EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

IA?OOEI NA?A?E CAIIIIAE*

OAeE 541. 183:15

NEIOAC ? AEANOEAINO? EIIIICEOe?EIEO NI?AOe?EIEO IAOA??AE?A
«AEOEAIA AOA?EEss — IIE?IA? »

02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

EE?A-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ea?oaeue Ieeiea Oeiio?eiae/,

?inoeooo ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?eianueea ??eia Aiaoie??aia,

?inoeooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai o?ceee ? a?io?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ouei?oeo Aaeaioei Aiaoie?eiae/,

?inoeooo o?i?? iiaa?oi? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo», i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «19» ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.03 o?i?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:
252601, Ee?a-33, INI, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64, (Aaeeea o?i?/ia
aoaeeoi??y).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252601, Ee?a-33, INI,
aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «17» aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ieaenaiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ni?aoe?ei? iaoiaee ? oaoiieia?? aeae?eaiiy,
?icae?eaiiy, eiioeaio?oaaiiy oa i/euaiiy ?a/iaei caeiyee i?ia?aeia
iieiaeaiiy a aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ae?iaieoeoa?. I?e
oeiueio ia ia?oa i?noea ii aeooaeueiino? aeoiaeyoue caaea/? ii
noai?aiith i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo oaoiieia?e
iai?aaeaiiai neioaco ni?aaio?a c iaia?aae caaeaieie o?ceei-o?i?/-ieie
aeanoeainoyie, aai iaaeaiiy ?o o?aaeeoe?eiei i?iieneiaei ia?eai aeaeyaeo
ae?ia?a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ni?aoe?eii-aeoeai? iaoa??aee c ooieoe?yie eiino?oeoe?eieo aeaiaio?a
a?eueo aoaeoeai? a aenieoaoaoe?? a ii??aiyii? c oeooith ni?aaioo:
eaae?noue ia?aca?yaeee ianiiai?iieo i?eno?i?a, iecuee? ii?? oa
ieeiooai?aiiy, aeniea iaoai?/ia i?oei?noue ? o.ae. A ca’yceo c oeei
i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee iiaeo aeae?a ni?aoe?eii-aeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a — aeie?a,
i?i, caoenieo iie?eoo?a, oeaiei ? iaoeaieo iaoa??ae?a, i?e?i- ?
iae?ieainoe ia iniia? ni?aaio?a ? a’yaeo/eo ? aeooaeueiith. Caaacia/eoe
i?e oeueiio aeeiiaiiy ??ciiieaiiaeo ? i?ioe??/ieo caaaeaiue aeyaeeiny
iiaeeeaei i?e niieo/aii? ??cieo eiiiiiaio?a ni?aoe?eii-aeoeaieo
iaoa??ae?a ??ciiiai?oii? i?e?iaee o aeaeyae? eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a (ENI).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
?inoeoooo ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca oaiaie ?5?
«Iia? eiia?iiaai? ni?aaioe aeey eiioeaio?oaaiiy i?e?ie?eueeino?
?aae?iioee?ae?a, ?ii?a aaaeeeo ? aeaai?iaeieo iaoae?a» (? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0195U030143) oa 4-O? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?
iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy i?e?iii?enoi? no?oeoo?e aeoeaiiai aoa?eey» (?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0192U027076).

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, uia aea/eoe no?oeoo?ii-ni?aoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo aeaieiiiiiaioieo eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo
nenoai (AeENN) ia iniia? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey oa aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe,
cai?iiiio-aaoe ieceo iaoiae?a io?eiaiiy eiiiiceo?a c i?iaiiciaaieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aecia/aei ae??oaiiy ne?aeoth/eo caaea/:

ioe?ieoe aieea ai?noo iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo ? eiai oeio ia
no?oeoo?ii-ni?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo a
ENI ? eiiiiceoo a oe?eiio: ii?oaaoo no?oeoo?o oa aaeni?aoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, e?iaoeeo oa aeeiai?eo aaeni?aoe??;

c’ynoaaoe i?e?iaeo i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? ia iaae? ?icae?eo «aeoeaia
aoa?eey-iie?ia?»;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee neioaco ENI oeio «aeoeaia aoa?eess-iie?ia?» ?
anoaii-aeoe aca?iica’ycie i?ae oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie io?eiaiiss
eiiiiceo?a oa ?o o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie;

ioe?ieoe aenieoaoaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aeayeeo iaea?aeaieo
ENI, cie?aia, aeey ae?iaieonoaa cania?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caoenoo
i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ethaeeie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa io?eiaii oa aeine?aeaeaii aeanoeaino? AeENN ia
iniia? aenieieiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/ei?a iie?ia??a ? aoaeaoeaaiai ni?aaioo
/a?ac noniaic??, aaaaeaiiyi aoa?eey a iano aeey ani?iaiiy iie?o?aoaio oa
oeyoii ?iiia?-e?caoe?? aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo a aieieia iie?i?ii?eaio
i?ae /an aa?iaeeiai?/iiai oi?ioaaiiy inoaii?o c ?icieaao iie?i?ii?eaio a
i?ioean? aeno?oc??.

Aea/aii ii?oaaoo no?oeoo?o, e?iaoe/i? ? aenieoaoaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e
io?eiaieo iaoa??ae?a, aeine?aeaeaii aieea oeio iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo,
eiai ai?noo a ENI, ia?aiao??a neioaco ia ni?aoe?eii-e?iaoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoeaiiai aoa?eey a ENI ? eiiiiceoo a oe?eiio.

Aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? i?e?iaee i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? ia iaae?
?icae?eo «aeoeaia aoa?eey-iie?ia?» ? anoaiiaeaii aieea iiaa?oi?
oaa?aeiai o?ea (aeoeaiiai aoa?eey) ia no?oeoo?o oa o?ceei-o?i?th
iie?o?aoaio.

Ia iniia? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ENI aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa
cai?iiiii-aaii aei ae?iaieoeoaa oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo
cania?a ?iaeea?aeoaeue-iiai caoenoo i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ethaeeie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Anoaiiaeai? a ?iaio? iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy. Niiniae io?eiaiiy aeanoe/ieo ENI
ai?iaaaeaea-ii ia IEI «??eueo?» (i. Ai?e?aea, Aeiiaoeueei? iae.) a
yeino? ni?aoe?eii-aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy cania?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caoenoo i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ethaeeie (C?CIAe) ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? sse
naeoe?ei? aeiiia?ae? ia: I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«?icaeoie oaoi?/-ii? o?i?? a Oe?a?i?» (•a?e?a, 1995), III I?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiiceoi? «Polymers for Advanced Technologies» (I?ca, ?oae?y, 1995),
VIII Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c aeniei-iieaeoess?ieo niieoe (Ee?a,
1996), ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Carbon ’96» (Iuetheane, Aaeeea
A?eoai?ss, 1996), XXIII I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Carbon ’97» (Penn
State Univ., N??, 1997), IV Ana?in?enueeiio neiiiceoi? «?eooaeueiua
i?iaeaiu aaeni?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia» (Iineaa, ?in?y, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe?? ii ?iaio?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo?, 7
oac aeiii-a?aeae, iaea?aeaii 2 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Iinoaiiaea caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue
aeeiioaaeanss ca o/anoth aeena?oaioa. ?iae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiss i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii.
Iaaiai?aiiss ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o ?ioa?-i?aoaoe?ss
cae?enithaaeenue ca aeoeaiith o/anoth aeena?oaioa. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiss
yaeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii a ioae?eaoe?yo o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
iaoeiaei ea??aie-eii.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia
146 noi??ieao, aeeth/a? 22 oaaeeoe?, 40 ?enoie?a. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie
oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 160 aeaea?ae.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iieacaia
?? aeooaeuei?noue, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o,
aeanoe-aino? oa noa?e aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaieo aoae?a. Aiae?c iaoeiai? ?
iaoaioii? e?oa?aoo?e aeyaea ie?ai? ioae?eaoe?? ii noai?aiith ye?nii
iiaeo o?ce/ieo oi?i ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. ?iae?c a?aeiieo oaoiieia?e
iaea?aeaiiy ENI aecia/ea ia?niaeoeaiei oaoiieia?/iee oeyo iaea?aeaiiy
ENI iao?e/ii? aoaeiae, ui caaacia/o? aaeeeo ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?o o?ce/ieo
oi?i ? aeanoeainoae. Aeeiioth/e, ye i?aaeei, iie?ooieoe?iiaeueia
i?ecia/aiiy, iao?eoey e??i ?ie? iano/iai aeaiaioo iaaea? ENI aeiaeaoeia?
niaoeeo?/i? o?ceei-o?i?/i? yeino?. Onoaiiaeaia iie?ooioe?iiaeuei?noue
aeanoeainoae iao?eoe?, ui aeoeaii aieeaa? ye ia ia?aiao?e neioaco, oae ?
ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue o?ce/ieo oi?i, no?oeoo?ii-ni?aoe?eieo ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae ENI, iniaeeai aeae?ey? ia?niaeoeai?noue
eiiiice-o?a ia iie?ia?ieo a’yaeo/eo.

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e caaa?oo?oueny oi?ioethaaiiyi iaoe ? caaaeaiue
aeena?oa-oe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeai?o ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeai
neioaco oa iaoiaeai aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. A yeino?
aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??-aeo aoei aeei?enoaii e?noi/eiaa aeoeaia
aoa?eey ia?ee EAO, oaoiieia?th io?e-iaiiy yeiai ?ic?iaeaii a ?inoeooo?
ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (OO O 88.290.015-94):
EAO(1) ? EAO(2) c ?ici??aie /anoeiie 0.5-1 ii ? iaioa 0.1 ii
a?aeiia?aeii. Iniiai? ia?aiao?e: ia’?i ni?aoe?eieo ii? ii aaicieo Ws=0.6
ni3/a, aaee/eia ieoiii? iiaa?oi? Sieo=1100 i2/a.

Aoei iaea?aeaii o?e oeie AeENN — oea eiiiiceoe aei/iiai oa aeanoe/iiai
oei?a, a oaeiae o?eueo?oth/? ni?aoe?ei? iaoa??aee (ENI), io?eiai? oeyoii
iaia-naiiy aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo (?iiia?e?caoe??) ia iaoeaiee
o?eueo?oth/ee iie?ia?-iee iaoa??ae.

A yeino? iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo aeey neioaco eiiiiceo?a aei/iiai oeio
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iie?ia?e i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa (iie?a?i?eiaee
nie?o (IAN), iie?a?i?eoei?eae (IAA)), a oaeiae neioaciaai? iaie ni?eueii
c oao?aoeyie ?inoeoooo o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie
e?i?ei? iie?o?aoaie (IO-1, IO-2, IO-3) c ??cieie iie?ao??aie,
aee?cioe?aiaoaie oa iiaeiaaeoaa/aie eaioetha?a. Aeey neioaco ENI
aeanoe/iiai oeio aeei?enoiaoaaany ani?iaiee iie?o?aoai (i?iiiie?o?aoai).
Aeey neioaco ENI ia iaoeaiiio iie?ia?iiio iaoa??ae? aoa aeei?enoaiee
iaoeaiee o?eueo?oth/ee iie?i?ii?eaiiaee (II) iaoa-??ae IOI (OO O
13486464. 003-96), yeee aeaioiaey?oueny ia IEI «O?eueo?» (i. Ai?e?aea,
Aeiiaoeueei? iae.).

Iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy AeENN aei/iiai oeio iieyaaa a i?eaiooaaii?
aeniei-eiioeaio?iaaieo noniaic?e aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo a ?ic/eiao
iie?ia??a ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe?? (a?ae 5 aei 30 ian.%) i?e ??aiiio
ia’?iiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? oac, i?ney /iai i?iaiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy
iaoa??aeo i?e iiieaeaiiio oeneo, iaaaioaaeaii? ? oaiia?aoo?? 50-60 iN.

Iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy AeENN aeanoe/iiai oeio iieyaaa a niieo/aii?
aoaeaoea-aiai iaoa??aeo c eiiiiiaioaie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
io?eiaiiy ani?iaiiai iie?o?aoaio, i?ney /iai i?iaiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy ?
noo?iiy iaoa??aeo.

Iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy AeENN ia iaoeaiiio iie?ia?iiio iaoa??ae? iieyaaa o:

a) aaaaeaii? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey EAO(2) (ENI-1) a nenoaio
aa?iaeeiai?/iiai oi?ioaaiiy oeueo?aoiieeo ieoie ?icieaao iie?i?ii?eaio,
io?eiaieo a i?ioean? aeno?oc??, c iaeii/aniei iaieeaiiyi inoaii?o ia
?ooiio i?eeiaeueio iiaa?oith ? ?o oa?iine??ieaii?. Iaoa??ae io?eioaaee
ia iaeii- ? aeaiaa?aaaii?e i?eeiaeuei?e iiaa?oi?;

a) iaianaii? aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo ia iaoeaiee iaoa??ae I?I c
a’yaeo/ei o aeaeyae? iie?ia?ii? aeenia?n?? (IA?, IO) ? i?iaeoaaii?
io?eiaiiai eiiiiceoo iia?o?yi (ENI-2).

Ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aeo?aeiiai aoa?eey ? io?eiaieo
eiiiiceo?a aoee aeine?aeaeai? c iaoith aecia/aiiy ia’?io ni?aoe?eieo ii?
ii aaicieo Ws, ni3/a i?e (P/Ps=1), aaee/eie ieoiii? iiaa?oi? Sieo, i2/a
iaoiaeii oaieiai? aeani?aoe?? a?aiio, ia’?io i?e?iii? i?e ?/Ps=0.175 a
aeeiai?/ieo oiiaao ii aaicieo. ?iciiae?e ia’?i?a iae?i- ? iaciii?
c?ace?a ii ?aae?onao aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?oooii? ii?ic?iao??? i?e aenieeo
oeneao (?oooiee ii?ic?iao? «Pore Sizer M 9200» o??ie
«Eoeueo?ii?en-O?ain»). Ii?iaiaee ?aae?on neeaaeaa 3 ii, iaeneiaeueiee
oene 2500 ea/ni2.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee c?ace?a aoa?eey ? AeENN
i?iaiaeeee a noaoe/ieo oiiaao ? aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei? ii ?a/iaei?-ia?ea?o
— iaoeeaiiaiio aeaeeoiiio (319 a.i.i.) c eiai aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a iaoiaeii
ie?aieo iaaaaeie. Ii aaee/ei? /ano iai?aaaeni?aoe?? aoee ?ic?aoiaai?
eiao?oe??ioe aoaeoeaii? De ? oaeoe/ii? Do aeeooc??. Ii eiao?oe??ioao
aeeooc??, io?eiaieo i?e ni?aoe?? iaoeeaiiaiai aeaeeoiiai i?e ??cieo
oaiia?aoo?ao aoee aecia/ai? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? aaeni?aoe?? Aa aeey
iaoeeaiiaiai aeaeeoiiai ia aeo?aeiiio aoa?ee? ? io?eiaieo eiiiiceoao.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? oa aieeao
iiaa?oi? aoa?eey ia aeanoeaino? iie?o?aoai?a ia iaae? ?icae?eo «aeoeaia
aoa?eey-iie?ia?» aoee aeei?enoai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? iaoiaee aiae?co:
?*-niaeo?ineii?y, aeeoa?aioe?eii-neaioth/a eaei?eiao??y (AeNE) oa
oa?iiiaoai?/i? iaoiaee aiae?co.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? ENI ioe?ithaaee ii ??aith caieeaiiy
(ieei-ooai?aiiy) aeoeaiiai aoa?eey ? eiiiiceo?a, aeeiai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao (/ano caoenii? ae?? ii aaicieo) ca AINO 12.4.158-75,
iii?o iino?eiiio iioieo iia?o?y ca AINO 10188-74, i?oeiino? i?e
?oeioaaii? (??) ca AINO 17316-71, eiao?oe??ioo i?i-ieeiaiiy
i?e?ioe?oii?ioeo I-5 o a?aeiia?aeiino? c AINO 12.4.156-75 oa
eia-o?oe??ioo i?iieeiaiiy ianeyiiai ooiaio o a?aeiia?aeiino? c AINO
12.4.156-75. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a ONI ? io?eiaieo ia ?o iniia? eaaeeo
?ani??aoi??a ii iiaeeiaiith ia?iiiae?aieo niieoe ?aae?iioee?aeo
eiaeo-131 i?iaiaeeee ia IAI «Iai?aai?ea» (i. Aeaeo?inoaeue, ?in?y) o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoiaeeeith IE 6-16-28-1198-88.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e io?eiaieo eiiiiceo?a o ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiei aoa?eeyi EAO,
aieeao ia?aiao??a neioaco ia ii?oaaoo no?oeoo?o.

Ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aei/ieo eiiiiceo?a. Aiae?c io?eiaieo
aeaieo iieaco?, ui ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e Ws ? Sieo iathoue
i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiao /?oeo oaiaeaioe?th i?ia?anoth/iai iiieaeaiiy c
?inoii ai?noo iie?ia?ii? eiiiiiaioe a eiiiiceo?. A ?ioa?aae? ai?noo
iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo? i?eaeecii aei 10 ian.% oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e iineoue e?i?eiee oa?aeoa?: ao?aoa (a
%) ia’?io ni?aoe?eiieo ii? ? ieoiii? iiaa?oi? a oeeo iaaeao /enaeueii
aei??aith? ai?noo iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo?. I?e ai?no? iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo?
a?eueoa 10 ian.% niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea cieaeaiiy ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e. sse ne?aeo? c ?en. 1, eiiiiiaioe eiiiiceoo ia ? ?iaeeoa?aioi?
ii a?aeiioaiith iaeei aei iaeiiai. Oae, oa?aeoa? ci?ie ia?aiao??a
ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e iiaeiai i?aeii-?yaeeiaoaaoeny i?yiie?i?eiiio caeiio
(caeiio aaeeoeaiino?):

P = P * (1-x),

aea: P ? P * — ia’?i ni?aoe?eieo ii? ii aaicieo aai cia/aiiy ieoiii?
iiaa?oi? eiiiiceoo ? aoa?eey a?aeiia?aeii;

o — ianiaa /anoea iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo?.

Iao? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iieacaee ?nioaaiiy iaeaea i?yiie?i?eii?
ae?eyiee caeaaeiino? ? a?ae ai?noo iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo?, yea
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ??aiyiith:

P = P * (1-2x)

I?e aeei?enoaii? ae??aiiaeenia?nii? o?aeoe?? aoa?eey EAO(2) ia?aiao?e
ii?o-aaoi? no?oeoo?e iathoue a?eueo ae?aaeaio oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy
a ii??aiyii? c aeieaie ia iniia? EAO(1). Oea, iiaeeeai, iiynith?oueny
u?euei?noth iaeoaaiiy ni?aaioo: i?io?ea? ciaiueoaiiy a?eueiiai ia’?io
i?ae /anoeieaie aoa?eey ? ca?eueoo?oueny cia/aiiy aaiiao?e/ii? ieoiii?
iiaa?oi?. Iie?ia?iee ?ic/ei iaaie?eo? /anoeiee aoa?eey, ooai?thth/e i?e
oeueiio aaeiia?aoe, ye? iie?eo? iie?ia?iith ie?aeith ia iiaa?oi?,
aeeeth/ath/e i?e oeueiio aeinooi ni?aaoo aei aaeiia?iaaieo /anoeiie
aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo, aiane?aeie /iai aeie «i?aoeth?» a??oa i?ae c
EAO(1), aea iie?ia? eiioeaio?o?oueny, a iniiaiiio, a i?noeyo aeioeeo
a?aioe.

Ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aeanoe/ieo eiiiiceo?a. ?iae?c
iaea?aea-ieo aeaieo iieaco?, ui ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aeanoe/ieo
eiiiiceo?a caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a (aoa?eey oa
iie?ia?o). sse aeaeii c ?en. 2, caeaaeiino? ia ? e?i?eieie. Iioeiaeuei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiiai aoa?eey-i?ii-iie?o?aoaio — (30-50)Oe(50-70)
a?aeiia?aeii. I?e ai?no? aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo iaioa 30 ian.%,
ni?aoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aeanoe/ieo ENI ??cei iia??oothoueny, a i?e
ia?a-aeuaii? ai?noo inoaiiueiai 50 ian.%, ao?a/a?oueny aeanoe/i?noue
ae?iao, oiaoi aoaeaoeaaee iaoa??ae ia?aoeiaeaea? ooai?aiith i?ie ?
iaoa??ae ia?aoiaeeoue a ciio aeie?a.

Ia ?en. 3 iaaaaeaii aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? (a-a) ? ?ioaa?aeuei? (a) e?ea?
?iciiae?eo ii? ii ?o aea?aaeaioieo ?aae?onao aoaeaoeaaiai ni?aaioo ?
eiiiiceo?a, io?eiaieo c aeaieo ii?ic?iao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ci?io
ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aoa?eess a aei/ieo ? aeanoe/ieo
eiiiiceoao iaaaaeaii a oaae. 1 ? oaae.2.

sse aeaeii c ?enoie?a ? oaaeeoeue, ii?oaaoa no?oeoo?a aoa?eey
ci?ith?oueny a iaeano? iae?i- ? iaciii?: ?o ia’?ie ? ieoii? iiaa?oi?
cieaeothoueny, oiae? ye Ws ? Sieo i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iththoueny. Cia/aiiy
ia’?io i?e?iii? iaeiaeia? c aeo?aeiei EAO, oiaoi iie?ia? ia aieeaa? ia
i?e?iii?e, a o?eueee aeieo? o?ainii?oio no?oe-oo?o aoa?eey.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e
iieacothoue, ui ni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue aeoeaiiai aoa?eey a eiiiiceoao
i?e ai?no? iie?ia?o a iueiio aei 10 ian. % caeeoa?oueny aeineoue
aaeeeith, iaeiae ca ?aooiie caiiaiaiiy iae?i- ? iacino?oeoo?e aeoeaiiai
aoa?eey iie?ia?iith neeaaeiaith niia?eueith?oueny e?iaoeea ni?aoe??
iieaeoe c aaciai? oace ? oei a?eueoa c ?ic/ei?a.

Aieea ia?aiao??a neioaco aei/ieo eiiiiceo?a ia ia?aiao?e ?o ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aoee io?eiai? aeai?, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaoe ai?no iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo a eiiiiceo? ? oei
naiei iaea?aeoaaoe aeiee c e?iaoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie ? ia?aiao?aie
ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aeecue-eeie aei aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo.
Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aeinyaiaiiy ai?noo iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo? aei 10
ian.% (a naia i?e oaeiio ai?no? iie?ia?o a ENI ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e aeecuee? aei ?o cia/aiue aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo),
iioeiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y aeo?aeiiai iie?ia?iiai ?ic/eio iiaeiia
ciaoiaeeoeny a iaaeao 5-15 ian.% ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia oi?io ia? aeinyaaoe
0.2-0.6 ea/ni2. I?e a?eueoeo cia/aiiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy ia oi?io (aei 0.8
ea/ni2) iiaeia aeinyaoe ai?noa iie?ia?o a eiiiiceo? iaiueoa 1 ian.%. I?e
oaeeo iaeeo ai?noao iie?ia?o aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiiiceo?a
iathoue aeineoue aenie? iieacieee.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ci?ia ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aei/ieo eiiiiceo?a

Ia?aiao? ? eiai ?ici??i?noue C?acee

EAO(1) EAO(1)-IO-1 EAO(1)-IO-3

Ia’?i ni?aoe?eieo ii? ii aaicieo Ws, ni3/a 0,60±0,02 0,59±0,02 0,58±0,02

Ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii? ii a?aiio, SieoAr, i2/a 1100±50 1050±50 1000±50

Ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii? ii ?ooo?, SieoHg, i2/a 16,7 10,4 9,8

Oyaia aonoeia d, a/ni3 0,72 0,88 0,91

Aea?aaeaioiee ?aae?on raea, ii ?400 ?600 ?500

?aae?on aoiaeo a ii?e rao, ii 7,6 7,4 6,5

Ia’?i i?e?iii? ii aaicieo Vmi, ni3/a 0,28±0,05 0,28±0,05 0,28±0,05

Ia’?i ii? ii ?ooo? Vii?ii.Hg, i2/a 0,34 0,22 0,22

Ia’?i iae?iii? Vma, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,22 0,19 0,18

Ia’?i iaciii? Vme, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,24 0,23 0,21

Ia’?i i?e?iii? Vmi, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,22 0,22 0,22

Noia?iee ia’?i ii?, VS, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,68 0,64 0,61

Oaaeeoey 2.

Ci?ia ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e aeanoe/ieo eiiiiceo?a

Ia?aiao? ? eiai ?ici??i?noue C?acee

EAO EAO(1)-IIO EAO(2)-IIO

Ia’?i ni?aoe?eieo ii? ii aaicieo Ws, ni3/a 0,60±0,02 0,59±0,02 0,58±0,02

Ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii? ii a?aiio, SieoAr, i2/a1100±50 1080±50 1050±50

Ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii? ii ?ooo?, SieoHg, i2/a 16,7 12.7 12,4

Oyaia aonoeia d, a/ni3 0,72 0,88 0,90

Aea?aaeaioiee ?aae?on raea, ii ?400 ?500 ?500

?aae?on aoiaeo a ii?e rao, ii 7,6 7,4 7,3

Ia’?i i?e?iii? ii aaicieo Vmi, ni3/a 0,28±0,05 0,28±0,05 0,28±0,05

Ia’?i ii? ii ?ooo? Vii?ii.Hg, i2/a 0,34 0,28 0,26

Ia’?i iae?iii? Vma, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,22 0,19 0,17

Ia’?i iaciii? Vme, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,24 0,23 0,23

Ia’?i i?e?iii? Vmi, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,22 0,22 0,22

Noia?iee ia’?i ii?, VS, ni3/a (ii?ia?aia) 0,68 0,64 0,62

Ii?oaaoa no?oeoo?a eiiiiceo?a ia iie?ia?i?e iaoeai?e iniia?. C
iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeaeii, ui ia?aiao?e ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e ENI-1A,
io?eiaieo ii noai? A, i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iththoueny a ii??aiyii? c
aeo?aeiei aoa?eeyi EAO. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy ENI
oaeiai oeio, aoaeaoeaaa eiiii-iaioa i?ee??ieth?oueny aei aieieii
iie?i?ii?eaio ? oeei naiei i???ioo?oueny o i?aeaieieiiiiio i?inoi?? a
aioiaiio oa?iine??ieaiiio iaoa??ae?. Io?eiaiee ia aa?aaai? A iaoa??ae
aaea oa?iine??ieaiee ? neoaeeoue eeoa iie?eooyi aeey aeaieo ENI, oiaoi
a?i ia aieeaa? ia ni?aoe?ei? ooieoe?? aoa?eey, yea ?iiia?e?ciaaia ia II
iaoa??ae, ui iaea?aeoaaee ia aa?aaai? ?.

O aeiaaeeo iaea?aeaiiy eiiiiceo?a ii noai? ? (?en. 5), aieieia II, ye?
iaie-eththoueny c ?icaeoaath/iai i?eno?ith (a), oa?iine??ieththoueny ia
ua ia oa?ii-ne??ieaieo aieieiao II c ?iiia?e?ciaaiei aeoeaiei aoa?eeyi,
ye? iaiinyoueny c ?icaeoaath/iai i?eno?ith (a). A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aoaeaoeaaa eiiiiiaioa i?ee?e-aa?oueny oa?ii aieieii, ye? ua ia
oa?iine??ieeeny, ? oei naiei u?eueii iie?eaa?oueny iie?ia?ii, ui e
a?aecia/a?oueny ia ni?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao aoa?eey E?O ? eiiiiceoo a
oe?eiio.

Eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee ENI-2 iathoue aeineoue aenie? ni?aoe?ei?
ia?aiao?e ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeo?aeiiai EAO. Aiie cieaeothoueny ia 2-5
% a caeaae-iino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiue eiiiiiaio?a. Iiynieoe oea iiaeia
oei, ui iie?ia?ia aeenia?n?y a aeaye?e i??? ?iaeoeao? ii?oaaoo no?oeoo?o
aoa?eey, aea ii aeaiiei aee-iai?ee aaeni?aoe?? aaicieo, iiaeia neacaoe,
ui iie?ia?, a iniiaiiio, aieeaa? iaaa-oeaii ia iae?i- ? iaciii?e ? ia
oi?ea?oueny ni?aoe?eieo ii?.

A ?icae?e? 4 iaaaaeaii aeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ni?aoe?? oa
aeeooc?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaea?aeaieo eiiiiceo?a a ii??aiyii? c
aeo?aeiei aoaeaoeaaei ni?-aaioii. Ia ?en. 5-6 iaaaaeai? eaac???aiiaaaei?
?cioa?ie aaeni?aoe?? iaoeeaiiaiai aeaeeoiiai ia aeoeaiiio aoa?ee? ?
iaea?aeaieo ia eiai iniia? aei/ieo ? aeanoe/-ieo eiiiiceo?a, a a oaae. 3
? 4 — ?ic?aoiaai? e?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e i?e /an? aaeni?aoe?? 1 ? 4 aiaeeie
? a?aeiia?aeii cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? oa aia?a?? aeoeaaoe??
aaeni?aoe??.

C ?enoie?a ? oaaeeoeue iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iie?ia?ia eiiiiiaioa
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iacia/iiai cieaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa aeeooc?eieo
ia?aiao??a ae-o?aeiiai aoa?eey EAO ? eiiiiceo?a i?ioyaii 1 aiae. (a
na?aaeiueiio ia 8-12 %), a i?ioy-aii 4 aiae. e?iaoe/i? oa aeeooc?ei?
ia?aiao?e ENI i?aeoe/ii a?aeiia?aeathoue iieac-ieeai aeo?aeiiai
aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo, oiaoi iaea?aeai? eiiiiceoe ? ni?aoe?eie-ie
iaoa??aeaie i?ieiiaiaaii? ae??.

Oaaeeoey 3.

E?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e aeoeaiiai aoa?eey E?O ? iaea?aeaieo

ia eiai iniia? eiiiiceo?a

Iaoeeaiiaee aeaeeoiee (319 a.i.i.)

Eiiiiceo t = 1 aiae t = 4 aiae

ai b ai b

EAO 16.8 0.0384 18.6 0.0192

IAO — EAO 11.2 0.0305 14.8 0.0175

IAN — EAO 14.8 0.0368 16.8 0.0185

IO-3 — EAO-1 16.0 0.0368 17.8 0.0190

IO-2 — EAO-1 15.1 0.0368 17.5 0.0190

IO-1 — EAO-1 16.2 0.0368 18.2 0.0190

IIO — EAO-1 15.4 0.0358 17.7 0.0188

IIO — EAO-2 11.7 0.0315 16.7 0.0185

Oaaeeoey 4.

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? ? aia?a?e aeoeaaoe?? i?e aaeni?aoe??
iaoeeaiiaiai aeaeeoiiai ia aoa?ee? EAO ? iaea?aeaieo eiiiiceoao.

Iaoeeaiiaee aeaeeoiee (319 a.i.i)

C?acee De ? 10-8, ni2/c DEo ? 10-6, ni2/c Aa, eAeae/iieue

E?O 3.10 5.80 48.5

IAO — EAO 2.50 5.20 53.3

IAN — EAO 2.60 5.22 52.2

IO-1 — EAO 2.70 5.40 49.5

IO-2 — EAO 2.60 5.30 49.5

IO-3 — EAO 2.70 5.40 49.5

IIO — EAO-1 2.64 5.51 49.5

IIO — EAO-2 2.48 5.39 49.5

Aieea oeio iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo ia ni?aoe?eii-e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
io?eiaieo ENI ?icaeyiooi a ?icae?e? 4. Io?eiai? eiiiiceoe ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye caaa?oaio oi?io iaiiaiaiiai iie?ia?o. Ie aeaeii c aeaieo
oa?iia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (?en. 7), iie?o?aoai yaey? niaith nenoaio,
ui i?noeoue aeiee ??cii? iiey?iino? oa ?ooeeaino? (o?e oaiia?aoo?ieo
ia?aoiaee). Aoaeaoeaaee iaoa??ae, a??ia?aeii, eiioeaio?o?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, a i?e?iiaeanoyo aio/eeo aeie?a, ye? neeaaeathoue iniiaio iano
iie?ia?o. Naiianioe?aoe?y aei?noeeo aeie?a i?enei?th? oeae i?ioean:
ooai?aiiy aei?noeeo aeiiai?a i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?aaaaeiiai
eiioeai-o?oaaiiy aoaeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo a i?aeaeiiaii?e iaeano?. oeei
iaoiiaeaii ia?a?iciiae?e i?aeiieaeoey?ieo ca’yce?a, oae ye aeoeaia
aoa?eey /anoeiai ae?aio? iiey?i? a?oie iae?ieaioethaa ? iiia?aaeaeo? ?o
aca?iiae?th. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui naiianioe?aoe?y aei?noeeo o?aaiaio?a
ciaioo?oueny a ?yae? IO-1>IO-3>IO-2, i?e/eiith /iio ? ??cia no?oeoo?a
iiaeiaaeoaa/a iae?ieaioethaa. Aeey aiiiiie?ia??a (IA•, IAN) oe? i?ioeane
ia i?eoaiaii?, oiio ui aiie ooai?ththoue iaeii??aeio aeenia?aoth/o
nenoaio «aeoeaia aoa?eey — iie?ia?».

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? aoee aeine?aeaeai?
iiaeaeuei? nenoaie ie?aiia??a c aeoeaiei aoa?eeyi iaoiaeii
?*-niaeo?ineii??. A?aeiia?aeii io?eiaiei aeaiei (?en. 8) iiaeia
aaaaeaoe, ui i?ioiaeeoue aca?iiae?y i?ae p-aeaeo?iiiith oia?ith
aeoeaiiai aoa?eey ? ea?aii?eueiith a?oiith ie?aiia?o (ciaioaiiy
?ioaineaiino? i?ea N=O ca’yceo (1660 ni-1).

Ia ?en. 9 cia?aaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oaiei?iiino? c?ace?a
iaiia-iaieo ? iaiaiiaiaieo iie?ia??a, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?nioaaiiy
iaaeiaiai oa?o (no?eaee oaiei?iiino?) ia iaae? ?icae?eo aoa?eey —
iie?ia? ? naeaeoeaio aca?iiae?th iiaa?oi? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey c
ie?aiao??iith oa aee?cioe?aiaoiith ae?eyieaie iie?o?aoaio.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaea?aeaieo
eiiii-ceo?a i?aaenoaaeai? a ?icae?e? 5 aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

A oaae. 5-6 a?aeia?aaeaii aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue (noaiaea?oi? oiiae)
c?ace?a ENI c i?i?iaeueiei ai?noii iie?ia?ii? eiiiiiaioe aeey ??cieo
iie?ia??a, ui aeei-?enoiaoaaeeny a ?iaio?.

Oaaeeoey 5.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aei/ieo eiiiiceo?a

C?acie Ai?no iie?ia?o,

ian.% Ii?? iioieo iia?o?y,

ii. aiae. no. I?oei?noue (P?),

ea/ni2 —an caoenii? ae?? ii aaicieo,

oa Ieeiooai-?aiiy,

%

EAO — 10.5 — 55 15

IAO-EAO 4.0 10.0 4.5 45 0.15

IAN-EAO 6.0 9.0 4.5 45 0.1

IO-1-EAO 0.5 8.0 3.0 50 0.1

IO-2-EAO 1.0 9.0 4.0 50 0.1

IO-3-EAO 0.2 8.0 3.0 50 0.1

Oaaeeoey 6.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeanoe/ieo eiiiiceo?a.

Iaeiaioaaiiy iieacieea EAO IIO-EAO(1) IIO-EAO-2(2)

Ieeiooai?aiiy, % 15 a?aenooi?

Ii?? iino?eiiio iioieo iia?o?y, ii. aiae. no. 0.55 0.55 0.55

—an caoenii? ae?? ii aaicieo a aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei?, oa 15 15 12

Ie aeaeii c oaaeeoeue, iaea?aeai? eiiiiceoe a?aecia/athoueny iacia/iei
iii?ii aaciaiai iioieo, iecueeei ??aiai ieeiooai?aiiy (a aeanoe/ieo aiii
a?aenooi?), aenieei ??aiai iiaeeiath/i? caeaoiino? ii ia?ao i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei, ? e??i oiai, aeiee iathoue aenieo i?oei?noue a ii??aiyii? c
aeo?aeiei aoaeaoeaaei iaoa??aeii.

A ?icae?e? 5 oaeiae ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i noai?aiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
eaaeeo ?ani??aoi??a c aaciieeicaoenieie ooieoe?yie. Aiie aoee io?eiai?
ia iniia? ENI, ye? iaea?aeoaaee oeyoii ?iiia?e?caoe?? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey
ia iie?i?ii?eaiiao iaoeaio aieieienoo iniiao (iaoa??ae IOI). Aoei
noai?aii aeaa oeie iaoa??ae?a aeey ?ani??aoi??a I-1 ? I-2, ye? i?noyoue
ni?aoe?eio eiiiiiaioo (ENI-1 ? ENI-2 a?aeiia?aeii), o?eueo?oth/ee oa?
(iaoa??ae IOI c iiaa?oiaaei aeaeo?inoaoe/iei ca?yaeii) ? aeiiii?aei?
oa?e iaoa??ae?a aeey iaaeaiiy ea?eano. ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue
aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a ?ani??aoi??a iiaiai oeio ia iniia? iaoa??ae?a
I-1 ? I-2 iaaaaeaii a oaae. 7.

Oaaeeoey 7.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue eaaeeo ?ani??aoi??a ia iniia? io?eiaieo
ni?aoe?eii-o?eueo?oth/eo iaoa??ae?a.

C?acee ?ani??aoi??a

Aei?iaoaaiiy ?ani??aoi?e ia iniia?

I-1 ?ani??aoi?e ia iniia?

I-2 Na??eiee ?ani??aoi? «?inoie»

Ii?? iino?eiiio iioieo iia?o?y i?e oaeaeeino? eiai i?iioneaiiy 30 e/oa,
ii.aiae.no. 1.8 — 2.0 1.8 — 2.0 1.8 — 2.0

Eiao?oe??io i?iieeaiiss i?e?ioe?oii?ioeo I-5 i?e ?icoiaeo iia?o?ss 30
e/oa, % 0.8 -1.0 0.8 -1.0 0.8 -1.0

*an caoenii? ae?? ii aaicieo i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 50 ia/i3, aiae 8 — 9 7 —
8 ia i?aoeth?

Eiao?oe??io oo?eiaiiy ?aae?iioee?aeo

eiaeo-131 ca 30 oaeeei, % 85±5 85±5 iaioa 5

?acoeueoaoe oaae. 7 na?ae/aoue, ui iiaee ?ani??aoi?, aea aeei?enoaii
?iiia?e?-ciaaia aeoeaia aoa?eey ia? aeanoeaino? i?i?-i?ioeaaco. oea, ia
iaoo aeoieo, a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey
caoenoo i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ethaeeie ia aeiaaeie iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e.
E??i oiai, aoei a aeioe?eueiei aeei-?eniaoaaoe ?o ? a aeayeeo oe?aeeeaeo
ae?iaie/eo oiiaao.

AENIIAEE

1. Ca i?ea?iaeueieie iaoiaeeeaie, ?ic?iaeaieie aaoi?ii, neioaciaaii oa
aeine?aeaeaii aeanoeaino? o?ueio i?eioeeiiai ??cieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (ENI) ia iniia? e?noi/eiaiai aeoeaiiai aoa?eey
E?O ? iie?ia??a ??ciiiai?oii? no?oeoo?e, a naia: aei/ieo c i?eaiooaaiiyi
noniaic?e aoa?eey o aenieieii-oeaio?iaaieo ?ic/eiao iie?ia??a,
aeanoe/ieo ani?iaieo (aaaaeaiiy aoa?eey a iano aeey ani?iaiiy
iie?o?aoaio) oa ?iiia?e?ciaaieo (iaianaiiy aoa?eey ia aieieia
iie?i?ii?eaio a i?ioean? ?o aa?iaeeiai?/iiai oi?ioaaiiy c ?icieaao.

2. Iaoiaeaie aaeni?aoe?eii-aaaiaiai aiae?co oa ?oooii? ii?ic?iao???
aea/aii ci?ie a ii?oaao?e no?oeoo?? ENI ? anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?y iie?ia??a
caiaeeoueny, a iniiaiiio, aei aeieoaaiiy nenoaie o?ainii?oieo ii?
aoa?eey (iae?i- oa /anoeiai iaciii?).

3. Aecia/aii ?ioa?aaee iacia/iiai aieeao iie?ia??a ia ni?aoe?ei?
ia?a-iao?e aeoeaiiai aoa?eey a ENI:

— a aei/ieo eiiiiceoao ai?no iie?ia?o aei 10 ian.% e?i?eii ciaioo?
ia’?i ni?aoe?eieo ii? Ws oa ieoiio iiaa?oith ii? Sieo , i?e/iio
ciaioaiiy oeeo ia?aiao??a (a%) /enaeueii aei??aith? ai?noo iie?ia?o;

— a aeanoe/ieo eiiiiceoao i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? eiiiiiaio?a aeoeaia
aoa?eey : i?iiiie?o?aoai a iaaeao a ian.% (30-50) : (50-70) ciaioaiiy Ws
? Sieo a?aeiia?aeii aei aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a aoa?eey noaiiaeoue ia
a?eueoa 3-5 %;

— eiiiiceoe ?iiia?e?ciaaiiai oeio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeoe/ii
a?aenoo-i?noth cieaeaiiy ni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae, ii??aiyii c
ia?aiao?aie aeoeaiiai aoa?eey (a iaaeao 2-5 %).

4. Aeine?aeaeaii e?iaoeeo ni?aoe?? iiaeaeueii? ?a/iaeie c ?ic/ei?a ia
ENI ??ciiai oeio oa aecia/aii aeeooc?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee; anoaiiaeaii
ciaioaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ni?aoe?? oa a?aeiia?aeii
eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? iieaeoe o ii?ao eiiiiceo?a a na?aaeiueiio ia 8-12
% oa ae?aaeaiee i?ieiiaiaaiee oa?aeoa? ni?aoe?eii? ae?? eiiiiceo?a a
ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiei aeoeaiei aoa?eeyi.

5. Iaoiaeaie ?*-niaeo?ineii??, aeeoa?aioe?eii-neaioth/i? eaei?eiao???
oa oa?iiiaoai?/iiai aiae?co aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino?
i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? a ENI. Aia?oa aeey nenoai oaeiai oeio anoaiiaeaii:

— eiioeaio?oaaiiy aoaeaoeaaiai ni?aaioo, a iniiaiiio, a i?e?iiaeanoyo
aio/eeo aeie?a iie?o?aoaio, a naia a i?aeaeiiaii?e iaeano?, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei /anoeiaiai ae?aioaaiiy iiey?ieo a?oi iae?ieaioethaa oa
a?aeiia?aeii aei ineaa-eaiiy ?o aca?iiae??;

— ooai?aiiy iniaeeaiai iaaeiaiai oa?o iie?o?aoaio ia a?aieoe? ?icae?eo
iie?ia? — aoa?eey ? naeaeoeaio aca?iiae?th iiaa?oi? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey c
ie?aiao??iith oa aee?cioe?aiaoiith ae?eyieaie iie?ia?o;

— aca?iiae?th i?ae p-aeaeo?iiiith oia?ith aeoeaiiai aoa?eey ?
ea?aii?eueieie a?oiaie iie?ia?o, ye? o?ainoi?iothoueny ? ooai?ththoue
i?aeoaciee o?i?/iee ca’ycie.

6. Ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee neioaciaaieo ENI ? iieacaii, ui cacia/ai? iaoa??aee
a?aecia/athoueny aenieei ??aiai iiaeeiath/i? caeaoiino? ii ia?ao
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei i?e cia/ii e?aueo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iieacieeao, i?ae
o aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai ni?aaioo, a naia — i?aeaeuaiith i?oei?noth,
iecueeei ??aiai ieeioo-ai?aiiy (a aeanoe/ieo — iiai?noth a?aenooi?) oa
iacia/iei iii?ii aaciaiio iioieo.

7. Ia aac? ENI ?iiia?e?ciaaiiai oeio ?ic?iaeaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii aei
ae?iaieoeoaa iiaee iaeii?aciaee ni?aoe?eii-o?eueo?oth/ee ?ani??aoi? aeey
caoenoo i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ethaeeie iaeii/anii a?ae aac?a oa ia??a
i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aa?icie?a oa ieeo, aeeth/ath/e ?aae?iaeoeai?
(i?i?-i?ioeaac).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o

ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Naaaeueaa I.A., Ia?ooei N.C., Ea?oaeue I.O., A?aeia A.I. No?oeoo?iua
e ni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia «aeoeaiue
oaieue-iieeia?»// Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?3. — N. 154-157.

2. Naaaeueaa I.A., Ia?ooei N.C., Ea?oaeue I.O., Ao?aiiae/ A.?. Iiaua
yeanoe/iua eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu «aeoeaiue oaieue — iieeo?aoai» //
Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?6. — N. 158-160.

3. Ia?ooei N.C., Naaaeueaa I.A., Ea?oaeue I.O., Iai?iaeiaa O.I., A?aeia
?.I., Ia?eianeay E.A. Neioac e enneaaeiaaiea ia?aiao?ia ii?enoie
no?oeoo?u eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia «aeoeaiue oaieue —
iieeia?» // Eiiiiceoeeiiiua iieeia?iua iaoa?eaeu. — 1998. — O. 20, ? 1.
— N. 27-31.

4. Iaoaio 25473 ?. Oe?a?ia, IIE6 B01J 20/26. Aoaeaoeaaiiie?ia?iee
eiiiiceoe?eiee ni?aoe?eiee iaoa??ae oa niin?a eiai io?eiaiiy./ Ia?ooei
N.C., Ea?oaeue I.O., Naaaeue?a I.A., Eoci?oeia N.A.; ?inoeooo ni?aoe??
oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. (Oe?a?ia).- ? 97115638; Cayaeaii
25.11.97; Iiceoeaia ??oaiiy a?ae 12.08.1998 ?.

5. Cayaea ia aeiao?ae ? 97126053. IIE6 B01J 20/26, B01J 20/30, B01D
39/14. Aoaeaoeaaiiie?ia?iee aeanoe/iee eiiiiceoe?eiee ni?aoe?eiee
iaoa??ae oa niin?a eiai io?eiaiiy. / Ia?ooei N.C., Ea?oaeue I.O.,
Naaaeue?a I.A., Ia?eianueea E.A.- Iiceoeaia ??oaiiy a?ae 15.10.1998 ?.

6. N.T. Kartel, S.Z. Marushko, Yu.V. Savelyev, A.P. Grekov, S.V.
Kuznetsov. Composition Sorbents «Active Carbon-Polymer»: Adsorption and
Kinetics Characteristics // Third International Symposium «PAT ’95»,
Pisa, Italy, 1995.-P. 266.

7. N.T. Kartel, S.Z. Marushko, Yu.V. Savelyev, A.P. Grekov, T.N.
Ogorodova. Composition Sorbents on the base of Active Carbon and Complex
Formating Polymers // Third International Symposium «PAT ’95», Pisa,
Italy, 1995.-P. 267.

8. Marushko S.Z., Kartel N.T., Savelyev Yu.V., Ogorodova T.N. Composite
Sorbents «Active Carbon-Polymer» and their Characteristics // The
European Carbon Conference «Carbon ’96», Newcastle, UK, 1996,- P.
463-464.

9. I.A. Naaaeue?a, N.C. Ia?ooei, ?.I. A?aeia. Ni?aoe?ei? iaoa??aee
«aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey-iie?ia?» oa ?o o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. //
VIII Oe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe, Ee?a, 1996. —
N. 209.

10. Marushko S.Z., Savelyev Yu.V., Kartel N.T. Block Composite Materials
Based on Active Carbon and Polymer // The 23rd Biennial Conference on
Carbon, Penn. State Univ., USA, 1997. Vol. II, — P. 490-491.

11. S. Marushko, Yu. Savelyev. Biologically Active Sorbic Materials
«Carbon-Polyurethane»//The European Conference «Euro-Fillers ’97»,
Manchester, UK, 1997, — P. 144-147.

12. N.C. Ia?ooei, I.O. Ea?oaeue. Eiiiiceoeeiiiua ni?aoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu
«aeoeaiue oaieue-iieeia?» // Iaoa?eaeu IV Ana?inneeneiai neiiiceoia
«?eooaeueiua i?iaeaiu aaeni?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia», Iineaa, 1998. — N.
143.

Ia?ooei N.C. Neioac ? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
«aeoeaia aoa?eey-iie?ia?». — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii neioaco oa aeine?aeaeaiith eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?a-oe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (ENI) ia iniia? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey oa iie?ia?ieo
iao?eoeue ??cii? no?oeoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ci?ie
no?oeoo?ii-ni?aoe?eieo ? e?iaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a aeo?aeiiai aoaeaoeaaiai
iaoa??aeo oa eiiiiceoo a oe?eiio a?ae aieeao ia?aiao??a neioaco
eiiiiceo?a, ai?noo ? oeio iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo. Oaeiae i?eae?eaii oaaao
aea/aiith iniaeeainoae i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? ia a?aieoe? ?icae?eo
aeoeaia aoa?eey-iie?ia? ? aieeao iiaa?oi? aeoeaiiai aoa?eey ia no?oeoo?o
iie?o?aoai?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy ? aei?iaoaaii
aeanoeaino? iiaeo eaaeeo ?ani??aoi??a c ni?aoe?eii-o?eueo?oth/eie
aeanoeainoyie ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aeanoe/ieo ENI.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiiiiceoe?ei? ni?aoe?ei? iaoa??aee (ENI), iie?ia?i?
iao?eoe?, iie?o?aoaie, ni?aoe?y, ?ani??aoi?e.

Marushko S.Z. Synthesis and properties of the composite sorbic
materials based on an active carbon and polymers. — the manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate of science degree in speciality 02.00.04 —
physical chemistry — Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to synthesis and investigation of the
composite sorbic materials (CSM) based on an active carbon and polymers
of different structures which were used for the matrix. The changes of
the sorption-related structural parameters and kinetics characteristics
of the initial active carbon as well as composites by the effect of the
synthtic parameters, polymer contents and polymer types were
investigated as well as their effects on practical performance were also
studied. Attention was paid to interface chemistry and to influence of
active carbon surface on the polyurethane structure. The technologies
for manufacturing a new sorbic-filter respirators were proposed and
their practical performance was investigated.

Key words: composite sorbic materials (CSM), polymer matrixes,
polyurethanes, sorption, respirators.

Ia?ooei N.C. Neioac e naienoaa eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia
«aeoeaiue oaieue-iieeia?». — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.04 — oece/aneay oeiey. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Iieo/aiu eiiiiceoeeiiiua ni?aoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu (ENI) ia iniiaa
einoi/eiaiai aeoeaiiai oaey EAO e ?acee/iuo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia ii
i?eaeiaeueiui iaoiaeeeai: ec aunieiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ia iieeia?ia
/a?ac noniaicee; aaaaeaieai oaey a ianno aeey aniaieaaiey iieeo?aoaia, a
oaeaea iooai eiiiaeeecaoeee oaea?iaeiiai iaoa?eaea a aieieia
iieei?iieeaia a i?ioeanna ay?iaeeiaie/aneiai oi?iiaaiey iineaaeieo ec
?anieaaa iieei?iieeaia. Ii?enoay no?oeoo?a enoiaeiiai oaea?iaeiiai
iaoa?eaea a aei/ieo eiiiiceoao eciaiyaony iiae aeeyieai iieeia?a a
iaeanoe iae?i- e iaciii?: eo iauaiu e oaeaeueiua iiaa?oiinoe
nieaeathony, oiaaea eae iauai ii? ii aaicieo Ws e aaee/eiu oaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe Soae i?aeoe/anee ia eciaiythony. Cia/aiey iauaiia iee?iii?
iaeeiaeiaua ii n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiui EAO, o.a. iieeia? ia aeeyao ia
iee?iii?u, a oieueei aeiee?oao nenoaio o?ainii?oiuo ii? oaey.

I?e eniieueciaaiee a aeieao iaeeiaeenia?niie o?aeoeee aeoeaiiai oaey
(iaiaa 0,1 ii) ia?aiao?u ii?enoie no?oeoo?u eiatho aieaa au?aaeaiioth
oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth, oae eae iieeia?iue iaoa?eae iaaieaeeaaao
/anoe/ee oaey, ia?acoy aaeiia?aou, eioi?ua iie?uou iieeia?iie ieaieie ia
iiaa?oiinoe, aneaaenoaea /aai aeie «?aaioaao» ooaea, /ai n oaeai n
?acia?aie /anoeoe 0,5-1 ii, aaea iieeia? eiioeaio?e?oaony, a iniiaiii, a
ianoao nii?eein-iiaaiey a?aioe.

Ia?aiao?u ii?enoie no?oeoo?u aeoeaiiai oaey a yeanoe/iuo aniaiaiiuo e
eiiiaeeece?iaaiiuo ENI inoathony aeinoaoi/ii aunieeie (oiaiueoaiea ia
aieaa 5%).

Aeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey eeiaoeee ni?aoeee e aeeoooceiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
iieacaee, /oi eeiaoe/aneea ia?aiao?u enoiaeiiai oaey a eiiiiceoao i?e
a?aiaie aaeni?aoeee t=1 /an eciaiythony ia 8-12 % (aeey iieeo?aoaiia), a
i?e t=4 /an i?aeoe/anee ioaa/atho ia?aiao?ai enoiaeiiai oaea?iaeiiai
iaoa?eaea, o.a. iieo/aiiua eiiiiceou yaeythony iaoa?eaeaie
i?ieiiae?iaaiiiai aeaenoaey.

Iaoiaeaie EE-niaeo?ineiiee, aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-neaie?othuae
eaei?e-iao?ee e oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai aiaeeca aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaaiu
iniaaiiinoe iaaeoaciiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a ENI. Aeey oaeeo nenoai aia?aua
auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaea?iaeiue ni?aaio eiioeaio?e?oaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii a iee?iiaeanoyo aeaeeo aeieia iieeo?aoaia, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e ye?aie?iaaieth iiey?iuo a?oii iae?ioeaie e i?aaeioa?auaao eo
acaeiiaeaenoaea, a oaeaea auei onoaiiaeaii ia?aciaaiea a?aie/iiai neiy
ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oaieue-iieeia? e naeaeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea n
ieeaiyoe?iie e aeeecioeeaiaoiie /anoyie iieeia?a.

A niioaaonoaee n iieo/aiiuie aeaiiuie ii enneaaeiaaieth i?e?iaeu
iaaeoaciiai neiy, iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeiicia/iua auaiaeu i
acaeiiaeaenoaee p — yeaeo?iiiiai iaeaea aeoeaiiai oaey n ea?aiieeueiuie
a?oiiaie ieeaiia?a. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aa?iyoiinoue o?ainoi?iaoeee
ea?aiieeueiie nayce.

Iieo/aiiua eiiiiceou iaeaaeatho ieceei o?iaiai iueaiey (a yeanoe/iuo
iii ionoonoaoao), iacia/eoaeueiui nii?ioeaeaieai aaciaiio iioieo,
aunieei o?iaiai iiaeioeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ii ia?ai i?aaie/aneeo
aauanoa, e e?iia oiai, aeiee iieo/atho n aieaa aunieie i?i/iinoueth, /ai
enoiaeiue oaieue EAO.

Iieo/aiiue iiaue ?anie?aoi? ia iniiaa yeanoe/iuo ENI ia iieeia?iie
iaoeaiie iniiaa n eiiiaeeece?iaaiiui oaeai eiaao naienoaa
ieie-i?ioeaiaaca. Ioi, ii iaoaio iiaieth, ioe?uaaao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe
aai i?eiaiaiey aeey caueou i?aaiia aeuoaiey /aeiaaea iaeiia?aiaiii io
aacia e ia?ia i?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ay?icieae e iuee, aeeth/ay
?aaeeiaeoeaiua. Aai iiaeii i?eiaiyoue a ?yaea a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa,
auoiauo oeaeyo, a oaeaea a oneiaeyo /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiiiceoeeiiiua ni?aoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu (ENI),
iieeia?iua iao?eoeu, iieeo?aoaiu, ni?aoeey, ?anie?aoi?.

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