iaoe? ooiae?a, ui a naith /a?ao coiiaeaia iaeith aoaeoeai?noth iaoa??ae?a, ui canoiniaothoueny, ? oaoiieia?e aeey ?o aa?iaoecaoe??. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? ? aeanoe/i? iaoa??aee. Iaeiae, ?c-ca ?o aeniei? aa?oino? ? a?aenooiino? a Oe?a?i? a oaia??oi?e /an ?o oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ia oyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei. ?c-ca oaeaeeiai noa??iiy iaiiaeeeaa oaeiae oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a?ooiieo iaoa??ae?a. Cai?noue aeanoe/ieo cai?iiiiiaaii canoiniaoaaoe ieanoiaeanoe/i? iaoa??aee. Ia?niaeoeaiei aeey ?o noai?aiiy ? iayaia a Oe?a?i? aeaoaaa eai'yiiaoa?eueia niiea EAN, aeanoeaino? yei? iiaeia iiaeeo?eoaaoe aiieneaeiith niieith AAe ? iie?a?i?eoei?eaeii IAO. Aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a cae/aeii canoiniao?oueny iaai?oaiiy ca ia?iaeo oeaiaioieo ?ic/ei?a ? oaiiiioaaiiy o??ueioaaoeo a??nueeeo ii??ae oeaiaioii-aiaeieie noniaic?yie OeAN. Iaeiae oe? iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? ia caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeii? a?ae?i?cieyoe?? ?c-ca iaaeineiiaeino? ?o neeaae?a ? iecueei? aoaeoeaiino? icia/aieo oaoiieia?/ieo niinia?a a ie?aiino?. Cai?iiiiiaaii cae?enithaaoe eiiieaenio a?ae?i?cieyoe?th, ui neeaaea?oueny c oaiiiioaaiiy noia?ieanoeo?eiaaiith oeaiaioii-aiaeiith noniaic??th NIOeAN ? aioo??oiuei? aa?iaoecaoe?? oa?a ca aeiiiiiaith ieanoiaeanoe/ieo aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a AN. ?ic?iaeai? iia? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee icia/aieo iaoa??ae?a: aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?, a'yceino?, noa??iiy ? aeiaaia?/iino? ieanoiaeanoe/ieo AN ? ?o eiiiiiaio?a; i?oeiino? ? i?iieeii? caeaoiino? OeAN oa ?i. Aeeiiai? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy EAN oa ?*N aeine?aeaeaiiy EAN-IAO. Aecia/ai? na?aaei? ?ici??e no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo /anoeiie iaea a EAN (0,25 iei) ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy a'yceino? EAN-IAO ca ?aooiie aeenia?aoaaiiy ? /anoeiai? aeano?oeoe?? IAO. Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie a /an?, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ? oaiia?aoo?e aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee: aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?, a'yceino?, ii?icino?eeino?, oaiia?aoo?ino?eeinoe, ?icoyaeiino?, aeia?iaoaaiiy - aeey AN, i?oeiino?, a'yceino? ? i?iieeii? caeaoiino? – aeey OeAN. Ooi/iai? oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o EAN-AAe ? EAN-IAO, i?i iaoai?ci aeano?oeoeee IAO ? eiai no?oeoo?oth/ee aieea ia EAN, iaoai?ciao ?o aaeaac??, a'yceino? ? noa??iiy, i?iieeii? caeaoiino? a o??ueie cae/aeieo oa noia?ieanoeo?eiaaieo OeAN. ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?: - i?oeiino? ? a'yceino? OeAN; - i?oeiino? aaeaac?? AN a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai i?oeiino? eiaacee ? cii/oaaeue?i? caeaoiino?. ?ic?iaeai? iia? aenieiaoaeoeai? ? aeiaaia?/i? neeaaee AN-1 ? NIOeAN, a oaeiae oaoiieia?? a?ae?i?cieyoe?? oa?a, noee?a ? o??uei aeey cae?ciaaoiiieo i?iaiiiaeo nii?oae c aacaaeanoiaith ?caeith ? aeey iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy neeaaeo AN-1 ia Ea?iianueeiio iino? a?ey no. Oa?e?a-ianaaee?nueeee I?aaeaiii? cae?cieoe?. Neeaae EAN-AAe-Oe ? NIOeAN, a oaeiae iiaa oaoiieia?y aa?iaoecaoe?? iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oeeo iaoa??ae?a ia?aa??ai? a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a ooiae? ae?eyiee Naia??-Nyiee (ia?aa?i ssai?a-Oo?ea) Euea?anueei? cae?cieoe?. A ?acoeueoao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ai?oa neeueii iaaiaeiaia 10-iao?iaa ae?eyiea ooiaeth noaea iiai?noth nooith. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee a ianooiieo ?iaioao: Ieoaei A.I., Ieoaei A.A., Eaeeiei I.A., Ie?ioie/aiei N.A., Ieeeoeineee A.E. Eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea iaaiaeiaiiinoe aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oiiiaeae. // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa, Aei. 5, Oa?e?a, OAeOOAA, 1999, n. 37-39. Ieoaei A.I., Ieoaei A.A., Eaeeiei I.A., Ie?ioie/aiei N.A., Aiciaiei N.E, Ooiee Ae.A. I?iieeaaiinoue aeae?iecieyoeeiiiuo ninoaaia i?e iaaiaoaiee a o?aueiu neaeueiuo ii?iae. // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa, Aei. 5, Oa?e?a, OAeOOAA, 1999, n. 31-37. Ieoa?i A.I., Eae?i?i I.A., Aiciaiei N.?., Ieoa?i A.A., I??ioi?/aiei N.A. A?aeiiaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e // Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee, /ano. 1, Oa?e?a, Oa?AeACO, 1998, n.117. Ieoa?i A.I., Eae?i?i I.A., Aiciaiei N.?., Ieoa?i A.A., I??ioi?/aiei N.A. A?aeiiaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e // Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee, /ano. 2, Oa?e?a, Oa?AeACO, 1999, n.89. Ieoaei A.I., Ie?ioie/aiei N.A., Ieoaei Ae.A. Naienoaa eaiaiiioaieueii-yiieneaeiuo naycothueo, eniieuecoaiuo aeey ecaioiaeaiey eiiiiceoeeiiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia // Neioaoe/aneea niieu e ieanoiannu, oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eiaiaiea a io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe / Oacenu aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee, 28 oaa?aey-2 ia?oa, Eeaa, Ciaiea, 1995, n.62. I??ioi?/aiei N.A., Ieoa?i A.I., Eae?i?i I.A., I?i/oe A.A Iniiai? eiioeaioe?? aeaioiaeaiiy iie?ia?aea?aa’yieo a?on?a // Oace aeiiia?aaeae 55-? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? eaoaae? ?inoeoooo oa niaoe?ae?no?a cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo (23-25 eenoiiaaea), Oa?e?a, O??O, 1993, n. 30. Ieoaei A.I., Ieoaei A.A., Eaeeiei I.A., Aiciaiei N.E., Ie?ioie/aiei N.A., Ieoaei Ae.A. Iaoaieci e eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea aeieaiaa/iinoe aaoiia // Nai?iee o?oaeia ii oaoie/aneie oeiee, Eeaa, 1997, n. 355-362. AIIOAOe?ss I??ioi?/aiei N.A. Neeaaee ia iniia? oeaiaioo, EAN oa aenieiye?nieo niie aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? ? e?eoaaiiy o??uei ? oa?a.- ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05- aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae.- Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ae??oaiith aeooaeueieo i?iaeai aa?iaoecaoe?? a?ae aiaee aeoaea aeaoi?iiaaieo noee?a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, o??uei ia?iaie iaaiaeiaieo ooiae?a oa o??ueioaaoeo a??nueeeo ii??ae. I?e oeueiio aeeiiaia ?ic?iaea iiaeo aa?iaoecoth/eo neeaae?a ye iie?ia?eiiiic?oe?eieo ieanoiaeanoe/ieo, oae ? noia?ieanoeo?eiaaieo oeaiaioii-aiaeieo, ye? iathoue aenieo i?iieeio caeaoi?noue o o??ueie ? oae, a oaeiae i?oei?noue oa aiaeiiai?iieei?noue. ?ic?iaeo aeeiiaii ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e, aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?, ?aieia?/ieo oa ?ioeo aeanoeainoae oeeo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a. Aeey oeueiai aoee ?ic?iaeai? oa aeei?enoai? iia? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy aaeaac?eieo oa ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey eaai?aoi?ieo oa iieueiaeo oiia, i?iaaaeai? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiy iaoiaeii ?io?a/a?aiii? niaeo?ineii??. Ia iniia? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniia o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee oaeineiiaeai? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?cie no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, o??ueiiooai?aiiy, i?i aaeaac?ei?, i?oei?ni?, ?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino? oa i?iieeio caeaoi?noue ieanoiaeanoe/ieo oa oeaiaioii-aiaeieo neeaae?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ieoee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy oa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a aeoaea iaaiaeiaiiio ooiae?. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?iaoecoth/ee neeaae, noia?ieanoeo?eiaaia oeaiaioii-aiaeia noniaic?y, ieanoiaeanoe/iee, aeoeai? oeaio?e, iaaiaeiai?noue, ooiaeue. THE SUMMARY Miroshnichenko S.V. Compositions on the basis of the cement, coal tar resin and resins of high quality for hermetisation and treatment of the cracks and seams. – Manuscript. Dissertation for the scientific degree of the candidate of technical sciences by speciality 05.23.05 – building materials and prodacts. – Kharkov state academy of railway transport, Kharkov, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to the decision of actual problem of hermetisation from the water of very deformed joints of the reinforced concrete constructions, cracks in shell of flooded tunnels and cracked rocks. Creation of new hermetic compositions, of polymer plastic-elastic compositions and superplasticization cement-water suspensions has been done. The cement-water suspensions have high penetrative properties in the cracks and seams and strength and waterprootness. The creation has been done on the basis of the researches of the structure, adhesion strength, rheology and other properties of these materials and their components. New methods of the determination adhesion and rheology properties for laboratory and field conditions have been worked out. Electronic-microscopic researches and researches by method of infra-red spectroscopy have been done. Key words: hermetic composition, superplasticization cement-water suspension, plastic-elastic, active centers, flooded, tunnels. AIIIOAOeEss Ie?ioie/aiei N.A. Ninoaau ia iniiaa oeaiaioa, EAN e aunieiea/anoaaiiuo niie aeey aa?iaoecaoeee e ea/aiey o?auei e oaia. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 – no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?aoaieth aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia: aa?iaoecaoeee io aiaeu neeueii aeaoi?ie?oaiuo noueia aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee, o?auei iaaeaeie iaaiaeiaiiuo oiiiaeae e o?aueiiaaouo ai?iuo ii?iae. Auiieiaia ?ac?aaioea iiauo aa?iaoece?othueo ninoaaia eae iieeia?eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ieanoiyeanoe/iuo, oae e noia?ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiuo oeaiaioii-aiaeiuo noniaicee, eioi?ua eiatho aunieoth i?iieeathuoth niiniaiinoue a o?aueiu e oau, a oaeaea i?i/iinoue e aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiinoue. ?ac?aaioaiu e i?eiaiaiu iiaua iaoiaeeee enneaaeiaaiey aaeaaceiiiuo e ?aieiae/aneeo naienoa aeey eaai?aoi?iuo e iieaauo oneiaee, auiieiaiu yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e enneaaeiaaiey iaoiaeii eio?ae?aniie niaeo?ineiiee. Ia iniiaa yoeo enneaaeiaaiee e iniia oeceei-oeie/aneie iaoaieee aeenia?niuo nenoai oniaa?oainoaiaaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoaieciao no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey, o?aueiiia?aciaaiey, ia aaeaaceiiiie i?i/iinoe, ?aieiae/aneeo naienoaao e i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoe ieanoiyeanoe/iuo e oeaiaioii-aiaeiuo nenoai. Iieo/aiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey ai a?aiaie, niioiioaiey eiiiiiaioia e oaiia?aoo?u iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?iaoece?othueo ninoaaia: aaeaaceiiiie i?i/iinoe, ii?icinoieeinoe, oaiia?aoo?u ?aciya/aiey, ?anoyaeeiinoe, enia?yaiinoe eaoo/eo, ayceinoe - aeey ieanoiyeanoe/iuo ninoaaia, a oaeaea i?i/iinoe, i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoe e ayceinoe – aeey oeaiaioii-aiaeiuo noniaicee. Ooi/iaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoaieciao aaeaacee aa?iaoece?othueo ninoaaia ia iniiaa EAN, i ayceinoe e i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoe oeaiaioii-aiaeiuo noniaicee, i iaoaiecia noa?aiey, /oi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue n?ie neoaeau aa?iaoece?othuaai ieanoiyeanoe/iiai ninoaaa. ?ac?aaioaiu oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee i?i/iinoe e ayceinoe oeaiaioii-aiaeiuo nenoai, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua niioaaonoaothueie yenia?eiaioaie. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii ia?a i?iaeieaeathuaeny iieeia?ecaoeee, aa?iaoece?othuee ninoaa EON-YAe-I oa?yao naie ieanoe/aneea naienoaa e noaiiaeony /a?ac 7 ianyoeaa iai?eaiaeiui aeey aa?iaoecaoeee aeaoi?ie?oaiuo noueia. Ii a nayce n nio?aiaieai naieo aaeaaceiiiuo e aa?ia?ece?othueo naienoa ii iiaeao auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaai eae ninoaa aeey iaeiaeaoi?ie?oaiuo noueia e caueoiuo iie?uoee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yooaeo aeenia?niiai a?ie?iaaiey io IAO a EON nii?yaeai n aicieeiiaaieai oeceei-oeie/aneiai naycuaaiey e no?oeoo?e?iaaiey EON iiaa?oiinoueth aunieiaeenia?niie oacu – IAO, i?ioaaeoaai oaieiaia (i?e 100?N a oa/aiea 1 /ana) iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea. Onoaiiaeaii ia aaca eiiieaeniiai ianeaaeiaaiey, /oi iioeiaeueiui niaea?aeaieai IAO a aa?iaoece?othuai ninoaaa EON-IAO yaeyaony 5%. Oaeie aa?iaoece?othuee ninoaa iiaeao neoaeeoue aac aai caiaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iinoao nauoa 15 eao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi noia?ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiay oeaiaioii-aiaeiay noniaicey a eioa?aaea ? io 0,25 aei 0,45 aaaeao caay eae cieue n ionoonoaothueie naycyie iaaeaeo /anoeoeaie oeaiaioa e n ayceinoueth i?aaeaeueii ?ac?ooaiiie no?oeoo?u, oi anoue ayceinoueth aiaeu. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeaaii?eyoiuo naienoaao NIOeAN aeey aa iaaiaoaiey a o?aueiu ai?iuo ii?iae e nouee iaaeaeee i?e iaaunieeo A/Oe. ?aoeeiiaeueiui aiaeioeaiaioiui ioiioaieai aeey yoiai yaeyaony A/Oe = 0,3-0,4 i?e aeiaaaea noia?ieanoeoeeaoi?a 0,5?0,75%, /oi iaania/eaaao i?iieeaiea NIOeAN a o?aueiu oe?eiie 0,2 ii ca 10 ieioo ia aeoaeio, i?aauoathuoth aeoaeio i?iia?caiey iaaeaeee e ii?iae. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee i?ioee yenia?eiaioaeueioth i?iaa?eo e aiaae?aiu a oneiaeyo neeueii iaaiaeiaiiiai aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai oiiiaey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?iaoece?othuee ninoaa, noia?ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiay oeaiaioii-aiaeiay noniaicey, ieanoiyeanoe/iue, aeoeaiua oeaio?u, iaaiaeiaiiinoue, ooiiaeue. AAOI?AOA?AO aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe Neeaaee ia iniia? oeaiaioo, EAN oa aenieiye?nieo niie aeey aa?iaoecaoe?? ? e?eoaaiey o??uei ? oa?a I??ioi?/aiei Na?a?e Aaea??eiae/ A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione N?aoeia A.I. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 13.04.99 ?. Oi?iao iaia?o 60o84 1/16. Iai?? aeey eii?thaaeueieo aia?ao?a. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiai.-ae?oe.a?e.1,0.Iae.–aeae.a?e. 1,2. Caiiaeaiiy ? 200. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Aeae. Oa?AeACO, 310050, i. Oa?e?a-50, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7. Ae?oe. Oa?AeACO, 310050, i. Oa?ueeia-50, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

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