OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OA?*IAEO OAOIIEIA?E

N?IAO?IA AAEEIA IEAENAIAe??AIA

OAeE 664.1.039

?IC?IAEAIIss OA AAeINEIIAEAIIss OAOIIEIA?E

OeOE?ENOEO ?A*IAEI OA OeOE?II?NOEEO

OA?*IAEO AeIAAAIE

05.18.05 – oaoiieia?y oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e OAAI, i?ioani?
Aoeee ?aai Noaiaiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaieeoi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, ?aeoi?Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oieeI?uoe ?iioaeueae Oeaca?iae/, a?aeae?e
oeoe?i?ao?iaaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
?inoeooo oeoe?iai? i?iieneiaino?, i. Ee?a, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eoaeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiiaiei Ieeiea Aeieo?iae/, eaoaae?a oeoe?o ?
oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei, ?inoeooo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?
ia?ai?aeaioia-ee ea??aieo i?aoe?aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a oa?/iai? oa
ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino? I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?eaeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?Ie?eiee ?aai Aeaeo?iiiae/, a?aeae?e aoanoaoe?? ? ?iciiae?eo
eaae??a, Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaio?
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eoI?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:?inoeooo
oa?/iai? o?i?? ? oaoiieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie,

i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “20” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.058.04. Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, aoaeeoi??y A-311, ca aae?anith 252033,
i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith:

252033, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “15” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, e.o.i., n.i.n.
Oaaei?ai/aiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an o o?aaeeoe?eiiio
oeoe?i-ao?yeiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? Oe?a?ie ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
?icaeaa?oueny caaaeyee i?aoeyi a?aeiieo a/aieo A.Ae. Iiiiaa, ?.I.
Oaaeioe?ia, I.A. Aa?aneiaiea, ?.N. Aoeiai, E.Ae. Aia??aieea, I.I.
I?yaeea, E.I. ?aae, A.A. E?i?oea, I.I. Eoi/eea, A.I. Ooaiaa?aa, I.I.
Caai?iaeiueiai, I.?. Ooaiaa?ai? oa ?ioeo. Ni?eueieie coneeeyie a/aieo oa
i?aeoee?a noai?aii aeineoue aoaeoeaio oaoiieia?th io?eiaiiy oeoe?o c
ao?ye?a. Aiaeii/an, iaeia ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?? ae?eyiie — i/euaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai nieo — iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy c iaoith
?? aaeineiiaeaiiy, iia’ycaiiai ye c? ci?iaie e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai
neeaaeo ao?ye?a, ui iaaeoiaeyoue ia ia?a?iaeaiiy, oae ? c iaae??oaieie
ieoaiiyie ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aaiiyiiai iieiea ia i/euaiiy, iiooeo aeaoaaeo
ni?aaio?a iaoeoe??a, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ae??aiio?aeoe?eieo
a?aeoiae?a aaiiyeo, noai?aiiy iiaiai aeineiiaeiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Oe?
ieoaiiy ? aeooaeueieie ? aaaeeeaeie ye c oi/ee ci?o io?eiaiiy
aenieiye?nieo i?iaeoeo?a, oae ? c iiceoe?e ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaeia?aeoiaeieo oaoiieia?e o oeoe?iao?yeiaa ae?iaieoeoai, ioi?iie
aeiae?eey ? i?aeo?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae a a?inoa??.

Oeoe?ia? ao?yee — iaeia ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaoi?/ieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? Oe?a?ie, aei neeaaeo yeeo, ie??i
oeoe??a, aoiaeyoue a?eee, iaeoeie, ai?iieeneioe, a?oai?ie, i?e?i- oa
iae?iaeaiaioe, ? ia?niaeoeaiith ne?iaeiith ? aeey io?eiaiiy a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo aeiaaaie, eio?? nueiaiaei? a?ae?a?athoue aeiyoeiao ?ieue o
ae?iaieoeoa? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a icaei?ia/iai oa i?io?eaeoe/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea a aaeoc? oa?/oaaiiy iiai?noth noi?iiaaia o
a?eueoino? e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, Aia?eee, ssiii??, aea no/ani?
oyaeaiiy uiaei ?ie? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a neeaeenue o iiao no?aoaa?th
caei?ia’y. A Oe?a?i?, ia aeaeue, oey i?iaeaia aeaeaea a?ae ae??oaiiy, a
noai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aaee/aci? ao?aoe ne?iaeie
i?e cae?aii?, o?ainii?ooaaii?, caa??aaii?, iaaeie?ee oaoiieia?? oa
aeieia?? ia?a?iaeaiiy, ua a?eueoa oneeaaeiththoue ??. Iaiiaiaiiy
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo ?iii?oieie i?iaeoeoaie noai?th? oei/aniao ?ethc?th
eiai iane/aiiy, ciaioo? oaaao aei ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? oa?/iai?
?iaeono???, i?e??eath/e ?? ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia a?aenoaaaiiy ?
iaeiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue.

A ?aoe?ii? oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy, eio?a iino?aaeaeaei a?ae
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe ? ?? iane?aee?a, iaei i?iaeoeo?a oa
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo aeiaaaie ?ioiinoeioethth/i?, caaaeueiici?oeithth/i?
oa ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii? ae??. Aiaeii/an, c ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie, ui
ae?iuo?oueny a Oe?a?i?, i?e a?aeiia?aeieo oaoiieia?yo iiaeia io?eiaoe
an? iaiao?aei? a?ieiiiiiaioe aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aai?cio, icaei?iaeaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee caoai?thaaiue ethaeae.

Oiio i?iaeaie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaei- oa aaca?aeoiaeieo oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaeaiiy
?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a, caeo/aiiy aei noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa iao?aaeeoe?eii?
ne?iaeie, noai?aiiy iiaeo aeae?a i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy iaae?athoue
iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? ? ? ni?aaith ia?oi/a?aiai? aea?aeaaii? aaae.

O?aaeeoe?ei? aenieioaiia?aoo?i? oaoiieia?? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
a?eueoino? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (AA?) ne?iaeie, ao?aoe i?e?i- oa
iae?iaeaiaioaie i?aai?/ii? oi?ie, ooai?aiiy iaia?ao?aaethaaieo
i?ioaie?oe/ieie oa?iaioaie eiiieaen?a oiui. Iaei?ia?aneai?oei iaoiaeii
io?eiaiiy aenieiye?nieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie ? noae?iaoe?eia noo?iiy, ui
caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy AA? ? a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino?
aeey iinoa/aiiy ianaeaiiy iiaiioe?iiith i?iaeoeoe??th.

Ca aeaieie THIANEI o i?aeia?iaeiiio i?iaiic? “Oa?/oaaiiy. ??e 2000”
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee iaoiae eiina?aoaaiiy aeciaii i?aaaethth/ei o an?o
eiai iiaeeo?eaoe?yo. A Oe?a?i? oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoa ii/eiathoueny.
Oiio ?ic?iaeaiiy oaoiieia?e io?eiaiiy oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie iaoiaeii
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei ?
ia?niaeoeaiei c oi/ee ci?o iane/aiiy a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo aenieiye?nieie
oa?/iaeie i?iaeoeoaie ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie. Uiaei oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, oea aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue iiai?noth oieeiooe ao?ao oeoe?ice, ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae
aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??, ?icoe?eoe niaeo? oeoe?ii?noeeo oiaa??a, i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue oeoe?iao?yeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?eiio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Cacia/ai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o OAeOOO: “Noai?eoe aenieiaoaeoeai? aia?aoe iiia?aaeiuei?
aeaoaeaoe?? ? ia?oi? naoo?aoe?? aaeeei? iaeeie/ii? iiooaeiino? aeey
oeoe?iai? i?iieneiaino?”, ca?aeii c ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi ?aaee I?i?no??a
O?N? ? 296-? a?ae 26.05.1980 ?. oa iaeacii I?iaoco O?N? ? 326 a?ae
9.06.1980 ?.; “?ic?iaeoe ? inai?oe ?ioaineaio oaoiieia?th i/euaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai nieo c ao?ye?a ??cii? yeino? ? iaeaaeiaiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue ?noioia ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aaiia, i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo
oeoe?o ? eiai yeino?”, ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? ? 420
a?ae 22.11.1985 ?.; “?ic?iaeoe e??iaaiio oaoiieia?th ia?a?iaeaiiy
oa?/iai? ne?iaeie c iaoith io?eiaiiy iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a i?aeaeuaii?
a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?”, ca?aeii c iinoa-iiaith ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? ?
340 a?ae 2.11.1988 ?. o neeaae? Aea?aeaaiiai caiiaeaiiy 4.AeCI;
“?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th e??ii?iaeoeo?a ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii? ae??
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy”, ca?aeii c iaeacii I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie ? 68 a?ae 23.03.1992 ?.; “Noai?eoe e??iaaiiee eiiieaen ii
ia?a?iaoe? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie aeey iaea?aeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy c ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieie
aeanoeainoyie”, ca?aeii c iaeacii Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c
ieoaiue iaoee ? oaoiieia?e a?ae 3.03.1992 ?. ca i?iaeoii 3.8.4
“I?iaeiaieuenoai”; “Aeine?aeeoe iaoai?ci eiioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue
aia?aioa i?e e??iaaii?e ia?a?iaoe?”, ca?aeii c iaeacii I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie
? 37 a?ae 3.03.1995?.; “Iiaeeo?eaoe?y iiaa?oi? eaeueoe?e-iaai?ei?noeeo
iaoa??ae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?aiiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e i?e io?eiaii?
ni?aaio?a aeey oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?”, ca?aeii c eii?aeeiaoe?eiei
ieaiii iaoeiai? i?ia?aie I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie ia 1998 — 2000 ?.?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe — ia iniia? eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao o?i?/ieo ?aaaaio?a, iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? oa
iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? ia a?io?i?/i?, o?ceei-o?i?/i?, no?oeoo?i? aeanoeaino?
eiiiiiaio?a aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie aaeineiiaeeoe iayai? oaoiieia??
i/euaiiy oeoe?ii?noeeo ?ic/ei?a, noai?eoe i?eioeeiiai iiaa iaeaaeiaiiy
aeey ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iinoaaeaii aei ae??oaiiy oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe niin?a io?eiaiiy aeaoaaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo ni?aaio?a aeey
oeoe?iao?yeiai? i?iieneiaino? oeyoii iaoaiiiiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?iaeieo
ea?aiiao?a, a oiio /ene? ae??aiio?aeoe?eiiai aaiiyeo, ? ia oe?e iniia?
cai?iiiioaaoe aaeineiiaeaio oaoiieia?th i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ?c
ciaioaieie aeo?aoaie aaiiyiiai iieiea;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe iiaee aia?ao iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe??,
caeaoiee caaacia/eoe cia/iee aoaeo i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ? io?eiaoe
inaae iaoeoe??a c aenieeie o?eueo?aoe?eii-naaeeiaioaoe?eieie
iieacieeaie;

— i?iaanoe oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
eiaaoeyoe?? a?ee?a aeeooc?eiiai nieo ia iiia?aaei?e aeaoaeaoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai aia?aoa oa aea/eoe iniiai? aeanoeaino?
a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th ye eiaaoethth/iai aaaioa;

— oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa ?ic?iaeoe iiao aaca?aeoiaeio oaoiieia?th
ae?iaieoeoaa ?c oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie i?aeaeuaii?
a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?, aea/eoe ?oi?e o?i?/iee ? a?ieia?/iee neeaae oa
iaoai?ci ia?aoai?aiue a?ieiiiiiaio?a i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao, i?iaanoe
ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo i?aai?caoe?? iiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a oeoe?ia?e i?iieneiaino?;

— i?iaanoe eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, ci?i ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeanoeainoae ie?aieo a?ieiiiiiaio?a
aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie i?e ioieiaeaeaii? ??aeeei acioii oa
noae?iaoe?? eueiaeo;

— aea/eoe aeanoeaino? noae?iiaaieo ii?ioeiiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a,
io?eiaieo aeac?ioaa?aoe??th, a oiio /ene? ?c iao?aaeeoe?eii? ne?iaeie,
oa iaa?oiooaaoe aoaeoeai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy a nenoai? icaei?ia/iai ?
i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy, iniaeeai aeey i?enei?aiiy aeaaaeaiiy c
i?aai?cio ?iei?ii?iaaieo ?aae?iioee?ae?a c aaeeeei ia??iaeii cao?eiee a
oeaieiao;

— ?ic?iaeoe aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/i? noaie aaca?aeoiaeiiai
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ia?a?iaeaiiy ??cieo aeae?a aoaeaaiaeii?noei?
ne?iaeie i?e iaeneiaeueiiio caa?aaeaii? ?? oa?/iai? oa a?ieia?/ii?
oe?iiino?; io?eiaoe aeine?aei? ia?o?? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, i?iaanoe
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/io ioe?ieo, iaa?oiooaaoe nioe?aeueio oa aeiiii?/io
aeioe?euei?noue ?o ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeyaeaii oa oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci ??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
i?e?iaeieo ea?aiiao?a i?e oiieiio aeenia?aoaaii? oaeaee?nieie oaea?aie,
ui iiynith?oueny, ii?yae ?c a?aeiieie yaeuaie aeoeaoaaiiy oa
aeaoaeoiooai?aiiy iaoa??ae?a, ia?aoai?aiiyi ?oiuei? iaii?enoi? no?oeoo?e
ia ii?enoo. Ia iniia? oeeo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaeaii iiaee niin?a
io?eiaiiy c i?e?iaeieo aeenia?nieo i?ia?ae?a aeaoaaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo
?aaaaio?a aeey oeoe?iai? i?iieneiaino?, ui ia iinooiathoueny ca nai?ie
ni?aoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie na?aeiinaaeaeaiiio ea?aiiaoia? eaeueoe?th.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaia eiaaoeyoe?y a?ee?a aeeooc?eiiai nieo ia
iiia?aaei?e aeaoaeaoe?? a iaaeao aenia?eiaioo oa ae?iaie/eo oiiaao
iaiiaeeeaa; iieacaii, ui i?e/eiith oeueiai ? a?ae?ioiai? aca?iiae??
iaiiey?ieo a?oi ai?iieeneio, caaaeyee /iio noaa?e?co?oueny iaoeaia
eiioi?iaoe?y a?eeiaeo iieaeoe oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue eiaaoeyoe?? a?ee?a a oiiaao iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe??, yea
aeaea iiaeeea?noue iiaeeaeoe aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oeueiai i?ioeano,
aeaoe ?i oai?aoe/ia iiyniaiiy, ciaeoe iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a. Iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii caeaaei?noue
a?aie/ieo cia/aiue ?ic/eiiino? a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? oeoe?ice oa oaiia?aoo?e. I?iaaaeaii eaaioiaio?i?/iee
?ic?aooiie iieaeoee Na(II)2, yeee iiaea neoaoaaoe i?aenoaaith aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?? o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? a
??cieo nenoaiao.

Aia?oa io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo c?iaeaii aeniiaee uiaei
aeioe?eueiino? oa ia?niaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iai?yio o oaoiieia??
oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei — io?eiaiiy c oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa ?ioeo aeae?a
aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie a?o/eciyieo noae?iiaaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie
i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?. Iiaeeaeaii iaoeia? oyaeaiiy i?i
aeiyoeia? aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeo?a iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? oaoiieia??;
iieacaii, ui oaea oaoiieia?y caaacia/o? ia?a?iaeaiiy ?ineeiieo
iaoa??ae?a ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?, aea? iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe aioia?
i?iaeoeoe ?c cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/aieie aeanoeainoyie, coiiaeaieie
iaoaaie?/iith ?ieeth a?ieiiiiiaio?a oeeo i?iaeoeo?a ? o?c?ieia?/iith
iio?aaith a ieo ethaeeie.

Aea/aii oa aeaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aoai?aiue a?oai?i?a,
acioenoeo niieoe, oeoe??a oiui i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ne?iaeie ??aeeei
acioii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui neeaae ? no?oeoo?a a?eueoino? a?ieiiiiiaio?a
o iaaeao oaiia?aoo? 0…-40 N ia ci?iththoueny, a iiaiioe?ii?noue a?ee?a ?
?ic/eii?noue ?o o?aeoe?e i?aeaeuo?oueny. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue
iiaeeaeoe iaoeia? oyaeaiiy uiaei e??ii?ioaeoi?ii? ?ie? oeoe?ice o
noaa?e?caoe?? no?oeoo?e oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo
iaoa??ae?a i?e oieiaeia?e aaeaioaoe??.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iaiao?aei?noue caeo/aiiy aei noa?e ia?a?iaii? oa oa?/iai? i?iieneiainoae
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeae?a ne?iaeie (oii?iaiao?o, aia?aioo, eenoy oa
a?oiueie nii?iaeeie oiui) c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy ani?oeiaioo i?iaeoeo?a,
iie?ioaiiy ?oiuei? yeino?, icaei?ia/iai aieeao ia ethaeeio, ui aeanoue
ciiao nooo?ai nei?aaoaaoe no?oeoo?o oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?
iie?aueoe aeieia?th aeiae?eey.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii oa iioei?ciaaii iniiai? ?aaeeii? ia?aiao?e
caii?iaeoaaiiy oa noae?iaoe?? ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a. ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/io
oa iaoaiaoe/io iiaeae? noae?iaoe?? cae?enoae?ciaaii? aiaee, io?eiaii
aiae?oe/iee ae?ac, ui iieno? oaiia?aoo?ia iiea a oa?? caii?iaeaii?
ne?iaeie i?e noae?iaoe??. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeaeaeaiiy
ca’ycaii? aiaee ?c noae?iiaaieo iaoa??ae?a, yea aia?oa a?aoiao? aieea
??cieo /eiiee?a ia ye?noue i?iaeoeoo.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii i?aeaeuaiiy a?ieia?/ii?
oe?iiino? noae?iiaaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie oeyoii ?o iaoaiiaeoeaaoe??
aeenia?aoaaiiyi. Nenoaiaoeciaaii ?acoeueoaoe ci?i iniiaieo
a?ieiiiiiaio?a noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i ca?eueoaiiy a
?acoeueoao? aeenia?aoaaiiy ianiai? /anoee a?iaeinooiieo a?oai?i?a, iiii-
oa aeeoeoe??a, ?ic/eiiiai iaeoeio, i?aai?/ieo eeneio oiui, oa
cai?iiiiiaaii eiia??iee iaoai?ci aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?aeiieaeoey?ieo ca’yce?a
? ia?aoiaeo o a?eueio oi?io ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a. Aia?oa aeyaeaii oa
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?i?
oa aeac?ioieneeaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? io?eiaieo noae?iiaaieo ii?ioe?a,
anoaiiaeaii i?yio caeaaei?noue i?ae iiaiioith cieaeaiiy ??aiiaaaeii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?iio no?iioe?th a nenoai? oa e?euee?noth
eiiieaeniooai?thth/eo i?aai?/ieo eeneio a ii?ioeao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ae??oaii caaaeaiiy
iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo a?ae
a?ee?a oa ?ioeo iaoeoe??a ia iiia?aaei?e aeaoaeaoe??. Io?eiaii oi?ioee
aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e, eoaeiino?, o?eaaeino?
i?ioeano caeaaeii a?ae yeino? aeeooc?eiiai nieo. Aeey ?aae?caoe??
i?ioeano i/euaiiy nieo ?ic?iaeaii, aeaioiaeaii oa aei?iaoaaii ia
I?aeeoeueeiio oeoe?iaiio caaiae? i?iieneiaee c?acie i?eioeeiiai
iiaiai aia?aoo iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe?? ia?ee A2-II? c i?yiioa/?eiei
aaaaeaiiyi ?aaaaio?a uiaei nieo ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/iei ci?ooaaiiyi iioie?a.
A?aenooi?noue iaoai?/iiai i?eaiaeo oa ?ooiieo /anoei, ieoo?aa ci?ooaaiiy
nieo c ?aaaaioaie noai?ththoue a aia?ao? iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey iaeneiaeueiiai aeeo/aiiy iaoeoe??a ? io?eiaiiy inaaeo, ui
caaacia/o? aacia?a?aiee i?ioean o?eueo?oaaiiy iai?ai?iaeoeo?a. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy uiaei na??eiiai aeioneo
aia?ao?a oe??? eiino?oeoe?? ae?iaie/ith iiooaei?noth 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0
oen. o ao?ye?a ca aeiao. Aiaeia?/iee aia?ao aei?iaoaaii ia
Ia?aiiaenueeiio oeoe?iaiio caaiae?.

?ic?iaeaii aeey iio?aa oeoe?iai? i?iieneiaino? niin?a io?eiaiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo ni?aaio?a, ui iieyaa? o iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? i?e?iaeieo
i?ia?ae?a oa a?aeoiae?a aaiiyeo. Caaaeyee oeueiio ciaioothoueny aeo?aoe
aaiia ia aeaoaeinaoo?aoe??, caaacia/o?oueny aeniea ye?noue i/euaiiai
nieo, aeinyaa?oueny iiaia aeei?enoaiiy ae??aiio?aeoe?eiiai aaiiyeo,
ae??oothoueny ieoaiiy ioi?iie aeiae?eey. Niin?a ai?iaiaaii ia
Aoa?i?nueeiio oeoe?iaiio caaiae?.

?ic?iaeaii aaca?aeoiaeio iecueeioaiia?aoo?io oaoiieia?th io?eiaiiy
noae?iiaaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie ?c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii a?oai?i?a,
acioenoeo niieoe, aoaeaaiae?a c ieiaeiiai/aai? ne?iaeie oa
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaea?ae — oii?iaiao?o, oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, ii?eae, ca?ia
aia?aioo, oeaae?e oeeo?oniaeo, eenoy oa a?oiueie nii?iaeeie oiui. Aeey
an?o aeae?a aeine?aeaeaii? aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie ca no/anieie
iaoiaeeeaie anoaiiaeaii oaiia?aoo?i? ?ioa?aaee oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a i?e
caii?iaeoaaii? — oaiaii? aiaee, ui eyaee a iniiao oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy a?iia’?eo?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?
?aae?ciaaii niiniae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano io?eiaiiy aeac?ioaa?aoe??th
aenieiaeenia?nieo ii?ioe?a ?c noae?iiaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? ca
aeanoeainoyie aeenia?aiaaieo iaoa??ae?a ia iinooiathoueny e??iaaiiiio
iiae??aiaiith a na?aaeiaeu? ??aeeiai acioo ? ia?aaaaeathoue inoaii?e ca
aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie.

Noai?aii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? oa ?ic?iaeaii oeeeeia?aio noae?iaoe?eiiai
noo?iiy ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iioei?coaaoe
iniiai? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano oa caaacia/eoe iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy
a?ieiiiiiaio?a ne?iaeie, a oaeiae ia iniia? io?eiaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie
?ic?iaeoe ?aoeaioo?e iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a icaei?ia/iai oa i?io?eaeoe/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Aeine?aei? ia?o?? noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a i?ieoee iaaeeei-a?ieia?/io
ioe?ieo a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie IIC ?
AII Oe?a?ie, o Ananithciiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie,
o iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? a?a??ie oa?/oaaiiy, a Ee?anueeiio IAe?
a?a??ie i?aoe? oa i?iocaoai?thaaiue. ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee aenieo
aeac?ioieneeaoe?eio caeaoi?noue io?eiaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a uiaei
?aae?iioee?ae?a, aaaeeeo iaoae?a, ianoeoeeae?a; i?aeoaa?aeeee iayai?noue
oe?ieiai niaeo?o a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe – a?oai?i?a, ai?iieeneio,
i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei oiui. Oea a?aee?eaa? oe?ieo ia?niaeoeao
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy ianiaiai niiaeeaaiiy oa icaei?ia/iai
? i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii aeieoiaioaoe?th ? ?aoeaioo?e
iiaeo aeae?a aa?oeiaiai ianea oa oeoea?ie c aeiaeaaaiiyi noae?iiaaieo
ii?ioe?a. ?ic?iaeaii ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th (OO
10.04.22.26-88; OO 10.5016193.10-92; OO 10.5016193.11-92; OO
10.04.22.39-89) ia iia? aeaee noae?iiaaieo ii?ioe?a ? i?iaeoeo?a ia
?oi?e iniia?; oaoi?/i? oiiae ia ae?iaieoeoai oeoe?ii?noeiai ii?ioeo c
oeoe?iaiai ao?yeo OO 02070938-1.97.

Aeeiiaii ca no/anieie iaoiaeeeaie oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? ?ic?aooiee
iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a io?eiaiiy noae?iiaaieo
oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie oa niiniao i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo ?c ciaioaieie aeo?aoaie aaiia, ye? iieacaee
aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o oeoe?iao?yeiaa ae?iaieoeoai
cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oao?aoe?a
aeey oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? oa nooaeaio?a ca iiaith niaoe?aeuei?noth
“Oaoiieia?y oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a icaei?ia/iai oa i?io?eaeoe/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy”.

A??ia?aei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/aii aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa aei??thaaeueieo i?eeaae?a, noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a
ia?iaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee;
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aaeaeaaoi?noth ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo,
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo oa ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaieo
oaoiieia?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O an?o ?iaioao c? ni?aaaoi?aie a?aea
ia?eoaoio o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? i?iaeai, ?o ?ica’ycaii? oa aiae?c?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/eea caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aaoi? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaea oa aecia/eea iioeiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e niiniao io?eiaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo ni?aaio?a iaoiaeii
iaoaiiiiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?iaeieo ea?aiiao?a, ui eyaei a iniiao
cai?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia?? i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ?c ciaioaieie
aeo?aoaie aaiiyiiai iieiea o oeoe?iao?yeiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?; c’ynoaaea
iaoai?ci eiaaoeyoe?? a?ee?a ia iiia?aaei?e aeaoaeaoe??; noi?ioethaaea
i?iaeaio aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?
— ye aeaea?aea a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe, io?eiaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa
oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii?, aioeieneaeaioii?,
caaaeueiici?ithth/i? ae?? ca iaoiaeii iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai
ciaaiaeiaiiy. Io?eiaea iia? aeai? ci?ie a?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo
ieiaeiiai/aai? ne?iaeie, ia?aaaaeii iao?aaeeoe?eii?, oa aia?aioo i?e ?o
caii?iaeoaaii? ? noae?iaoe??. Cai?iiiioaaea iaoiae aeac?ioaa?aoi?ii?
aeoeaaoe?? noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei?
a?iaeinooiiino? oa canaithaaiino? aeeaei i?aai?ciii. Nenoaiaoecoaaea,
ocaaaeueieea, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaea ?acoeueoaoe o?i?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo,
no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/ieo, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c c’ynoaaiiy
ia?aoai?aiue a?ieiiiiiaio?a i?ae ae??th ??cieo aieea?a. A?aea o/anoue o
?ic?iaeaii? aia?ao?a iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe??, ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ae?iaie/eo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ?ic?iaeaii? oa caoaa?aeaeaii? ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii?
aeieoiaioaoe??. I?aeaiooaaea ? iioae?eoaaea ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue.
A ie?aieo ?icae?eao aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, io?eiai? ni?eueii c i?io. ?aaith E.I., i?io. Iaaethe ?.TH.,
aeioe. Eiaa?iei A.I., n.i.n. Anaoetheii A.?., n.i.n. Oaaeioe?iei TH.?.,
n.i.n. Ieoaeeeeii A.A., no. aeee. sseiaaieii A.TH.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
ai?iaiaaii ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo, Anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?ic?iaea oa aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao ? ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” (Ee?a,
1989-1997 ?.?.); ia iaoeiaeo oeieao e?a?i NIAe “Iaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea
aeenia?niuo iaoa?eaeia e n?aae ” (Iaeanna, 1995, 1996, 1998 a.a.); ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?ioeannia eciaeue/aiey e
?acaeaeaiey” (Iaeanna, 1994, 1995 a.a.); 1-io c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa e??ia?ieia?? oa e??iiaaeeoeeie (Oa?e?a, 1995 ?.);
i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ieuaaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue-2000” (Eacaiue, 1996 a.); i?aeia?iaei?e niaoe?ae?ciaai?e
aenoaaoe? “*i?iiaeeue: aeieia?y, ethaeeia, caei?ia’y” (Ee?a, 1996 ?.);
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey
iieiaeuo o/aiuo” (Iaeanna, 1997 a.); Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey ieuaauo iieeia?ia” (Naaoeiai?ne, 1991 a.); 4-e
ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ac?aaioea eiiaeie?iaaiiuo
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey” (Eaia?iai, 1991 a.); i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio
nai?ia?? “Iaoaiioeiey e iaoaie/aneay aeoeaaoeey” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995
a.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeii?noe? oaoiieia?? iiaea?eiiai
i?ecia/aiiy” (Ee?a, 1994 ?.); ?O I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa
iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa” (Iaeana, 1996 ?.); Sixth Seminar on Inulin
(Braunschweig, 1996); International workshop on inulin as medicine &
food ingredient (Kiev, 1997); Proceedings of the Seventh Seminar on
Inulin (Belgium, 1998); International Symposium on “Water management in
the design and distribution of quality foods” (Helsinki, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii
iiiia?ao?th, 40 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, 32 oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, io?eiaii 3
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa oa 3 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 317
noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 398 iaeiaioaaiue,
ia? 78 ?enoie?a oa 80 oaaeeoeue, eieao aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi. C’yniaaii noai i?iaeaie oa iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeine?aeaeaiue c oi/ee ci?o ?? iaoeiaiai oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy aeey
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie.

?icae?e 1. No/aniee noai oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ia?a?iaeaiiy
aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie o oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe

Aeeiiaii aiae?oe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c ieoaiue i/euaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai nieo o oeoe?iao?yeiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? oa onoaoeoaaiiy aeey
?aae?caoe?? oeeo i?ioean?a. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaeaiiy
aia?ao?a aeey iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co ae?th/eo
no/anieo eiino?oeoe?e. ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oeoe?iao?yeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaca?aeoiaeii?
oaoiieia?? aeei?enoaiiy aaiiyeo i?ney eiai iiia?aaeiueiai ia?iaeaiiy oa
aeoeaaoe??.

Cacia/aii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ?ineeiii?
ne?iaeie aeey ia?a?iaeaiiy o i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy oa aeiaaaee oe?ieiai
niaeo?o o?c?ieia?/ii? ae??, eio?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye aeey
ianiaiai niiaeeaaiiy, oae ? icaei?ia/i-i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.
C’yniaaii ia?aaaae iecueei-oaiia?aoo?ieo iaoiae?a ia?iaeaiiy a?iia’?eo?a
ia?aae o?aaeeoe?eieie oaieiaeie. ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy i?ioean?a
caii?iaeoaaiiy ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a oa noae?iaoe?? eueiaeo, aieea
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?eueii? ? ca’ycaii? aiaee ia oaiia?aoo?e oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a, caeaoi?noue a?ieiiiiiaio?a aei oieiaeiai? aaeaioaoe??,
e??ii?ioaeoi?io ?ieue iiii- oa aeeoeoe??a o noaa?e?caoe??
oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai.

Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue oa ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaaiaeii?noei?
ne?iaeie ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?, niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy a?ieia?/ii?
aeoeaiino? aioiaeo i?iaeoeo?a. Aena?oeaii aeieia?/i? ieoaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa oa aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy icaei?ia/iai
i?ecia/aiiy, c’yniaaii iaiao?aei?noue ci?ie no?oeoo?e aeioneo ?
niiaeeaaiiy oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei. C?iaeaii iaoeia? aeniiaee, iinoaaeaii
iaoo oa aecia/aii caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

?icae?e 2. Ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoa oe?ieee niaeo? aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo ?ineeiieo
iaoa??ae?a, o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? (ao?ye, ii?eaa,
ea?oiiey, yaeoea, nii?iaeeia oiui) oa iao?aaeeoe?eieo (oii?iaiao?,
a?oiueee oa eenoy nii?iaeeie, aia?aio oiui).

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii ye caaaeueiii?eeiyo?, oae ? niaoe?aeuei? o?ce/i?,
o?i?/i?, i?e?ia?ieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

E?euee?noue a?eea a iaoeaieo iaoa??aeao oa io?eiaieo i?iaeoeoao
aecia/aee ca aeaniith iaoiaeeeith, ui a?oioo?oueny ia a?o?aoia?e
?aaeoe??; eae?a?oaaeueiee a?ao?e aoaeoaaee ca iaoeaieie a?eeaie,
aeae?eaieie c iaaii? ne?iaeie. A?ae?ie?oe/ia ?icuaieaiiy a?ee?a
oa?iaioaie o aeine?aeaeaiiyo in vitro cae?enithaaee ca iaoiaeii
iine?aeiaii? ae?? nenoaie i?ioa?iac ? ae?ae?co. Ai?iieeneioiee neeaae
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii Io? ? Noaei o iiaeeo?eaoe?? TH. Aeaoiaa ia
aaoiiaoe/iiio aiae?caoi?? ai?iieeneio 600A o??ie “Biotonic”.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino? i?iaeoeo?a i?iaiaeeee ia
eaai?aoi?ieo oaa?eiao. Ai?no ?aae?iioee?ae?a a i?aai?ci? aeine?aeieo
oaa?ei aei??thaaee ca aaia-aei?ii?ithaaiiyi 137Cs oa 90Sr ia onoaiiaoe?
“Ortec” c aiae?caoi?ii ?iioeuen?a oa aeaoaeoi?ii o??ie “Bicron”.

Aiae?c c?ace?a iaoiaeii aeeoa?aioe?eii? ?*-niaeo?ineii?? aaee ca
cia/aiiyi a?aeiinii? iioe/ii? aonoeie, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiae aacenii?
e?i?? oa aioo??oiueiai noaiaea?oo. Oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue c?ace?a
aeine?aeaeoaaee ia aea?eaaoia?ao? Q-100 a aoiinoa?? aae?th oa c aoaeiiii
— i?ieaeaiei Al2O3. O?iiaoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia
o?iiaoia?ao? Shimadzu GC 25A eieiiea FS-OV-101-DF-0,25 Macherv-Nagel
GmbH, aac — aae?e-a?aiiiaa noi?o.

Ieoiio iiaa?oith c?ace?a aecia/aee i?eeaaeii INO-4, na?aaei?e ?ici??
/anoeiie — ?ic?aooieiaei iaoiaeii; a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae —
eiia?iiaaiei niiniaii neoiaiai oa naaeeiaioaoe?eiiai aiae?c?a;
no?oeoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee — ca aeiiiiiaith aaeooi-ni?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee
c eaa?oeaaeie aaaaie Iae-Aaia i?e 25 N. ?aioaaiioaciaee aiae?c c?ace?a
aeenia?aiaaieo i?ia?ae?a i?iaiaeeee ia aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-OI1 o
aei?ii?ithaaii? ?aioaai?anueeiai io/ea ca A?aaii-A?aioaii.

Noai aiaee, oaiia?aoo?e oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a, e??ineii?/io oaiia?aoo?o
i?iaeoeo?a aecia/aee oeyoii aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?iia?ai
i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy ? ieaaeaiiy. I?e?ino?oeoo?o ia’?eo?a aea/aee
a?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie c aeei?enoaiiyi na?oeiiioe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia ciaaiaeiaiiy aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo iaoa??ae?a i?iaiaeeee
ia eaai?aoi?i?e noae?iaoe?ei?e onoaiiaoe?.

Aeenia?aoaaiiy oa iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?th iaoa??ae?a i?iaiaeeee ia
eaai?aoi?i?e aeac?ioaa?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? NEOA “Aeac?ioaa?aoi?”
(Oaee?ii) oa a?a?ieoeueiaiio ieei? oeio IAA eiino?oeoe??
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? a??ie/i? aeaaeai??.

?icae?e 3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? aaiiye?a ? ?o aeei?enoaiiy
i?e i/euaii? oeoe?ii?noeeo ?ic/ei?a

Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a iaoaiio?i?? oa iaoaiiaeoeaaoe??
i?e?iaeieo aeenia?nieo iaoa??ae?a — aaiiyeo oa aeieii?oo — c iaoith
io?eiaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aeaoaaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo ni?aaio?a iaoeoe??a
ao?yeiaiai nieo ??ciiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue ciaioeoe
aeo?aoe i?e?iaeiiai aaiia oa aia?ai?ano?n?a o oeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaee AeO (1…5 ea/aiae),
oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a (50…300 n –1) oa ?oiuei? eiino?oeoe??
ia iniiai? iieacieee i?ioeano aeenia?aoaaiiy — aeo?ae o?aeoe?e,
aeenia?ni?noue io?eiaieo iaoa??ae?a, aia?aii?noe?noue i?ioeano.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieoiia iiaa?oiy Sieo. io?eiaieo ii?ioe?a a?ae
i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaee ia caeaaeeoue, caoa ca?eueoo?oueny ?c
c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a aei 200 n-1. Oea aeeeeea? ??cea
c?inoaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao (Ai) ia iiae??aiaiiy: iai?eeeaae, aeey
i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaee 1 ea/aiae Ai i?e 50 n-1 neeaaeathoue 8…12
eAeae/ea, a aeey 200 n-1 — 61…67 eAeae/ea. Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
ia?iaeaiiy aaiiye?a o aeac?ioaa?aoi?? c?noaaeee iieacieee i?e?inoo
ieoiii? iiaa?oi? oa a?aeiia?aeieo aia?aiaeo?ao (e?eoa??e Sieo/Ai). C
e?eaeo ?en. 1 aeaeii, ui aoaeoeai?noue iiae??aiaiiy iaoa??ae?a
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?oiuei? i?e?iaee, i?iaeoeoeaiino? AeO ? iniaeeai a?ae
oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a.

Iaeaeuo aoaeoeai?noue io?eiaee iiae??aiaiiyi aeieii?oo i?e oaeaeeino?
aeicoaaiiy 5 ea/aiae ? n=50 n-1 (e?eaa 1ae). I?e ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino?
iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a ao?e/? aoaeoeai?noue iiae??aiaiiy ciaioo?oueny a 2,8
?ace ? noaiiaeoue 13,9 i2/eAeae. I?e/eia a oiio, ui i?e n=50 n-1 aeo?aoe
aia?a?? noaiiaeyoue aeecueei 10 eAeae, a i?e 150 n-1 — c?inoathoue o 6
?ac?a ?, oi/a i?e??no ieoiii? iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo i?e oeueiio
iaaeeaea?oueny aei 90 %, a a iiia?aaeiueiio aeiaaeeo aoa iaioee, i?ae 60
%, ia?aaaaeiee aieea ni?aaeythoue aia?aiaeo?aoe ? aaee/eia caaaeueiiai
e?eoa??th Sieo/Ai ??cei iaaea?.

I?e aea?ai?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeac?ioaa?aoi?a 5 ea/aiae aea/aee aieea
eiino?oeoe?? ?ioi??a oa oaeaee?noue ?o iaa?oaiiy (a?ae 50 aei 300 n-1)
ia oaeaee?noue oaea?o, aeenia?ni?noue oa na?aaei?e ae?aiao? /anoie,
i?e??no ieoiii? iiaa?oi? iaoa??ae?a. Aeyaeaii (?en. 2), ui iaea?eueoo
aeenia?ni?noue (28…30 iei) iathoue iaoa??aee, iiae??aiai? i?e 150 oa 200
n-1 (e?eaa 1). A?aeiia?aeii, ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii?ioe?a i?e oeeo
ia?aiao?ao iaea?eueoa – iiiaae 6,5 i2/a (e?eaa 2). Aeey oaeiai
iiae??aiaiiy aeinoaoiueith ? oaeaee?noue oaea?o 210…245 i/n. Ca?eueoaiiy
oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a iiiaae 200 n-1 ??cei iia??oo? an?
aeine?aeaeoaai? iieacieee: ?ici?? /anoie i?e 300 n-1 ia?aaeuo? 80 iei,
Sieo. ciaioo?oueny ao?e/?, a aoaeoeai?noue iiae??aiaiiy niaaea? aei 0,93
i2/eAeae. Ca an?ia ia?aiao?aie oe?eeii caaeia?eueieie aeyaeeenue
?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? iiae??aiaiiyi iaoa??ae?a i?e oaeaeeino? ?ioi??a
AeO 50 n-1: aoaeoeai?noue iiae??aiaiiy a 2,5 ?ace aeua a?ae aiaeia?/iiai
iieacieea aeey 150 n-1.

Ciaioaiiy aeenia?niino? iiae??aiaieo iaoa??ae?a i?e aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo
iaa?oaiiy ?ioi??a AeO ? iane?aeeii aa?aaoaaiiy /anoie i?ae ae??th
iiaa?oiaaeo nee. Aiie ia’?aeiothoueny a aeineoue i?oei? aaeiia?aoe.
A??ia?aeii, ui iaoa??ae, aeenia?aiaaiee i?e 250 n-1 ? aeua, ?
iie?o?aeoe??th c i?oeieo aaeiia?ao?a ??cieo ?ici???a, a i?e iaio?e
oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy — iie?o?aeoe??th ?c iano?eeeo aa?aaao?a oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo /anoie.

Ia ?en. 3 i?aaenoaaeaii caeaaei?noue Sieo. aeenia?aiaaiiai aeieii?oo
a?ae ?yaeiino? ?ioi??a (2, 4, 6) ? oaeaeeino? ?o iaa?oaiiy (n).
Aeenia?aiaaia iana aeieii?oo ia? aeineoue ?icaeiooo iiaa?oith. Aaee/eia
?? c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?yaeiino? ?ioi??a: i?e iaei?e ? o?e aea
oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy (iai?eeeaae 50 n-1) oanoe?yaeia eiino?oeoe?y aea?
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ii?ioie c Sieo=6,0 i2/a. I?e/iio ii?ioie,
io?eiaiee c aeieii?oo, ia? Sieo. ia 25…32 % a?eueoo, i?ae ?c aaiiyeo.
Oey iniaeea?noue iia’ycaia c i?enooi?noth o aeieii?o? cia/ii? e?eueeino?
iai?ae?eoeeo niieoe MgNI3 oa MgI.

C’yniaaii caeaaei?noue aia?aiaeo?ao, ieoiii? iiaa?oi? oa na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?o /anoie ii?ioe?a a?ae eiino?oeoe?? ?ioi??a AeO. ?c e?eaeo ?en.
4 aeaeii, ui i?e iaeieo ? oeo aea cia/aiiyo n ? ?yaeiino? ?ioi??a
aia?aiaeo?aoe i?i?iaeuei? aeey ?ioi??a c i?yiieooieie iaeueoeyie (4I), a
iaeneiaeueia Sieo aeenia?aiaaieo ii?ioe?a (?en. 5) i?e oeueiio iaeaea ia
iinooia?oueny io?eiaiei i?e ?iaio? c oeee?iae?e/ieie iaeueoeyie (4E).
Aoaeoeai?noue iiae??aiaiiy iaea?eueoa aeey ?ioi??a c i?yiieooieie
iaeueoeyie o 4-o oa 6-oe ?yaeieo eiino?oeoe?yo (?en. 6).

Oaeei /eiii, ae?eoee aeniiaeo uiaei aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeey
iiae??aiaiiy i?ia?ae?a oanoe?yaeieo ?ioi??a c iaeueoeyie o aeaeyae?
i?yiieooiiai ia?aeaeai?iaaea. Noiooi? iaaaaeai? aoaeoe (oa?i?/i?,
aeaeo?inoaoe/i? oa ?io? yaeua), ui aeieeathoue i?e iaaieo ?aaeeiao
ia?iaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a o aeac?ioaa?aoi??, a?aoiaoaaee i?e ?ic?iaeaii?
iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe AeO.

Aea/aiiy a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo aeenia?nieo nenoai, io?eiaieo i?e
??cieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe AeO, iieacaei, ui oa?aeoa?iith aeey ieo ?
ianeiao?e/ia e?eaa (?en. 7). I?e aeenia?aoaaii? aaiiyeo aeecueei 45 %
neeaaeathoue /anoee ?ici??ii 20…60 iei, iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? /anoie
aeinyaa? 200 iei, oi/a oey o?aeoe?y ia ia?aaeuo? 3 % a?ae caaaeueii?
iane. Aeey aeieii?oo iaeaea 70 % neeaaea? /anoea o?aeoe?? a 30 iei, a
iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? /anoie — 100 iei. E?ea? iathoue yne?aai ae?aaeai?
aeno?aioie, ui na?ae/eoue i?e aeineoue iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e /anoie
iaoa??aeo.

Oaeei /eiii, ca iioeiaeueieo oiia aeac?ioaa?oaaiiy (i?iaeoeoeai?noue 5
ea/aiae, oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy 6-oe ?yaeieo ?ioi??a c iaeueoeyie o
aeaeyae? i?yiieooiiai ia?aeaeai?iaaea 150 n-1), iaoa??aee iaaoaathoue
aeaoaeoii? no?oeoo?e. ?oiy ieoiia iiaa?oiy ia?aaaaea? 7 i2/a.

?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei aeoeaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?e
iiae??a-iaii? iaoa??ae?a, io?eioaaee ia iniia? aiae?co iiaiioe
aeaeaeaiiy iniiaieo a?oi iaoeoe??a aeeooc?eiiai nieo oa aea/aiiy
no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/ieo aeanoe-ainoae iiae??aiaieo c?ace?a.

Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aeanoeainoae iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo ia?aee
iaoiae ni?anoaaeaiiy c a?aeiiei aenieiaoaeoeaiei aaeni?aaioii —
na?aeiinaaeaea-iei ea?aiiaoii eaeueoe?th o aeaeyae? /anoeiai
a?aenaoo?iaaiiai aeaoaeiaaiiai nieo (*AAeN) c? nooiaiai ea?aii?caoe??
30…40%. Aeine?aeaeoaaee aa??aioe ia?aae-aeaoaeaoe?? aeeooc?eiiai nieo ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi: 75 % iao?eueo?iaaiiai nieo ? naoo?aoe?? (oeiiaee), 50…60
% *AAeN (ii??aiyeueiee), aea?aaeaioii? e?eueeino? iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai
aaiiyeo (iiaee). ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co o?eueo?ao?a nie?a ia eiaei?e ?c
noaae?e i/euaiiy iaaaaeaii o oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

sse?ni? iieacieee nie?a ca ??cieie aa??aioaie i/euaiiy (*aeeo.nieo 81,6
%)

IieacieeeNoaae?y i/euaiiyiiia?aaeiy

aeaoaeaoe?yaeaoaeaoe?y naoo?aoe?y naoo?aoe?yAa??aio oeiiaeeAi?no ai?ii?a
eeneio, % NaI aei iane N?

0,165 0,01

0,478 0,04

0,208 0,03

0,152 0,05Ai?no AIN, % aei iane ?ic/eio

0,31 0,06

0,45 0,09

0,34 0,06

0,34 0,05Eieuei?ia?noue, iae. iio. aono.

360 1,8

488 2,5

340 4,2

328 3,7*enoioa, %—84,8 0,1585,2 0,22Aa??aio ii??aiyeueieeAi?no
ai?ii?a eeneio, % NaI aei iane N?

0,1340,01

0,4150,07

0,1860,05

0,1280,03Ai?no AIN, % aei iane ?ic/eio

0,19 0,08

0,34 0,06

0,22 0,08

0,22 0,08Eieuei?ia?noue, iae. iio. aono.

230 2,4

346 3,1

212 3,6

204 2,8*enoioa, %—85,7 0,1186,3 0,17Aa??aio iiaeeAi?no ai?ii?a
eeneio, % NaI aei iane N?

0,1380,02

0,4220,009

0,1700,04

0,1160,04Ai?no AIN, % aei iane ?ic/eio

0,19 0,07

0,35 0,04

0,21 0,07

0,21 0,06Eieuei?ia?noue, iae. iio. aono.

215 1,7

322 2,8

208 4,3

184 3,2*enoioa, %—85,9 0,1986,6 0,28

Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiaii i?e i/euaii? aeeooc?eieo nie?a ??cii?
/enoioe, oiio aaaaeaiiy iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo ia ia?aaeaeaoaeaoe?th
aeioe?eueii ye c oi/ee ci?o aeiaeaoeiaiai aeeo/aiiy iniiaieo a?oi
iaoeoe??a, oae ? c iiceoe?e cieaeaiiy eieuei?iaino? i/euaiiai nieo.

Aecia/eee oaeiae oo e?euee?noue aaiia, yeo iiaeia cai?ieoe
aeenia?aiaaiei aaiiyeii aac iia??oaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a
i/euaiiai nieo uiaei oeiiaiai niiniao. Ca?aeii c io?eiaieie
?acoeueoaoaie, aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioean?a inaaeaeaiiy iaoeoe??a,
?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoaaeueieo niieoe ? io?eiaiiy oa?iino?eeeo
iai?ai?iaeoeo?a aeo?aoe aaiia o oeoe?iao?yeiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? iiaeia
ciaioeoe aei 1,0 % ca ianith ao?ye?a, a ?aooo cai?ieoe aea?aaeaioiith
(3…4 %) e?euee?noth iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo.

Aeey ye?nii? ioe?iee noeioeueiaaieo iaoai?/ieie aieeaaie ci?i, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny ia iiaa?oi? iiae??aiaieo a onoaiiaeao oaea?ii? ae??
(aeac?ioaa?aoi?ao /e a?a?iieeiao) aaiiye?a, aeei?enoaee iaoiaee ?* oa
E?-niaeo?ineii??. Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?aiai-niaeo??a (?en. 8) iieacaa, ui
aiie i?e iaeii?aciaiio (e?eaa 2) oa o?e?aciaiio (e?eaa 3) iiiaeao cia/ii
oneeaaeiththoueny. ?icuaieth?oueny nioaa 1450 ni-1, ca?eueoo?oueny
/enei nioa a ?ioa?aae? 1110…700ni-1, c’yaey?oueny a?oia nioa a iaeano?
2900…3600 ni-1 c iaeneioiii i?e 3300…3400 ni-1, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
iaea?eueo aeine?aeaeaiei aaeaioiei eieeaaiiyi II-a?oi. ?ioaineai?noue
oeeo nioa c?inoa? i?e ca?eueoaii? /enea iiiae?a, a ioaea, aeeaeie
ia?iaeaiiy aaiiye?a. ?ioaineai?noue nioae 1050 ni-1 cia/ii ciaioo?oueny.

Oe? aeai? ? na?ae/aiiyi iiyae aiane?aeie aeenia?aoaaiiy thaai?eueii?
iiaa?oi?. Iaoai?/ia ?iaeooe?thaaiiy iiaeo iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a
i?eaiaeeoue aei iineeaiiy ?? iniiaiino?, ooai?aiiy iniiaieo ea?aiiao?a
oa ieneae?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oa?aeoa?ii ?io?a/a?aiieo niaeo??a.
Oiaoi, ci?ia aeenia?niino? /anoie iiae??aiaiiai a aeac?ioaa?aoi??
aaiiyeo ia ? ?aeeiei ?acoeueoaoii iaoai?/iiai aieeao: ii?ooo?oueny
e?enoae?/ia no?oeoo?a iaoa??aeo, ?oeiothoueny iayai? ? ooai?ththoueny
iia? niieoee.

No?oeoo?i? ci?ie aeyaeythoueny oaeiae a oiio, ui iaoaiiaeoeaiaai?
aaiiyee iaaoaathoue aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
na?aeiinaaeaeaiiai ea?aiiaoo eaeueoe?th (?en. 9), ui ? noaei
ia?aaeoiiaith ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e i/euaii? oeoe?ii?noeeo ?ic/ei?a. E?eaa
, ui a?aeiia?aea? aaeni?aoe?? ? aeani?aoe??? ia??a aiaee iiaa?oiath
inaaeaeaiiai NaNI3, oa?aeoa?ia aeey o?ce/ii? aaeni?aoe?? aac?a
iaii?enoeie o?eaie ?? oeio. Ia ?cioa?i?, io?eiai?e aeey
iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo, niinoa??aa?oueny aeineoue i?ioyaeia iaoey
a?noa?acena, ui ioiieth? iaeanoue cia/aiue oeneo a?ae 0,3 aei 1,0 Ia. ??
iayai?noue — oa?aeoa?ia iciaea ?cioa?ie oeio, oiaoi aaeni?aoe??
iaciii?enoeie oaa?aeeie o?eaie. Oaeei /eiii, i?e i?aeaeuaieo eieaeueieo
oaiia?aoo?ao, ye? ?icaeaathoueny a aia?ao? caaaeyee oaeaee?niei oaea?ai,
c ia?aeiieo /anoie iaoa??ae?a ooai?ththoueny aeineoue no?ee? aaeiia?aoe.
Ii?iaeieie i?ae ia?aeiieie /anoeaie ana?aaeei? aaeiia?ao?a ? i?ae
ie?aieie aaeiia?aoaie ooai?ththoue ii?enoo no?oeoo?o iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai
iaoa??aeo.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a AeOA oa OA-aiae?c?a aeaei ciiao iiina?aaeeiaaii
ioe?ieoe aaee/eio iaeiie/aii? i?e iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? aia?a??. Ia iniia?
aiae?co io?eiaieo oa?iia?ai iaoai?ci oeueiai iaeiie/aiiy oyaey?oueny
oaeei: a i?ioean? aeac?ioaa?aoi?ii? aeoeaaoe?? aeo?a/a?oueny aia?a?y ia
aaaaoi?aciao aeaoi?iaoe?th iaoa??aeo, ooai?aiiy a iueiio ??ciiiai?oieo
o??uei ? aeaoaeoieo ii?iaeiei. ? /ei a?eueoith ? eiioeaio?aoe?y iae?i- ?
i?e?iaeaoaeo?a a no?oeoo?? ia’?eoo iiae??aiaiiy, oei cia/i?oeie aoaeooue
aeo?aoe aia?a??, yea aeae?ey?oueny iio?i i?e AeOA c?ace?a o ae?aiacii?
160…300 N. ?o/iee iiiae aaiiye?a oaeiai aoaeoo ia aea?. I/aaeaeii,
aeaoi?iaoe?y iaoa??ae?a, noi?iaiaeaeoaaia ooai?aiiyi aaeeei? e?eueeino?
aeaoaeo?a ? aeoioeyoe??th iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??, a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa i?ae
aieeaii oaea?ii? neee aaeeei? /anoioe, ui ia? i?noea a aeac?ioaa?aoi??
oa ?ioeo aiaeia?/ieo eiino?oeoe?yo.

A iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? aea/eee caeaoi?noue aeenia?aiaaieo iaoa??ae?a aei
o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee c aeo?aeieie oa
aeoeaiaaieie c?aceaie aaiiyeo, ye? caa??aaee ia iia?o?? ? i?ae oa?ii
aiaee a oiiaao, aeecueeeo aei ?aaeueieo. Oi/a aeey oeoe?iao?yeiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?aeoa?i? aeeiai?/i? oiiae aca?iiae?? (ca aeiyoeii
a?aenoithaaiiy ? caouaiiy nie?a), ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a a noaoe/iiio
?aaeei? ? oaae aeinoaoi?i iaaeeaeaiiyi aeey ioe?iee oaiaeaioe?e ci?ie
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e?iaeieo iaoa??ae?a, yeo i?iaiaeeee ia
i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a AeOA. Anoaiiaeee, ui iaea?eueo aeeiai?/i? ci?ie
a?aeaoaathoueny i?e caa??aaii? iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo i?ae oa?ii
aiaee (?en. 10). Aiie iia’ycai? c i?ioeanaie ieeneaiiy, ?iceeaaeii
ie?aieo niieoe, aa?aaaoe??th aenieiaeenia?nieo /anoie oiui. Iaeiae,
o?eaaea caa??aaiiy (i?nyoeue ? a?eueoa) aaeni?aaioo, ia aeeaey/enue ia
iaai? ci?ie oaciaiai neeaaeo, ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai iia??oaiiy
eiai aeanoeainoae. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeea?noue iaeiie/aiiy caiano
iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiiai aaiiyeo aeey oaoiieia?/ieo iio?aa oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo
/e o?ainii?ooaaiiy /anoeie eiai ia i?aei?e?inoaa, ia iaeaaeiai?
iiae??aithaaeueiei onoaoeoaaiiyi oaea?ii? ae??. Ia i?aenoaa? /eneaiieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?e ia?iaeaii? aeeooc?eieo nie?a c
ao?ye?a ??cii? aeo?aeii? /enoioe (a?ae * 77,4 % aei * 84,0 %)
iiae??aiaiei o aeac?ioaa?aoi?? aaiiyeii, ?ic?iaeaii niin?a i/euaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai nieo c? ciaioaieie ia 50…60 % aeo?aoaie aaiia (A.n. ?
1306958 a?ae 24.04.1985 ?.)

?icae?e 4. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y i?ioean?a i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo oa
?ic?iaeaiiy aia?ao?a iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe??

Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui iaeiei ?c aecia/aeueieo
i?ioean?a i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ? eiaaoeyoe?y a?ee?a i?e ni?euei?e
ae?? aaiiyiiai iieiea, oaiia?aoo?e oa o?eaaeino? i?ioeano. ?iiia neea
na?aaeiaeua noai?th?oueny eao?iiaie eaeueoe?th oa a?ae?ienee-?iiaie, a
aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii eiaaoeyoe?? ? ae?y Na2+.

Aacoth/enue ia oai?aoe/ieo a?aeiiinoyo oa io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo, ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui a?aeiinia oaeaee?noue i?ioeano eiaaoeyoe??
a?ee?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ?oiuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? (N) ? i?e o?eniaaieo
oaiia?aoo?? ? eoaeiino? na?aaeiaeua iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi
(wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??…?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? (1)

Aeey i?aeoe/iiai ei?enooaaiiy oe??th iiaeaeeth i?e ?ioaineo?eaoe??
i?ioean?a i/euaiiy aecia/aee wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??…?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? (2)

Ia iniia? iiaeae? ae??oaii caaaeaiiy iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio
iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo ia AII ?ic?aooieia
iiaeae? i?aaenoaaeaii o aeaeyaei i?inoeo ai?ieneioth/eo oi?ioe aeey
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue t, U, caeaaeii aiae yeinoi aeoiaeiiai
nieo: t=58,3 — 3,82 — 453,92q; U = 0,1 — 0,083 — 0,816q; = 4,74 +
143,72 + 67,4q

Ioeiiea aaaiiinoi iacaeaaeieo ciiiieo iieacaea, ui ia?aaaaeiee aieea ia
aaee/eio iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e ia?aaeaeaoaeaoei? oa
eoaeiinoi nieo ni?aaey? aiino iiaa?oiiai oeoe?o o aeeooc?eiiio nioei, a
o?eaaeinoue i?ioeano caeaaeeoue aiae eiioeaio?aoei? aieeiaeo ?a/iaei.

Aeey iniiaiiai ?aaaaioa i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo a?ae a?ee?a oa ?ioeo
iaoeoe??a – a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th – aecia/aii a?aie/i? cia/aiiy
oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe?? oeoe?ice, a iaaeao yeeo eiai ?ic/eii?noue
ca?eueoo?oueny, a oaeiae no?oeoo?i? oa aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iieaeoee, aeeiiai? ca iaoiaeii Oa?o??-Oiea-?ooaia o aeaiaeniiiaioe?eiiio
aacen? Aaoniaeo ooieoe?e Ooc?iaae.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iioeiaeueieo oiia i?ioeano ia?aaeaeaoaeaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii,
aeaioiaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii i?iieneiaee c?acie (?en.11) i?eioeeiiai
iiaiai aia?aoa iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoaeaoe?? ia?ee A2-II? (A.n. ?1214758
a?ae 01.11.1985 ?.). Aia?ao aeeiiaii i?yiioa/?eiei ? ca ?aaeeiii ?ooo
nieo iaaeeaea?oueny aei aia?ao?a ?aeaaeueiiai aeo?niaiiy. A?i ia ia?
i?eaiaeo ? ?ooiieo /anoei, n?e ci?oo?oueny c eoaeieie ?aaaaioaie ca
aeiiiiiaith a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo i?eno?i?a.

Oea noai?th? iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeao a?ae?iaeeiai?/io ianoaiiaeo aeey
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano: eiioeaio?aoe?y eoao ae??aith?oueny ieoo?ai
ci?ooth/eie i?eno?iyie. Oo?aoe?caoe?y iioieo a ??cieo /anoeiao aia?aoo
??cia, caaaeyee /iio nooi?iue eiaaoeyoe?? a?ee?a aeinyaa? 80 %. A2-II?-6
— oeiiaee i?aaenoaaiee ?yaeo aia?ao?a i?ia?aneaii? ia?aaeaeaoaeaoe??
ia?ie A2-II?-1,5; A2-II?-3,0; A2-II?-4,5 — aeaioiaeaii ia Ni?eyinueeiio
iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?. Eiai aei?iaoaaii ia I?aeeoeueeiio oeoe?iaiio
caaiae? Iieoaanueeiai IAI ? caeaii i?aea?aeii/?e i?eeiaeuei?e eii?n?? o
ae?iaie/ee nacii 1985-1986 ?.?.

Aea/aiiy iniiaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aca?iiae?e iaoeoe??a aeeooc?eiiai nieo
c ?aaaaioaie (aaiiyia iieiei, iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiee aaiiye) i?e ?iaio?
ia?aaeaeaoaeaoi?a A2-II? iieacaei, ui caaaeyee eiai eiino?oeoeaiei
iniaeeainoyi aoaeo i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ca?eueoo?oueny ia 7…10 %.
Iaeiae, iaa?oue i?e iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiiyo eiaaoethth/eo ia?aiao??a
aoaeo inaaeaeaiiy a?ee?a ia ia?aaaaea? 80 %. Uia iiynieoe oea yaeua,
aecia/eee ? i?iaaee eeaneo?eaoe?th ai?iieeneio ??cieo ni?o?a ao?ye?a, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia a?aei?iiinoyo o iiey?iino? ?o a?/ieo a?oi (ca A.
Eai?iaeaea?ii). Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo (oaae. 2),
iae/eneaii?oei ? eean, aei yeiai a?aeiinyoueny ai?iieeneioe c
iaiiey?ieie a?oiaie. Aca?iia i?eoyae?iiy oeeo a?oi o aiaeiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, a?aeiia i?ae iacaith “a?ae?ioiai? aca?iiae??”, ui
aecia/athoueny ye aai-aea?-aaaeueniaeie neeaie i?eoyae?iiy naieo a?oi,
oae aca?iiae??th ?o ?c aiaeith, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iith noia?iith
aia?a??th ? ?iaeoue, i/aaeaeii, aecia/aeueiee aianie o noaa?e?caoe?th
iaoeaii? eiioi?iaoe??? a?ee?a ao?ye?a, oo?eioth/e /anoeio ?o o
?ic/eiaiiio noai?.

Iaiiey?i? oa iiey?i? ia?ii?ciaai? a?oie ooai?ththoue iaaiaeio oaco o
aioo??oi?e cii? iieaeoee, “oeaiaiooth/e” oaeei /eiii a?eeiao aeiaoeo.
Ine?eueee o a?eeao ao?ye?a ai?iieeneioe c ia?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieie a?/ieie
a?oiaie neeaaeathoue aeecueei 65 %, oae? a?eee no?ee?o? aei aieeao
aeaiaoo?oth/eo /eiiee?a, i?ae o?, o eio?eo ia?aaaaeathoue iniiai?
aeanoeaino? – ae?aaeei ioaieoe?, i?ieai?i oiui.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ai?iieeneioiee neeaae a?ee?a ao?ye?a, a/100 a a?eea

Ai?iieeneioeAe?aiacii eieeaaiueNa?aaei? cia/aiiyCaaaeueiee ai?no
ai?iieeneio ii eiaei?e a?oi?Ai?iieeneioe c iaiiey?ieie a?oiaieAeai?i3,95
— 8,936,44Eaeoeei1,57 — 8,324,95?cieaeoeei1,92 — 9,735,83Aae?i2,13 —
8,345,2450,434I?ie?i18,42 – 23,8221,12Oai?eaeai?i1,86 —
2,922,39O?eioioai1,a3 – 2,842,23Iao?ii?i0,a2 – 3,792,21Ai?iieeneioe c
iaca?yaeaeaieie iiey?ieie a?oiaieAe?oeei1,99 — 4,723,36N??ei2,37 —
5,343,85O?aii?i1,62 — 4,723,1715,49Oeenoei0,07 — 0,010,01Oe?icei3,87 —
6,295,08Ai?iieeneioe c iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeaieie a?oiaie
(eene?)Ania?aa?iiaa e-oa12,63 – 16,8214,72Aeooai?iiaa e-oa8,32 –
12,0410,1825,60Ai?iieeneioe c iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieie a?oiaie
(iniiai?)E?cei0,93 –2,941,94A?a?i?i4,34-7,736,548,48

?icae?e 5. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? noai?aiiy aaca?aeoiaeii?
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaeaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai? aaeineiiaeaiee niin?a i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo a?ae
iaoeoe??a oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey eiai ?aae?caoe?? ana ae ia ae??oothoue
i?iaeai ?o iiaiiai aeeo/aiiy oa ?noioiiai ciaioaiiy ao?ao oeoe?ice o
ae?iaieoeoa?. ?acii c oei, iniiaia iana oeeo iaoeoe??a a?aeiineoueny aei
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe ? ia? aooe aeei?enoaia o oa?/oaaii? ethaeeie.
Oiio o iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi aeioe?euei?noue aaca?aeoiaeiiai
ia?a?iaeaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei iaoiaeii. Aiae?c
noae?iiaaieo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a na?ae/eoue i?i oe?ieee niaeo?
a?ieiiiiiaio?a aioiaiai i?iaeoeoo: 67…70 % oeoe?ice (?en. 12), 1…2 %
iiiioeoe??a, 8…10 % iaeoeiiaeo ?a/iaei, 4…6 % aai?oeaetheic, 3…6 %
ee?oeiaeie, 1…2 % i?aai?/ieo eeneio oiui. Noae?iiaaiee ao?ye i?noeoue
cia/io e?euee?noue i?ia?aeueieo niieoe, a oiio /ene? an? a?iiaoaee;
iaea?eueoa ianiaa /anoea i?eiaaea? ia eae?e (1150…1275 ia %).
?aeaioeo?eiaaii naeai, yeee cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?acenoaioi?noue i?aai?cio
aei iieieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiue.

Oeoe?ii?noe? i?iaeoeoe c ao?yea iathoue aaaaoee a?oai?iiee neeaae. Ca
ai?noii o?ai?io noae?iiaaiee oeoe?iaee ao?ye iinooia?oueny eeoa ai?ioo,
aiaai, ai??oai, i’yno; ?eaioeaa?io — oiiaoai ? eenoiaei iai/ai;
i??eaeieneio — oieiaoo oa ea?oiie?; anei?a?iiai? eeneioe — ia?aaaaea?
??i/anoo oeeaoeth, aeaye? ni?oe yaeoe oiui. A?eie aenooaiiai ao?yeo
(3,3…4,5 %), ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo ?ineeiieo a?ee?a, ia? aenieo
nooi?iue i?ioaie?co — aei 82 %. Na?aae ai?iieeneio i?noyoueny an?
iacai?ii?, ?oiy e?euee?noue neeaaea? aeecueei o?aoeie caaaeueii?
eiioeaio?aoe??. Aaaaoi iao?ii?io, ui aa?a o/anoue o neioac? oie?io,
a?oai?io A12, oie??ai? eeneioe; oe?iceio, ui ia? aenie? aaeoa?eoeeaei?
yeino?; ania?aa?iiai? oa aethoai?iiai? eeneio (aeecueei 25 a ia 100 a
a?eea), ye? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o a?eeiaiio iai?i?. I?enooi? a
e??iii?ioeo ao?ye?a oaeiae aaoa?i ? oie?i (1,2…1,6 %), oi?eaeuei?
niieoee, ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii aeecuee? aei eaoeeoeio — a?aeiiiai
?aaoeyoi?a iai?io ?a/iaei. Aaoa?i, aei oiai ae, ni?ey? canai?iith
a?ee?a ? iie?ioo? ?iaioo ia/?iee. Naiii?ie, ui i?noyoueny a e??iii?ioeo
ao?yea o e?eueeinoyo, aeecueeeo aei 1,0 %, caeaoi? ca’ycoaaoe oieanoa?ei
o eeoa/ieeo o aaaeeicanaithaaiee eiiieaen. Ca?aeii c inoaii?ie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie a/aieo, naiii?i ? iniiaith aeey io?eiaiiy e?e?a i?ioe
neea?ico.

Oaeei /eiii, ca an?ia i?iaiae?ciaaieie iieacieeaie noae?iiaaiee
oeoe?iaee ao?ye ia? oe?ii? aeanoeaino? ? iiaea aooe oni?oii aeei?enoaiee
ye oa?/iaa aeiaaaea aai i?iaeoeo icaei?ia/iai ? i?io?eaeoe/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaeaaaeeea?oee iieaciee yeino? a?eea ao?ye?a — nooi?iue a?ae?ie?co
i?ioaie?oe/ieie oa?iaioaie – aea/aee in vitro o ii??aiyii? c a?eeaie
eaaeiia?ao?aaethaaieo noae?iiaaieo ii?eae, ca?ia aia?aioo oa iieiea ye
noaiaea?oiiai noano?aoo (oaae. 3). ?acoeueoaoe aeaii a iiieue NH2 ia 1 a
a?eea.

Oaaeeoey 3

E?euee?noue a?ae?ie?ciaaieo in vitro a?ee?a noae?iiaaieo iaoa??ae?a

Aeae Noaae?y i?ioaie?coiaoa??aeoiaineiiaao?eineiiaaiaioeaeaciacaaaeueiee
i?ioaie?ciieiei

(eiio?ieue)3,500,7611,240,3915,270,3430,011,46ao?ye3,140,3411,191,4415,0
40,1929,370,94aia?aio1,220,1411,070,5616,522,3228,811,16ii?eaa2,650,8211
,040,4814,920,1128,610,32

C iaaaaeaieo aeaieo aeaeii, ui ia an?o noaae?yo i?ioaie?co
ia?ao?aai?noue a?ee?a ao?ye?a aeoaea iaei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
aiaeia?/ieo iieaciee?a aeey eiio?ieueiiai a?eea iieiea ? aeaui
ia?aaaaea? iieacieee aeey aia?aioo ? ii?eae. Oiio a?eee ao?ye?a i?e
iaaeoiaeaeaii? a i?aai?ci ethaeeie a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiio o?aeo? i?ae
ae??th i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a eaaei ?iciaaeaoeiooueny aei ai?iieeneio
? aniieooaaoeiooueny a e?ia.

Iiaaae?ieo acioenoeo niieoe ao?ye?a aea/aee a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
oaiia?aoo?, eio?ei iiaea i?aeaeaaaoenue ne?iaeia i?e ??ciiiai?oieo
o?ce/ieo aieeaao o ?aaeueieo oiiaao io?eiaiiy nooeo i?iaeoeo?a. Oea
cieaeai? oaiia?aoo?e (4…8 iN), oa?aeoa?i? aeey caa??aaiiy ao?ye?a;
oaiia?aoo?e ieae/a ioey (0…-40 iN) i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ne?iaeie
??aeeei acioii; oaiia?aoo?e oaieiaiai noo?iiy (100…110 iN). Eiio?ieai
neoaeeee na?ae? ao?yee (oaae. 4). A e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? aeai? uiaei
o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo a?ee?a ao?ye?a, oiio iiia?aaeiuei aeeoa?aioe?thaaee
?o ca ?ic/eii?noth o ??cieo na?aaeiaeuao.

Oaaeeoey 4

Ia?a?iciiae?e o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo a?ee?a i?e ??cieo iaoiaeao
ia?iaeaiiy

OiiaeIaniaa /anoea o?aeoe?e a?ee?a, % a?ae caaaeueiiai
a?eeaaenia?eiaiooaiaei?ic/ei-ianiea?ic-/eiiaeoaeii?ic-/eiianie?oi?ic-/ei
iaia?ic/. caeeoieNa?ae?
ao?yee44,40,3623,90,8910,40,173,060,4418,240,67Ao?yee i?e caa??aaii?
44,00,1723,90,768,60,412,940,1720,560,34Ao?yee
caii?iaeai?51,60,6427,80,1811,90,364,20,284,50,29Ao?yee
noae?iiaai?46,20,1329,40,259,60,114,20,1710,60,14Ao?yee i?e
100…110iN31,70,2917,80,367,50,283,90,1139,10,16

O na?aeeo ao?yeao aeecueei 70 % a?ee?a i?aaenoaaeaii aiaei- oa
niea?ic/eiiith o?aeoe?yie, oi/a aeey a?eueoino? ?ineeiieo a?ee?a
iaeneiaeueia /anoea i?eiaaea? ia aiaei- oa eoaeii?ic/eii?. Ia?ic/eiiee
caeeoie neeaaea? iaeaea i’yoo /anoeio an??? e?eueeino? a?ee?a. I?e
oaiia?aoo?ao 4…8 iN ?ic/eii?noue a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e, ca aeiyoeii
eoaeii?ic/eiii?, i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny. I?e caii?iaeoaaii? ao?ye?a
??aeeei acioii ca?eueoo?oueny ?ic/eii?noue eiaeii? c a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e:
aiaei?ic/eiii? — ia 7,2 %; niea?ic/eiii? — ia 3,9 %; eoaeii?ic/eiii? —
ia 1,5 %. A ?acoeueoao? /anoea ia?ic/eiiiai caeeoeo ciaioo?oueny ia 75
%.

I?ney noae?iaoe?? cae?enoae?ciaaii? a iaoa??ae? aiaee ?ic/eii?noue
a?ee?a, ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i aoaiii, aeaui cieaeo?oueny, oa ana ae
caeeoa?oueny aeuith, i?ae a?ee?a na?aeeo ao?ye?a. Oiio a?eee
noae?iiaaieo ao?ye?a ca?aeii c io?eiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie
ia?ao?aaeththoueny iaa?oue e?aua, i?ae a?eie na?aeiai ao?yeo (?en. 13).

Eiia??ii, ui o na?aeeo ao?yeao, caaaeyee iaaiiio ai?noo ca’ycaii?
aiaee, a?eeia? iieaeoee i?oeii aa?aaiaai?, ui oneeaaeith? ?icuaieaiiy
a?ee?a oa?iaioaie. Oaiia?aoo?iee oie, eio?iio i?aeaeathoueny ee?oeie
iaoa??aeo i?e oaeaeeiio caii?iaeoaaii?, ni?ey? ?oeioaaiith oeeo
aa?aaao?a, aea?eueiaiith cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?eeiaeo iieaeoe, ?oi?e
/anoeia?e aeano?oeoe?? ? ca?eueoaiith /enea a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, ui
caaaeii i?aeaeuo? a?ieia?/io oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo e??ii?iaeoeo?a. ? eeoa
oaiia?aoo?e 100…110 iN i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaaaaeaieo iacai?ioieo ci?i,
coiiaeaieo aeaiaoo?aoe??th a?ee?a, ooai?aiiyi ia?ic/eiieo eiiieaen?a c
?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie ao?ye?a, a ?acoeueoao? /iai e?euee?noue
ia?ic/eiiiai a?eeiaiai caeeoeo ca?eueoo?oueny aaea?/? ii??aiyii ?c
na?aeeie ao?yeaie, ? a 4 ?ace — c noae?iiaaieie. ?ic/eii?noue an?o
a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e ciaioo?oueny, a ia?ic/eiiee a?eeiaee caeeoie i?
iaineiii, i? o?iio?eineiii ia ?icuaieth?oueny.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ao?ye?a o aiaei- oa niea?ic/eiieo
o?aeoe?yo c?inea e?euee?noue iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio — e?ceio ia 31,0 ?
20,0 %; oai?eaeai?io — ia 18,7 ? 13,2 %; eaeoeeio – ia 31,9 ? 29,3 %
oiui. O an?o /ioe?ueio o?aeoe?yo a?ee?a i?ney caii?iaeoaaiiy c?inoa?
e?euee?noue ae?ea?aiiiaeo eeneio (c 16,0 aei 28,0 %). N??eii?noeeo
ai?iieeneio i?ney caii?iaeoaaiiy ao?ye?a noaei cia/ii a?eueoa o
aiaei?ic/eii?e o?aeoe??, iao?ii?io ia 30,1 %, oeenoeio — ia 53,0 %. O
nie?oi?ic/eii?e o?aeoe?? ai?no oeenoeio ca?eueoeany ia 77,2 %. A?eueo
oiai, o eoaeii?ic/eii?e o?aeoe?? na?aeeo ao?ye?a iao?ii?i a?aenooi?e, a
o caii?iaeaieo c?aceao eiai ?aeaioeo?eiaaii. Oey ae o?aeoe?y a?eea i?ney
caii?iaeoaaiiy caaaaoeeanue ua iaei??th ai?iieeneioith – o?eioioaiii.
Iayai?noue o?eioioaio i?ney caii?iaeoaaiiy anoaiiaeaii ? a
niea?ic/eii?e o?aeoe??. Oiaoi, a ?acoeueoao? ae?? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
oey o?aeoe?y a?eea oaae noaea iiaiioe?iiith.

Iaoiaeii na?oeiiioe/ii? i?e?ineii?? c’yniaaii e??ii?ioaeoi?io ?ieue
oeoe?ice o i?aeaeuaii? no?eeino? a?ieia?/ieo i?aai?ci?a aei oieiaeo.
A?noieia?/iee aiae?c na?aeeo ? caii?iaeaieo c?ace?a ao?ye?a iieacaa, ui
o i?enooiino? oeoe?ice ?noioieo ci?i o oeeoiieaci? ia niinoa??aa?oueny
(?en. 14).

Eeoa ii ia?eoa??? ee?oei ? aeaye? eieaeuei? ii?ooaiiy iaia?aie ? aeaui
ci?ieeanue aonoeia i?eeyaaiiy ee?oeiieo no?iie. O ciaoeoe?aieo
caii?iaeaieo c?aceao ao?ye?a (aeii?) i?e a?aenooiino? e??ii?ioaeoi?a
a?eueo?noue ia?aio?iieo ee?oei ao?aoeee ia?aeiio ?ciae?aiao?e/io oi?io,
cia/ii ciaioeeenue a ia’?i?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ca?eueoeeenue
i?aeee?oeii? ii?iaeieie. Iie?eaia oeaieia ao?aoeea iioee? ia?ene, aiia
/anoeiai c?oeiiaaia, ia i?e c’yaeeenue oa?aioo? ae?eyiee. ssae?a
caeaa?eueoiai c?oeiiaai?. Oeeoiieacia a aaaaoueio i?noeyo a?aenoaea
a?ae ee?oeiieo iaieiiie ? o aeaeyae? ie?aieo oiaoi/e?a ciaoiaeeoueny a
??cieo ae?eyieao ee?oei.

Eieae?caoe?y e?enoae?a eueiaeo o i?aeee?oeiieeao caii?iaeaieo c??c?a
ao?ye?a i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai ciaaiaeiaiiy aaeoieue oa oeeoiieacie
ee?oei. Ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e ee?oeiieo no?iie iiaea aooe ye ?acoeueoaoii
?oeioaaiiy ie?aieo aenieiiie?ia??a (oeaetheice, iaeoei?a,
aai?oeaetheice), oae ? iaoai?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy e?enoaeaie ooai?aiiai
eueiaeo. Ine?eueee e?enoae?co?oueny aiaea, ia ca’ycaia c iieaeoeaie
oeoe??a oa ?ioeo i?e?iaeieo i?ioaeoi??a, oi ?? e?euee?noue (?
ni?e/eiaiee iath nooi?iue ooeiaeaeaiiy oeaieie) iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eia
aei eiioeaio?aoe?? e??ii?ioaeoi?a a nenoai?.

Oaeei /eiii, ca an?ia aeine?aeaeaieie iieacieeaie oeoe?ia? ao?yee ?
ia?niaeoeaiith ne?iaeiith aeey io?eiaiiy c ieo noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a.
I?e aaca?aeoiaei?e oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaeaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny aeo?ae oeoe?o
c iaeeieoe? ne?iaeie, i?aeaeuo?oueny ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, niiaeeaa/ io?eio? iiaee i?iaeoeo, eio?ee,
ii?yae c aoaeaaiaeaie, i?noeoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue oe?iieo a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo niieoe.

?icae?e 6. ?ic?iaeaiiy aaca?aeoiaeieo oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaeaiiy oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a oa ?ioeo aeae?a aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie o oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe
i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy c oi/ee
ci?o eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? noaee iniiai? i?ioeane:
caii?iaeoaaiiy ne?iaeie, noae?iaoe?eia noo?iiy, iiae??aiaiiy.
Aeiiii?aei? oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? (ni?ooaaiiy, i/euaiiy, ieooy,
iaeoaaiiy) caaaeueiia?aeii?.

Caii?iaeoaaiiy ieiae?a, iai/?a, ya?ae i?iaiaeeee ??aeeei acioii aei
oaiia?aoo?, aeinoaoi?o aeey ia?aoai?aiiy a e?ae an??? a?eueii? aiaee.
Oaiia?aoo?iee ae?aiacii aeine?aeaeaiue 20…-150 N. A oaae. 5 iaaaaeaii
aeai?, io?eiai? aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a c ??ciei ai?noii aiaee o
aeo?aeieo c?aceao.

Ca?aeii c io?eiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie, e?enoae?caoe?y a?eueii? aiaee
ii/eia?oueny i?e cia/iiio ia?aioieiaeaeaii? c?ace?a, a oaiia?aoo?a
ii/aoeo i?ioeano cieaeo?oueny c? ciaioaiiyi ?oiuei? aeo?aeii? aieiaino?.
Aeyaeaii, ui i?e iecuee?e aeo?aei?e aieiaino? (a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo 22,61
%) ia oa?iia?aiao c?ace?a a?aenooi? oacia? ia?aoiaee ? ?iaeo. Oea
na?ae/eoue, ui any aiaea o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ia’?eo? ? ca’ycaia ? ia
e?enoae?co?oueny. A?aie/iee aieiaiai?no, i?e yeiio o ?ineeii?e ne?iaei?
aiaea i?aaenoaaeaia eeoa ca’ycaiith o?aeoe??th, neeaaea? aeey oeoe?iaiai
ao?yeo — 24 %, yaeoe — 39 %, ii?eae — 41 %, iaeeie — 50 %, /i?ii?
nii?iaeeie — 38 %. Ia?aaaaa oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia?aae ?ioeie aeaeaie
ne?iaeie o oiio, ui ooo caii?iaeoaaiith i?aeeyaathoue iaa?oue a’ye?
ei?aiaieiaee.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? e?enoae?caoe??-ieaaeaiiy aiaee oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a

A?aeiinia

aiei-

a?noue,%Caia?cath/a aiaea (a % aei caaaeueii? iane aiaee)Caia?cath/a
aiaea (a % aei caaaeueii? iane aiaee)Oaiia?aoo?a

ii/aoeo e?enoae?ca-oe??Oaiia?aoo?a

ii/aoeo ieaaeaiiy

Oaiia?aoo?a

iaeneio-

io ieaa-

eaiiy73,2069,9830,02- 8,0- 20,0- 1,067,2560,6539,35- 9,2- 13,0-
0,557,9156,4843,52- 11,0- 14,0- 2,056,8964,8435,16- 10,0- 20,2-
1,039,9435,6064,40- 12,0- 18,0- 2,039,3938,6461,36- 13,5- 20,0-
2,538,1726,8173,19- 16,0- 18,8- 2,034,1526,9173,09- 16,0-
20,0024,432,0197,99- 18,6- 19,0+ 1,022,61-100,00—

Cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e caia?caiiy aiaee c ia?aaaaeath/ith /anoeith
ca’ycaii? o?aeoe?? iiynith?oueny caeaoi?noth inoaiiuei? eiioeaio?oaaoe
?ic/eii? ?a/iaeie, a oiio /ene? ?iie, a ?acoeueoao? /iai oi?io?oueny
aenieia’ycea a?eeiai-i?ia?aeueia noi?o a eieae?ciaaieo a?eeiaeo
eiiiiiaioao oeeoiieacie ? iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?ao ee?oeie.

A?aeiii, ui o?aeoe?? ca’ycaii? aiaee a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue a
noaa?e?caoe?? no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie, caoeuath/e neeaaeia?
ee?oeie a?ae ?oeioaaiiy. Oiio ie?aio na??th aeine?ae?a i?enay/aii
c’ynoaaiith caeaoiino? a?ieiiiiiaio?a aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo iaoa??ae?a c
??ciith e?euee?noth ca’ycaii? aiaee aei oieiaeiai? aaeaioaoe??. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aii ii?eao ? aia?aio. Ca?aeii c io?eiaieie aeaieie, o
na?ae?e ii?ea? ia ca’ycaio aiaeo i?eiaaea? aeecueei 8 % an??? aiaee, a a
aia?aio? — iiiaae 70 %.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ? caa??aaii? ne?iaeie c iaaaeeeei
ai?noii ca’ycaii? aiaee (ii?eaa) ao?aoe a?oai?io N aeinyaathoue 9,5…10
%, aoaeaaiae?a — 15…17 %, a i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ca?ia aia?aioo
a?aeiia?aei? iieacieee neeaee 1,2…3,7 %; 5,8…6,5 %. Oiaoi, iayai?noue
o?aeoe?? ca’ycaii? aiaee a ee?oei? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aa?’??, ui
i?ioenoi?oue ooeiaeaeoth/?e ae?? eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/ei?a nieae ia
a?iiie?ia?e i?e aeii?iaeoaaii? a?eueii? aiaee.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui oaeaeea ? aoaeoeaia caii?iaeoaaiiy ?ineeiieo
iaoa??ae?a caaacia/o?oueny i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? ne?iaeie ? ??aeeiai acioo
1 : 7,5.

Ae?oaee aoai iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy — noae?iaoe?eia noo?i-iy
— aea/aee, a?oiooth/enue ia oiio, ui a?i ? noeoii?noth neeaaeieo
iaeii-ni?yiiaaieo i?ioean?a ia?aiino iane oa oaiea a eai?ey?iiii?enoeo
o?eao, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny ia’?eoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaeei ?c
aa??aio?a ?aeaae?ciaaii? o?ce/ii? iiaeae? oeueiai aoaio ia? ciiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ? yaey? niaith ia’?ii? ?ioaineaiino? iioieo iane, coiiaeai?
?icaeoeii cii noae?iaoe??, ui i?inoaathoueny o aeeaeio ia’?eoa noo?iiy.
Oe? i??eoaaiiy iieeaaeaii a iniiao ?ic?iaeaieo o?ce/ii? oa iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeaeae oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey i?e noae?iaoe?? aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo
iaoa??ae?a. Iaea?aeaii aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy ia?aiino oaiea a oa??
caii?iaeoaaii? ne?iaeie c o?aooaaiiyi oaieii?i-a?aeiino?, eiiaaeoe?? ?
oaieii?ia?aeiino? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ia iniia?

(3)

yeiai io?eiaee oi?ioeo, ui iieno? oaiia?aoo?ia iiea a oa?? caii?iaeaii?
ne?iaeie i?e noae?iaoe??

(4)

c aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeia aecia/eoe e?ioeaao oaiia?aoo?o caii?iaeoaaiiy
eiie?aoiiai ?ineeiiiai iaoa??aeo oa aeaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiio
?aaeeiia? noae?iaoe?? cae?enoae?ciaaii? aiaee.

Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaae?a? oaiia?aoo?a noo?iiy a caeeth/iee ia??iae, eiee
aeaeaey?oueny o?i?/ii ca’ycaia iacae?enoae?ciaaia aiaea. Aeia?iaoaaiiy c
iiaa?oi? a oeae /an ciaioo?oueny ? ia iiaea eiiiainoaaoe i?eieea oaiea c
oaieiiin??i. A ?acoeueoao? oaiia?aoo?a iaoa??aeo i?aeaeuo?oueny, ui ia
caeeth/iiio aoai? i?e niaaei?e oaeaeeino? noo?iiy noa? i?e/eiith cia/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? i?iaeoeo?a, ao?aoe ieie a?iiaoo, caeaoiino? aei iaiaeiaiiy,
ci?ie eieuei?o oa niaeo. Oiio c oi/ee ci?o io?eiaiiy nooeo i?iaeoeo?a
aeniei? yeino? c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe
iaiao?aeii iioei?coaaoe naia ae?oaee ia??iae aeaeaeaiiy aiaee — ia??iae
aeinoooaaiiy.

Iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean
aeinoooaaiiy — caeeoeiai? aieiaino? ? ye?nieo iieaciee?a — aecia/aee ia
iniia? aeaieo aeaeaeaiiy ca’ycaii? aiaee c ya?ae /i?ii? nii?iaeeie ye
iaei??? c iaea?eueo aenieia?oai?iieo eoeueoo? ? ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo
aeaieo cai?iiiioaaee iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeinoooaaiiy
aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui caieaiiaaia caeeoeiaa aieia?noue o i?iaeoeo? (10 %)
aeinyaa?oueny ca 170 oa. i?e 293 E; ca 120 oa. — i?e 303 E; ca 80 oa. —
i?e 313 E; ca 60 oa. — i?e 323 E ? o.ae., ? ca 35 oa. — i?e 353 E.

Aeey eiaeiiai ?c aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?aaeei?a aeinoooaaiiy a io?eiaiiio
i?iaeoeo? aecia/aee ai?no a?oai?io N — iaeeaa?euei?oiai a?ieiiiiiaioa.
I?e ia?iaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo io?eiaii e?i?eia ??aiyiiy
?aa?an?? caaaeueiiai aeaeo

(5)

ca?aeii c yeei ai?no a?oai?io N a iaoa??ae? caeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa
o?eaaeino? eiai aeinoooaaiiy aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi

o = (898,5 – 8,039 t) – (1,286 + 0,0139 t) , ia %,
(6)

a aieia?noue i?e a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aiao?ao – ??aiyiiyi

o = (52,75 – 0,546 t) – (0,275 + 0,00297 t) , %. (7)

Ine?eueee iiaaae?iea a?oai?io N ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ia aeaea
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaoe eio?onue ?c a?aeiieo caeaaeiinoae, ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ia?aa??ee ??cieo aa??aio?a
e?iaoe/ieo ae?ac?a c?iaeee i?eiouaiiy, ui iiaeeea? ia?aoai?aiiy a?oai?io
N a i?ioean? aeinoooaaiiy ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a aeioe?eueii iienaoe
oi?ioeith

(8)

aea: N — eiioeaio?aoe?y a?oai?io N a ne?iaei?, ia %; k — eiao?oe??io, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeaiiy a?oai?io N; — /eneiaee
eiao?oe??io, > 0.

Io?eiaia iiaeaeue aeaco? ia ?nioaaiiy a?aie/ieo oaiia?aoo?
iaeneiaeueiiai caa?aaeaiiy a?oai?io N ia aoai? aeinoooaaiiy (ia aeua
303…308 E).

Ai?no aiaee o aeine?aeaeaieo ?ineeiieo iaoa??aeao i?e aeinoooaaii?
cai?iiiiiaaii iienaoe ??aiyiiyi

(9)

aea: — aieia?noue iaoa??aeo, %; a — ??aiiaaaeia aieia?noue iaoa??aeo
i?e caaeai?e oaiia?aoo??, %; E — eiao?oe??io, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
oaeaee?noue aeaea-eaiiy aiaee c iaoa??aeo i?e iaai?e oaiia?aoo??, %; —
/eneiaee eiao?oe??io, coiiaeaiee ci?iith aeanoeainoae iaoa??aeo
ai?iaeiaae aeinoooaaiiy.

?ica’ycaaoe ??aiyiiy, aeey aecia/aiiy iaea?aeaee ae?ac

(10)

aea:0 — aieia?noue iaoa??aeo ia ii/aoeo aeinoooaaiiy. I?io?eaeoe/iee,
icaei?ia/ee oa e?eoaaeuei? aoaeoe oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie cia/iith i??ith
aecia/athoueny nooiaiai aeenia?niino? iaoa??aeo. Aeey io?eiaiiy ii?ioe?a
aeniei? aeenia?niino? aeei?enoaee aeac?ioaa?aoi?ia iaeaaeiaiiy. I?ioean
oiieiai aeenia?aoaaiiy i?aeaeuo? a ii?ioeao ai?no a?eueieo
a?ieiiiiiaio?a: ai?iieeneio, a oiio /ene? iacai?iieo, anei?a?iiai? oa
aeaa?ae?ianei?a?iiai? eeneio, -ea?ioeio oiui (?en.15).

I?e aeac?ioaa?aoi?iiio iiae??aiaii? iaoa??ae i?aeaea?oueny ae??
oaeaee?nieo oaea??a c?inoath/i? neee, ui noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiai no?oeoo?e ? aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy a?ieia?/ii?
oe?iiino? aeenia?aiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a. Oea aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
?oeioaaiiy ia iaaeiieaeoey?iiio ??ai? ?ineeiieo oeaiei, ee?oei, iaia?ai,
ui aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaii aeeo/aoe AA?. A?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae
aeaa?aaeaoe?y ca’yce?a i?ae anei?a?iiaith eeneioith ? i?ioa?iaie c
aea?eueiaiiyi a?oai?io N, i?ae -ea?ioeiii oa iie?ia?aie c a?aeuaieaiiyi
iecueeiiieaeoey?iiai eiiiiiaioo oiui. Aeaa?aaeaoe?y ca’yce?a i?ioiaeeoue
o iaea?eueo eaa?eueieo eaieao a?ieiiieaen?a, ia yeeo i?e iiae??aiaii?
uiiaeia?oa aeieeathoue e?eoe/i? iai?oae. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a
eaai?aoi?ieo ? ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi na?aaei?o aeo?ao
/ano ia iniiai? oa aeiiii?aei? iia?aoe?? neeaaeaii oeeeeia?aio i?ioeano
oa ?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio io?eiaiiy noae?iiaaieo
ii?ioe?a oeoe?iaeo oa noieiaeo ao?ye?a, ?ioeo ei?aiaieiae?a,
oii?iaiao?o, ea?oiie? oiui (?en. 16). I?e ia?a?iaeaii? ya?ae, o?oeo?a,
eenoiaeo iai/?a c? noaie aeeeth/a?oueny iaoeia aeey ia?iaiai i/euaiiy
oe??ee. Iiaiee oeeee i?ioeano io?eiaiiy noae?iiaaiiai i?iaeoeoo c
aeo?aeii? ne?iaeie neeaaea? 7,5…8,0 aiae.

?icae?e 7. Aeieia?/i? oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? /eiieee io?eiaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy noae?iiaaieo aoaeaaiaeii?noeeo i?iaeoeo?a

Aeey an?o io?eiaieo noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a aecia/eee ai?no iniiaieo
a?oi a?oai?i?a. A oaae. 6 iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeey iaeiaio
aeine?aeaeaieo aeae?a aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie.

Oaaeeoey 6

Ianiaa /anoea iniiaieo a?oi a?oai?i?a a noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeoao
a?aeiinii na?aei? ne?iaeie, ia/100 a

Ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy?eaioea-a?i (a?oa-i?i A2)Anei?a?-iiaa
een-eioaOie??aa eeneioa (a?oai?i A9)Oeaaiiia?
niieoeeEa?oiieyna?aea1,8424,630,111,14noae?iiaaia2,0026,980,111,12ssaeoe
ana?ae?0,8016,090,131,17noae?iiaai?1,0817,340,121,17Ao?yeena?ae?2,6241,6
00,162,06noae?iiaai?2,6845,150,162,10Iieoieoe?
na?ae?1,0368,030,082,12noae?iiaai?0,9152,740,072,16Ca?iina?aea1,3421,60,
310,49aia?aioonoae?iiaaia1,2827,80,330,49ssaiaee
na?ae?2,98560,20,172,70nii?iaeeienoae?iiaai?2,76535,40,152,68A?oiueeena?
ae?0,53526,40,096,05nii?iaeeiecoae?iiaai?0,48542,80,096,00Eeno
na?aeeene?aee496,70,201,23nii?iaeeienoae?iiaaieene?aee518,90,181,28

C oaaeeoe? aeaeii, ai?no a?oai?i?a o i?iaeoeoao aeey a?eueoino? aeae?a
ne?iaeie ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eiio?ieueieo (na?aeeo) c?ace?a, a ca
aeayeeie iieacieeaie ia?aaaaea? ?o, ui ? iane?aeeii iiceoeaiiai aieeao
aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ia aeaa?aaeaoe?th ca’yce?a i?ae anei?a?iiaith eeneioith
? a?iiie?ia?aie. ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?noo aaaeeeo iaoae?a aeey
noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a iaaaaeaii a oaae. 7.

Oaaeeoey 7

Ai?no oiene/ieo aeaiaio?a a noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeoao, ia/ea

IieacieeeNoae?iiaai? i?iaeoeoeaia?aioao?yeii?eaaNaeiaoeue
0,50,050,130,030,460,02Eaaei?e
0,050,0050,680,0040,110,001I?aeue1,40,30,970,054,270,03Oeeie
3,00,9114,390,9615,320,09?oooue0,010,0060,010,0050,0090,007A?nai0,080,00
50,210,0010,0140,0001

Io?eiai? aeai? iieacothoue, ui ??aaiue aaaeeeo iaoae?a ? a?naio a
aeine?aeaeaieo ii?ioeao ia ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i? iieacieee aeey ca?iiaeo
oa ieiaeiiai/aaeo eoeueoo?. ? yeui e?euee?noue naeioeth ciaoiaeeoueny ia
??ai? “Iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo ? nai?oa?ieo ii?i yeino? i?iaeiaieue/i?
ne?iaeie ? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a” ? 5061-89 (IAO), oi ai?no eaaei?th
ieae/ee a 2 ?ace; ?ooo?, a?naio, i?ae? ? oeeieo – ia ii?yaeie ieae/ee
a?ae aeiionoeieo ??ai?a caa?oaeiaiiy aeey ca?iiaeo ? ieiaeiiai/aaeo
ia’?eo?a. Ai?no i?o?ao?a o aea/ai?e ne?iaei? iaaenieee, a ia?iaeaiiy ??
??aeeei acioii ia i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oeeo niieoe. A
noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeoao ia aeyaeaii oei?- ? oinoi?i?aai?/ieo
ianoeoeeae?a, a e??iii?ioeo aia?aioo a?aenooi? aoeaoienei A ?
caa?aeaiii. A iai/aaeo i?iaeoeoao ai?no iaooe?io ia ia?aaeuo?
aeiionoeiee ??aaiue a 0,05 ia/ea (IAO). Ca aeaieie i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai
aiae?co caaaeueiee ai?no iacio?eueieo aa?iaieo, oaeoeueoaoeaii
aiaa?iaieo ? ie?niyaeo a?ea?a o noae?iiaaieo ii?ioeao ia ia?aaeuo?
aeiionoeieo ii?i. Iaoiaaiieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, aaeoa??e a?oie eeoeiaeo
iaee/ie, ae??aeaeae?a ? noeueo?o?aaeoeoaaeueieo eeino?eae?e ia aeyaeaii.
Iiaoi?i? i?e?ia?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue
caa??aaiiy noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a i?ioyaii 12 i?nyoe?a aac iia??oaiiy
?oi?o i?e?i-a?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a.

Ca?aeii c io?eiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie, an? noae?iiaai? i?iaeoeoe iiaiith
i??ith iineeththoue ae?i?iaoe?th ?aae?iioee?ae?a. *anoeia no?iioe?th
aeaiaeeoueny aeineoue oaeaeei — ca 4…5 ae?a, a ?aooa iia?euei?oa.
I/aaeaeii, a ia?o? aei? aeaiaeeoueny iicaee?oeiiee no?iioe?e, a
iiaeaeueoa eiai aeaaaeaiiy niia?eueith?oueny, oiio ui ?aae?iioee?ae
ooai?th? c a?inoano?aoaie i?aai?cio noaa?euei? eiiieaene. Oa ae
noino?oueny ? oeac?th. Iaea?eueoa eiai e?euee?noue aeaei?ii?o?oueny o
ia?o? 2…3 aeiae. Caaaeii, aoaeo ni?aoe?eiiai aeaeaeaiiy no?iioe?th
ia?aaaaea? iieacieee ca oeac??i (oaae. 8), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aeii?
aeai? uiaei cia/iiai aieeao ia ni?aoe?th ?aae?iioee?ae?a aaeaioiino? oa
aia?a?? a?ae?aoaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 8

Aoaeoeai?noue caoenii? ae?? noae?iiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a uiaei

?aae?iioee?ae?a 90Sr oa 137Cs /a?ac 30 ae?a aenia?eiaioo

Noae?iiaai? i?iaeoeoeAoaeoeai?noue caoenii? ae??, %uiaei 137Csuiaei
90SrOeaae?a oeeo?oniaeo65 0,1496,4 0,41Nii?iaeeia 53,2 0,3275,0
0,17Oeoe?iaee ao?ye 31,3 0,1266,1 0,22ssaeoea 30,2 0,4464,2
0,43Ii?eaa 21,6 0,2746,5 0,19Ea?oiiey 18,8 0,2340,6 0,15Oii?iaiao?
11,9 0,3134,0 0,28

Ciiaeaeueiaaii iiaaae?ieo no?iioe?th o i?enooiino? i?aai?/ieo
eeneio-eiii-eaeniooai?thaa/?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo noae?iiaaieo
i?iaeoeo?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio ??aiyiue, yea ?ic?aoiao?oueny aeey
oiia oiieiai eeoa/ieeo (?I aeecueei 8) a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
eiioeaio?a-oe?e i?aai?/ieo eeneio (o ia?a-?aooieo ia eeiiiio) oa
no?iioe?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaiioa cieaeaiiy ??aiiaaaeii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?iio Sr a ?ic/ei? ciaoiaeeoueny o i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?eueeino? eiiieaeniooai?thth/eo eeneio o noae?iiaaieo ii?ioeao. Ca
aoaeoeai?noth ca’ycoaaiiy oa aeaaaeaiiy no?iioe?th aiie neeaee oaeee
?yae: oeaae?a oeeo?oniaeo nii?iaeeia ao?yee, yaeoea ii?eaa ea?oiiey
oii?iaiao? (?en.17).

Ia i?eeeaae? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a aa?oeiaiai
ianea c aeiaaaeaie noae?iiaaieo ao?ye?a, ya?ae oa a?oiueie nii?iaeeie
i?e eiai caa??aaii? i?ioyaii 6 i?nyoe?a anoaiiaeaii, ui an? aiie
i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth aaeueiothoue i?ioeane i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai inoaaiiy
aioiaiai i?iaeoeoo.

A E N I I A E E

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aoe?iiaeueieo niinia?a
ia?a?iaeaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? ?ioi? aoaeaaiaeii? ne?iaeie, iiaeo
iaoeiaeo iiiyoue uiaei yeino? oa aeieia?? i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy
iaa?oioiaaii, ?ic?iaeaii ? ?aae?ciaaii ?yae iiaeo ??oaiue o oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa oeoe?o oa oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii?
oe?iiino? c ao?ye?a, ye? caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo
aenieiye?nii? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??, ni?eythoue c?inoaiith aoaeoeaiino?
oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ciaioaiith aeo?ao aaiia ? iaeeaa; aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe oeoe?ia? ao?yee ye aeaea?aei aaaeeeaeo
a?ieiiiiiaio?a, ui aeicaiey? cia/ii ?icoe?eoe niaeo? io?eiaieo
i?iaeoeo?a, ciaioeoe o ?aoe?ii? e?euee?noue ?ao?iiaaiiai oeoe?o ca
?aooiie aaeeaaiiy oeoe?ii?noeeo i?iaeoeo?a, aianoe aeiei??ii? ci?ie o
no?oeoo?o oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, ui ? iniiaiei /eiieeii caei?iaiai
niiniao aeeooy, i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiue.
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th aia?aoa iiia?aaeiuei?
aeaoaeaoe?? aeey i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo, yea aea? ciiao aeinyaoe
aenieeo iieaciee?a ia aeaoaeinaoo?aoe??. ?ic?iaeaii oa ?aae?ciaaii
i?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy c o?aaeeoe?eii? ? iao?aaeeoe?eii?
ne?iaeie noae?iiaaieo oeoe?ii?noeeo i?iaeoeo?a icaei?ia/iai ?
i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy. Iieacaii nioe?aeueio oa aeiiii?/io
aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e o oa?/iao oa
ia?a?iaio i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee ciiao iiaeeaeoe oai?aoe/i? ciaiiy
oaoiieia?? oeoe?iao?yeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ic?iaeoe iiaee niin?a
i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ?c cia/ii iaioeie aeo?aoaie aaiia,
c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? eiaaoeyoe?? a?ee?a ao?ye?a a?ae?ieneaeii
eaeueoe?th, noai?eoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeaeaeaiiy iaoeoe??a
ia iiia?aaei?e aeaoaeaoe?? oa ?ic?iaeoe iiaa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey eiai
?aae?caoe??. Iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei ciaaiaeiaiiyi oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
io?eiaii oa?/ia? aeiaaaee i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino?, ui
a?aee?eaa? iiaee iai?yi o oeoe?iao?yeia?e i?iieneiaino?.

Aea/aii iniiai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aca?iiae?? iaoeoe??a c ?aaaaioaie
(a?ae?ieneae eaeueoe?th, iaoaiiaeoeaiaaiee aaiiye, noniaic?y inaaeo ??
naoo?aoe??) i?e ?iaio? noai?aiiai ia?aaeaeaoaeaoi?a, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo
aeaee iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe iiyniaiiy i?aeaeuaiiio aoaeoo i/euaiiy
aeeooc?eiiai nieo ia 8…11 % oa ?noioiiio iie?auaiith
naaeeiaioaoe?eii-o?eueo?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae inaaeo.

?ic?iaeaii iiao oaoiieia?th io?eiaiiy aeaoaaeo ni?aaio?a, caniiaaio ia
iaoai?/i?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?iaeieo ea?aiiao?a, caaaeyee ye?e
cieaeothoueny aeo?aoe aaiia ia i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo ia 46…57
%, ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaothoueny a?aeoiaee ea?’???a ? aaiiyeiaeo
a?aeae?eaiue oeoe?icaaiae?a, caaacia/o?oueny ioi?iia aeiae?eey,
iie?auothoueny oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee oeoe?iao?yeiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

C’yniaaii, ui caeaoi?noue iaoaiiaeoeaiaaieo aaiiye?a aei aaeni?aoe??, ui
ia iinooia?oueny aoaeoo aeeo/aiith iaoeoe??a na?aeiinaaeaeaiei NaNI3, ?
noeoiiei ?acoeueoaoii ci?i, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aeenia?aoaaiiy a
aia?aoao oaea?ii? ae?? — iaeiie/aiiy iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??, ia?aoai?aiiy
aeo?aeii? iaii?enoi? no?oeoo?e ia ii?enoo, ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi?
aaiiye?a ieneae?a eaeueoe?th oa iaai?th, ?oeioaaiiy iayaieo ? ooai?aiiy
iiaeo niieoe oiui.

Iieacaii, ui iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia ciaaiaeiaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
aeicaiey? a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe /anoeio ae?iuaiiai
o?iaeath, ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae oeoe?o c iaeeieoe? ia?a?iaeaii? ne?iaeie,
caanoe aei i?i?ioio eiai ao?aoe o ae?iaieoeoa?; io?eiaoe i?iaeoeo c
aenieei ai?noii oeoe?ice (aeecueei 70 %) oa caaaa/aiee iiiioeoe?aie
(2,5…3,0 %), i?aai?/ieie eeneioaie (aeecueei 5 %), anaioe?aeueieie
ai?iieeneioaie oa a?eeaie (3,8…4,6 %), ia?ic/eiieie oa?/iaeie aieieiaie
(aeecueei 8 %), acioenoeie iniiaaie (1,2…1,6 %), oe?ieei niaeo?ii
a?oai?i?a oa i?ia?aeueieo niieoe. Oeoe?ii?noea ne?iaeia aeyaeeanue
iniaeeai i?eaeaoiith aeey io?eiaiiy noae?iiaaieo aenieiye?nieo oa?/iaeo
aeiaaaie, caaaeyee caeaoiino? oeoe?ice ni?eyoe caa?aaeaiith
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? oe?e?niino? ee?oei i?e caii?iaeoaaii?
iaoa??aeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao?ao i?ioean?a
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy aoaeaaiaeii? ne?iaeie —
caii?iaeoaaii?, noae?iaoe??, aeenia?aoaaii?, a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeaa?aaeaoe?y ca’yce?a i?ae aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieie niieoeaie,
ia?ao?ae anei?a?iiai? eeneioe, -ea?ioeio, ?yaeo ai?iieeneio ?c ca’ycaii?
o a?eueio oi?io oiui, ui caaaeii i?aeaeuo? a?iaeinooii?noue oa?/iaeo
aeiaaaie, iie?auo? ?o canaithaai?noue aeeaei i?aai?ciii, iie?ioo?
a?ieia?/i?, oa?/ia? oa i?aaiieaioe/i? aeanoeaino? aioiaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Aeyaeaii, ui i?e aecia/aii? iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
iecueei-oaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe ?oith aeo?aeio aieia?noue, yea aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia
oaiia?aoo?o oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii aeey ??cii? ne?iaeie
a?aie/io iaaeo aieiaino?, ieae/a yei? aiaea ia e?enoae?co?oueny (aeey
ya?ae aeecueei 50 %, ei?aiaieiae?a 24…28 %) ? yeo caii?iaeoaaoe
iaaeioe?eueii.

?ioaineo?eaoe?y iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy aeinyaa?oueny i?e
nooi?i/anoiio i?aeaaaeaii? oaiea aei noae?iaoe?eii? eaia?e — aaee/eia
oaieiaiai iioieo ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano a 2…2,5 ?ace ia? aooe a?eueoith,
i?ae o e?ioe?. Oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a noae?iaoi?? ia noaae?? aeinoooaaiiy
ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 35…40 0N, a oene iaiao?aeii i?aeo?eioaaoe a
iaaeao a?ae 13,3 aei 1,5 Ia.

Iiaoaeiaaii ? ia?aa??aii ia aaeaeaaoi?noue iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
aeaeaeaiiy ca’ycaii? aiaee ?c noae?iiaaieo iaoa??ae?a (aeinoooaaiiy),
yea iiaea noaoe i?aea?oioyi iaeiiai ?c iai?yi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ia?a?iaeaiiy ?ineeiieo iaoa??ae?a. Iiaeaeue
aeicaiey? ciaeoe a?aie/i? oaiia?aoo?e iaeneiaeueiiai caa?aaeaiiy
iaeeaa?euei?oiai a?ieiiiiiaioa — a?oai?io N, ui aea? ciiao aecia/eoe
iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano aeinoooaaiiy ? io?eiaoe i?iaeoeo aeniei?
yeino?.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii ii?aeiaiiy i?ioean?a aeenia?aoaaiiy noae?iiaaieo
i?iaeoeo?a c ?o aeoeaaoe??th, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a?ieia?/ii?
canaithaaiino? io?eiaieo aeiaaaie ia 25…28 %, ca?eueoaiith
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eiieo eiiiiiaio?a: iaeoeio ia 110…150 %, caaaeueieo
oeoe??a ia 80…115 %, noie aetheice ? o?oeoice ia 60…95 %, i?aai?/ieo
eeneio ia 9…17 %; caaaa/aiith e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo anaioe?aeueieie
niieoeaie (ai?no a?oai?io N c?inoa? ia 12…15 %, -ea?ioeio ia 22…26
%).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ai?iaaoe?? noae?iiaaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie o
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ? ia aeeaeo oano-ia’?eoao anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie
ae?thoue eiiieaenii: aeieothoue iiaeeiaiiy ?aae?iioee?ae?a ? ?ioeo
enaiia?ioee?a (aoaeo i?ioaeoi?ii? ae?? 18…55 %), iaeo?ae?cothoue ae?th
aenieiaoaeoeaieo a?eueieo ?aaeeeae?a, ni?eythoue ii?iae?caoe?? i?ioean?a
e?iaioai?aiiy, i?aeaeuothoue caoeni? neee i?aai?cio ca ?aooiie
noeioeyoe?? aioeieneaeaioieo oa?iaio?a.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie c ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie ia iniia?
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai ciaaiaeiaiiy ae??oo? i?iaeaio noai?aiiy
a?o/eciyieo i?iaeoeo?a i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa icaei?ia/iai i?ecia/aiiy c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe, aea? ciiao caoenoeoe
i?iaeiaieue/ee ?eiie Oe?a?ie a?ae aeniain?? ca?oa?aeii? i?iaeoeoe??,
caeaa?eueoiai iaye?nii?, caaacia/eoe aeieia?/iee caoeno ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie. A?aoiaoth/e aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeiaaaie, ?oith
ii??aiyii iaaenieo aa?o?noue (1 ea noae?iiaaieo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a eiooo?
17,64 a?i. ca oe?iaie ia 1.01.1998 ?.), iayaiee i?ia?an o eoeueoo??
oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe aeinoaoi?e niiaeea/ee
iiieo ia ?ic?iaeai? i?iaeoeoe oa ?oi? oe?ie? aenii?oi? ia?niaeoeae.

?ic?iaeaii oa caoaa?aeaeaii ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th ia
noae?iiaai? oa?/ia? aeiaaaee c aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie; ?aoeaioo?e
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a (aa?oeiaiai ianea oa eiiaeeoa?nueeeo ae?ia?a) c ?o
aeei?enoaiiyi. Oaoiieia?th, ?aoeaioo?e, iaeaaeiaiiy caoeuaii 6
aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie oa iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie.

Aeeiiaiee ca no/aniith iaoiaeeeith aiae?c iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino?
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo niiniao i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiiaeoeaiaaieo aaiiye?a iieacaa, ui ciaioaiiy ??/ieo
iioi/ieo aeo?ao neeaaea? ia 1 o oeoe?o 11,12 a?i.; ia??iae iiaa?iaiiy
?iaanoeoe?e – 3 i?nyoe?, ?iaeaen i?eaooeiaino? i?iaeoo — 4,362.
Aiaeia?/iee ?ic?aooiie i?iaeoo oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy noae?iiaaieo
oeoe?ii?noeeo aeiaaaie (ia i?eeeaae? ne?iaeie oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a)
na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue eiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oa?/iaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo ?iaioao:

Iiiia?ao?y1.“Iiaua oaoiieiaee aeoaieiiuo oaeaaiaeiniaea?aeaueo
oeoiaeiaaaie e eo eniieueciaaiea a i?iaeoeoao i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai
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258 n.Noaoo? a oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
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A.I., AEa?ee A.I., Ua?aaeia A.I., Eiaaei A.I., Neiaoeia A.A., Aieei
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aeieiae/aneeo nenoaiao /E.N. Aoeue, I.A. I?yaeei, A.I. Aiae?ouaiei, A.A.
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45-48.9.Eciaiaiey ninoiyiey aiaeu i?e caii?aaeeaaiee ieiaeiai-yaiaeiiai
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Oaaeioe?i, ?.N. Aoeee, A.?. Anaoethe, A.I. N?iao?ia // Iaoeia? i?aoe?
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?a/iaei ei?aiaieiae?a i?e ciaaiaeiaii? /A.I. N?iao?ia, ?.N. Aoeee, I.I.
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206-210.13.Iaoai?ci ciaaiaeiaiiy oii?iaiao?a i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao
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Aeaiaoo?aoe?ei? ia?aoai?aiiy oa a?ae?ie?c a?ee?a nooaii? ea?oiie? //
Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO. – 1994. — ? 2. – N. 44-47.15.?aoe?iiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e i?ioeano noae?iaoe?eiiai ciaaiaeiaiiy /i?ii? nii?iaeeie /
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Aei. 42. – N. 71-74.18.N?iao?ia A.I., Eeeiaiei E.O., Anaoeaiei A.I.
Aecia/aiiy a?ieia?/ii? oe?iiino? aia?aioo ia ??cieo noaae?yo
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12-17.19. N?iao?ia A.I. No?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e
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N. 8-12.21.Aeei?enoaiiy aa?oeiaiai ianea, caaaa/aiiai e??iii?ioeaie c
?ineei-ii? ne?iaeie / ?aoaanueea O.I., N?iao?ia A.I., Aoeee ?.N.;
I?yaeei I.I., Ea/aeae Ae.I., Oeoeaiei ?.?. // Oa?/iaa
i?iieneia?noue.-1998.- ?43-44.-N.67-70.22.?aaa E.I., Iooaiei I.I.,
Neiaoeia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee i?ioeanna ? naoo?aoeee
// Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. – 1997. — ? 6. – N. 25-27.23.N?iao?ia A.I.
Iniaeeaino? aeaeaeaiiy ca’ycaii? aieiae i?e noae?iaoe?? ?ineeiieo
iaoa??ae?a // Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO, 1997. – ? 3. – N. 65-66.24.N?iao?ia
A.I. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeinoooaaiiy ya?ae /i?ii? nii?iaeeie
// Iaoeia? i?aoe? Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e.
– 1998. — Aei. 18. – N. 232-233.25.N?iao?ia A.I. Aa?aaaoeaia no?ee?noue
?ic/ei?a aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe ao?ye?a // Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO. —
1998. — ? 4. – N. 22-23.26.N?iao?ia A.I. Aiaea a a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eoao
i?e ioieiaeaeaii? ? caii?iaeoaaii? // Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO. — 1998. — ?
4. – N. 30-31. 27.Aieei N.A., N?iao?ia A.I. Iiooe oa ?ic?iaeaiiy cania?a
aeaaaeaiiy ?aae?iioee?ae?a c i?aai?cio ethaeeie // Iaoeia? i?aoe?
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Iiae??aiaiiy oa aeoeaaoe?y aaiiyeo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo
aaeni?aaio?a // Iaoeia? i?aoe? OAeOOO. -1998. — ? 4. – N.
35-36.29.N?iao?ia A.I. Aea/aiiy iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? aaiiye?a iaoiaeii
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57-59.30.N?iao?ia A.I. Ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
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A.A., Neiaoeia A.A. I aeeyiee iaoaie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia aeoaieiu e
aeiiieeia?u i?e iieo/aiee ea?ioeiieaeiuo ianoiia?aciuo iieooaa?eeaoia ec
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i?. “Aeooaeuei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie a i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a
aeui? eaae?o?eaoe?? aeey oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy”. – Oa?e?a: Oa?e?anueea
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?anoeoaeueiuo ieuaauo aeiaaaie i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai e icaei?iaeoaeueiiai
iacia/aiey //Iao/iua e i?aeoe/aneea aniaeou niaa?oainoaiaaiey ea/anoaa e
yenia?oeca ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia. Na. iao/i. o?. – Iaeanna: Iaeanneee
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i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie aeaoaeaoeee aeeoooceiiiiai niea / ?aaa E.I., Eiaaei
A.I., Neiaoeia A.A., Aa?aeaaa A.I., Cicoey N.A., Aia?iaiee A.Ae. (NNN?).
— ? 3646775/28-13; Cayaeaii 27.09.83; Iioae. 30.05.85, Athe. ? 20. – 2
n.42.A.n. 1306958 NNN?, IEE N 13 D 3/00. Niinia i/enoee
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n.43.A.n. 1214758 NNN?, IEE N 13 D 3/02. Aiia?ao aeey i?ia?anneaiie
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(Oe?a?ia); OAeOOO. — ?94301236; Cayae. 01.07.91; Iioae. 29.12.94; Athe.
? 8-1. – 6 n.45.Iao. 23410 A Oe?a?ia, IE? A 23 N 15/02. Niin?a
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Iioae. 02.06.98, Athe. ? 2. – 10 n.46.Iao. 14710 A Oe?a?ia, IE? A 23 N
15/02. Niin?a ae?iaieoeoaa eeneiaa?oeiaiai ianea / ?aoaanueea O.I.,
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OAeOOO. — ? 95042132; Cayae. 27.04.95; Iioae. 04.02.97; Athe. ? 3. – 14
n.Aeaiiiiaai? noaoo?47.Ia aiia?aoo?iii ioi?ieaiee i?aaeaeaoaeaoeee /
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?on. – Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.06.85, ? 1654 — Oe85. 48.Ia oeo/oaiee
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a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.06.85, ? 1653 — Oe85.49.I aeeyiee eioaineaiinoe
ia?aiaoeaaiey ia ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee i?aaeaeaoaeiaaiiiai niea / ?aaa
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Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.06.85, ? 1651 — Oe85.50.Aeeyiea niiniaa
iaacaiaeeaaiey ia oece/aneea e aeieiae/aneea naienoaa i?iaeoeoia /
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n. – ?on. – Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 11.05.93, ? 1301 – Oe93.51.Eciaiaiea
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11.05.93, ? 1303 – Oe93.52.Iiaaaeaiea aeieiae/aneie nenoaiu i?e
ieceioaiia?aoo?iii iaacaiaeeaaiee / Neiaoeia A.A., Aiae?ouaiei A.I.,
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A AIOA Oe?aeiu 11.05.93, ? 1304 – Oe93.Iaoa??aee oa oace aeiiia?aeae ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo53.Iiauoaiea oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae
?aaiou naoa?iiai caaiaea iooai oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey ecaanoeiaiai
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Oacenu aeieeaaeia ?anioa-eeeaineie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee
“Oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?aaei?eyoee ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
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aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Eioaineoeeaoeey oaoiieiaee e
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Oacenu aeieeaaeia ciiaeueiiai naieia?a “Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau
i?eiaiaiey oaoiie?eieiaee a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa” –
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Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iao/iia iaania/aiea
o?aiaiey e ia?a?aaioee ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey a ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe».
– Iineaa: Iineianeee oaoiieiae/aneee einoeooo ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. —
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i?iecaiaenoaa / Eiaaei A.I., ?aaa E.I., Neiaoeia A.A., ?yyiao I.A.,
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?iaea i?e caii?aaeeaaiee e iooaeaaiee ea?oioaey e iaiuae / E.N. Aoeue,
I.A. I?yaeei, A.A. Neiaoeia, A.I. Aiae?ouaiei // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
/aoaa?oie Ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “?ac?aaioea
eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey (iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneea aniaeou,
oaoiieiaey, aiia?aoo?iia ioi?ieaiea, iioeiecaoeey)” – Eaia?iai:
Eaia?ianeee oaoiieiae/aneee einoeooo ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 1991. – N.
47-48.60.E?einooea – iiaue iaoiae o?aiaiey oiieiaiao?a / Aia?iaiee
E.Ae., Aoeue E.N., Neiaoeia A.A., Aiae?ouaiei A.I., Eacaiei A.A.,
A?eiaiei E.A., A?ooaoeeee ?.E. // Oacenu aeieeaaeia o?aoueae Ananithciie
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiioa?aioeee “Oiieiaiao? e oiieinieia/iee –
i?iaeaiu aicaeaeuaaiey e eniieueciaaiey” – Iaeanna: Iaeanneia OeIII
“Ei?ia”. – 1991. – N. 118-119.61.Eciaiaiea aaeeiaiai eiiieaena i?e nooea
/ I?yaeei I.A., Neiaoeia A.A., Aiae?ouaiei A.I., Oeiaaei E.E.,
Eaa?ooaiei E.O. // Oacenu aeieeaaeia Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee
“Oeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey ieuaauo iieeia?ia” – Naaoeiai?ne:
Eaeeieia?aaeneee oaoie/aneee einoeooo ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oicyenoaa.
– 1991. – N. 116.62.Iiae??aiaiiy oa iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?y e??ii?iaeoeo?a c
?ineeiii? ne?iaeie / ?.N. Aoeee, I.I. I?yaeei, A.I. Aiae?ouaiei, A.I.
N?iao?ia // Oace aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e ? iaeaaeiaiiy
o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iai? aaeoc? AIE”. – Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oaoiieia?/iee
?inoeooo oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?. – 1993. – N. 530-531.63.N?iao?ia A.I.,
Aoeee ?.N., Aiae?ouaiei A.I. Iaoo?aeuei? oa?/ia? aeii?oee
?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii?, o?icaoenii? oa ?ioiicaoenii? ae?? // Oace
aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeii?noe? oaoiieia??
iiaea?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy”. – Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea. – 1994. – N. 161.64.Ia?niaeoeae oaoiieia?? noae?iiaaieo
i?iaeoeo?a ianiaiai oa?/oaaiiy /A.I. N?iao?ia, I.I. I?yaeei, A.I.
Aiae?ouaiei, A.?. Anaoethe // Oace aeiiia?aeae I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie ianiaiai oa?/oaaiiy,
aioaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oo?ecio a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei” – Ee?a:
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao. – 1994. –
N. 79-80.65.Iiaay oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey aunieiaeenia?niuo e?eiii?ioeia ec
?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey / E.A. Eeneay, A.A. Neiaoeia, A.I. Aiae?ouaiei,
A.I. Aaiaeo?aiei // Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?ioeannia
eciaeue/aiey e ?acaeaeaiey” – Iaeanna: Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay
ii?neay aeaaeaiey. – 1994. – N. 70-74.66.N?iao?ia A.I., ?aoaanueea O.I.,
Naoii I.I. ?ic?iaea iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai
oa?/oaaiiy ae?oae ia iniia? e??iaeiaaaie //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa oaoiieia?/ia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo i?iaeoeo?a aeey aeeoy/iai oa?/oaaiiy” – Iaeana:
Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “Eiina?ai?iieiiieaen”. – 1995.
– N. 55-56.67.Neiaoeia A.A. Oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea aniaeou
i?eiaiaiey iaoaiioeiee i?e iieo/aiee i?iaeoeoia
ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey // Iaoa?eaeu iao/iie oeieu no?ai NIA
“Aea?ioaoiieiaey-95 ii eciaeue/aieth e aeoeaaoeee” – Iaeanna:
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea “Aiooi”. – 1995. – N.
38-44.68.Iieo/aiea eiiaeie?iaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia – ieoaiey e
ea/aaii-i?ioeeae-oe/aneiai aeaenoaey — iaoiaeaie iaoaiioeiee / A.A.
Neiaoeia, A.I. Aiae?ouaiei, A.I. Aaiaeo?aiei, O.A. Ia?ouiaiei //
Iaoa?eaeu eiioa-?aioeee “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?ioeannia eciaeue/aiey e
?acaeaeaiey”. – Iaeanna: Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey. – 1995. –
N. 58-59.69.Aeei?enoaiiy iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? i?e ia?a?iaoe?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie / A.I. N?iao?ia, I.I. I?yaeei, A.I.
Aiae?ouaiei, E.O. Eaa?ooaiei // Oace aeiiia?aeae ? c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie. – Oa?e?a: ?inoeooo i?iaeai
e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1995. – N.
29-30.70.Iaoaaie?ci ?aae?iaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a a i?enooiino? ?ineeiieo
e??iii?ioe?a / N?iao?ia A.I., Aiae?ouaiei A.I., Eaa?ooaiei E.O.,
Iaeueioa I.N., Naioiiaa E.A. // Oace aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” – Ee?a:
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e. – 1995. – N.
133.71.Iaoaiioeiey a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia aeaoneiai e aeeaoe/aneiai
ieoaiey ec ieiaeiaiiaiuiiai nu?uey / Eeneay E.A., Aaiaeo?aiei A.I.,
Neiaoeia A.A., Ioae?ae O.A., Aieoaaaa E.A., Onaothe N.E., Iieeye I.I.,
Aooeueei I.A. // Nai?iee aeieeaaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/iiai naieia?a
“Iaoaiioeiey e iaoaie/aneay aeoeaaoeey” – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: Einoeooo
oeie/aneie oeceee ei. I.I. Naiaiiaa. – 1995. – N. 262-265.72. N?iao?ia
A.I., E?aieaieoeueea ?.I., Ea?iiae/ I.N. I?eioeeie noai?aiiy iiaeo
aeae?a oa?/iai? i?iaeoeoe?? niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia??a c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth i?eo?i/aieo aei
10-??//y /i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa??? a ?aieao I?aeia?iaeii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
aenoaaee “*i?iiaeeue: aeieia?y, ethaeeia, caei?ia’y” – Ee?a:
I?i/i?iiaeeue Oe?a?ie. – 1996. – N. 39-40.73.Neiaoeia A.A., Aiae?ouaiei
A.I. Iiauoaiea aeieiae/aneie onaaeaaaiinoe e?eiiaoa?eaeia eae i?iyaeaiea
iaoaiiaeoeaaoeee //Iaoa?eaeu oanoie iao/iie oeieu no?ai NIA
“Aea?ioaoiieiaey-96 ii iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioea aeenia?niuo iaoa?eaeia e
n?aae” – Iaeanna: Iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea “AIOOI”. – 1996.
– N. 75-78.74.Neiaoeia A.A., Anaoethe A.E., Aiae?ouaiei A.I.
Iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u caii?aaeeaaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey // Oace
aeiiia?aeae ?O I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa
aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa” – Iaeana:
Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e. – 1996. – N.
19.75.Neiaoeia A.A., I?yaeei I.A., Aiae?ouaiei A.I. Aeeyiea niiniaia
o?aiaiey ia aeioeie/aneea iieacaoaee ca?ia aia?aioa // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iaae?aaeiiaeueiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Ieuaaay
i?iiuo-eaiiinoue-2000” — Eacaiue: Eacaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oaoiieiae/aneee oieaa?neoao. – 1996. – N. 118-120.76.Neiaoeia A.A.
Aaciooiaeiay oaoiieiaey ia?a?aaioee naoa?iie naaeeu //Iao/iua o?oaeu
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey
iieiaeuo o/aiuo” – Iaeanna: Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey ieuaauo
oaoiieiaee. – 1997. – N. 203-205.77.N?iao?ia A.I., Aieei N.A., Iaaeaiei
N.?. Aoaeaaiaeii?noea ne?iaeia ye aeaea?aei io?eiaiiy iaoo?aeueieo
?aae?ii?ioaeoi??a // Oace aeiiia?aeae I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” – Ee?a:
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e. – 1997. – N.
7-8.78.An influence of drying methods upon inulin quality / Groushetsky
R., Simakhina G., Guliy I., Bobrovnik L., Grinenko I. // Sixth Seminar
on Inulin. Braunschweig: Federal Agricultural Research Centre. – 1996. –
P. 17.79.The usage of inulin criogenous addition in bakery / Simakhina
G., Guliy I., Dotsenko V., Grinenko I., Groushetsky R., Bobrovnik L. //
International workshop on inulin as medicine & food ingredient –
Properties and application of inulin — Ukrainian State University of
Food Technologies. – 1997. – P. 13.80.Low-temperature drying of
inulin-containang materials / G. Simakhina, R. Groushetsky, I. Guliy, L.
Bobrovnik, I. Grinenko // International workshop on inulin as medicine &
food ingredient – Properties and application of inulin — Ukrainian
State University of Food Technologies. – 1997. – P. 10.81.The influence
of drying upon quality / Groushetsky R., Simakhina G., Guliy I.,
Bobrovnik L., Grinenko I. // Proceedings of the Seventh Seminar on
Inulin. – Belgium: European Fructan Association. – 1998. – P.
33-35.82.The role of water phase in formation of microstructure of
butter with red beet powder additive / Rashevskaya T., Gulyi I.,
Simachina G., Pryadko N., Goyko I. and Tobilevich N. // International
Symposium on “Water management in the design and distribution of quality
foods” – Helsinki: University of Helsinki. – 1998. – P.
202-203.83.Neiaoeia A.A. Aaeni?aoeeiiii-no?oeoo?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaoaiiaeoe-ae?iaaiiai ecaanoiyea // Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee
“Aea?ioaoiieiaey-98. Iaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea aeenia?niuo iaoa?eaeia e
n?aae” – Iaeanna: Iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea “AIOOI”. – 1998.
– N. 97-100.84.Neiaoeia A.A. Niaeo?ineiie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eciaiaiee
no?oeoo?u ecaanoiyea i?e eciaeue/aiee // Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee
“Aea?ioaoii-eiaey-98. Iaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea aeenia?niuo iaoa?eaeia e
n?aae” – Iaeanna: Iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea “AIOOI”. – 1998.
– N. 93-96.

N?iao?ia A.I. ?ic?iaeaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?e oeoe?enoeo
?a/iaei oa oeoe?ii?noeeo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.05 — oaoiieia?y oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei. —
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oeoe?iao?yeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii aaeineiiaeaiiy iayaii? oaoiieia??
i/euaiiy aeeooc?eiiai nieo, ?ic?iaeaiiy aia?aoa iiia?aaeiuei?
aeaoaeaoe??, iicaaaeaiiai iaaeie?e?a ae?th/iai iaeaaeiaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy
iiaiai iai?yio o i?iieneiaino? — io?eiaiiy c oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa ?ioi?
aoaeaaiaeii?noei? ne?iaeie noae?iiaaieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie icaei?ia/iai ?
i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy. Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
ia aeaoaeinaoo?aoe?? iaoaiiaeoeaiaaieo i?e?iaeieo ea?aiiao?a, a oiio
/ene? ae??aiio?aeoe?eieo a?aeoiae?a aaiiyeo, anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei?
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? iaoa??ae?a, aecia/aii niin?a ?o
aeei?enoaiiy. Aeey ei?aaoaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?
ciaioaiiy niiaeeaaiiy ?ao?iiaaii? ?ae?, noai?aii iiao
iecueeioaiia?aoo?io oaoiieia?th ia?a?iaeaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia
oeoe?ii?noe? i?iaeoeoe oa oa?/ia? aeiaaaee i?aeaeuaii? a?ieia?/ii? ae??.
Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oioiaaii
nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy oa aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e o ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeoe?ia? ao?yee, aaiiye, ia?aaeaeaoaeaoi?,
iaoaii-aeoeaaoe?y, aeenia?ni?noue, acio, oacia? ia?aoiaee, noae?iaoe?y,
a?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue, aeaei?ii?aoe?y.

Neiaoeia A.A. ?ac?aaioea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee naoa?enouo
aauanoa e naoa?iniaea?aeaueo ieuaauo aeiaaaie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.05 — oaoiieiaey naoa?enouo aauanoa. — Oe?aeineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ieuaauo oaoiieiaee, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naaeeinaoa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iooai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothuae oaoiieiaee i/enoee
aeeoooceiiiiai niea, ?ac?aaioee aiia?aoa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie aeaoaeaoeee,
eeoaiiiai iaaeinoaoeia aeaenoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey, oi?ie?iaaiey iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe — iieo/aiea ec naoa?iie naaeeu e ae?oaiai
oaeaaiaeniaea?aeauaai nu?uey noaeeie?iaaiiuo ieuaauo aeiaaaie
icaei?iaeoaeueiiai e i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai iacia/aiey. Iainiiaaia
oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey ia aeaoaeinaoo?aoeee iaoaiiaeoeae?iaaiiuo
i?e?iaeiuo ea?aiiaoia, a oii /enea iaeeio?aeoeeiiiuo iooiaeia
ecaanoiyea, ii?aaeaeai niinia eo eniieueciaaiey. Aeey ei??aeoeee
no?oeoo?u ieoaiey ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu e oiaiueoaiey oiio?aaeaiey
?aoeie?iaaiiie ieue, nicaeaia iiaay ieceioaiia?aoo?iay oaoiieiaey
ia?a?aaioee naoa?iie naaeeu ia naoa?iniaea?aeauea i?iaeoeou e ieuaaua
aeiaaaee iiauoaiiiai aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey. I?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou
i?iiuoeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iainiiaaiu nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea e
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee a ia?iaeiia
oicyenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naoa?iay naaeea, ecaanoiye, i?aaeaeaoaeaoi?,
iaoaiiaeoeaaoeey, aeenia?niinoue, acio, oaciaua ia?aoiaeu, noaeeiaoeey,
aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue, aeaei?ii?aoeey.

Simakhina G.O. Development and improvement of the technologies of
sugary substances and sugar-containing food additives. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Doctor’s degree by speciality 05.18.05. — Technology of
Sugary Substances. — Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies,
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis presents the results of theoretical and experimental
researches on the increase of the sugar-beet industry’s efficiency by
improvement of existing technologies of diffusion juice purification;
development of pre-defecation apparatus, elimination of defects of the
existing equipment; formation of a new trend in industry — obtaining the
sublimed food additives for health and preventive destination from sugar
beet and other carbohydrate-containing raw. Thanks to the natural
combination of bioactive components, expressed desintoxicant (including
radioprotectory) and antioxidant properties, these additives are the
base for normal functioning of human organism as self-reviving system
and for correction of the structure of sanitary nutrition of Ukrainian
population.

There were accomplished some theoretical investigations of the
properties of coagulation of high-molecular compounds in diffusion
juice, created a mathematical model of this process in relation with
conditions of pre-defecation; developed, tested, and proposed to
industry an originally constructed pre-defecator A2-PPR. There was
proved and elucidated a mechanism of basic physical and chemical
interactions of the components upon working of the proposed apparatus.

There was proved an expedience of using the mechanoactivated natural
carbonates, including the small-fraction waste products of limestone, in
defecosaturation; confirmed the optimal indices of the parameters of
materials’ mechanoactivation, and defined the way of their usage.

The constructive properties of desintegrators create the benign
conditions for unregulation of the structure, formation of point and
line defects and fissures on the surface of the particles of different
desintegrated materials, which became a base for obtaining the
adsorbents of non-sugars of diffusion juice from sugar beets by
dispersion of natural carbonates. The analysis of isotermes of
dissolvent steams’ sorbtion by dispersed materials showed that the
ability of mechanoactivated limestones to adsorbtion is an aggregate
result of those positive changes which accompain the dispersion in the
apparatus of percussive action — accumulation of surface energy,
transformation of initial porous structure into non-porous, which is
described by sorbtion isoterme of type IV; transformation of carbonates
into base carbonates, formation of calcium and magnium oxides on the
surface of limestones; destruction of existing compounds and formation
of new ones etc.

The usage of mechanoactivated limestones makes possible to reduce the
amounts of limestone spent for purification of diffusion juice by
46…57%, to provide a rational utilization of the waste products from
quarries and limestone departments of sugar plants, and to provide the
environment protection.

There was based theoretically and proved experimentally the possibility
to use the traditional and non-traditional raw materials on
comparatively new level — as the sources of vitamins, nitrogen
compounds, carbohydrates, micro- and macroelements.

There was also proved the expedience of non-waste low-temperature
processing of sugar beets into foods and food additives. This makes
possible to use the part of the crop rationally, to increase the output
of sugar from the unit of processed raw, to minimize its loss in
production, and to obtain a product which, besides its high content of
sucrose (about 70 %), is rich in monosugars (2,5…3,0 %), organic acids
(about 5 %), essential amino acids and protein (3,8…4,6 %), undigestible
fiber (about 8 %), nitrogen substances (1,2…1,6 %), and the wide range
of vitamins and mineral substances.

For the first time, there was defined that almost all biocomponents of
carbohydrate-containing materials change in freezing, sublimation,
dispersion and storage, which, in general, promotes the food additives’
availability, their utilization by human organism, and the increase of
nutritional, biological, and organoleptic properties of the final
products. There was affirmed the direct influence of raw’s initial
humidity on the temperature of phase transformations, and defined its
lower limit upon which freezing becomes insufficient (50 % for berries,
and 24 % for beets).

For the first time, there was built and experimentally proved the
adequacy of the mathematical model of removal of the bound water from
sublimed materials, which indicates the existance of marginal
temperatures for maximal storage of vitamin C.

There was also proposed the usage of desintegrators for dispersion and
activation of sublimed materials.

The result is an increase of biological utilization of activated
materials (by 25…28 %) and of their content of soluble components (by
113…150 % of pectin, by 83…117 % of general sugars, by 57…95 % of
fructose, by 9…17 % of organic acids); enrichment of the final product
by essential substances (by 12…15 % of vitamin C, and by 22…26 % of
b-carotene).

There was developed and confirmed the normative and technical
documentation for sublimed food additives from carbohydrate-containing
raw, the recipes of foods (butter, bakery products) with their use. The
technology, recipes and equipment is protected by 6 Ukrainian patents.

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