IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEAEO?IAeEIAI?EE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

NE?AeAIIA Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 62-83: 621.313+621.314

NENOAIE AEAEO?IAEEAEAIIss

IINO?EII? IAI?OAE AEAEO?IIIA?E?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue — 05.09.03 — aeaeo?ioaoi?/i? eiiieaene oa nenoaie

a A O i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?2 ?inoeoooo aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Oeaeeianueeee
Aiaoie?e Ei?i?eiae/,

?inoeooo
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?aiye
Aaiiaae?e A?eai?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, ?aeoi?;

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeieaiy A?eoi? Oeiio?eiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e;

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ei?/aiiee Ieeiea Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Oe?a?inueeee IAe? iaoai?caoe?? oa aeaeo?eo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe, i. Ee?a, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii .

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“EI?” I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, eaoaae?a i?iieneiai?
aeaeo?ii?ee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_29_”____/a?aiy______1999 ?. i _14__ aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.187.01 a ?inoeooo?
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252680, i. Ee?a-57, i?.
Ia?aiiae, 56, oae. 446-91-15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “__20__”_____o?aaiy________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.N.Oaae?e

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Anooi. Iaeieie c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai nueiaiaeaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie
? a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoi?o ianya?a aeanieo aia?aiiin??a, iacaaeia?eueiee
?icaeoie ?ano?ni- oa aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy (iniaeeai o o?ainii?oieo
aaeocyo), no?eea iia??oaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio aeiae?eey

Na?aae onueiai ?icia?ooy ?nioth/eo aeae?a o?ainii?oo iaea?eueoa
caiaiiei?iiy aeeeeea? naia aaoiiia?eueiee, ine?eueee iiiaae 70%
caaaeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua iaoiiaeth?oueny
aaoiiia?eyie, ye? ? aieiaiei niiaeeaa/ai ??aeeiai iaeeaa ? e?euee?noue
yeeo iaaieiii c?inoa?. Oaeei /eiii, ia?ii caieiaia eiei c aei?noei
aeyaeaiei iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii, yeee no?eei iineeth? ? oae
oaea ?nioth/? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee — ae/a?ioaaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a, cie?aia iaooe, oa iiaeaeueoa aaea/a caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey.

?aaeueio aeueoa?iaoeao aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?oo iiaeia ?aae?coaaoe
ia iniia? ?icoe?aiiai aeei?enoaiiy (i?eiaei? o iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a)
aeaeo?eo?eiaaiiai o?ainii?oo. Oae i?nueeee aeaeo?io?ainii?o c
aeeaeaiiyi a?ae eiioaeoieo ia?aae aaea a?ae/ooii aieeaa? ia
cieaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai oa iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Iaeiae, eeaneo?eaoe?eia i?oa aeoioeyoi?iiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo e
aein? eeoa?oueny iacaiiaiaiith, oi/a eiai ia’?eoeai? ia?aaaae —
a?aenooi?noue oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a, aacooii?noue, cia/ii iaio?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe, ni?eyiiy ae??aithaaiith aeiaiaeo a?ao?e?a
iaaaioaaeaiue aeaeo?inoaioe?e, noaoenoe/ia aeinoaoi?noue aeaiiiai
i?aeca?yaeiiai i?ia?ao o 80-100 ei a oiiaao i?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy ?
o.ae. — o e?a?iao Caoiaeo aaea aeiaaaeai? oa i?aeoaa?aeaeai? i?aeoeeith
aeine?aeiiai canoinoaaiiy. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue — o aaeeeeo i?noao
eiaeai i?eueeii iaoeaioe?a ianeoaiao? o na?a?nieo ?io?ano?oeoo?ao 00
oeny/ aaoiiia?e?a, /e? ooieoe?? iiaeia ia?aeeanoe ia aeaeo?iiia?e? (AI).
Iaiao?aeia ca?eueoaiiy ae?ia?oeo oa niiaeeaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?e
oeueiio ia ia?aaeueoue 0,3% a?ae ?nioth/iai, a aeiiii?y i?aai?/iiai
iaeeaa neeaaeaoeia 100 iei. e?o??a (80 oen. oii) ia ??e. Ioaea,
iaaeinoaoiy ?icaeiai?noue iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo ia?aaeoiia noai?aiiy
aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo AI oa ?aaeueii ?nioth/a iio?aaa a ieo iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy AI c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa oe?ieiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, ui aaeueie aaaeeeai aeey Oe?a?ie a aeieia?/iiio oa
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio aniaeoao.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. C aeeeaaeaiiai aeua aeo?ea?, ui ?ic?iaee,
noai?aiiy oa yeiaeoe?oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo
?icaeyaea?oueny o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? ye ?noioii aeooaeueia i?iaeaia, yea
o?aaeeoe?eii ae??oo?oueny o oaeeo a?aeiieo iai?yieao: ?ic?iaea iiaeo
aoaeoeaieo aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy oa noai?aiiy aia?aiaoaeoeaieo eiiiiiaio?a
nenoai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??. A oie aea /an eiaeai c
cacia/aieo iai?yie?a ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue aai noai?aiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e oa aeiaaa? aeeaaeaiiy cia/ieo eioo?a.

I?e oeueiio, cia/i? ?aca?ae ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeaeo?iiia?e?a, iie?auaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?ethoueny
o ?aoe?iiaeuei?e i?aai?caoe?? i?ioean?a ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??
aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a? (AA), caaacia/aii? aoaeoeaiiai caaaeueiiai
aia?aiiai?io o nenoaiao aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a (NAAEAI), ui
iiaea aooe aeeiiaii caniaaie oi?aae?iiy i?e iaaiiio iioei?caoe?eiiio
ni?yioaaii? inoaii?o.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae caaaeueiii?iieneiaeo ia?aoai?thaaeueieo eiiieaen?a, ye?
caeaa?eueoiai oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia?aaeaa/ai?noth iiaaae?iee, o ia?aa?ao
iioi/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oieo nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy caaaeaee
i?enooi? oaeoi?e noi?iiiueiai aieeao, ui nooo?ai iicia/a?oueny ia
aeeiiaii? iaia?aae caaeaieo aeai?eoi?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? iaoiiaeth?
cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy noaio nenoaie a?ae caaeaieo ?aaeei?a oa i/?eoaaieo
iieaciee?a yeino? o ea?oth/eo oa aia?aaoe/ieo aniaeoao. Oea iaoiiaeaii
a?aiiii?/ieie iniaeeainoyie oeeo nenoai, ine?eueee nenoaia “iia?aoi? —
iaoeia — aeiaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua” ? iaaecia/aiith ca iciaeaie
ia’?eoeaii? iaia?aaeaa/aiino? o ci?iao noaio (iiaaae?iee) ia?oi? oa
inoaiiuei? eaiie. Oiaoi, iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iciae o?ainii?oieo
nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy ? iaia?aaeaa/ai?noue ia?aa?ao i?ioean?a a ieo,
ui iaoiiaeaii iai?ia?aiiaaieie ae?yie iia?aoi?a oa aeia?eueiith
ci?iith noaio na?aaeiaeua aeei?enoaiiy ? nooo?ai oneeaaeith?
iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy iioei?caoe?eieo caoiae?a, iiaoaeiaaieo ia
aei?noeeo aeai?eoiao, a oaeiae cia/ii caoaeo? iiaeeeaino? oa
ia?aaaae a?aeiieo i?aeoiae?a.

Oiio, a?aoiaoth/e noioanoe/iee oa?aeoa? ia(?eoo, ui aiae?co?oueny,
iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
i?aeaeuaiith caaaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a ia
iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co oyaiaeo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a, a oaeiae noai?aiiy
iaoiaeieia?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaoaeiae NAAEAI, iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a oa
cania?a oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o oaeeo nenoaiao. Oea caaacia/eoue
ciaioaiiy aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy, ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao, ca?eueoaiiy ei?eniiai
i?ia?ao i?ae ca?yaeaie AA, iie?auaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo, iaae?ei?nieo oa
a?aiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeo?iiia?e?a.

Ae??oaiith aeooaeueieo iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ noai?aiiy, ?icaeoeo oa
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiia?e?a, oaoiieia?/iiai
aeaeo?io?ainii?oo oa iao?aaeeoe?eieo aaoiiiiieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a
i?enay/aia aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o aaciina?aaeiueiio ca’yceo c aeaaeai?/ieie, aaeocaaeie
oa aea?aeaaieie i?ia?aiaie, a naia: c ieaiiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie IAI
Oe?a?ie “Iaoeia? iniiae aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee”; c i?iaeaiith “Ia?aoai?aiiy
ia?aiao??a aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a??” (?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceae?? AI O?N? ?474
a?ae 27.12.85 oa ?7 a?ae 24.12.92); c oaiaie “Ono?ienoai”,
“Noaaeeecaoeey” ?? Ae? a?aeiia?aeii 01.86.0.083877, 1990?. oa
01.91.0007412, 1993?.; c ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi ?I N?N? ?473? a?ae
03.12.80; c i?aei?ia?aiith ii aeaeo?io?ainii?oo I?iiaoi?iio Oe?a?ie
a?ae 12.10.92; c i?iaeoii AeEITII Oe?a?ie “Aeaeo?iiia?eue”
(5.51.04 “?ano?nicaa??aath/? i?iaeaie aeeiiaa/eo oa o?ainii?oieo
iaoei”), 1994?.; c i?iaeoii I?iiaoee Oe?a?ie “Eia?oeeoea” (04.08/1830
a?ae 26.08.97?. “?ic?iaea oa noai?aiiy iiaiai eeano
aenieiaoaeoeaieo aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ainii?oiiai
i?ecia/aiiy”), a oaeiae c ieaiaie IAe? ca ieceith ainiaeiaiai??a c
AaoiAACii (i.Oieueyoo?, ?in?y), AaoiCACii (i.Caii??aeaey) oa c
I?iiaoi?iiii Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue iiaoaeiae nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a,
?aoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioean?a aia?aiiai?io a ieo oa noai?aiiy ia
oe?e iniia? iiaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a, cania?a oa aeai?eoi?a
oi?aae?iiy oyaiaeie oa aeiiii?aeieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie, ui a noeoiiino?
caaacia/o? ?ica(ycaiiy cia/ii? i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie ( i?aeaeuaiiy
aia?aaoe/ii? oa aenieoaoaoe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiia?e?a.

Aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

— ?ic?iaee iaoiaeieia?? iiaoaeiae nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a
c aa?aioiaaiith iaia?aae caaeaiith “noaoe/iith” aoaeoeai?noth oa
oaoi?/iith noi?ni?noth neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a;

— aiae?oe/iiai oa aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai
aaeaino aia?a?e o oyaiaiio oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe
aeaeo?iiia?e?a;

— iiaeaeueoiai canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo
aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a eiiieaen?a oyaiaiai oa aeiiii?aeiiai
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy oa aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a iioeiaeueiiai
(noaiioeiaeueiiai) oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o nenoaiao
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a;

— ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? caaaeaiiy
no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy oyaiaiai aeaeaoia, a
oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?iae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? caaaeaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo (iai?oaa,
iiooaei?noue) oa iaoai?/ieo (iiiaio, i?enei?aiiy) ia?aiao??a nenoai
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a i?e iaiaei?iiiio a?aooaaii? iaiaaeaiue,
iaoiiaeaieo aeeaeaiiyi a?ae aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a?;

— noai?aiiy i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo cania?a iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy
ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy, cania?a e?euee?niiai
iae?eo iioi/ii? ?iiino? oyaiai? aaoa?a? oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
iiaeoe?a oi?aae?iiy aeey canoinoaaiiy ia ??cieo oeiao
aeaeo?iiia?e?a;

— ?ic?iaee aeai?eoi?/ii-i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy cania?a
oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
aia?aoo eia?/ieo noai aeai?eoi?a aeey i?i?i?caoe?? ia’?io i?ia?aiii?
iai(yo? oa /ano aeeiiaiiy ea?oth/eo i?ioeaaeo?;

— aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaee eiie?aoieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii canoinoaaiith ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ia
aeaeo?iiia?eyo oa ?ioiio aaoiiiiiiio o?ainii?o? ??ciiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— iaea?aeaii iia? aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey EEAe eiiiiiaio?a oa nenoai
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a, ye? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe eiie?aoi?
ae?aiaciie ci?ithaaiiy /anoioe eiiooaoe??, eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy
?iioeueniiai oeeeeo oa no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— noi?ioeueiaai? oa iaa?oioiaai? aieiai? iieiaeaiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo
caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoai oyaiaiai
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a ca noaoe/ieie eiinoaioaie ?o
neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a;

— aia?oa aeeiiaii nenoaiaoeciaai? ocaaaeueithth/? aiae?oe/i? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaino aia?a?e o oyaiaiio oa
?aeoia?aoeaiiio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa aeyaeaii /eiieee
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aoaeoeai?noue aia?aiiai?iieo i?ioean?a;

— ?ic?iaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii iiaee iaoiae “i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue” aeey
aaciina?aaeiueiai (ieiath/e a?ii?caee? ?ic?aooiee) aecia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie, ye? ?aae?cothoue caaeai? caeiie
ci?ie no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy oyaiaiai aeaeaoia;

— aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy caaaeaiiy iai?oae,
iiooaeiino?, iiiaioo ? i?enei?aiiy o nenoaiao oyaiaeo
aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a, aecia/aii iaae? aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy oaeiai
oi?aae?iiy;

— iaa?oioiaaii ?ai?oa iaa?aeiiee niin?a iiaiiooieoe?iiaeueiiai
aeaiciiiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o oyaiaeo i?eaiaeao c
iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii ii oaeaeeino?;

— iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th oa ?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeuei? aeai?eoie
ae??oaiiy caaea/? iae?eo iioi/ii? ?iiino? aeey ai?oiaeo oa aooa?ieo
aeoioeyoi?ieo aaoa?ae i?e ?aae?caoe?? ?aaa?neaiiai aia?aiiai?io;

— aeine?aeaeaii ?aaeeiii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?iaioe oyaiaeo
oa aeiiii?aeieo ai?oiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa ?ic?iaeaii
niaoe?ae?ciaai? aoaeoeai? aeai?eoie oi?aae?iiy ieie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ocaaaeueiai? oa
aeiaaaeai? aei aeaeyaeo ?aeeii? oe?eueiai? iaoiaeieia??, ui aeicaiey?
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o o ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? i?e ?ic?iaeao
nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa noai?aii? nenoai oi?aae?iiy
oyaiaeie oa aeiiii?aeieie iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeie ia?aoai?thaa/aie, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee aia?aiiai?i o oaeeo nenoaiao
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy. Oea ? i?aea?oioyi aeey ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
iiaeaeueoiai canoinoaaiiy iaea?aeaieo o ?iaio? eiie?aoieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeieeaie oa ?ic?iaieeaie a onoaiiaao oa i?aai?caoe?yo, ye?
niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia ?ic?iaeao, ai?iaaaeaeaii? oa aenieoaoaoe??
aeoioeyoi?iiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e oa
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeai? ?aaa?neai? e?/eeueieee
aiia?-aiaeei iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ie?aii ia ia(?eoao ?c
noaoe?iia?ieie aeoioeyoi?ieie aaoa?ayie (aocee ca(yceo, ia(?eoe aaeeei?
aia?aaoeee, oiui).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ciaeoee oe?iea i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o
aeine?aeieo oa aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo c?aceao o?ainii?oieo nenoai
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy c a?aeiia?aeieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie. An? noai?ai?
caniae oi?aae?iiy iaee eiie?aoia i?ecia/aiiy ? i?ieoee noaiaeia?
aei?iaoaaiiy oa aeine?aeia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ??cieo o?ainii?oieo
caniaao (aeaeo?iiia?e? AAC-1801, 2801, 2802, 2702, CAC-1102, 11091,
11092, aeaeo?ioeeee ia aac? o?eoeeeeo EIC “Aei?i?i-300”, aeaeo?iea?e
AE-2, AI-161), aeaye? ?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaeeo i?iieneiaeo
na??yo ia aeaeo?iiia?eyo AAC-2801, oa 2702.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe,
ui i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii. O
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, aaciina?aaeiuei aeena?oaioo
iaeaaeeoue ianooiia: o iiiia?ao?? [1] — naiino?eii iaienai? ?icae?ee
6,7; o [2,3] — ?ic?iaea iieiaeaiue caaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? iiaoaeiae,
noai?aiiy IINO oa i?ia?ai aeey e?/eeueieea aiia?-aiaeei; o ?iaioao
[4,8,9] — aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aiae?c ?aaoeyoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?aoai?thaa/a; o [5,6,20] — iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? iiaoaeiae nenoai
aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa iaoeiai-i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe noai?aiiy
ai?oiaeo ea?oth/eo no?oeoo?; o [15-19] — iinoaiiaea caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaea?aeaiiy aiae?oe/ieo caeaaeiinoae; o [7] —
iieiaeaiiy niiniao oa noai?aiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a cania?a oi?aae?iiy. O
iaoa??aeao [21-23] ?aea? aeiaoiae?a iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai o ??ai?e
i???.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie aeiiia?aeaeenue ia o?ueio i?aeia?iaeieo
(1997-98 ??.), naie ananithcieo (1979-91 ??.), i(yoe ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o 42
ioae?eaoe?yo (1 iiiia?ao?y, 19 noaoae o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 5 c yeeo
iaienaii naiino?eii, 1 i?ai?eio, 8 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa N?N?, 1 iaoaio
Oe?a?ie, 2 noaoo? o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee, 10 oac aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo) oa 4 ca?oao ii
cae?i/aieo IAe?, ui iathoue iiia?e aea?ae?a?no?aoe??.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe . Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue anooi,
o?noue ?icae?e?a, aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoee.
Caaaeueiee ianya neeaaea? 377 noi??iie. Ia 117 noi??ieao ?ici?uaii 18
oaaeeoeue, 50 ?enoie?a, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 143 iiceoe?e oa
i’youe aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy
?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaea/? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa a?aeiiino? uiaei
?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??, ?? ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe?? ca
oaiith aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi caaaeueio no?oeoo?o aca?iica(yce?a
eiiiiiaio?a NAAEAI c i?e?ii?ioeani?iith nenoaiith oi?aae?iiy (IINO)
(?en.1) ? aecia/aii iai?yiee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo neaiae?a
ye aioo??oiueinenoaiiiai (aeao/eee) , oae ? ciai?oiueiai (caaeao/eee)
iioiaeaeaiiy, ui caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy ea?oth/eo ae?e aeey oi?aae?iiy
oyaiaeie oa aeiiii?aeieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie ? eiiooaoe?eiei
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiyi. (Ia noai? iicia/aii: OAA — oyaiaa aeoioeyoi?ia
aaoa?ay; AAeAE — aoi?eiia aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy (eiea IINO, ai?oia?aae?,
cania?a aei??thaaiiy, oiui); EE — e?i?eiee eiioaeoi?; ?I — ?iioeueniee
ia?aoai?thaa/; CAe — cai?ioiee ae?iae; OA — oaoiaaia?aoi?; ss — ye??
oyaiaiai aeaeaoia; IC — iaiioea caoaeaeaiiy; E?aa — eiioaeoi?
?aaa?na; IC — ia?aoai?thaa/ o eie? caoaeaeaiiy; OAA , Oss , OIC —
aeao/eee no?oio (ooioe) a?aeiia?aeii aaoa?a?, yei?y, oa eiea
caoaeaeaiiy.

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th oa i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo
iaoiae?a, cania?a oa ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie.

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo
eiiieaen?a ? iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ?aaoethth/eo iiaeeeainoae
ia?aoai?thaa/?a aeaeo?iaia?a??. E??i oiai, ia caaaeueio aoaeoeai?noue
neeaaeieo oaoi?/ieo nenoai c ia?aoai?thth/eie iiaeoeyie aaciina?aaeiuei
aieeaa? ia?aia (?ic?iaeaia) no?aoaa?y oi?aae?iiy inoaii?ie. Ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee ? i/aaeaeiei, ui “i?eaianaiiy” ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
iaiiaiaiiy a oi?aae?iiy aoaeue-yeei ia’?eoii iiaeiii iaoe i?ae niaith
iaaiee oai?aoe/iee aacen, no?oeoo?o yeiai neeaaeathoue iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioean?a oa
aeanoeainoae ye ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a, oae ? ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy a oe?eiio.
O ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ieoaiiyi
oai??? ia?aoai?thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a oa oi?aae?iiy ieie i?enay/aii /eiaei
oaaae. Iaea?eueo aecia/ieie ? ?iaioe A.-A.A.Aaeuene?na, A.Aaaeoi?aea,
E.A.A??ci??ena, I.A.Aoeaoiaa, ?.A.Aieeiaa, O.A.Aeacaiei,
A.A.A?aaiaaoeueeiai, A.?.Aeaieniaa, A.O.Aeieai?, TH.?.Ae?aaiae/a,
A.ss.AEoeeiaa, ?.TH.?iueeiaa, A.A.Eeai?eiaa, I.N.Eiia?iaa, TH.?.Eii?aa,
A.I.Eaaoioeiaa, A.?.Iae?aniaa, A.A.I?aiyea, A.I.?iiaoa, A.N.?oaeaiea,
?.Oiooa, A.N.Oaae?y, A.E.Oeaeeianueeiai, I.I.TH?/aiea oa aaaaoueio
?ioeo. Uiaei oai??? ia?aoai?thaa/?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe o neeaae?
aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a, oi iaea?eueoee iioaioe?ae o?aaeeoe?eii cina?aaeaeaiee
o iaoeiaeo oeieao Ee?aa (?AAe IAI Oe?a?ie, IOO Oe?a?ie “EI?”), Oa?eiaa
(OAeIO, IAI “Aeaeo?iaaaeiao”), Caii??aeaey (IAe? “Ia?aoai?thaa/”),
Iineae , N.-Iaoa?ao?ao, Iiainea??nueeo. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
aeine?aeaeaiue iacaaieo i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo oe?e o inoaii? aeanyoe??//y
? iaiaei?iiee ?icaeoie i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy ia?aeaeueii c o?aaeeoe?eieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie cania?a ia?aoai?aiiy, ui neeaaea? aeinoaoith oiiao aeey
aeeiiaiiy iioei?caoe?eieo caoiae?a.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo
iieaciee?a ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy, ye iaiao?aeia oiiaa ae??oaiiy
iioei?caoe?eieo caaea/, yea a?oioo?oueny ia oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo: 1).
Aaoiiiii? o?ainii?oi? nenoaie aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy c ia?aoai?thaa/aie
iino?eii? iai?oae ? caieiaieie no?oeoo?aie ? iathoue aiae?coaaoeny o
an?e noeoiiino? aca?iiaieeao oa aca?iica’yce?a on?o
no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a, oiaoi aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeeyaa?
aaciaa no?oeoo?a: “aeoioeyoi?ia aaoa?ay — ?iioeueniee ia?aoai?thaa/ —
oyaiaee aeaeo?iaeaeaoi” (AA-?I-OAAe). 2). Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aiae?c
nenoai oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy ia? aooe ioiieaiee ?aeeiei
iaoaiaoe/iei iienii, ui i?noeoue ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie ?aaeeiieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy oa aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a oeeo
nenoai. 3). C aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a (EEAe, niiaeeoa iiooaei?noue,
ao?aoe iiooaeiino?, oiui), caeaaei?noue yeeo a?ae ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy
aea/aoeiaoueny, ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaoe naia EEAe ye iaea?eueo
caaaeueiiio iieacieeo aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ye ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a,
oae ? nenoaie i?eaiaea a oe?eiio.

Pn . Caaaeueiee EEAe nenoaie aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith

.

P1 — ao?aoe o aeaea?ae? ), aaaaeaii eiao?oe??ioe i?eaaaeaiiy
iiooaeiino? k1 = P1/P2 ; k2 = P1/P3 ; … ; kn-1 = P1 / Pn ,
oiae? caaaeueiee EEAe nenoaie aecia/eoueny ca oi?ioeith

Pn ) / P1 (1)

Aeei?enoiaoth/e (1) oa a?aeiia?aei? ae?ace aeey iiooaeiinoae ao?ao,
niiaeeaaiiy oa eiao?oe??io?a i?eaaaeaiiy, aeey o?aaeeoe?eii? iiaoaeiae
NAAEAI c o?aicenoi?iei ia?aoai?thaa/ai (?en.2,a) o oyaiaiio ?aaeei?
iaea?aeeii oaeo oi?ioeo aeey caaaeueiiai EEAe:

2 —

(2)

aea (*=(/(e.c., ( — na?aaei?e no?oi aeaeaoia ca ia??iae eiiooaoe??,
(e.c.=Ae/(e (Ae oa (e a?aeiia?aeii A?N oa aeoeaiee ii?? AA), ( = (e / O
— eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy ?iioeueniiai oeeeeo — EC?Oe — ((e — o?eaae?noue
?iioeuena iai?oae ia aeoiae? ia?aoai?thaa/a, O- ia??iae eiiooaoe??),
(n=(Sa /(e ((Sa- aeoeaiee iine?aeiaiee ii?? eiiaeainaoi?a o?eueo?a), ((
=1+ ( /2 (( = (( / (n?), ( = O-1((01+(10)/2, ((01 oa (10- o?eaae?noue
ia?aaeiueiai oa caaeiueiai o?iio?a aeo?aeiiai no?oio ia?aoai?thaa/a),
(c=(?c/(?I (a?aeiioaiiy ao?ao o eie? oi?aiae?iiy (caoaeaeaiiy) neeiaai
o?aicenoi?a aei caaaeueieo a o?ao o ia?aoai?thaa/?), k?.i. = = ro /
ry (a?aeiioaiiy aeoeaieo iii??a neeiaiai o?aicenoi?a oa yei?y OAAe),
(y= (Ae/(y ((Ae- aeoeaiee ii?? cai?ioiiai ae?iaea), (Ae = (aeei / (Ae
((aeei- aeeiai?/iee ii?? ae?iaea), (( = 1+(2 / 12, (( = (e.c / (e ,
(e=(/(y ((-iai?oaa AA), (e = (e / (y, (?*y.ae.- aeiaeaoeia? ao?aoe a
yei?? o a?aeiinieo iaeeieoeyo i?e ?iioeueniiio ?aaoethaaii? .

O ?aaeei? ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy aeey caaaeueiiai EEAe nenoaie
(?en.2,a) iaea?aeaia oaea oi?ioea:

2 ,
(3)

aea kCss = (Sa /(ss , (?*y.ae.?.- aeiaeaoeia? ao?aoe a yei?? o ?aaeei?
?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a ?
aeineoue ?ioi?iaoeaieie oa ei?enieie, ine?eueee aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe
ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aieeao ?aaeeiieo oa
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a ia EEAe. Iaeiae, aaciina?aaeiuei c
iayaieo ?acoeueoao?a ua ia iiaeia io?eiaoe caeii oi?aae?iiy
ia?aoai?thaa/ai, yeee i?a ae caaacia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ?iaioe
NAAEAI. Oiaoi, ?ioi?iaoe?eia iiiaeeia, yeo neeaaeathoue io?eiai?
caeaaeiino? aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a o?ainii?oieo aia?ainenoai a?ae
ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie, ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye
naiiaeinoaoiy noeoii?noue aeaieo aeey aaciina?aaeiueiai noai?aiiy
aeai?eoi?a iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oiio a ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaia
oe?eueiaa iaoiaeieia?y aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a iioeiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o nenoaiao o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a. Ca
e?eoa??? iioeiaeueiino? ia?aii i?i?ioi iiooaeiino?, ui niiaeeaa?oueny
a?ae AA ca caaeaiee /an aeey aeinyaiaiiy caaeaieo aeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a
o?ainii?oiiai caniao o oyaiaiio ?aaeei? oa iaeneioi iiooaeiino?, yea
aoaea niiaeeoa aaoa?a?th i?ae /an aaeueioaaiiy ca oiiae ?aaeueiiai
no?oiiiaiaaeaiiy o ?aeoia?aoeaiiio ?aaeei?. Iaoiaeieia?y a?oioo?oueny ia
ni?eueiiio aiae?c? aia?aaoe/ieo, ?aaoethaaeueieo oa aeeiai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oyaiaeo i?eaiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueiei oyaiaei
?aaeeiai a?aeiia?aeathoue onoaeai? no?oie iaaaioaaeaiiy aeaeaoia, a
iioeiaeueiei ?aeoia?aoeaiei — onoaeai? no?oie iaaaioaaeaiiy oyaiaiai
aeaea?aea.

Caaa?oo? ia?oee ?icae?e iaa?oiooaaiiy noioanoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o NAAEAI c
iaeyaeo ia iaia?aeaa/ai?noue iiaaae?iee oaeeo nenoai, ye ia(?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy, (ui iaoiiaeaii iaaeaoa?i?iiaaieie ae?yie “iia?aoi?a” oa
niiioaiiith ci?iith aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo) oa iinoaiiaea caaea/ iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co iioe?aii ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a oyaiaiai oa aeiiii?aeiiai
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa ?ioeo oei?a aaoiiiiiiai
aeaeo?io?ainii?oo c ??cieie no?oeoo?aie ia?aoai?thth/eo eiiiiiaio?a.

I?iaiae?ciaaii eiia?iiaaio no?oeoo?o aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaea, ui
neeaaea?oueny c ?iaa?oi?a iai?oae, yeee iiaea aooe ea?iaaiei aai
iaea?iaaiei, oa aei?yiey/a, yeee oaae iiaea aooe ea?iaaiei aai
iaea?iaaiei (?en.2,a). Oaea

no?oeoo?a aeineoue oi?aa?naeueia, ine?eueee ca oiia a?aeiia?aeii?
iiooaeiino? iiaea aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? oyaiaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a
ia o?eueee aeaeo?iiia?e?a,a oaeiae aeaeo?iea??a oa oeaoiaiai
oaoiieia?/iiai o?ainii?oo c aeeaeaiiyi a?ae eaaaeueii? ia?anoaii?
ia?aae? aai ca?yaeiiai ia?aoai?thaa/a aeey OAA.

Aeey no?oeoo?e AA-?I-EA-OAAe iaea?aeaii oaeo oi?ioeo aeey caaaeueiiai
EEAe:

(1- I*) —

(1-I*) —

, (4)

a aeey caaaeueiiai EEAe nenoaie AA-E?I-A-OAAe iaea?aeaii oaeo oi?ioeo:

(1-I*) —

(1- I*) —

2 ( 1 — I* ) , (5)

aea kVD = rVD /ry ; kT1= rT1 /ry; kBD = RVDaeei /ry; kTD = RT1aeei /ry ;
ki = ti /3,6T (ti — /an ia?inoaiiy no?oio a oe?enoi??), k?I = (o / (y .

C ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ca oi?ioeaie (2), (4), (5)
aeo?ea?: c nenoai c o?ueiia oeiaie ?aaoeyoi??a — o?aaeeoe?eiee O?I,
?I-EA, E?I-A — iaea??o? aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee ia? nenoaia AA-E?I-A-OAAe,
oi/a o ?aeaioe/ieo ?aaeeiao cia/aiiy EEAe aeey on?o nenoai
a?ae??ciythoueny ia a?eueoa i?ae 10%, oiaoi i?e aeai?? eiie?aoii?
no?oeoo?e ?aaoeyoi?a c o?aooaaiiyi iacia/iiai iia??oaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo
iieaciee?a a?ae O?I aei ?I-EA ? aeae? aei E?I-A ne?ae ea?oaaoenue
eiie?aoieie aeiiaaie aei i?eno?i?a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny.

).

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue o ?yae? aeiaaee?a
i?eioneaoe oneeaaeiaiiy NAAEAI aac nooo?aiai iia??oaiiy ?o aia?aaoe/ieo
oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo iieaciee?a.

Aeey aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiiai o?aicenoi?iiai
oe?ioii-/anoioii-?iioeueniiai ?aaoeyoi?a (?en.2,a) iaea?aeaia oi?ioea
aeey EEAe o aeaeyae?

2

oa i?iaiae?ciaai? ?aaoethaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
cacia/aiee ?aaoeyoi? ?aae?co? eaac?iioeiaeueiee caeii oi?aae?iiy c
noaa?e?ciaaieie ioeuenaoe?yie no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy oa iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aaciina?aaeiuei ye oyaiaee ia?aoai?thaa/ i?e (AA (
100A, ?OAAe ( 6eAo, a oaeiae ye nenoaia oi?aae?iiy oe?enoi?ieie
ia?aoai?thaa/aie aac aoaeue-yeeo iaiaaeaiue. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo o
eiei iaaaioaaeaiiy cai?noue aeaeaoia aeeth/a?oueny ?iioeueniee
o?ainoi?iaoi?, aoi?eii? iaiioee yeiai i?aeeeth/athoueny aei ea?oth/eo
aeaeo?iae?a neeiaeo oe?enoi??a. Aei ia?aaaa aeaiiai noaiiiai ??oaiiy
ne?ae a?aeianoe a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeeo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae
aeeaeaiiy oa caaeao/ee?a.

Aeae? i?iaiae?ciaaii nenoaie, ia aac? yeeo aeeiiothoueny ai?oia?
aoi?eii? aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy (AAeAE) c ao?aeieie aenieiaieueoieie
?iioeuenieie ?aaoeyoi?aie iino?eii? iai?oae — ??II — (?en.2,ae —
?aaoeyoi? oa aa??aioe aa?ieiaiiy neeiaiai o?aicenoi?a) aeey iiaoaeiae
aooa?ieo AAeAE oa ca?yaeieo i?eno?i?a AA, a oaeiae AAeAE ai?oiaeo
niiaeeaa/?a (ai?oia?aaea, caniae oi?aae?iiy, ?iaeeeaoe??, eiio?ieth oa
aei??thaaiue) c i?aeaeuaieie aeiiaaie aei yeino? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
ai?oiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy (?en.2,a).

Iaea?aeai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey EEAe oaeeo nenoai iathoue
ocaaaeueiaiee oa?aeoa? ? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe eiie?aoi? e?euee?ni? oa
ye?ni? caeaaeiino? EEAe aeey aeaiaio?a, eiioo??a oa nenoai AAeAE a
oe?eiio a?ae ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy (EC?Oe oa /anoioe eiiooaoe??), a
oaeiae a?ae no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey ??cieo aa??aio?a canoinoaaiiy
aeaiaioii? aace (a?iiey?ieo, IGBT oa MOSFET o?aicenoi??a) i?e
?ic?iaoe? oa noai?aii? aoi?eiieo aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy ??ciiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeua aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue noai?eoe
?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco aeey aecia/aiiy iaaieo ae?aiacii?a cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy oa iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeio?eiaiiy yeeo caaacia/o?
aeinoaoiuei aenie? cia/aiiy EEAe nenoaiai oyaiaiai oa aeiiii?aeiiai
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo o
noeoiiino? aeicaieythoue iioeiaeueii i?ae?a?aoe eiiiiiaioe NAAEAI, ui a
oe?eiio caaacia/o? iaia?aae caaeaio “noaoe/io” aoaeoeai?noue oaeei
nenoaiai oa oaoi?/io noi?ni?noue oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy, ui ?o
neeaaea?.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae “caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaii? aoaeoeaiino?” (ICAA)
o?ainii?oieo nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy ca noaoe/ieie eiinoaioaie ?o
neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a. I?ae aa?aioiaaiith “noaoe/iith” aoaeoeai?noth
ne?ae ?icoi?oe oaeee iaa?oioiaaiee i?aea?? eiiiiiaio?a, yeee ca on?o
?ioeo ??aieo oiia caaacia/eoue nenoai? e?au? aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee o
ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie aa??aioaie. Noaoe/i? eiinoaioe aecia/athoueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iaci?iieo o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a neeaaeiaeo nenoaie
i?eaiaea ? ? iaia?aae caaeaieie aaee/eiaie, ui “caeeaaeathoueny” a
nenoaio ia aoai? ?? oaoi?ei-no?oeoo?iiai oi?ioaaiiy c ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a (aeaea?ae no?oio, oyaiaeo aeaeaoi?a oa ea?iaaieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a).

Aiae?oe/ii iaoiae aaco?oueny ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo caeaaeiinoae EEAe
eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie i?eaiaea, ?aaoethaaeueieo oa iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo
oaeoi??a o oyaiaiio ?aaeei? oa ?aaeei? ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy.
Aeai?eoi?/ii iaoiae ?aae?co?oueny ye aecia/aiiy oaeeo /enaeueieo
cia/aiue iaea?eueo aaaiieo eiao?oe??io?a c /enea noaoe/ieo eiinoaio o
ae?acao aeey EEAe, uia cia/aiiy EEAe o ooieoe?? oe??? eiinoaioe aoei
iaeneiaeueiei ca an?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiia.

Iaoiae a?oioo?oueny ia oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo:

1. C ?nioth/eo a?aeiieo NAAEAI aeae?a?oueny oa i?eeia?oueny ca aaciao
oaea, ui ca nai?ie ia?aiao?aie eiiiiiaio?a oa oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eieie
iieacieeaie ? e?auith ca ?io?. (I?e aeai?? aaciai? nenoaie aeioe?eueii
ea?oaaoenue oaeeie iieacieeaie ye EEAe; ieoiia iiooaei?noue, Ao/ea;
ieoii? aia?aiaeo?aoe, Ao . aiae / ei; oiui).

2. O ae?acao aeey EEAe eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a i?eaiaea iae?athoueny
noaoe/i? eiinoaioe, ye?, ii-ia?oa, aecia/athoue iaea?eueo aaaii?
o?ceei-oaoi?/i? ia?aiao?e eiiiiiaio?a, a, ii-ae?oaa, /eiyoue
aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia EEAe oeeo eiiiiiaio?a.

3. Caienothoueny ??aiyiiy, aea ia?oa

((()min = ( ( (= const, (= const , (= const, ((() ( = (aaciaa)

aecia/a? EEAe eiiiiiaioa aaciai? nenoaie o a??oiio ?aaeei?, ye
ooieoe?th onoaeaieo ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a oa noaoe/ieo eiinoaio,
/enaeuei? cia/aiiy yeeo aeey aaciai? nenoaie a?aeii?, a ae?oaa ??aiyiiy

((()max = ( ( (= const, (= const , (= const,
((() ( = ka?i)

? ae?acii aeey EEAe oiai ae eiiiiiaioa o e?auiio ?aaeei?, neeaaeaiei
oaeiae aeey onoaeaieo ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a, aea o ooieoe??
noaoe/ii? eiinoaioe a?iioaoe/ii? nenoaie i?eaiaeo, yea noai?th?oueny aai
oanoo?oueny. *enaeueia cia/aiiy oe??? inoaiiuei? eiinoaioe ia? aooe
ciaeaeaia o aeaeyae? ka?i = ( [((()min , ((()max] , uia caaacia/eoe
eiiiiiaioai nenoaie, ui noai?th?oueny (oanoo?oueny) cia/aiiy EEAe o
a??oiio ?aaeei? ia iaio? ca cia/aiiy EEAe eiiiiiaio?a aaciai?
nenoaie, aea o e?auiio ?aaeei?.

4. Ae??, cacia/ai? o i.3, aeeiiothoueny aeey oyaiaiai oa
?aeoia?aoeaiiai ?aaeei?a ?iaioe NAAEAI aeey caaacia/aiiy
aeinoaoiuei? a??ia?aeiino? o aecia/aii? ni?aa?aeiioaiue noaoe/ieo
eiinoaio aaciaiai oa a?iioaoe/iiai i?eaiae?a.

Cacia/eii iae?aco, ui ae?aiacii canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo aeey oyaiaeo
i?eaiae?a iino?eiiai no?oio i?aeoe/ii ia iaiaaeaiee.

Ca aaciao o oeueiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?eeiyoi nenoaio i?eaiaea, ui ia?
oyaiaee aeaeo?iaeaeaoi IO-125 (Pmax / Piii = 25/12 eAo, (e = (y/(y =
2400A) , oyaiao Ni-Zn aeoioeyoi?io aaoa?ath ( (iii = 120A, ( = 55
Ao . aiae/ ea, (e.c. = (AA / (AA = 1350 A), o?aicenoi?iee
?iioeueniee ia?aoai?thaa/ ( Pmax =25eAo, m = 12ea, ?/m = 2,1
eAo/ea), iiaoaeiaaiee ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiei o ?inoeooo?
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee iaoiaeii aeeaieiai naeoe?iioaaiiy c ?aca?aoaaiiyi.
Cacia/aia aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy aeaioiaeaia ca aenieeie oaoiieia?yie oa ii
oaoi?/ieo ? aia?aaoe/ieo iieacieeao a?aeiia?aea? na?oiaiio ??aith
i?eno?i?a oaeiai i?ecia/aiiy.

I?i?ethno?o?ii ?iaioo iaoiaeo ia i?eeeaae? oyaiaiai aeaeaoia, EEAe
yeiai o oyaiaiio ?aaeei? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(6)

= 1 i?e f > 500Aoe ? nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia EEAe aeaeaoia oa i?eaiaea a
oe?eiio ia iiaeooue.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aeii ciaeoe oae? ke oa kI , uia EEAe aeaeaoia o
a??oeo ?aaeeiao iaaeeaeaany aei cia/aiue eiai EEAe o e?aueo ?aaeeiao
o?eueee ca ?aooiie iioeiaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a
nenoaie i?eaiaeo.

Ae?ac aeey EEAe aeaeaoia i?aaenoaaeii o oaeiio aeaeyae?:

ss-Ae = 1 — A / ke B,
(7)

aea A oa A ? a?aeiia?aeii /enaeueieeii ? ciaiaiieeii iiia?aaeiuei
i?eaaaeaiiai aei iaeiiai ae?iao ae?aco (6). I?e oeueiio A oa A —
noae? i?e o?eniaaieo cia/aiiyo EC?Oe — ( — ? a?aeiiniiai no?oio
iaaaioaaeaiiy (*.

Aeey no?oio I = 150A (?aaeueiee o?eaaeee oyaiaee no?oi) i?i?iaeueiee
EEAe aeaeaoia aei??aith? 0,4 , a iaeneiaeueiee — 0,92 . Caienaaoe
ae?ac (7) aeey oeeo aeaio cia/aiue EEAe, a oaeiae aeey ke min oa ke max,
iaea?aeeii

A / ke min . A = 0,6 ; A / ke max . A =
0,08,

ca?aeee ciaoiaeeii: ke max = 7,5 ke min , a c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui aeey
aaciai? nenoaie ke = ke min = 2, iaea?aeeii ke max =15, oiaoi
iaiao?aeiee ae?aiacii cia/aiue eiao?oe??ioa ke , ui caaacia/eoue
ca?eueoaiiy EEAe aeaeaoia ca an?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, ? oaeei: 2 < ke < 15 . Aeey aecia/aiiy kI i?eaiaea, ui noai?th?oueny, a?aoiaoth/e o?ce/iee nain caeaaeiino? EEAe a?ae oeueiai eiao?oe??ioa oa ae?ac aeey ni?aa?aeiioaiiy kI oa ke ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?ioeo kI = (ke min)-1 . Oiae? iaoeiaii kI ( 0,5. ?icaeyiaii ?aaeei ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy. EEAe aeaeaoia o oeueiio ?aaeei? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith (8) sse ? o iiia?aaeiueiio aeiaaeeo, i?iaiae?co?ii aieea ia EEAe aeaeaoia naia ke ca on?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiia. Ae?ac (8) caieoaii o oaeiio aeaeyae?: ?ss-Ae = 1 - A1 / (ke B1 - N1) , (9) , C1 = (I* kI )2 . = 0,1. Caieoaii oi?ioeo (9) aeey iaaaaeaieo cia/aiue EEAe oa eiao?oe??io?a ke = 2 oa ke max : 1 - 0,7 = A1 / ( ke A1 - N1 ) 1 - 0,98 = A1 / ( ke max . A1 - N1 ) Ia?aoiaey/e aei a?aeiioaiiy oeeo ae?ac?a, iaoeiaii (ke max - N1 / A1 ) / (ke - N1 /A1) = 15 = 0,9 , kI = 0,55 oa I* = I/Ie.c.= 50A / 1350A , iaea?aeeii ke max = 25. Oiaoi, ae?aiacii aeey ke o ?aaeei? ?aeoia?aoe??, ne?ae aaaaeaoe oaeei: 2 < ke < 25 , a aeey kI iaiao?aeii, uia kI ( 0,5. Iiaeaeueoa canoinoaaiiy iaoiaea aei aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a? oa o?aicenoi?iiai neeiaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a aeicaieeei c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee: no?oi ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy AA iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe ae?aiaciio 1300A( (e.c.=AAA/(AA (10600A; nenoaiia oaoi?ei-aia?aaoe/ia noi?ni?noue o?aicenoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o NAAEAI aoaea caaeia?eueiith, yeui aeey oyaiaiai ?aaeeio 4,1.10-3 ( (I = (O / (AA ( 5,7.10-2 , a aeey ?aeoia?aoeaiiai ?aaeeio 5,4.10-2 ( (?.i.= (O / (ss ( 11,4.10-2. Aeio?eiaiiy aecia/aieo ae?aiacii?a aeey aeacaieo noaoe/ieo eiinoaio (e.c., ke, kI, (I oa (?.i. caaacia/eoue eiiiiiaioai NAAEAI cia/aiiy EEAe o a??oeo ?aaeeiao ia iaio? ca EEAe eiiiiiaio?a aaciai? nenoaie o e?aueo ?aaeeiao ca on?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiia. Ie?aii i?iaiae?ciaaii aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee AA aeey aeiaaee?a aeia?eueii? (ia?aeaeueii-iine?aeiaii?) ?? iiaoaeiae, ui caaea?oueny oaeeie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie: , i?e/iio = 1) , - e?euee?noue ia?aeaeueii c’?aeiaieo naeoe?e, eiaeia c yeeo i?noeoue k iine?aeiaieo aeaiaio?a (k= const aeey eiiiainaoe?? o??aithaaeueieo no?oi?a i?ae naeoe?yie); Ee, re, E0, r0 - a?aeiia?aeii noia?ia A?N oa ii?? aaoa?a? o iine?aeiai?e no?oeoo?? oa A?N ? ii?? ie?aiiai aeaiaioa aaoa?a?. Aeey oyaiaiai oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiai ?aaeei?a ?iaioe AA i?e aeia?euei?e ?? iiaoaeia? iaea?aeai? a?aeiia?aeii oae? ae?ace aeey EEAe: (10) I* ] (11) = 4(6, ca oiiae, ui ??aaiue iai?oae i?e oeueiio ia caoeiaeeoue ooieoe?iioaaiith ai?oiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y iia?aoeaiiai naeoe?iioaaiiy AA o NAAEAI c aeaeaoiaie iacaeaaeiiai oa iine?aeiaiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeeiio?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai o ?iaio? iiaiai niiniao, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia aeeiiaii? iaaiiai aeai?eoio oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie oa iaiao?aeiith eiioaeoi?ii-eiiooaoe?eiith aia?aoo?ith. - eiao?oe??io a?aooaaiiy ian, ui iaa?oathoueny, ai - i?enei?aiiy ia ae?eyioe? 0-1, Vi - oaeaee?noue o o.1, ?iaeaen “i” aecia/a? iaeei c oeeee?a A - D). Iiooaei?noue, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia oa?oy ei/aiiy Po = mgfVn? i (g = 9,81 i/n2, f - eiao?oe??io oa?oy ei/aiiy,Vn? i - na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue ia ae?eyioe? ?ooo o i-io oeeee?). Ao?aoe iiooaeiino? a?ae aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o ?ooo PA = k0FE V3n?i , (k0 - eiao?oe??io, yeee aecia/a? aa?iaeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? ia’?eoo, ui ?ooa?oueny, I. c2 / i4 ; FE - eiaiaa ieiua o?ainii?oiiai caniao, i2 ). Aia?a?y, yea niiaeeaa?oueny a?ae aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a? i?ae /an ?icaiio oa o ?on? c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth, iiaea aooe aecia/aia c oaeiai ??aiyiiy: (12) E i - EEAe nenoaie aeaeo?ii?eaiaea o i-io oeeee? oyaiaiai ?aaeeio (?ic?aoiao?oueny ca?aeii c (2)). ?ic?aooieiao oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aia?a??, ui niiaeeaa?oueny a?ae aaoa?a? o oyaiaiio ?aaeei? ?ooo ii o?a?eoi??? 0-1-2, iaea?aeeii o oaeiio aeaeyae?: ai Vi + mgfVn? a + k0 FE V3n? i ) ta i + E i , (13) aea Vn? a = V i / 2 ca oiiae, ui ?oo ia ae?eyioe? 0-1 ??aiii?enei?aiee. Aeae? ?icaeyiaii aaeain aia?a?e o aaeuei?aiiio ?aaeei? aeey o?ueio iiaeeeaeo o?a?eoi??e (?en.3), a naia: 3-5, 2-5 oa 2-4. ??aiyiiy aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino aeey ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy AI ii o?a?eoi??? 3-5 aoaea iaoe oaeee aeaeyae: , (14) - EEAe NAAEAI a i-io oeeee? aeey ?aaeeio ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy (?ic?aoiao?oueny ca?aeii c (3)). I?eioneath/e, ui ci?ithaaiiy oaeaeeino? a?ae V3 aei 0 a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee ca ?aooiie nooi aeaeo?e/iiai aaeueioaaiiy, c (14) iaea?aeeii ?ic?aooieiao oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aia?a??, ui niiaeeaa?oueny aeoioeyoi?iith aaoa?a?th o ?aeoia?aoeaiiio ?aaeei? i?e aaeueioaaii? ii o?a?eoi??? 3-5 : PE i , (15) aea V3 cp = V3 / 2 ca oiiae, ui ?oo ??aiioiia?eueiaiee. Aeey o?a?eoi??? 2-5 iaoeiaii , (16) ai Vi tai - ( mgfVn?[2-5]i + PE i , (17) aea Vn?[2-5]i = V2i / 2 ca oiiae ??aiiniia?eueiaiiai ?ooo. Aeey o?a?eoi??? 2-4 : , (18) ai Vi tai - ( mgfVn?[2-4]i + PE i . (19) A?aecia/eii, ui aeei?enoiaoth/e o ?ic?aooieao nenoaio iaeeieoeue N?, ?ici??i?noue iieaciee?a aaeaino aia?a?e aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a? iaea?aeeii o aeaeioeyo (Aeae). I?ioa, aeey oao?aoe?a, ui iathoue ni?aao c aeoioeyoi?ieie aaoa?ayie, ye aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy, a?eueo cae/iei oa i?eeiyoiei aeey ioe?iee ?ic?yaeii-ca?yaeiiai i?ioeano aoaea ?ii?niee iieaciee aaoa?a? , yeee ia? ?ici??i?noue aiia?-aiaeei (A aiae). Oiio aeey a?eueo iai/iiai iieaco ?acoeueoao?a ia aoai? inoaoi/ieo ?ic?aooie?a aeioe?eueii ia?aeoe a?ae aia?aaoe/iiai iieacieea aaeaino aei ?ii?niiai, aeei?enoiaoth/e oaeo oi?ioeo: QAA = WAA / Un? . 3600. (20) Cacia/eii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? oa a??ia?aeiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo ca oi?ioeaie (13),(15),(17),(19), i?e ia?a?aooieo ca oi?ioeith (20) cia/aiiy iai?oae aaoa?a? Un? iiaeiii a?aeiia?aeaoe naia na?aaeiueiio ?? cia/aiith c ae?aiaciio, yeee ? i?eionoeiei aeey o?eaaeiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai oyaiaiai aeaea?aea. Ia aoaeoeai?noue ?aeoia?aoe?? nooo?aee aieea /eiyoue oaeoi?e no?oiiiaiaaeaiiy ((ni), niaaeo no?oio i?ae /an aaeueioaaiiy ((nn), oaeoi?e noi?iii?o aaeuei?aieo iiiaio?a ((a) oa iniaeeainoae iiaoaeiae o?aini?n?? ((o), ui iio?aao? ?o o?aooaaiiy aeey ooi/iaieo ?ic?aooie?a WPAA (ia cia/aiiy WOAA caaaeai? oaeoi?e ia aieeaathoue) o eiao?oe??io? ineaaeaiiy (in: (WPAA )( = WPAA( ( ((in)( , (21) aea ((in)( = (ni( (nn ( (a ( (o ? aecia/a?oueny aii??e/ii ((in1= 0,7(0,7(0,9(0,7 = 0,31 aeey AI CAC-11092; (in2 = 0,7(0,9(0,95(1,0 = 0,6 aeey AI AAC-2801). Iieaciee aoaeoeaiino? ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy aecia/a?oueny ye Ia = (?AA ( 100% / (OAA (22) O oaaeeoe? 1 iaaaaeai? oae? aeai?: o aa?oi?o ?yaeeao aeey eiaeiiai oeeeeo (A-D) ? eiaeii? o?a?eoi??? ?ooo cia/aiiy iieaciee?a (OAA , (?AA oa Ia , ui a?aeiia?aeathoue oai?aoe/iiio iaeneioio; o na?aaei?o ?yaeeao ( aeai? ooi/iaiiai (c o?aooaaiiyi (in) ?ic?aooieo; o ieaei?o ?yaeeao ( ona?aaeiai? aeai? aenia?eiaio?a. O inoaiiueiio - ieae/iio - ?yaeeo ( na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/i? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a, iaea?aeai? c ia?iaee iaeiie/aieo aeaieo o aeia?eueiiio i?nueeiio ?on? iaio AI, ui aoee caae?yi? a aenia?eiaioao. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iaea?aeaii ca aeiiiiiaith i?aoeec?eiiai aei??thaa/a - ?aaa?neaiiai e?/eeueieea aiia?-aiaeei - ?ic?iaeaiiai ia aac? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? IINO c aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aaoi?a. Iaea?aeai? /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue, ui oai?aoe/iee iaeneioi iieaciee?a niiaeeoi? ?iiino? aaea?/? ia?aaeuo? ?ic?aooieia? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeey oeeo iieaciee?a, c /iai aeo?ea? iayai?noue iaaieo ?aca?a?a ii i?aeaeuaiith inoaii?o, iaiao?aei?noue ?aoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o eiiiiiaio?a NAAEAI oa caaacia/aiiy iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy aia?aiiai?iii o oaeeo nenoaiao aeey oyaiaiai oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiai ?aaeei?a. Caaa?oo? ?icae?e oi?ioethaaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo aeiia aei eiiiiiaio?a oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy aaoiiiiieo NAAEAI. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ae??oai? caaaeuei? caaea/? oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie (o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy caaeaieo no?oio, iai?oae, iiooaeiino?, oaeaeeino?, iiiaioo oa i?enei?aiiy) o NAAEAI caniaaie i?e?ii?ioeani?ii? oaoi?ee. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei ? ?ic?iaea iiaiai iaoiaeo “i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue”, yeee aeicaiey? ca iaeei i?ia?aiiee oeeee a??ia?aeii ia/eneeoe ea?oth/? ae?? aeey a?aei?aoethaaiiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie iiaiai noaio ?aaeeiieo caaeao/ee?a, ui aaeueie aeooaeueii ca oiia ?iaioe nenoai oi?aae?iiy o ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano. Iaoiae i?eaeaoiee aeey oi?aae?iiy o ooieoe?? caaeaiiai no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy aai oaeaeeino? ? a?oioo?oueny ia oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo: 1. O aeaeyae? “i?ea?iae?a” caienothoueny ??aiyiiy aeey o?ce/ieo aaee/ei: ia?oa ( ca(yco? ia?aiao?, yeee ?aaoeth?oueny, oa ea?oth/o ae?th o iioi/iiio i?ia?aiiiio oeeee?, a ae?oaa ( ca(yco? iiaa, caaeaia, cia/aiiy ?aaoeueiaaiiai ia?aiao?o oa ea?oth/o ae?th, iaiao?aeio aeey eiai a?aei?aoethaaiiy, o ianooiiiio ca iioi/iei oeeee?. 2. C oeeo ??aiyiue ciaoiaeeoueny ae?ac aeey ia/eneaiiy ea?oth/i? ae??, yea i?aeeyaa? a?aei?aoethaaiith o ianooiiiio ca iioi/iei oeeee?. 3. Ae?ace “i?ea?iae?a” ia?aoai?ththoueny ia “cia?aaeaiiy” ca oaeith oi?ioeith: Xm = Lx . x (23) aea Xm - i?ia?aiia cia?aaeaiiy o?ce/ii? aaee/eie o m-?ic?yaeiiio oi?iao? i?e?ii?ioeani?a (II), ui aeei?enoiao?oueny; Lx - eiao?oe??io ia?aoai?aiiy; x - i?ea?iae o?ce/ii? aaee/eie. Aecia/aiiy /enaeueieo cia/aiue eiao?oe??ioo ia?aoai?aiiy Lx aeeiio?oueny ca?aeii c oaeei ae?acii: Lx = ( Xm )max / xmax , (24) aea (Xm)max = (2m - 1) iaea?eueoa aeanyoeiaa /enei, yea iiaea aooe caaeaia aea?eeiaei m-?ic?yaeiei eiaeii iia?aoe?eii? nenoaie II; xmax - iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?ea?iaeo (o?ce/ii? aaee/eie) o aeai?e NAAEAI, oiaoi a?aie/i? cia/aiiy o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a (no?oi?a, iai?oa, oiui). 4. Aeeiiothoueny oanoia? oa ei?eaoth/? i?ioeaaeo?e aeey caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ?ic?aoiaaieo cia/aiue ea?oth/eo ae?e (o aeaeyae? i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue) ?nioth/ei ae?aiaciiai aeey eiaeiiai c ieo, iica yeeie ?acoeueoaoe uiaei eiie?aoiiai cia/aiiy ea?oth/i? ae?? ao?a/athoue o?ce/iee nain. I?i?ethno?o?ii canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?e?ii?ioeani?iiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o NAAEAI i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? caaeaiiai no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea?, ye aoei iieacaii aeua, iioei?caoe?eiei caoiaeai ii e?eoa??th i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy iiooaeiino? a?ae AA aeey aeinyaiaiiy o?ainii?oiei caniaii iaiao?aeieo aeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a. u - e) / ry (u - iai?oaa OAA, e - i?ioe-A?N aeaeaoia. Caieoaii inoaii? ??aiyiiy aeey aeaio iine?aeiaieo oeeee?a - iioi/iiai t, aea a?aeii? no?oi yei?y iy oa EC?Oe, oa ianooiiiai oeeeeo t+1, aea a?aeiia caaaeaiiy no?oio iaaeaeeth aenaea?aoi?a iA : . u - e) / ry ; (25) . u - e) / ry . (26) I?eionea?ii, ui e=const o oeeeeao t oa t+1 o iane?aeie aeinoaoiuei? ?ia?oe?eiino? OAAe. Oiae? c (25) oa (26), iaea?aeeii ae?ac aeey ea?oth/i? ae?? : + ( iA - iy ) . ry / u (27) Aeey ?aaeeio ?iioeueniiai ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy aeey aeaio aoaeue-yeeo iine?aeiaieo oeeee?a, iiaeia caienaoe: ) / ry - e / ry ; ) / ry - e / ry , ti , ti +1 , iaea?aeeii - ( iA - i? ) . ry / u (28) , iC , rC - a?aeiia?aeii EC?Oe, no?oi oa aeoeaiee ii?? eiea caoaeaeaiiy). , ca?aeee aeey iine?aeiaieo oeeee?a t oa t+1 iaea?aeeii t ) / ry ; t+1 ) / ry , - iaai?oiee iio?e iaiioee caoaeaeaiiy, Ce=const aeey eiaeii? eiie?aoii? aeaeo?e/ii? iaoeie. ti , ti+1 io?eia?ii t (u - iA . ry ) / (u - iy . ry ) . (29) = u + i? ry (i? - no?oi ?aeoia?aoe??), ui aeicaiey? io?eiaoe oaeee e?ioeaaee ae?ac: ?t (u + iA . ry ) / (u + i? . ry ) . (30) j + 1 - bj . Ca?aeee iaea?aeeii j ); j - i cj . ) oa a?aeiia?aei? ae?ace aeey ea?oth/eo ae?e o aeaeyae? i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue: ; Aiaeia?/ii ciaoiaeeii a?aeiia?aei? cia?aaeaiiy aeey oi?aae?iiy o 2-e cii?: aea Aj = La . aj , Bj = Lb . bj . Iaea?aeai? i?ia?aii? cia?aaeaiiy ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy aaciina?aaeiuei iiaeooue aooe ia/eneai? ca iaeei i?ia?aiiee oeeee noaiaea?oieie a?eoiaoe/ieie i?aei?ia?aiaie aai niaoe?ae?ciaaieie nenoaiieie eiiaiaeaie o caniaao oi?aae?iiy c II ??cieo iieie?iue, ui ni?ey? nei?i/aiith /ano aeeiiaiiy i?ia?ai oa i?i?i?caoe?? ia’?io iai’yo? IINO. O ?iaio? iaea?aeai? iaiao?aei? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace i?e canoinoaaii? aeaiiai iaoiaea aeey oi?aae?iiy o ooieoe?? caaeaii? oaeaeeino?, ui oaeiae aea? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ? aeicaiey? oieeiooe o?eaaei? ?oa?aoe?eii? i?ioeaaeo?e iine?aeiaieo iaaeeaeaiue i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? oeueiai ia?aiao?o. Ae??oaia caaea/a i?e?ii?ioeani?iiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o NAAEAI i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? caaaeaiiy iai?oae ia yei?? oyaiaiai aeaeaoia ye iine?aeiaiiai oae ? iacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeey oyaiaiai oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiai ?aaeei?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeai?eoi?/i?e ?aae?caoe?? i?aeeyaa? oaea nenoaia: , iy < iy max ; , iy < iy max ; iy max ; (31) , iy < iy max , 1 icia/a? a?aeiia?aeio aeene?aoiino? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?? iaeeie/io ci?io iioi/iiai cia/aiiy ia?aiao?a, ui ?aaoeth?oueny. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeia aeeiiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai iaiaaeaiiy ea?oth/i? ae??, ui iaoiiaeaii iniaeeainoyie ?iaioe OAA, a naia: u ki? , (32) u - iai?oaa AA; ki? oa ka? - a?aeiia?aeii eiao?oe??io ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai ??aiy iai?oae AA, ui caaeathoue a?aie/ii i?eionoei? ??ai? iai?oa aaoa?a? o oyaiaiio (?ic?yae AA) oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiio (ca?yae aaoa?a?) ?aaeeiao ?iaioe ? aecia/athoueny ye ki? = Umin / Uiii oa ka? = Umax / Uiii . Aeey oi?aae?iiy aeaeaoiii iacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy o ia?o?e cii? iaiao?aeii ?aae?coaaoe nenoaio ooieoe?e (31) c o?aooaaiiyi oaeeo iaiaaeaiue: 105 ; u ki? . (33) Aeey oi?aae?iiy o 2-e cii? ?aae?caoe?? i?aeeyaa? oaea nenoaia caeaaeiinoae: i < i y max ; i < i y max ; i y max ; (34) i < i y max . Oey nenoaia ia? aeeiioaaoenue i?e iaia’yceiaiio a?aei?aoethaaii? iaiaaeaiue aeey ae?oai? ciie oi?aae?iiy aeaeaoiii iacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy, a naia: u ki? ; ic max rc / u ki? . (35) Aeae? aeiaaaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy iiiaioo aai iiooaeiino? oyaiaiai aeaeaoia ia caaacia/o? i?e aeaiciiiiio oi?aae?ii? iiaiiai ae?aiaciio a?aei?aoethaaiiy ia?aiao?a, ui ?aaoeth?oueny aeey aeiaeiiai c oeeo aa??aio?a. Aeioe?eueiei ne?ae aaaaeaoe eiia?iiaaia oi?aae?iiy: aeey ia?oi? ciie (noaea caoaeaeaiiy) - o ooieoe?? iiiaioo, a aeey ae?oai? ciie (noaea iai?oaa ia yei??) - o ooieoe?? iiooaeiino?, ui a oe?eiio ni?ey? ia?aa?ao ?aaeei?a c eaac?aia?aicaa??aath/eie iciaeaie. E??i oiai, iieacaii, ui oi?aae?iiy o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy i?enei?aiiy oyaiaeo aeaeaoi?a ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia ??ai? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaiaaeaiue ca oeei ia?aiao?ii o aeia?eueieo ?aaeeiao iaaaioaaeaiiy oyaiaeo i?eaiae?a, ui aeo?ea? c iacia/ieo i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa o aeei?enoaii? oaeiai aa??aioo ye naiino?eiiai iiaiiooieoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy. O i(yoiio ?icae?e? ae??oai? /anoeii? caaea/? oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o nenoaiao o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae?a, ye? caeaa?eueoiai aeieeathoue o eiioaeno? aieiaii? (caaaeueii?) caaea/?, ? iiaeooue ?nioaaoe ye naiino?ei? ea?oth/? i?ioeaaeo?e, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a - iaaiaee, iathoue oe?eueiaee nain eeoa ye iaa?ae’?iia ooieoe?iiaeueia neeaaeiaa o caaaeuei?e caaea/? oi?aae?iiy. Oea ?iaeoue inoaiith a?eueo aoaeoeaiith c oi/ee ci?o ?icoe?aiiy ea?oth/eo iiaeeeainoae, i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii? iaae?eiino? ia?aoai?thaa/?a ca ?aooiie ioiieaiiy iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo aoce?a aeiaeaoeiaeie eiio?iethth/eie oa ei?eaoth/eie ae?yie. Ine?eueee aeaiciiia oi?aae?iiy o oyaiaeo i?eaiaeao aaoiiiiieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a c aeaeaoiaie iacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy caeia? iaeio c i?ia?aeieo iiceoe?e, o ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii iiaee niin?a aeaiciiiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca(yceii ii oaeaeeino? o ae?oa?e cii?. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaiioaoi?/i? ??oaiiy oa a?aeiia?aei? aeai?eoie oi?aae?iiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? niiniao ye caniaaie i?e?ii?ioeani?ii? oaoi?ee, oae ? ni?iuaieie caniaaie oi?aae?iiy ia aac? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee. Aeiaaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai niiniao oa ?noioia ni?iuaiiy ea?oth/eo no?oeoo? iaiao?aeieo aeey eiai ?aae?caoe??. Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith o caaea/ao i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? NAAEAI ? ?aoe?iiaeueia iiaoaeiaa iaoai?/ii? o?aini?n??. Oea iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueiiai aeai?eoi?/iiai ae??oaiiy caaea/? oi?aae?iiy aaoiiaoe/iith aeainooi?i/anoith ei?iaeith ia?aaea/ aeaeo?iiia?ey c aeei?enoaiiyi IINO. ?ic?iaeaii e ai?iaiaaii aeai?eoi oi?aae?iiy i?eaiaeii, ui i?noeoue aeainooi?i/anoo ei?iaeo ia?aaea/, a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ea?oth/eo ae?e, ye? ?aae?cothoueny a?aeiia?aeieie i?aei?ia?aiaie o ia?aa?ao aeeiiaiiy aieiaiiai aeai?eoio aeey ia?aeeth/aiiy ia?aaea/ o oyaiaiio oa ?aeoia?aoeaiiio aaeuei?aieo ?aaeeiao. Cai?iiiiiaaia ??oaiiy caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueio oaeaeeiae?th oi?aae?iiy aaoiiaoe/iith o?aini?n??th i?e aeinoaoi?e oi/iino? ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ea?oth/eo ae?e ca iaeei i?ia?aiiee oeeee oa i?i?i?ciaai?e iie?ieia?e i?ioeaaeo?? eiiiainaoe?? ?ic?aooieiai? iioeaee. Oaoi?/ia iaae?ei?noue oa ?aoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?aeieie ai?oiaeie caniaaie ia?aoai?aiiy neeaaeathoue iaiao?aeiee i?ae??aaiue caoiae?a caaacia/aiiy caaaeueii? aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? aaoiiiiieo NAAEAI a oe?eiio. Aei iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo aeiiii?aeieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a a?aeiinyoueny aoi?eii? aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy oa ca?yaei? i?eno?i? AA, a oaeiae caniae iae?eo ?ii?niiai aaeaino a o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiaeao. Caaea/? oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?eno?iyie caeaa?eueoiai ia ioiieththoueny oeaio?aeueieie ea?oth/eie no?oeoo?aie ? iio?aaothoue ie?aiiai ?aoaeueiiai ae??oaiiy. O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie oi?aae?iiy oa eiio?ieth noaio aeaio oei?a AAeAE (aenieinoaa?e?ciaaieo AAeAE aeey e?e aeeaeaiiy IINO oa aeaea?ae aeey aeeaeaiiy ai?oia?aae? 12A), ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi oi?aae?iiy oi?aa?naeueiei ca?yaeiei i?eno?i?i AA, a oaeiae aeai?eoi ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaa?neaiiai e?/eeueieea aiia?-aiaeei. E??i oiai, c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?iaioe ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ainii?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie aeey oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee o NAAEAI c aeaeaoiaie iacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy, aeai?eoie aeey caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? aeeiai?ee o?ainii?oiiai caniao, aeai?eoie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? oa oaeaeeiae?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy caaaeaiiy ?aaeei?a. On? cai?iiiiiaai? aeai?eoi?/i? ??oaiiy i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th ? i?aeoaa?aeeee ia i?aeoeoe? aoaeoeai?noue oa i?aoeacaeaoi?noue. O oinoiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i ?ic?iaee i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo nenoai oa cania?a ca?eueoaiiy ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?e oi?aae?ii? ia?aoai?thaa/aie o NAAEAI, ?icaeyiooi IINO aaoiiaoecaoe?? noaiaeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa IINO ?aaa?neaiiai e?/eeueieea aiia?-aiaeei. I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeuei? aenia?eiaioaeuei? noaiaeia? oa ?caeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy NAAEAI c o?aaeeoe?eiei (aei??thaaeinue niiaeeaaiiy (o?aae , A.aiae) oa iioei?caoe?eiei oi?aae?iiyi (aei??thaaeinue niiaeeaaiiy (iio , A.aiae). Noaiaeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aei??thaaiiyi niiaeeoeo aiia?-aiaeei aeey noaiaea?oieo oeeee?a SAEj 227 A-D oa aeey onoaeaiiai ?ooo c oaeaee?nieie aea?aaeaioaie 40 oa 60 ei/aiae aeeiioaaeenue i?e cia/aiiyo iai?oae, ye? ia ci?ithaaeenue ai?iaeiaae onueiai /ano aenia?eiaio?a ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy noaiaeiai? nenoaie aeeaeaiiy “aaia?aoi? iino?eiiai no?oio ( aooa?ia aeoioeyoi?ia aaoa?ay”. ?caeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeaio aeaeo?iiia?eyo c aei??thaaiiyi niiaeeoeo aiia?-aiaeei o ?on? ca oeeeeaie SAEj 227 A-D, o aeia?eueiiio i?nueeiio ?on? i?e o?eniaai?e aeiaaeei? i?ia?ao, oa i?e onoaeaiiio ?on? c? oaeaeeinoyie 40 oa 60 ei/aiae aeeiioaaeenue i?e ?aeaioe/iiio nooiai? ii/aoeiai? ca?yaeaeaiino? oyaiaiai aeaea?aea oa a ?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao ?ic?yaeo aaoa?a? aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo?iiia?ey. E??i oiai, aei?noei aeio?eioaaeenue aeiiae aei ciaoiaeaeaiiy iai?oae OAA o o?eniaaiiio (i?eioniai caoaeaiiio) aenieoaoaoe?eiiio ae?aiacii?, ui caaacia/eei iiaoi?thaai?noue oa a??ia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeey an?o aenia?eiaio?a ?ic?aoiaoaaany a?aeiiniee iieaciee - eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ?iiino?, % : KQ = ((o?aae - (iio)/ (o?aae , oiaoi ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ei?enieo aeo?ao ?ii?niiai ?ano?no oyaiai? aaoa?a?, a oaeiae iieaciee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao aeey niiaeeoi? ?iiino? aaoa?a? (AA, aeaii? iai?oae aeeaeaiiy Un? oa i?ia?ao S aeaeo?iiia?e?a, eAo . aiae/ei: W = QAA Un? / S , ye? ? iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie oaeoi?aie aeey ii??aiyeueieo ioe?iie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c i?nueeeo oeeee?a ?ooo SAEj 227 A-D iaea?eueo i?eeiyoieie aeey aeaeo?iiia?e?a ? oeeeee B oa C, yeei a?aeiia?aea? oaeaee?niee ae?aiacii 30-50 ei/aiae. Ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeei?enoaiiy ?iiino? KQ i?e canoinoaaii? iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy nyaa? a na?aaeiueiio 15% o oeeee?/iiio ?on?, 5% a onoaeaiiio ?on? oa 18% o aeia?eueiiio i?nueeiio ?on?. Ciaioaiiy ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao noaiiaeoue 17% o oeeee?/iiio ?on? oa 21% o aeia?eueiiio i?nueeiio ?on? aeey caae?yieo o aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaeo?iiia?e?a. I?e oeueiio ona?aaeiai? iieacieee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao i?e canoinoaaii? iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy noaiiaeyoue aeey aaioaaeiianaaee?nueeiai AAC-2801 oa ianaaee?nueeiai CAC-11091 aeaeo?iiia?e?a a?aeiia?aeii 0,22 oa 0,20 eAo(aiae/ei aeey oeeee?/iiai ?ooo; 0,18 oa 0,12 eAo(aiae/ei aeey onoaeaiiai (40 ei/aiae) ?ooo oa 0,17 ? 0,15 eAo(aiae/ei aeey aeia?eueiiai i?nueeiai ?ooo. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?iaeaieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy oyaiaeie oa aeiiii?aeieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy iaaaaeai? o oaae. 2. O ?iaio? oaeiae nenoaiaoeciaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii canoinoaaiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie aeey iio?aa aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo ??ciiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. O aeiaeaoeao iaaaaeai? iaiao?aei? a?ao?/i? iaoa??aee, i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie aeey IINO e?/eeueieea aiia?-aiaeei, aeey IINO oe?enoi?iei oa o?aicenoi?iei ia?aoai?thaa/aie NAAEAI, a oaeiae aeieoiaioe i?i aei?iaoaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. A E N I I A E E A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a, niinia?a oa oaoi?/ieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie iino?eii? iai?oae, ui o noeoiiino? caaacia/o? ?ica’ycaiiy cia/ii? i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie - i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? oa aenieoaoaoe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a ??ciiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. 1. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy o nenoaiao aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a, ci???ioiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? inoaii?o. Iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy o aca?iica(yceo caaea/ iioeiaeueii? iiaoaeiae nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a, cae?eniaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aia?aiiai?io a ieo oa noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy aeey oyaiaeo oa aeiiii?aeieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ui caaacia/o? ciaioaiiy aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy, ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao, ca?eueoaiiy ei?eniiai i?ia?ao, iie?auaiiy, iaae?ei?nieo oa a?aiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeo?iiia?e?a. 2. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a, ui aeicaiey?, ieiath/e a?ii?caee? ?ic?aooiee, iioeiaeueii i?aeae?aoe eiiiiiaioe aeey iiaoaeiae oaeeo nenoai, a oaeiae aeaaaoe a??ia?aei? aenia?oi? ioe?iee ?nioth/ei nenoaiai, nie?ath/enue ia iaea?aeai? eiie?aoi? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a ?o neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a. 3. Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai aaeaino aia?a?? o nenoaiao aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy AI aeey ??cieo ?aaeei?a ?ooo, aecia/aii eiie?aoi? iieacieee aia?aiiai?io, a oaeiae /eiieee iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aia?aiiai?ii? i?ioeane o nenoaiao aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a?? aeaeo?iiia?e?a. Oea aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe ieceo eiie?aoieo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeiia aei eiiiiiaio?a nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy AI, ui caaacia/o? ?o aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy. 4. Iaa?oioiaaii iaoiae “i?ia?aiieo cia?aaeaiue”, yeee aeicaiey? oi?iae?coaaoe oa i?enei?eoe ia/enethaaeuei? i?ioeaaeo?e ii aecia/aiith ea?oth/eo ae?e, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaiio noaio ?aaeeiieo caaeao/ee?a. Iaoiae caaacia/o? a??ia?aei?noue e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo, aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? aeey ea?oth/eo ae?e o aeaeyae?, ui aaciina?aaeiuei i?aeeyaa? ia/eneaiith noaiaea?oieie i?aei?ia?aiaie o IINO c i?e?ii?ioeani?aie ??cieo iieie?iue. 5. Aeeiiaii ocaaaeueithth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae oi?iae?caoe?? caaea/ oi?aae?iiy o nenoaiao aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a, ui aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie oeeo nenoai o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy no?oio, iai?oae, iiooaeiino?, iiiaioo, oaeaeeino? oa i?enei?aiiy. Iaea?aeaii a?aeiia?aei? caeaaeiino? aeey ea?oth/eo ae?e c aeeiiaiiyi iaaieo ?aaeeiieo iaiaaeaiue, aecia/aii iaae? aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy eiaeiiai c cacia/aieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy. 6. Cai?iiiiiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii niin?a oa caniae ?aae?caoe?? aeaiciiiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o nenoaiao aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii ii oaeaeeino?. I?iaiae?ciaaii on? iiaeeea? aa??aioe ?aae?caoe?? aeaiiai niiniao oa iieacaii oeyoe ae??oaiiy caaea/? oi?aae?iiy oyaiaeie i?eaiaeaie i?e eiai cae?eniaii?, ui ?noioii ni?iuo? caaaeueio aeai?eoi?/io caaea/o oa aia?aoi? caniae ?? ?aae?caoe??. 7. Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeai? caeaaeiino? EEAe oyaiaeo ? aeiiii?aeieo ai?oiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a a?ae ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy oa iaa?oioiaaii caaaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy caeii?a oi?aae?iiy ieie, ui caaacia/o? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie ?iaioe nenoaie aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?e?a a oe?eiio ? neeaaea? iniiao aeey iiaoaeiae iioei?caoe?eiiai aeai?eoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy. 8. Noai?aii i?e?ii?ioeani?i? caniae iioei?caoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeine?aeaeaii ?aaeeiii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?iaioe oyaiaeo oa aeiiii?aeieo ai?oiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa noai?aii niaoe?ae?ciaai? iiaeoe? oa aoaeoeai? i?i?i?ciaai? aeai?eoie oi?aae?iiy ieie, ui aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeiae?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy caaaeaiiy, iie?ioaiiy aeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeo?iiia?e?a oa no?eeino? aeeiiaiiy ea?oth/eo aeai?eoi?a. Noeoii?noue oeeo caoiae?a caaacia/o? aeaeo?iiia?eyi a?eueoo aia?aiaoaeoeai?noue, a?aiiii?/i?noue oa iaae?ei?noue o ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie. 9. Iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th oa noai?aii aeai?eoie, i?ia?aie oa a?aeiia?aei? caniae iae?eo ?iiino? oyaiaeo, noaoe?iia?ieo oa aooa?ieo aeoioeyoi?ieo aaoa?ae, ui c?iaeei iiaeeeaei eiio?ieue ?o iioi/iiai noaio, aecia/aiiy aaniethoieo oa ieoiieo iieaciee?a niiaeeaaiiy oa aeo?ao aia?a?? o o?ainii?oieo nenoaiao ca oiia aeia?eueiiai ia?aa?ao aia?aiiai?iieo i?ioean?a. 10. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeni? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c nenoai oi?aae?iiy oyaiaeie ia?aoai?thaa/aie c o?aaeeoe?eiei oa iioei?caoe?eiei aeai?eoi?/ii-i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi, ia iniia? yeeo anoaiiaeaii, ui inoaii? aeicaieythoue ca?eueoeoe eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ?iiino? ai?oiai? aeoioeyoi?ii? aaoa?a? a na?aaeiueiio ia 15% o ?aaeeiao ?aaeueiiai oeeee?/iiai ?ooo a oiiaao i?noa, ia 5% a onoaeaiiio ?on? oa ia 18% o aeia?eueiiio i?nueeiio ?on?, ui ? aaciina?aaei?i i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi a??ia?aeiino? iaea?aeaieo o ?iaio? iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo ?acoeueoao?a. 11. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy ia aaoiiiiiiio aeaeo?io?ainii?o? ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy (aeaeo?iiia?e?, aeaeo?iea?e, aeaeo?iiaaaioaaeoaa/?, aeaeo?ia?cee, aeaeo?ioeeeee) oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo oa ni?iuaieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy oyaiaeie oa aeiiii?aeieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie, cania?a eiio?ieth noaio oyaiaeo aeaea?ae no?oio (e?/eeueieee aiia?-aiaeei), a oaeiae cania?a aaoiiaoecaoe?? noaiaeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy. 12. Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa aeniiaee ? aeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaieie oa a??ia?aeieie, ine?eueee aacothoueny ia ei?aeoieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeeiiaieo a?aeiinii aeioe?eueii iinoaaeaieo caaea/, a oaeiae ia cia/iiio ia(?i? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oa iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoaoao aei?iaoaaiue oa i?iieneiaiai canoinoaaiiy. 13. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o oae?e aaaeeea?e aeey Oe?a?ie aaeoc? ye noai?aiiy, ?icaeoie oa ia?ainiauaiiy a?o/eciyiiai ia?eo aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo ??ciiai oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiio no/anieo ??ai?a oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a. INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua i?aia?aciaaoaee a aaoiiiiiii yeaeo?ii?eaiaea iinoi- yiiiai oiea / Iaaeia A.A., Oeaeeianeee A.E., Neeaeaiia A.I., ?u/eia A.A.- E.: Iaoeiaa Aeoiea, 1987. - 284 n. 2. Aieeia E.A., Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. Eiioeaioeey e n?aaenoaa eiio?iey aieinoe aeeoioeyoi?iuo aaoa?ae // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1998.- ?3.- N.33-36. 3. Aieeia E.A., Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. ?aaa?neaiue n/ao/ee aiia?-/ania aeey noaoeeiia?iuo e oyaiauo aeeoioeyoi?iuo aaoa?ae // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1998.- ?3.- N.32. 4. Ia/a?aiei A.A., TH?/aiei I.I., Neeaeaiia A.I., Iaaeia A.A., ?u/eia A.A. Aiaeec ?aaiou o?aicenoi?iiai eiioeueniiai i?aia?aciaaoaey // Oaoie/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1994.- ?2.- N.42-45. 5. Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., ?u/eia A.A. Yeaeo?iiiaeeue. Oaoie/aneee e yenieoaoaoeeiiiue aniaeou // I?iiuoeai. o?ainii?o.- 1987.- ?10.- N.11-12. 6. Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I. Oe?aeineee yeaeo?iiiaeeue // Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy Oe?a?ie. - 1995. - ?3. - N.17-19. 7. Iaaeia A.A., Ne?aeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. Niin?a aeaiciiiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aoai?thaa/aie o o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiaeao c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii ii oaeaeeino? // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1998.- ?6.- N.34-38. 8. ?u/eia A.A., Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I., Ia/a?aiei A.A. Yooaeoeaiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue aeey ieceiaieueoiiai yeaeo?io?ainii?oa // Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey.- 1992.- ?4.- N.49-51. 9. ?u/eiaA.A., Ia/a?aiei A.A., TH?/aiei I.I., Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I. Ieceiaieueoiue eiioeueniue i?aia?aciaaoaeue iai?yaeaiey // Oaoie/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1993.- ?4.- N.27-31. 10. Neeaeaiia A.I. Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aiao?ia iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey i?aia?aciaaoaeai a aaoiiiiiuo oyaiauo i?eaiaeao iinoiyiiiai oiea. // Oaoie/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1985.- ?5.- N.56-61. 11. Ne?aeaiia A.I. Iaoiae aaciina?aaeiueiai aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a oi?aae?iiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeie ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy o oyaiaeo aeaeo?ii?eaiaeao iino?eiiai no?oio // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1997.- ?2.- N.22-26. 12. Ne?aeaiia A.I. Oi?aae?iiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeie ia?aoai?thaa/aie o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a o ooieoe?? caaeaieo iai?oae oa oaeaeeino? oyaiaiai aeaeaoia iino?eiiai no?oio // Oaoi?/ia yeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1997.- ?3.- N.18-24. 13. Ne?aeaiia A.I. Iaoiae aecia/aiiy aa?aioiaaii? aoaeoeaiino? aaoiiiiieo o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a ca noaoe/ieie eiinoaioaie ?o neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1997.- ?6.- N.21-28. 14. Ne?aeaiia A.I. Iniaeeaino? canoinoaaiiy oi?aae?iiy o?ainii?oieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy iiiaioo, iiooaeiino? oa i?enei?aiiy iaa?o?a oyaiaiai aeaeaoia // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1999.- ?1.- N.43-45. 15. Oeaeeianeee A.E., Neeaeaiia A.I., Aeaienaiei A.A., Eeoaeiaiei A.A. Yia?aaoe/aneea iieacaoaee nenoaiu AA-EI-AeIO yeaeo?iiiaeey a ?aaeeia ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oi?iiaeaiey . // Oaoie/. yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1984.- ?5.- N.30-37. 16. Oeaeeianeee A.E., TH?/aiei I.I., Neeaeaiia A.I., Iaaeia A.A. Yia?aaoe/aneea iieacaoaee aunieiaieueoiuo o?aicenoi?iuo eiioeueniuo ?aaoeyoi?ia iinoiyiiiai iai?yaeaiey // Oaoie/. yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1989.- ?2.- N.19-24. 17. Oeaeeianeee A.E., Neeaeaiia A.I., Iaaeia A.A., TH?/aiei I.I. Yia?aaoe/aneea iieacaoaee nenoai aaoiiiiiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea n eiiaeie?iaaiiui oe?ioii-eiioeueniui ?aaoeyoi?ii // Oaoie/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1989.- ?3.- N.31-37. 18. Oeaeeianeee A.E., TH?/aiei I.I., Neeaeaiia A.I., Iaaeia A.A. Aiaeec yia?aaoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae enoi/ieea aoi?e/iiai yeaeo?iieoaiey aeey ieceiaieueoiuo iio?aaeoaeae o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa // Oaoie/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea.- 1989.- ?4.- N.27-31. 19. Oeaeeianueeee A.E., Ne?aeaiia A.I., Iaaeia A.A., TH?/aiei I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aeoia?aoeaiiai aaeueioaaiiy aeaeo?iiia?ey // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea.- 1998.- ?1.- N.22-30. 20. Oeaeeianueeee A.E., Iaaeia A.A., Ne?aeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. Eiioeaioe?y iiaoaeiae aaoiiiiieo o?ainii?oieo nenoai aia?aiaeeaeaiiy c caniaaie neeiai? aeaeo?ii?ee // Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea. Niaoe?aeueiee aeione 2. - 1998.- O.2.- N.47-50. 21. A.n. 1576373 NNN?, IEE B 60 L 15/08. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?aaeaiey oyaiaui yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeai iinoiyiiiai oiea iacaaeneiiai aicaoaeaeaiey / Oeaeeianeee A.E., Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. (NNN?).- ?4435600/27; Cayaeaii 02.06.88; Iioae. 07.07.90, Athe. ?25.- 3n. 22. A.n. 1610587 NNN?, IEE H 02 P 5/16. Yeaeo?ii?eaiae iinoiyiiiai oiea / Iaaeia A.A., ?u/eia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I. (NNN?).- ? 4611066/24; Cayaeaii 31.10.88; Iioae. 30.11.90, Athe. ?44.- 3n. 23. A.n. 1653116 NNN?, IEE H 02 P 5/16. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?aaeaiey yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeai iinoiyiiiai oiea / Iaaeia A.A., Neeaeaiia A.I., TH?/aiei I.I., Aiae?eyoaa A.A. (NNN?).- ?4702733/07; Cayaeaii 06.06.89; Iioae. 30.05.91, Athe. ?20.- 3n. Ne?aeaiia a.i. Nenoaie aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy iino?eii? iai?oae aeaeo?iiia?e?a. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.09.03 - aeaeo?ioaoi?/i? eiiieaene oa nenoaie. - ?inoeooo aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? oa aenieoaoaoe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo (aeaeo?iiia?e?, aeaeo?iea?e, aeaeo?ioeeeee, oiui). ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co o?ainii?oieo aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a oa iioeiaeueii? iiaoaeiae o?ainii?oieo nenoai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaii aaeain aia?aiiai?io o oeeo nenoaiao oa noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae aei ?o neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a. Aeey canoinoaaiiy i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy noai?aii oa ocaaaeueiaii oi?iae?ciaai? i?aeoiaee aeey i?enei?aiiai aecia/aiiy ea?oth/eo ae?e i?e oi?aae?ii? oyaiaeie ia?aoai?thaa/aie o ooieoe?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy no?oio iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaeeino?, iai?oae, iiooaeiino?, iiiaioo oa i?enei?aiiy. Aeiaaaeaii ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy (aei 18%) i?e canoinoaaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? ia na??eieo oa aeine?aeieo c?aceao aeoioeyoi?iiai aeaeo?io?ainii?oo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?iiia?eue, aoaeoeai?noue, aeaeo?ii?eaiae, aia?aiiai?i, i?e?ii?ioeani?ia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy. Skidanov V.M. Electric vehicles direct voltage power supply systems. - Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor(s degree by speciality 05.09.03 - the electrotechnical complexes and systems. - The Institute of Electrodynamics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. Dissertation is devoted to problem of energetical and operational efficienny improvement of autonomous electric transport (electric vehicles, electric cars, electrocycles, etc.). Developed theoretical regulanions of system analysis of transport electric drives and optimum construction of transport power supply systems. Explored the balance-sheet of energy interchange in these systems and formulated demands to their composing components. For application of microprocessor control systems created and generalized formal approaches for speed-up determination of control actions attached to control by traction converters in function of working out of loading current, speed, voltage, power, moment and acceleration. Attested the optimization of energy consumption (up to18%) in case of application of offered control methods. The main rezulrs of work is installated on serial and experienced models of accumulator electric transport. Key words: electric vehicle, effectiveness, electric drive, energy interchange, microprocessor management system. Neeaeaiia A.I. Nenoaiu yeaeo?iieoaiey iinoiyiiiai iai?yaeaiey yeaeo?iiiaeeae. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.09.03 - yeaeo?ioaoie/aneea eiiieaenu e nenoaiu. - Einoeooo yeaeo?iaeeiaieee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iiauoaiey yia?aaoe/aneie e yenieoaoaoeeiiiie yooaeoeaiinoe aaoiiiiiiai yeaeo?io?ainii?oa (yeaeo?iiiaeee, yeaeo?iea?u, yeaeo?ioeeeeu, e oiio iiaeiaiia). Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?eciaeia o?ainii?oiuo nenoai yeaeo?iieoaiey yaeyaony iai?aaeneacoaiinoue i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia a ieo, /oi iaoneiaeaii ia-i?ia?aiie?oaiuie aeaenoaeyie iia?aoi?a e i?iecaieueiui eciaiaieai ninoiyiey n?aaeu yenieoaoaoeee, /oi nouanoaaiii oneiaeiyao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ecaanoiuo iioeiecaoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia, iino?iaiiuo ia aeanoeeo aeai?eoiao. Iiyoiio, o/eouaay noioanoe/aneee oa?aeoa? aiaeece?oaiiai iauaeoa, o?aaotho ?acaeoey enneaaeiaaiey ii iiauoaieth iauae yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeaeo?io?ainii?oa n ieoaieai io aeeoioeyoi?iie aaoa?ae ia iniiaaiee nenoaiiiai aiaeeca o?ainii?oiuo yeaeo?ii?eaiaeia, a oaeaea nicaeaiea iaoiaeieiaee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iino?iaiey nenoai yeaeo?iieoaiey yeaeo?iiiaeeae (NYIYI), iaoiaeia, aeai?eoiia e n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey i?aia?aciaaoaeyie a oaeeo nenoaiao. Yoi iaania/eo oiaiueoaiea yia?aiiio?aaeaiey, oaeaeueiuo yia?aicao?ao, oaaee/aiey iieaciiai i?iaaaa, oeo/oaiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo, iaaeaaeiinoiuo e y?aiiiie/iuo iieacaoaeae aaoiiiiiiai yeaeo?io?ainii?oa. ?aoaieth yoeo aeooaeueiuo caaea/ iinayuaia aeaiiay aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa. A ?aaioa iieo/aiu iiaua aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey EIAe eiiiiiaioia e NYIYI a oeaeii, /oi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aeeaiaciiu cia/aiee /anoio eiiiooaoeee, eiyooeoeeaioia caiieiaiey eiioeueniiai oeeeea e oieia iaa?ocee oyaiauo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo ?aaeeiu ?aaiou yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey aoaeoo yia?aaoe/anee iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiuie. Yoe aeaiiua aeiiieiaiu ?acoeueoaoaie i?eiaiaiey iiaiai iaoiaea ii?aaeaeaiey aa?aioe?iaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe nenoai oyaiaiai yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey ii noaoe/aneei eiinoaioai eo eiiiiiaioia, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaoaie enneaaeiaaiey iauaai aaeaina yia?aiiaiaia a NYIYI, /oi iicaieeei ii?aaeaeeoue /eneaiiua cia/aiey aeey yia?aee, eioi?ay ?anoiaeoaony (a oyaa) e iinooiaao (a ?aaeeia ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oi?iiaeaiey) a ia?ae/iue enoi/iee (aeeoioeyoi?ioth aaoa?ath) a oeeeee/aneii e i?iecaieueiii ?aaeeiao aeaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. I?e yoii auyaeaiu oaeoi?u io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yooaeoeaiinoue yia?aiiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia. Eniieuecoy niaieoiiinoue iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo, iiaeii iaania/eoue iioeiaeueiue iiaeai? eiiiiiaioia NYIYI, auyaeoue iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciua ia?aiao?u oi?aaeaiey oyaiauie e aniiiiaaoaeueiuie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie e iieo/eoue caeiiu iioeiecaoeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai aeai?eoie/aneiai e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. N o/aoii iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ?ac?aaioai iaoiae “i?ia?aiiiuo ecia?aaeaiee”, iicaieythuee, ieioy a?iiicaeeea au/eneaiey e eoa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeaaeo?u iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee, aeinoiaa?ii ca iaeei i?ia?aiiiue oeeee ?ann/eoaoue oi?aaeythuea aicaeaenoaey oyaiauie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie i?e ?aaeecaoeee iioeiecaoeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey a ooieoeee oiea iaa?ocee, a oaeaea oi?aaeaiey a ooieoeee nei?inoe. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaiauaiiua ?aoaiey caaea/ iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai oi?aaeaiey oyaiauie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie a ooieoeee io?aaioee caaeaiiuo iai?yaeaiey, iiuiinoe, iiiaioa e onei?aiey. Oeacaiu i?aaeaeu oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?eiaiaiey oaeiai oi?aaeaiey. I?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea ?aaeeiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ?aaiou oyaiauo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ai?oiauo i?aia?aciaaoaeae aaoiiiiiiai yeaeo?io?ainii?oa e nicaeaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeai?eoiu oi?aaeaiey eie, /oi iaania/eaaao iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoiuo e aeeiaie/aneeo iieacaoaeae o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, iicaieyao oi?ie?iaaoue niaoeeaeueiua oyaiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee, aa?aioe?oao onoie/eainoue auiieiaiey oi?aaeythueo aeai?eoiia. A i?eeeaaeiii aniaeoa auiieiaiu ?ac?aaioee iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo nenoai e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey (IINO) iiaeoeueiiai eniieiaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aaiou ia aaoiiiiiii yeaeo?io?ainii?oa ?aciiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey. ?ac?aaioaiu n?aaenoaa iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe IINO, eioi?ua niinianoaotho nie?auaieth iauaia eniieuecoaiie iaiyoe e iiauoaieth eo auno?iaeaenoaey. Nicaeai i?eaeiaeueiue ?aaa?neaiue n/ao/ee aiia?-/ania n aunieeie oi/iinoiuie e oaeaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie, /oi iicaieeei iaania/eoue ioeaieo aeeiaieee e o/ao eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae yeaeo?iiio?aaeaiey a ?aciuo nenoaiao o?ainii?oiuo yeaeo?ii?eaiaeia e iaoneiaeei aeinoiaa?iinoue ii?aaeaeaiey eo n?aaieoaeueiuo ioeaiie e yooaeoeaiinoe i?e cia/eoaeueiii nie?auaiee a?aiaie i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioia e nio?aiaiee ?ano?na oyaiaie aaoa?ae. I?iaaaeaiu eiiieaeniua noaiaeiaua e aei?iaeiua (ia yeaeo?iiiaeeyo AAC-2801 e CAC-11091) yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec nenoai oi?aaeaiey oyaiauie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie n o?aaeeoeeiiiui e iioeiecaoeeiiiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai, ia iniiaaiee /aai onoaiiaeaii, /oi iineaaeiea, i?e anao i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo, iicaieytho oaaee/eoue eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey aieinoe ia 5% a onoaiiaeaoeony ?aaeeiao e ia 15-18% a ?aaeeiao ?aaeueiiai oeeeee/aneiai ai?iaeneiai aeaeaeaiey. Eae eoia, noi?ioee?iaaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou ia aaoiiiiiuo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoaao ?acee/iiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?iiiaeeue, yooaeoeaiinoue, yeaeo?ii?eaiae, yia?aiiaiai, iee?ii?ioeanni?iay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey. I?aeienaii aei ?oeo 29.04.99 ?.; oi?iao 60 ( 90 / 16 Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao aeaeaiiy 145 ( 215 ii Oiiai.-ae?oe. a?eoo 2,0 . Ia.-aeae.a?eoo 2.0 Oe?aae 100. Caiiae. 142 __________________________________________ Iie?a?ao. ae?euei. ?inoeoooo aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie 252680, Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 56

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