I?EAeI?I?IANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA OA A?O?OAEOO?E

?E*AAIA Aaneeue Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 669.15/018-661.785-194.3

?IC?IAEA OAI?AOE*IEO INIIA ?ANO?NICAA??AATH*EO

OAOIIEIA?E CI?OeITHTH*EO IA?IAIE EIINO?OEOe?EIEO

NOAEAE AeEss AOAe?AAEUeIEO IAOAEAAEO EIINO?OEOe?E

05.02.01 — Iaoa??aeiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eaei?i?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa
oa a?o?oaeoo?e (I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie)

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie AIEUeOAEIA Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, caa.
Eaoaae?ith oaoiieia?? iaoae?a IAeAAA, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie OAIIAAEIAA Ienaia Ieoaee?aia caaiaeoth/a eaai?aoi?i?th
Aeiii?iiao?ianueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? N?N? oa
O?N? I?OEIA TH??e sseiae/ caaiaeoth/ee aiaeaeieii o?ceee iioeiinoi oa
?oeioaaiiy Iinoeoooo iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa, i.
Ee?a.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? O?N? IA?ONIA
Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueeiae/ caaiaeoth/?e a?aeae?eii oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
iaoae?a aeey iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?inoeoooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? IAI Oe?a?ie
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?e oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a oa iaoaeiciaanoaa, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 aa?aciy 1999?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 08.085.02 ii i?enoaeaeaiith, iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe i?e I?eaei?i?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai ??
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith:

320600, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. *a?ieoaanueeiai, 24-a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? I?eaei?i?ianueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith:
320600, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. *a?ieoaanueeiai, 24-a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «___»______ __» 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee EAAOA
A.I.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia cieaeaiiy iaoaeii?noeino? ? noai?aiiy
iaae?eieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e aeiaaa? aeei?enoaiiy noaeae a?eueo
aeniei? i?oeiino?, i?ae canoiniaoaai? iei?. Iaoa??aeiciaa/a caaacia/aiiy
noai?aiiy iiaeo noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? ?
?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaiiy iaaoei ca inoaii? aeaaaeoeyoue ?ie?a cia/ii?
aeooaeueiino? o ca”yceo c ?inoii noaoe/ieo, aeeiai?/ieo oa ?ioeo
iaaaioaaeaiue o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a eiino?eooe?e
? iaiao?aei?noth caa?aaeaiiy aeinoaoiuei? ?o iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino?. Aeey oeiai iaiao?aei? a?aeiia?aei? iaoeia? ?
oaoiieia?/i? ?ic?iaee. Aei oeueiai /ano, iai?eeeaae, oae? oaoiieia?/i?
i?eeiie, ye oa?iiiaoai?/ia ia?iaea (OII) ??cieo aeae?a noiniaii aei
aenieii?oeieo eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae ua aeoaea iaei aeei?enoiao?oueny.
OII ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa
aenieii?oeiiai i?ieaoo. ? oi/a nai iaoiae aenieioaiia?aoo?ii?
oa?iiiaoai?/ii? ia?iaee (AOII) aea/aiee aeaaii ? oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny o ae?iaieoeoa? aeayeeo aeae?a ae?ioiai? ? noa?aeiaai?
a?iaoo?e, iaeiae aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee noano?oeoo?ieo ci?i o
iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo ianiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ua ia aeinyaiooi. Aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi ooo ? ?icoi?iiy
aca?iica”yceo i?ae no?oeoo?ith ? iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie c iaoith
ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aaeei?a ci?oeithth/i? ia?iaee c oi/ee
ci?o i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? noano?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ci?oeiaiiy a i?ioean? AOII
iaei?ino?oeo ca neeaaeii ? oiio iaea?eueo aeiiii?/ieo noaeae aeey
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e. Aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy
?ia?o a oeueiio iai?yieo, c iaeiiai aieo, aecia/a?oueny c?inoath/eie
iio?aaaie aoae?aieoeoaa a i?ieao? c i?aeaeuaiei ??aiai i?oeiino? ?
a”yceino? (iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ? a”yceino? ?oeioaaiiy), oiaoi ?c
cieaeaiiyi iaoaeii?noeino? eiino?oeoe?e, a c ?ioiai — iaiao?aei?noth
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa
i?ieaoo.

Aeacaiee eiiieaen ?ia?o ni?yiiaaiee ia ?ic?iaeo iiaeo noaeae,
iioei?ciaaieo ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii, no?oeoo?ith, aeanoeainoyie ?
oe?iaie, a oaeiae noai?aiiy ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy c i?ieaoiiai iaa??ao (OCII) ? OII, ye? ?aae?cothoue
iiaeeeaino? ca?iia?aie/iiai ? noano?oeoo?iiai iaoai?ci?a ci?oeiaiiy
aoae?aaeueieo noaeae i?e iaea?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao o i?ioean? OII c
ianooiiei i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi (II), ui caaacia/o? ii?yae c
i?aeaeuaiiyi eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae ? aeiiii??th aia?ai?ano?n?a ?
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a oaeiae ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeeeainoae i?ieaoieo
noai?a (ia 20-40%) o ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie ia?iaeaie noaeae aeey
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? eeane/iith noaiith EI.

Iio?aae ?icaeoeo aoae?aaeueii? aaeoc? ? ?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaiiy a iao?e
e?a?i? oaeiae iaoiiaeee i?iaaaeaiiy a 1975-1998 ?ieao ?ioaineaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, i?e/iio iaea?eueo aaaii? ?acoeueoaoe
aoee iaea?aeai? a/aieie ?*I IAI Oe?a?ie, ?AC ?i. Iaoiia, IAeAAA,
OeIAe?*I, I?N?N, AeIaoAO oa ?i. Aaeeeee aianie o ?icaeoie oai???
eaaoaaiiy ? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeo iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae
i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? c?iaeee ?iaioe E.Aeae.??a?ia, O.A.I?ea??iaa,
N.A.Aieiaaiaiea, Ae.A.Eeoaeiaiea, E.?.Aeaaeooaeia, I.?.Aieueaeooaeia,
A.N.?aaiiai?, A.E.Ieethoaiea, A.N.Eanaoe?ia, A.O.Ion?y/aiea,
TH.?.Iao?iniaa, I.I.Oiiooaei oa ?i. Ieoaiiy no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ?
oi?ioaaiiy aeanoeainoae noaeae a i?ioean? aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?
??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aea/ai? a i?aoeyo
A.Ae.Naaeianueeiai, E.O.Noa?iaeoaiaa, A.I.Aoey?aa, I.E.Aa?iooaeia,
?.A.Oceiaa, A.E.Aaae/a, ?.?.Aeieaeaieiaa, A.A.Aa?aiiaa, N.N.Ae»y/aiei,
E.?.Oooeinueeiai, A.?.Aieueoaeiaa, TH.ss.I?oeiaa, TH.?.Iao?iniaa,
I.I.?iiai?aa, a oaeiae oe?eiai ?yaeo ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo. Iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aoe? a/aieo Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? oeiee iaoaeiciaaoe?a
i?ae ea??aieoeoaii Noa?iaeoaiaa E.O. i?enay/ai? ieoaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e ? i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy aeanoeainoae iaoiaeaie oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy, a oiio /ene? ? OCII, a iniiaiiio iaeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae, a
i?ioani?a Aieueoaeiaa A.?. – aea/aiith i?ioean?a no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeanoeainoae aenieii?oeieo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae iaoiaeaie
eiio?ieueiaaii? i?ieaoee (EI) ? AOII. Aea iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo
e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ii ?ic?iaoe? ? canoinoaaiith iecueeieaaiaaieo
noaeae, ieoaiiy a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeueieo iiaeeeainoae
?o neeaaeo ? ?aaeei?a ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? caaacia/othoue iio??ai? ??ai?
i?oeiino? i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii? aeo?ao aeao?oeeoieo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, ia iaaoee iaeaaeiiai ?icaeoeo noiniaii aei aoae?aaeueieo
noaeae. A oie aea /an noano?oeoo?i? ci?ie, iaoiiaeai? AOII, ye?
aecia/athoue eiiieaen aeanoeainoae o iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ?
i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei.
Aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi ooo ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e ??ciiiai?oieo aeaeao aeaoi?iaoe?eii-oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee (AeOI) ?nioth/eo ia?ie No3, 09A2N, 09A2OA, 16A2AO, 15A2OAAein,
14O2AI? ? iiaeo — 06A2OA, e?aii?eia?aaioeaai? iioei?ciaaiiai neeaaeo
noaeae c iaoith ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aaeei?a OII, AOII ?
OCII ? aecia/aiiy ?o aieeao ia ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeacai?
?iaioe iai?aaeai? ia noai?aiiy ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e AeOI, ye?
?aae?cothoue iiaeeeaino? ca?iia?aie/iiai ? noano?oeoo?iiai iaoai?ci?a
ci?oeiaiiy aoae?aaeueieo noaeae i?e iaea?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao
aeaoi?iaoe?? c ianooiiei II, ui caaacia/o? ii?yae c i?aeaeuaiiyi
eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae ? aeiiii??th aia?ai?ano?n?a ? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
oaeiae ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ieaoieo noai?a (ia 20-40%) o
ii??aiyii? c eeane/iith noaiith EI.

Ca”ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
yaey? niaith ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a,
iaea?aeaieo aaoi?ii i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ca
caiiaeaiiyi I?i?noa?noa i?iieneiaino? oa ina?oe, Aea?aeeii?oaoo c iaoee
? oaoiieia?e Oe?a?ie, ieaiaie IE “Acianoaeue” ? IAeAAA (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? UA01003401P, UA01003402P, UA01003405P, 0194U021330,
0194U021331, 0196U018711, 0196U018717, 01890085535) a ia??iae c 1983 ii
1998 ??e. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ? i?e
o/ano? aaoi?a.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaea iiaeo iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo
noaeae iioei?ciaaiiai (c iiceoe?e i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae ?
cieaeaiiy aa?oino?) neeaaeo ? oai?aoe/ieo iniia noai?aiiy oa ?aae?caoe??
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e OCII ? OII, ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?o aeanoeainoae, ? canoinoaaiiy a aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?yo ?nioth/eo ? iiaeo noaeae ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? ia iniia?
eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? oiiei? e?enoae?/ii?
no?oeoo?e, noai?aieo i?ae /an ae?? ia iaoae cia/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o
i?ioean? aa?y/i? i?ieaoee, II ? a?aeioneo, a oaeiae aeyaeaiith iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
? ?aaeeio ia?iaee.

Aea?? iniiae eaaoaaiiy noaeae ? iaiao?aeieo i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aeeiai?ee
aeaoi?iaoe?eii-oa?i?/ieo i?ioean?a (OCII, OII oa ?i.) ? aea/aiiy ?o
aieeao ia oi?ioaiiy ci?oaii? no?oeoo?e, ui caaacia/o? aeinoaoi? ??ai?
i?oeiino? ? iaae?eiino? iaoa??ae?a o caa?ieo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?yo;

aea/aiiy aieeao ??cieo i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia iaoai?ci ci?oeiaiiy ?
ciai?oeithaaiiy eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoaeii?ieaoo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa iaoiaeii AeOI ? ia noaae?? aeaioiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoe?e c ieo;

oi?ioethaaiiy i?eioeei?a iioei?ciaaiiai eaaoaaiiy ? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy
noaeae aeey iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae aieeao
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? ia?aiao??a OII ia no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy;

noai?aiiy ia iniia? anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a
?acoeueoao? aeai?o iioeiaeueieo c iiceoe?e ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ??aiy
aeanoeainoae ? oe?ie, neeaae?a noaeae ? oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a ?o ia?iaee, ui caaacia/othoue a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo oi?ioaaiiy
ae??aiiai ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo, a ?ioiio – noai?aiiy
iie?aii?ciaaii? ? o?aaiaioiaaii? noano?oeoo?e, ye? aa?aioothoue
iaeii/ania i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae, na???
ii??aiyii aeaoaaeo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae i?aeaeuaii? ? aeniei? i?oeiino?
(c a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? a?ae 360-440 aei 600 IIa ? a?eueoa), no?eeeo a
oiiaao cia/ieo ??cii??aeieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o
i?iieneia? aoae?aaeuei? iaoaeaa? eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aca?aoa?e;

aea?? ia iniia? anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy
eiie?aoieo (a caeaaeiino? a?ae iio??aieo aeanoeainoae: aeniea i?oei?noue
— aeinoaoiy a”yce?noue aai aenie? cia/aiiy a`yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino?
— aeinoaoiy i?oei?noue) iioei?ciaaieo oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ?
/aniaeo ia?aiao??a ?aaeaiaioiaaii? i?ieaoee (?I) ? OII c ianooiiei
i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ?
o??ueiino?eeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo (canoiniaoaaieo ? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeo
neeaae?a) noaeae aeey iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e a?aeiia?aeii aeiaaai IOAe.

?iaioa i?enay/aia ?icaeoeo caeiiii??iinoae iioei?ciaaiiai eaaoaaiiy ?
i?e?ieaaoaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiia i?oeiino? ? iii?o a”yceiio ? e?eoeiio
?oeioaaiith aoae?aaeueieo noaeae, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao i?aeaeuaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, iaoiaeaie AeOI. Aiia ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy aaaeeeai?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeaie — noai?aiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o iiaeo,
a?eueo aeaoaaeo, noaeae c i?aeaeuaieie ??aiyie i?oeiino?,
oieiaeino?eeino?, o??ueiino?eeino? ? iie?ioaii? caa?thaaiino?, ye?
caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy ia 10-25% iaoaeii?noeino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e. ?icaeyioo? iaoeia? iniiae ? oaoiieia?/i?
??oaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo oianoieenoiaeo noaeae
aa?aioiaaieo eean?a i?oeiino? a?ae N360 aei N590 ? a?eueoa, ?aae?caoe?y
yeeo ?iaeoue cia/iee aianie o i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ye?noue i?ieaoo ? cieceoe iaoaeii?noeinoue
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

?ic?iaeai? iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaai? noae? iioei?ciaaiiai (c iiceoe?e
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae) neeaaeo ? oai?aoe/i? iniiae
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e AeOI (OCII ? OII), ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a i?oeiino? ?nioth/eo ? iiaeo noaeae ia iniia?
anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae i?io?eaiiy ?ae?enoae?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?
aieeao ?o ia oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oii? ? e?ioeaai? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ca
?aooiie eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue oiiei? e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e,
aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie ? ?o iiaoaeia, noai?aieo i?ae /an ae?? ia
iaoae ?aciaeo ? noia?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o i?ioean? aa?y/i? i?ieaoee ?
i?enei?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? ?aaeeio
ia?iaee.

Anoaiiaeai? eiioeaio?aoe?ei? caeaaeiino? ?icae?eueiiai ? ni?eueiiai
aieeao aoaeaoeth, ia?aaioeth, e?aii?th, i?ia?th ? aaiaae?th ia
caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, iieacieee iaoai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
(i?oeiino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino?, caa?thaaiino?) aeanoeainoae
aoae?aaeueieo noaeae;

aea?? eiioeaio?aoe?e Si:Mn–1,0:1,0-1,28, ye? ? iioei?ciaaiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iaeii/aniiai i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ? noai?aiiy
aeaoaaeo caa?thaaieo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae (aeea. iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?
23739A) ca ?aooiie oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?
noano?oeoo?e;

iaea?aeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? ci?ie ?ici??o ca?ai aonoai?oo i?e
iaa??aaii? ? anoaiiaeai? oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo ? e?ioey ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo
ca?ai an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo;

i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee iaoai?ci iiceoeaiiai aieeao i?e?ieaaoaaiiy i?ia??i ?
aaiaae??i ia cae??aiaiiy ca?ia aonoai?oo ?, a?aeiia?aeii, e?ioeaai?
no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? OII ? OIEI ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ia?aaioeaaeo ?
e?aiiaia?aaioeaaeo noaeae aei eean?a N450-550 (? a?eueoa) c i?aeaeuaiiyi
oieiaeino?eeino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo noaeae c 0,05-0,20%N
aac iia??oaiiy caa?thaaiino?;

aea/ai? i?ioeane aeeiai?/ii? iie?aii?caoe??, aeeiai?/ii? ? noaoe/ii?
?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?
ia?aiao??a AeOI a oiiaao ??ciiai nooiaiy caaa?oaiiino? i?ioean?a
ci?oeiaiiy ? ciai?oeithaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae ? ia iniia? oeueiai
anoaiiaeai? iia? caeaaeiino? i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith ? nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe??,
c iaeiiai aieo, ? ia?aiao?aie no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoyie, c ?ioiai;

iioei?ciaaiee aaciaee o?i?/iee neeaae e?aii?eia?aaioeaai? noae?,
caoeuaiee iaoaioii Oe?a?ie ? 23739A; ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe??,
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?? a aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aca?aoa?e;

anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith a ?ioa?aae? 1150-7000N ?
nooiaiai (noia?iei a 35-70%) aeaoi?iaoe??, c iaeiiai aieo, i?i?iaeueiei
?ici??ii aonoai?oiiai ca?ia, e?ioeaaith no?oeoo?ith ? aeanoeainoyie
eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae ??ciiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo – c ?ioiai;

anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao ia no?oeoo?o ? iiaeeeaino? ea?oaaiiy
i?ioeanaie ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo a
iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo ??cieo nenoai
eaaoaaiiy ca ?aooiie ci?ie ia?aiao??a ia?iaee oaeeo, ye oaiia?aoo?e
aonoai?oecaoe?? ? aeaoi?iaoe??, nooiaiy ?aciaiai iaoeneo ? noia?ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??, o?eaaeino? i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eieo aeaea?aeie ? oaeaeeinoae
ioieiaeaeaiiy;

aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? i?ae a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? ?
oieiaeino?eeinoth oa o??ueiino?eeinoth aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ?c ci?oaiith
no?oeoo?ith, iaea?aeaiith i?e OCII ? OII c II. Aeyaeai? iaeano?
no?oeoo?ieo noai?a, iaea?aeaieo a ?acoeueoao? oi?ioaaiiy ae??aiiai
?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo ? noai?aiiy iie?aii?ciaaii? ?
o?aaiaioiaaii? noano?oeoo?, ui coaacia/othoue iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea?
ii?aeiaiiy a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? noaeae;

ia iniia? anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ?ic?iaeai?
oaoiieia?? ? oaoi?/i? oiiae ia ae?iaieoeoai oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo c
i?e?ieaaiaaieo oa e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a ca ?ano?nicaa??aath/eie oaoiieia?yie OCII ?
OII ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia ?o canoinoaaiiy;

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui: ?ic?iaeaii iia? neeaaee
iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae ? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy
?o iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae;

iaea?aeai? iecueeiaoaeaoeaa?, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaai? eiino?oeoe?ei?
noae? ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? a?ae N300 aei N790 (i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a
OCII ? OII), ye? aeicaieythoue cae?enieoe ?yae i?eioeeiiai iiaeo
eiino?oeoe?eieo ??oaiue ? noai?eoe iaio iaoaeii?noe? ? a?eueo iaae?ei?
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??;

?ic?iaeaiee oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ? inai?ia, ca?aeii c aeiiaaie
?ic?iaeaieo oaoi?/ieo oiia OO 14-1-135-97, OO 14-1-136-97, OO
14-1-133-97, OO 14-1-134-97, ia IE “Acianoaeue” ae?iaieoeoai
oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo c e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo (A-N1-An ? A-N2-An) ?
i?e?ieaaiaaieo (A-A1-An ? A-A2-An) noaeae iioei?ciaaiiai neeaaeo eean?a
i?oeiino? N360-N550 aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a, ye?
caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiae IOAe;

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoi?/ieo oiia ia
ae?iaieoeoai eenoiaiai i?ieaoo c e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo
noaeae iioei?ciaaiiai neeaaeo i?ney OII ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? ?
iie?ioaii? caa?thaaiino? c aeinoaoi?ie ??aiyie ieanoe/iino?, a`yceino?,
oieiaeino?eeino? ? o??ueiino?eeino?;

i?aeaioiaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy oeeo noaeae a
eiino?oeoe?yo ??cieo a?oi i?oeiino?;

iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe, aeei?enoai? a
iaa/aeueieo eo?nao “Iaoaeiciaanoai ? caa?thaaiiy”, “Aoae?aaeuei?
iaoa??aee ? eiino?oeoe??”, “Oacia? ? no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy o caa?ieo
c”?aeiaiiyo”, ye? /eoathoueny o aocao Aei?i?iiao?ianueea: AeIaoAO ?
IAeAAA.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a a ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Ia
iniia? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy
aonoai?oii? ? e?ioeaai? no?oeoo?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae nenoaie eaaoaaiiy ?
ia?aiao??a AeOI a ?iaio? ?ic?iaeai? ? cai?iiiiiaai?
i?aei?e?inoaai-ae?iaieeai ? niiaeeaa/ai iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? aoaeoeai?
?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie ae?iaieoeoaa aenieii?oeiiai
i?ieaoo ?c cae/aeieo iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo
noaeae, a oiio /ene? ? c cieaeaiei, a ii??aiyii? c aeiiaaie ?nioth/eo
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ai?noii aoaeaoeth (0,05-0,07%), c i?aeaeuaieo
eean?a i?oeiino?, i?e ieanoe/iino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ?
o??ueiino?eeino?, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai IOAe. I?e i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iioae?eiaai? iaeiiiniaiai ? a
ni?aaaoi?noa?, aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniai? ieaioaaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo ?
i?iieneiaeo aenia?eiaio?a, aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie
o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeieeaaeai? ?
iaaiai?ai? ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ananithcieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioyaii 1990-1998 ??. (aeea. ieae/a
nienie iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a), iaoeiaeo nai?ia??a c i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ? eaoaae? oaoiieia?? iaoae?a oa iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e
IAeAAA.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ci?no ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii o 2 iiiia?ao?yo, 80 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo, iiaecia ? i?ea?iaeuei?noue ?ic?iaie (iioei?ciaaiee aaciaee
o?i?/iee neeaae e?aii?eia?aaioeaai? noae? i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? ?
oieiaeino?eeino? ? iie?ioaii? caa?thaaiino?) caoeuai? iaoaioii Oe?a?ie ?
23739A.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 238
noi??ieao oaenoo, aeeth/a? 175 ?enoie?a ? 46 oaaeeoeue, neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, naie ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 527 iaca ?
aeiaeaoe?a ia 36 noi??ieao, ui i?noyoue a?aeiiino? i?i i?aeoe/io
?aae?caoe?th ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

A ?acoeueoao? canoinoaaiiy i?ioyaii 1985-1998 ??. iecueeiaoaeaoeaai?
ANo3 ? iecueeieaaiaaieo (e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo) noaeae
i?ney oa?iici?oeiaiiy, OII, ?I ? EI ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? a
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo ? ?aca?aoa?ao aeinyaiooi cieaeaiiy iane
eiino?oeoe?e ia 10-25%. Oea aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
iiiaae ni?ie i?eueeii?a ea?aiaaioe?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao III
“Oe?noaeueeiino?oeoe?y”, a o./. /anoeiaa o/anoue aaoi?a a oe?iao 1990
?ieo noaiiaeoue /ioe?e i?eueeiie o?noueaeanyo oeny/ ea?aiaaioe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe,
aeeeaaeai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeeiiaii? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii aiae?c ca ??aiyie aeanoeainoae,
oaoiieia?/i?noth ? oe?iith iaoa??ae?a, ui canoiniaothoue aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a. Aeaii ei?ioeee
aiae?c no/aniiai noaio canoinoaaiiy ? eeaneo?eaoe?? noaeae aeey
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae oai??? ? i?aeoeee oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy
oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo. ?icaeyioo? ia?niaeoeai? ?ano?nicaa??aath/?
niiniae (OCII, EI, ?I, OII c II ? AOII), i?aeaeuaiiy aeanoeainoae
iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae. ?icaeyioo? oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy aeanoeainoae noaeae ca ?aooiie: iioei?caoe?? o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo; ?aaoethaaiiy ?ici???a aonoai?oieo ca?ai; noai?aiiy
iie?aii?ciaaii? ? o?aaiaioiaaii? noano?oeoo?e; aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
iaoai?ci?a ci?oeiaiiy; aeei?enoaiiy II iaoaeii?ieaoo. Iieacaii, ui
iio??aia i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae aoae?aaeueieo noaeae iiaea
aooe aeinyaiooa: a) eaaoaaiiyi ? i?e?ieaaoaaiiyi; a) oa?i?/iei
ci?oeiaiiyi ? OII; a) ?o eiia?ioaaiiyi ?c canoinoaaiiyi II. Iiaeeeaino?
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ca ?aooiie eaaoaaiiy
??cei iaiaaeai? o ca”yceo c a?aenooi?noth aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino?
aaaaoeo eaaoth/eie aeaiaioaie ?oae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? ?o
aei?iaeia/ath, a oa?i?/ia ci?oeiaiiy (OC) ? OII cae/aeieo
iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae iaaeineoue aoaeoeai? o ca”ceo c oei, ui ia
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe iio??ai? eeane i?oeiino? i?e caa?aaeaii?
a`yceino? (iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ? a`yceino? ?oeioaaiiy) a iaaeao, ui
aeiaaa? IOAe.

O a?o/eciyi?e aoae?aaeuei?e i?aeoeoe? ca?ac canoiniaothoueny
iecueeiaoaeaoeaa? ? iecueeieaaiaai? noae? ii AI?I 11-23-81* ? AINO
27772-88 a iniiaiiio o?eueee a aa?y/aeaoaiiio aai ii?iae?ciaaiiio noaiao
(oaae.1). I?ioa ??ai? i?oeiino? ANo3ni ? 09A2N, 15A2AOAein, 16A2AO oa
?i. noaeae ia?anoaee caaeiaieueiyoe aeiiae aei no/anieo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e c iiceoe?e ??aiy aeanoeainoae, iaae?eiino? ?
oaoiieia?/iino?. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe iaaeineiiae?noue ia?i/iiai ni?oaiaioo
noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, yea aeyaey?oueny o a?aenooiino?
iaa?oioiaaiiai ?aiaee?oaaiiy ii eeanao i?oeiino? noaeae, ui
aeioneathoueny iaoaeo?a?eieie eiia?iaoaie (IE) Oe?a?ie, ? iayai?noi
oe?ieeo iaia?ae?eaaieo iaeanoae ia e?i?yo ??aieo a?aeiioaiue (o ? (a, a
oaeiae iaaeiaeei?enoaiiyi ?aca?a?a i?oeiino? i?e ae?iaieoeoa? i?ieaoo
iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo ? iecueeieaaiaaieo ii AI?I 11-23-81* ? AINO 27772-88
aoae?aaeueieo noaeae, ui aeioneathoueny.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y i?eioeeiiai iia? i?oei? ? aenieii?oei? noae? aeey
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a iaea?aeai? ia aoee. ?icaeoie
iaoa??ae?a aeey aoae?aieoeoaa ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoee,
aieiaiei /eiii, ni?yiiaai? ia iioei?caoe?th aeanoeainoae noaeae,
iniaeeai aenieii?oeieo. C iaoith oaeaeoiai canoinoaaiiy oaeeo
iioei?ciaaieo noaeae aeey iaoaei/ieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a ne?ae
i?iaeoiaoe ? ci?ieoe ae?th/? ca?ac oaoi?/i? oiiae ? oaoiieia?/i?
?ino?oeoe?? ia ae?iaieoeoai ? canoinoaaiiy aenieii?oeieo noaeae ?c
aianaiiyi ei?aeoea o a?aeiia?aei? ae?th/? aai noai?eoe iia?
“Aoae?aaeuei? ii?ie ? i?aaeea” ? AINO aeacaieo aeua iaoa??ae?a.

No/ani? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoa? ? niiaeeaaii?
iaoaeii?ieaoo aeey ??cieo oei?a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ca ?oaaaeai
ni?yiiaai? ia ae?iaieoeoai ? canoinoaaiiy aenieii?oeieo noaeae c
a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? 450-800 I/ii2, aeeth/ath/e ? iecueeiaoaeaoeaa?
aeiiiiii- ? i?e?ieaaiaai? oa?i?/ii ci?oeiai? noae?. O ca”yceo c oeei
coneeey iaoaeo?a?eii? ?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie aaea ca?ac iiaeii?
i???iooaaoeny ia ae?iaieoeoai ia?niaeoeaieo noaeae c oeacaieie aeua
??aiyie i?oeiino? ? ?o na?oeo?eaoe??th ca i?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie,
iaiao?aeio aeey i?iaeaaeo ye?nii? iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? ca ei?aeii. I?ioa
aeacai? ia?ee iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae (c ??aiai a?aieoe?
oaeo/ino? 450-800 I/ii2 ? a?eueoa) ia ciaoiaeyoue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
i?e ae?iaieoeoa? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e o ca”yceo c oei, ui ae?iaieee aeaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia iathoue iaa?oioiaaieo oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
?aaeei?a OII eeno?a c aeaieo noaeae a oiaueiao a?ae 10-12 aei 36-40 ii ?
a?eueoa ?c noaa?eueiei ??aiai iaoai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
aac /iai iaiiaeeeaa ?o canoinoaaiiy. Oe? noae? i?ney EI ? OII ia
na?oeo?eiaai? ia canoinoaaiiy o aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo, ia ?nio?
ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? (IOAe) ia canoinoaaiiy ?o o
i?iaeooaaii? ? ae?iaieoeoa? eiino?oeoe?e.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaaeaeaii? iioei?ciaaieo (ii neeaaeo) noaeae
i?aeaeuaii? ? aeniei? i?oeiino? a aoae?aieoeoa? oa ?ioeo aaeocyo
aiane?aeie ?o aeniei? iaae?eiino?, iaoiiaeaii? i?aeaeuaiith a”yce?noth,
o?aaa aoei a i???iooaaoe ??ai? ?o aeanoeainoae ia a?eueo aenie? eeane
i?oeiino?. C oe??th iaoith i?iiiio?oueny aianoe ci?ie a ?ino?oeoe?? ?
?aaoethth/? ii?iaoeai? iaoai?cie, o a?aeiia?aei? “Aoae?aaeuei? ii?ie ?
i?aaeea” oa AINO c oei, uia i?aeaeueoe nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy
aenieii?oeieo noaeae. Ne?ae aoei a aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe aenieii?oei? noae?
ii eeanao i?oeiino? N490, N520, N550, N590, N640, N690, N740, N790,
N840, N890 (aeea. oaae.1) ca?aeii c ?o a?aieoeath oaeo/ino?.

Aiae?c AI?I 11-23-81*, AINO 27772-88, AINO 380-94, AINO 19281-89* oa
oe?eiai ?yaeo ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a iieaco? ia noia?a/iino? o
aeiiaao IOAe, ae?th/?o ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Aiie aeeeeeathoue oe?eeii
?aciiio iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeyaeo ? ia”?aeiaiiy ?o aeiia ia ae?iaieoeoai
? canoinoaaiiy i?ieaoo ii eeanao i?oeiino? c iiceoe?e ?aeeii?
eeaneo?eaoe??, iai?eeeaae: N245, N275, N305, N325, N360, N390, N420,
N450, N490, N520, N550, N590, N640, N690, N740, N790, N840, N890 c
iaoith cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino? eiino?oeoe?e. I?ioa, aaaaeaiiy oaei?
eeaneo?eaoe?? aeiaaa? ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoaeii?ieaoo ? i?e eiai niiaeeaaii? a aoae?aieoeoa? ?
?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaii?. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y eeaneo?eaoe?? noaeae
aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a c o?aooaaiiyi
?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o ? cieaeaiiy iaoaeii?noeino? iaaaaeaia a oaae.1.
Aeineoue i?ioyaeiee i?ia?e iii?ae N490 ? N590 ia ia?ae?eaa?oueny, a
eean?a aeua N590 acaaae? ia “caaacia/o?oueny” aeiaeiith ?c canoiniaaieo
noaeae a aa?y/aeaoaiiio aai ii?iae?ciaaiiio noaiao. Oae? i?ia?ee
iiaeooue aooe ia?ae?eo? aai ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy ?
aeeth/aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai ? a?aei?iiiai a?ae a?aeiieo iaoai?ci?a
ci?oeiaiiy noaeae i?ney EI, AOII, OII, aeeth/ath/e oaeiae ? ?I a ieaei?e
/anoei? (- ? (+(-iaeano? c oi?ioaaiiyi ci?oaieo no?oeoo? (oaae.2).

Iieacaii, ui iaeiei c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa
i?ieaoo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa c iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae ? OII ?, cie?aia,
EI. I?ioa aiia iiee ui ia canoiniao?oueny o ae?iaieoeoa? noaeae aeey
aoae?aieoeoaa. EI ia? ?yae oe?iiinoae ? iaaeie?e?a. Iniiai? oe?iiino?:
cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a o ii??aiyii? c ii?iae?ciaaieie
noaeyie; noai?aiiy a aonoai?o? ? oa?eo? noano?oeoo?e oiai /e ?ioiai
aeaeo; aenieee ??aaiue a`yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino? noaeae i?ney EI;
a?aei?aoeueiaai? ia IE oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie ae?iaieoeoaa ?yaeo noaeae
aeey o?oaii?ia?aeiiai o?ainii?oo. Iniiai? iaaeie?ee EI – iaiiaeeea?noue
?aae?caoe?? ia ?nioth/iio IE ?yaeiaiio iaeaaeiaii?; ia iiaeia i?aeaeueoe
??ai? a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? aeua 520-550 IIa aac aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy, a
?acoeueoao? /iai:c?inoa? aa?o?noue noae?; ?c ca?eueoaiiyi i?oeiino?
cieaeothoueny ?? ieanoe/i?noue ? oaea?ia a”yce?noue; aenieee aoaeaoeaaee
aea?aaeaio, ui iia??oo? caa?thaai?noue; canoinoaaiiy noia?ieo nooiai?a
aeaoi?iaoe?? 35-70% ? a?eueoa i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao cae?i/aiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?? 740-6800N, ui ca?eueoo? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?ieaoia
iaeaaeiaiiy ? ia 20-40% cieaeo? i?iaeoeoeai?noue noai?a. Iieacaii, ui
aac ianooiiiai II ia aaea?oueny a iiai?e i??? ?aae?coaaoe iiaeeeaino? EI
? OII o ieai? i?aeaeuaiiy eean?a i?oeiino? aoae?aaeueieo noaeae.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi iaoiaee/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeeiiaiee aiae?c iniiaieo eean?a aoae?aaeueieo noaeae
(iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo) ??cieo ??ai?a i?oeiino?
ii iaoeeo aei ia?aa??aaiiy. Ia?ai? oeiia? ? oe?iei canoiniaoaai?
i?aaenoaaieee eiaeiiai eeano ia aeoaea noeeuei? aai ianoeeuei? aei
ia?aa??ao ? iia?: i?e?ieaaiaaia (06A2OA) ? e?aii?eia?aaioeaaa noae?
iioei?ciaaiiai neeaaeo. O?i?/iee neeaae aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae
iaaaaeaiee a oaae.3.

A?aeiii, ui iaoa??aeii, yeee iae/ano?oa canoiniao?oueny aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a ca?ac, ? noaeue
09A2N, aei iaaeie?e?a yei? a?aeiinyoueny — i?aeaeuaiee ai?no ia?aaioeth
i?e iaaeiaeei?enoaii? ??ai?a ieanoe/iino? ? a`yceino?, ui iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy i?e ae?iaieoeoa? eiino?oeoe?e, iniaeeai o
“i?ai?/iiio” aeeiiaii?. Aiaeia?/ia ca neeaaeii eiino?oeoe?eia noaeue
ia?ee 10A2N1 caaacia/o? a?eueo aenieee eiiieaen i?oei?nieo
aeanoeainoae.I?ioa eiiiiceoe?y ?ia?aae??io?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
i?aeaeuaiei (ye ? a noae? 09A2N) ai?noii ia?aaioeth, ui iaoiiaeth? ??no
nia?aa?oino? ae?iaieoeoaa eiino?oeoe?e. E??i oeueiai, eiioeaio?aoe??
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a i?ae?a?ai? oaeei /eiii, ui ia caaacia/othoue iiaiioe
aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?eii iiaeeeaeo ??ai?a ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae ?
a`yceino? iaoaeaaeo ae?ia?a ? iaiaa?oioiaaii i?aeaeuothoue aoaeaoeaaee
aea?aaeaio ? oe?io noae?. O ca”yceo c oeei a ?iaio? iinoaaeaia caaaeaiiy
aaeineiiaeaiiy neeaaeo iecueeieaaiaaii? noae?, a ye?e ca ?aooiie aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia?aaioeai ? e?aii??i
caaacia/o?oueny cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia eaaoaaiiy ? i?aeaeuothoueny
niiaeea/? aeanoeaino? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe
a i?iiiiiaai?e noae? i?ae?a?aii c aeiiiiiaith IAII iioei?ciaaia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th ye (1,00-1,28):1,00
i?e aecia/ai?e iania?e /anooe? aoaeaoeth (0,06-0,22%), e?aii?th
(0,90-1,20%), ia?aaioeth (1,00-1,35%) ? aaeaeaoiino? eiioeaio?aoe??
inoaii?o eiiiiiaio?a ?o ai?noo a noaeyo 09A2N ? 10A2N1. I?e oaeiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? eiiiiiaio?a aeeeth/a?oueny iaiaa?oioiaaia ia?aaeo?aoa
aeao?oeeoiiai ia?aaioeth, caaacia/o?oueny i?e??no cia/aiue (5 ? oaea?ii?
a`yceino? (ENU i?e +20, -40, -70iN) i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii?
oaiia?aoo?e O50 ? i?aeo?eiaii? aenieeo cia/aiue i?oeiino? ((o,(a). Oaeee
aeniiaie c?iaeaii ia iniia? aeeiiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ieaaie ?
i?ieaoie c ianooiiei ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??. Caeiiii??iino? ci?ie oaea?ii?
a`yceino? a?ae ai?noo ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th iieacaee, ui iaea?eueo
aenie? cia/aiiy a`yceino? aeyaeai? o noaeae, ui iathoue naia oaea
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Mn/Si ye (1,00-1,28):1,00. I?e ciaioaii? eiai <1,00/1,00 ? ca?eueoaii? aeua 1,28/1,0 cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a`yceino? i?e -40 ? -700N cieaeothoueny. A?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? Mn/Si ieae/a ieaeiuei? iaae? ?inoa i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeai? (o ? (a. Ia?aaeuaiiy Mn/Si(1,28 aeeeeea? i?e??no i?oeiino? ((o,(a) i?e iaae?ii? (5 ? iia??oaii? caa?thaaiino? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiiy Naea. Ieaeiy a?aieoey eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth aei??aith? 0,06%, ui caaacia/o? ??aaiue aeanoeainoae, ?aaeaiaioiaaiee IOAe. I?e cieaeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth ieae/a 0,06% cieaeothoueny cia/aiiy i?oeiino? noae? i?e ?ino? ieanoe/iino? ? oaea?ii? a`yceino?. I?e ai?no? aoaeaoeth aeua 0,22% cieaeothoueny ieanoe/i?noue, oaea?ia a”yce?noue i?e ?ino? i?oeiino? ? iia??oaii? caa?thaaiino?. Ia?aaeuaiiy oeueiai a?aie/iiai cia/aiiy oaeiae iaaeioe?eueia c o?aooaaiiyi i?aei?iaiiy O50 ? i?aeaeuaiiy Naea. Ai?no e?aii?th a ?ioa?aae? 0,90-1,20% o noae? ? iioeiaeueiei c oi/ee ci?o i?e?iuaiiy i?oeiino? ? i?aeo?eiaiiy ia aenieiio ??ai? oaea?ii? a`yceino? (iniaeeai i?e –700N). I?ioa, i?e aioo???ioa?aaeueiiio ?ino? eiioeaio?aoe?e e?aii?th aeaui cieaeothoueny cia/aiiy(5. I?e ai?no? e?aii?th < 0,90% ia? i?noea cieaeaiiy oaea?ii? a`yceino? i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Oaea ae oaiaeaioe?y aeyaey?oueny i?e e?eueeino? e?aii?th (1,2%, aea c iiaeaeueoei iaae?iiyi ieanoe/iino? noae?. Ia?aaiaoeue a iaaeao 1,00-1,35% caaacia/o? aoaeoeaia ci?oeiaiiy noae?, aeaui cieaeoth/e (5. Aieea ia?aaioeth aiaeia?/iee ae?? e?aii?th, i?ioa a aeaui ?ioeo eiioeaio?aoe?eieo ?aieao. Oeueiio ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a`yceino? i?e -700N ? iecuee? oaiia?aoo?e a”ycei-e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo. I?e ai?no? ia?aaioeth iaioa 1,00% a?aei?/a?oueny cieaeaiiy cia/aiue oaea?ii? a`yceino?, iniaeeai i?ney aei?iaoaaiiy aei?iaoaaiue i?e -70 0N, a oaeiae cieaeothoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino? ((o,(a). I?e ai?no? ia?aaioeth iiiaae 1,35% caaacia/o?oueny aeayeee ??no (o ? (a, i?ioa a?aei?/a?oueny cieaeaiiy (5?, iniaeeai, cia/aiue oaea?ii? a`yceino? i?e -40 ? -700N. Aeeiiaiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio eaaoaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ? anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?ei? caeaaeiino? ?icae?eueiiai ? ni?eueiiai aieeao aoaeaoeth, ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th ? i?e?ieaaoth/eo (i?ia?th, aaiaae?th, oeoaio, aethi?i?th oa ?i.) aeaiaio?a ia iieacieee iaoai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae (i?oeiino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ? caa?thaaiino?) aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe aeaoaa? ? iaae?ei? eiino?oeoe?ei? iaoa??aee (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 23739). A?aeiii, ui oaoiieia?/ia ieanoe/i?noue ? aeaoi?i?ai?noue noaeae ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aia?ai?ie?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie aonoai?oiiai ca?ia. Oiio aea/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae aaee/eie ca?ai aonoai?oo aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae ia? ?noioia cia/aiiy. Ia aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeyo i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen ?ia?o ii aea/aiith aieeao oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy i?ae i?ieaoeo ia ci?io no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo ? iiaoaeia? oeiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?ici??o ca?ai aonoai?oo. Iaa?oue i?e iacia/iiio ia?aaeuaii? oaiia?aoo? ii/aoeo cae?aeueii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? ca?ia aonoai?oo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ?ioaineaii ca?eueoothoueny, c”yaey?oueny cia/ia ??ciica?ieno?noue. Aeey ioe?iee ?ici??o ca?ai aonoai?oo aeei?enoaee aa?o?aiee iaoiae. C?acee iaa??aaee aei ??cieo oaiia?aoo? a aonoai?oio iaeanoue c aeaea?aeeith 2 oa. ia ii oiaueie a ?ioa?aae? 850-12500N /a?ac 250N ? aa?ooaaee o aiae?. Canoinoaaiiy oaeiai aa?o?aiiai na?aaeiaeua caaacia/eei oi?ioaaiiy o c?aceao c iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae i???ioiaaieo no?oeoo? ia?oaineoo ? aaei?oo, a a noae? ANo3 ? noae? 09A2N ii a?aieoeyo eieeoi?o aonoai?oieo ca?ai aeae?eyeany n?oea iaaei??iiai ia??aiiaaaeiiai oa?eoo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo ? ia?aooaaiiy eiai ia?aiao??a c aeiiiiiaith “Ai?eaaio” iiaoaeiaai? caeaaeiino? ?ici??o ca?ai a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy. sse aeaeii, an? noae? noeeuei? aei no?ae/anoiiiae?aiiai ca?eueoaiiy ca?ai aonoai?oo i?e ia?aaeuaii? iaaieo e?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? (ii/aoeo -ti1 ? e?ioey -te1) ia?aa?ao cae?aeueii? ?ae?enoae?caoe??, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiyaith ?noioii? ??ciica?ienoino?. Aeey noae? ANo3ni oaiia?aoo?a ti1 a?aeiia?aea? 9000N, a te1-9500N, aeey noae? 14O2AI?, a?aeiia?aeii, ti1 aei??aith? 11000N, a te1 -11500N (?en.1, oaae.4). Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? oe?eiith 500N aeey noae? ANo3ni ca?ii aonoai?oo ca?eueoo?oueny ia 3 iiia?e (a?ae oinoiai aei o?aoueiai), a o noae? 14O2AI? a oiio ae 50-a?aaeoniiio ?ioa?aae? (1100-11500N) - ia o?noue iiia??a. Oaeei /eiii, ca oaiiii ?inoo ca?ia aonoai?oo (?CA) o aocueeiio ?ioa?aae? ti1 -te1 noaeue 14O2AI? iaa?oue ia?aaeuo? noaeue ANoCni (?en.1). E?aii?eia?aaioeaaa noaeue 09A2N oaeiae ia? oa?aeoa?i? ?ioa?aaee oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oiiai ca?ia, oi/a “ii?iae” ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo ia ae?aaeathoueny oae yaii. I?e oeueiio, yeui aaaaeaoe iciaeith “ii?iaa” iiyao ??ciica?ienoino?, oi aeey noae? 09A2N oaiia?aoo?a ti1 a?aeiia?aea? 10250N. Aoaeo iayaiino? “ii?iaa” ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo ca?ia o aoae?aaeueieo noaeae iaoiiaeaiee aieeaii aenieeo oaiia?aoo? ia oaeaee?noue aeenioe?aoe?? /anoeiie i?ii?aeieo oac, ye? cao?eiothoue ia?aa?a cae?aeueii? ?ae?enoaeecaoe??. A i??o ?ic/eiaiiy aeacaieo /anoeiie c?inoa? i?ae/anoeiia a?aenoaiue, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?ioaineaiiai no?ae/anoiiiae?aiiai ?CA. I?aeoe/ii o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae (a oiio /ene? ? a noae? 14O2AI?) ia?o? iciaee ??ciica?ienoino? aeyaeythoueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 900-9500N, ui, i/aaeaeii, iaoiiaeaia ?ic/eiaiiyi ea?aii?o?eae?a, noeueo?ae?a ? nee?eao?a, i?ioa aoaeo aaeuei?aii? ae?? oa?i?/ii a?eueo no?eeeo /anoie i?o?eae?a ? ieneae?a ? i?aaaethth/ei. Aiane?aeie ?ic/eiaiiy aeeth/aiue ia a?aieoeyo aonoai?oieo ca?ai inoaii? caaaa/othoueny, cie?aia, aoiiaie e?aii?th ? n??ee, iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieie, ye ? ?ii?ciaai? aoiie aoaeaoeth, aiane?aeie /iai i?ae ieie aeieeathoue ?acoeueooth/? neee a?aeooiaooaaiiy (oa?iiaeeiai?/ia aeoeai?noue aoaeaoeth c?inoa?),- c a?aieoeue ca?ai aonoai?oo aoaeaoeue, i?e?iaeii, a?aeo?niy?oueny a aeeaeio. Noai?ththoueny iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ooai?aiiy ooo i?e aa?ooaaii? n?oee iaaei??iiai ia??aiiaaaeiiai oa?eoo. Oaeei /eiii, e?aii?e o aoae?aaeueieo noaeyo a ?noioi?e i??? i?eaeooo? noeeuei?noue aei ia?aa??ao ?, cie?aia, i?iyaeaiiy ?ioaineaiiai no?ae/anoiiiae?aiiai ?inoo, onoaa? iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy i?e ioieiaeaeaii? iaoaeii?ieaoo a?aeiaiooaooiai? no?oeoo?e. A ?iaio? iaea?aeai? cia/aiiy oaa?aeino?, ui iathoue iae?i?ei? caeaaeiino?, ii yeeo aoee anoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo? aonoai?oecaoe??. Aecia/aii aieea oaiia?aoo? iaa??aaiiy ia ci?io i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia?oaineoo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo ? nooiaiy aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e iaoiaeaie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, ye? a cia/i?e i??? aieeaathoue ia aeanoeaino? on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae. Aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ci?ie aaee/eie ca?ai aonoai?oo aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae aaaeeeai aeey iaa?oioiaaiiai i?ecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo? iaa??aaiiy i?e oa?i?/i?e ? OII. Aiae?coth/e oe? caeaaeiino?, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue oaa?aeino?, i?e?ioaa?aeino? ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e, a oaeiae aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaei??th c iniiaieo aeiia aei aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ? ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ii? a`yceino? ? iii?o a`yceiio ? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiiyi, aeey eiaeii? c aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae ia?ai? eiie?aoi? oaiia?aoo?i? ?ioa?aaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaea?eueo ae??aiica?ienoei noaiii aonoai?oo. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? oaiia?aoo?e aonoai?oecaoe?? ia i?ioeane ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo, ci?io ia?aiao??a i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae i?e iaa??aaii? ? ioieiaeaeai?. Noaa?e?caoe?y ?ici???a aonoai?oiiai ca?ia noaeae i?e ie?aiiio iaa??aaii? iia”ycaia c aaeuei?aiei aieeaii /anoie i?ii?aeieo oac ? iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue, aaiacen, ii?oieia?y ? ?iciiae?e yeeo iaoiiaeai? iaoaeo?a?eiith niaaeeia?noth noae?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oo i?e iaa??aaii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae ??ciiai neeaaeo aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii i?ecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy i?ae aa?y/o aeaoi?iaoe?th. A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a ?acoeueoao? eaaoaaiiy aai i?e?ieaaoaaiiy i?ia??i ? aaiaae??i oa canoinoaaiiy EI, ?I, OCIE, aai OII c II. Iaaaaeai? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue: ii aea/aiith aieeao nooiaiy ?aciaiai iaoeneo a?ae 10 aei 70% ? noia?ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a 60-70% ia ci?io ia?aiao??a aonoai?oo (oaae.7, ?en.3), i?e?ioaa?aeino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo (?en.2), nooiaiy aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e (iaoiaeaie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai (oaae.11-13) ? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai aiae?c?a) ? o.ae. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia?aiao??a OII (noia?ieo iaoene?a o iaaieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ?ioa?aaeao, oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ney aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?i. oaeoi??a), aeei?enoiaoaaee eeeiiiiae?ai? c?acee, ia?aaaaa yeeo i/aaeaeia: ca iaeei oeeee i?ieaoee iiaeia iaea?aeaoe aaio ?c caaeaieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie ia aeineoue i?ioyaei?e aeiaaeei? c?acea c iaeii/aniith ioe?ieith oaoiieia?/ii? ieanoe/iino?. Aa??thaaiiy oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy c?ace?a c iaeiaeiaith e?ioeaaith oiaueiith i?ney i?ieaoee a ae?aiacii? a?ae 0,5 aei 2000/n caaacia/oaaee canoinoaaiiyi ??cieo aa?o?aieo na?aaeiaeu: aiaee eei'y/i? ? c e?iiaoiith oaiia?aoo?ith, ianea oaoi?/iiai, aiaeiiai ?ic/eio eooiiii? nie? c eiioeaio?aoe??th 15%, a /anoeio c?ace?a ioieiaeaeoaaee ia niie?eiiio iia?o??. Aeoiaey/e c i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeai?o iioei?ciaaieo oaiia?aoo? iaa??aaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ae??aiica?ienoiio noaio aonoai?oo ? iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy aenieiaoaeoeaii? ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? ci?oeiaiiy aoae?aaeueieo noaeae, yea aeei?enoiao? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea? oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? OCII, aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo noai?a AeOI i?iaiaeeee ca oaeeie ?aaeeiaie: - oaiia?aoo?e aonoai?oecaoe?? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey eiaeii? ?c noaeae aea?ai? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 850-1250°N oaeei /eiii, uia a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo aiie a?aeiia?aeaee caii?iaiaiio e?oiiica?ienoiio noaio aonoai?oo, a ?ioiio aeiaaeeo - ia?aaeii?iaiaiio ae??aiica?ienoiio noaio. Aeey ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a /anoeio ea?oie aonoai?oecoaaee ? i?aeaeaaaee aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, ye? iaea?eueo /anoi canoiniaothoueny ia IE, ?, ye i?aaeei, iaiaa?oioiaaii caieaeothoueny. *anoeio ea?oie ?c noaeae 09A2OA, 14O2AI? ? 15A2AOAein ioieiaeaeoaaee c i?//th a?ae oaiia?aoo? aonoai?oecaoe?? a (+(-iaeanoue ? i?aeaeaaaee aeaoi?iaoe?? oa II ca aeacaieie ieae/a ?aaeeiaie. Nooi?iue aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey an?o noaeae ci?ithaaee a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 10 aei 70% (ca iaeei i?io?ae); i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eio aeaea?aeeo - a?ae 0 aei 15 n; i?ney aeaoi?iaoe?? ea?oee i?aeaeaaaee II a ?ioa?aae? oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy a?ae e?eueeio a?aaeon?a ca oaeeeio aei 2000/n; a?aeioneaee i?ioyaii aiaeeie i?e 550-6700N a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo noae? ? iio??aiiai ??aiy aeanoeainoae. Aeey ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a /anoeio ea?oie ioieiaeaeoaaee ia iia?o?? ? i?aeaeaaaee aa?ooaaiith c ie?aiiai iaa??aaiiy. Aea/aiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ca aeiiiiiaith "Ai?eaaio" aeicaieeei ii??aiyoe ia?aiao?e no?oeoo?iiai noaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII aeea. ?en.2-3, oaae.7-10. Iaoiaeeea ia?aooaaiiy ?CA ? oa?eoo, a oaeiae i?ioeaioiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oac (oa?eoo, i?iaeoeo?a i?ii?aeiiai ? ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiue) aoea noaiaea?oiith. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ? noaoenoeee, ia/eneeee na?aaei?e ae?aiao? ca?ia, i?ioeaio ?iia??iino? ca?ia aeaiiai ?ici??o, na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy, aeenia?n?th, eiao?oe??ioe ??ciica?ienoino? ? ia??aiia?niino? ca?ia. A ?iaio? iiaeai? caeaaeiino? ci?ie i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia?oaineoo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? OCII ? OII (?en.2). Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a aonoai?oiiai ca?ia (oaae.7) ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeaieo noaeae aeicaiey? ia?aoe iioei?ciaai? ?aaeeie OCII ? OII c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy i?ieaoo ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie. Aeoiaey/e c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo, iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iioeiaeuei? oiiae ia?iaee aoae?aaeueieo noaeae, ye? iaiao?aeii ooi/ithaaoe o aeine?aeiiio ii?yaeeo ia iayaiiio ia IE onoaoeoaaii?. Ca?eueoaiiy aa?oino? aia?a?? ? o?eaath/? ni?iae cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?ecaaee aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioa?ano aei iaea?aeaiiy iio??aieo aeanoeainoae aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? (AAe) ?, ioaea, aei iiaeeeaino? oieeiooe ianooiii? oa?iiia?iaee, oaei? ye ii?iae?caoe?y aai aa?ooaaiiy ? a?aeione. I?eeeaaeii ? eiio?ieueiaaia ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae ? aa?ooaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo noaeae aaciina?aaeiuei c oaiia?aoo?e AAe. Aoee aea/ai? yaeua, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a i?ioean? ? i?ney AAe, oae? ye ?ae?enoae?caoe?y, ??no ca?ai, ia?aoai?aiiy aonoai?oo o oa?eo, a oaeiae aieea eaaoth/eo aeiaaaie ia oe? yaeua. Aeae i?e?ino?oeoo?e a?aeia?aaea? an? yaeua, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a i?ioean? AAe ? ianooiiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy, oae? ye ?ae?enoae?caoe?y ? iiai?io aeaoi?iiaaii? no?oeoo?e, ??no ca?ai i?ney ?ae?enoae?caoe??, a oaeiae caeaaei?noue yaeu, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, a?ae aeo?aeiiai ?ici??o ca?ia ? ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??, ?aciaiai iaoeneo, oaiia?aoo?e ia?aae iaoeneii, oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ney aeaoi?iaoe?? ? i?e ia?aoiae? /a?ac oaiia?aoo?o ia?aoai?aiiy (oaae. 7-10). Iniiaiei iaaeie?eii noaiaea?oieo aoaeaoeaaeo ? iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae c oi/ee ci?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo EI, yea caaacia/o? cae??aiaiiy ca?ia oa?eoo, ? iaiioeiaeueia ?icoaooaaiiy e?eoe/ieo oi/ie ia?aoai?aiiy ? ?ae?enoae?caoe??, ui iaiaaeo? oaoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy EI, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaia noeeuei?noue aei ?CA i?e iaa??aaii? ? a i?aeaeaoi?iaoe?eieo iaocao. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a OII iaoiiaeaia, a ia?oo /a?ao, iaiao?aei?noth iaea?aeaiiy ia?aoai?aiiyi iaeiiai c aeaio oei?a no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo: ?ae?enoae?ciaaii? ae??aiica?ienoi? /e aeaoi?iiaaii?, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith aoaeoeaiith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath aonoai?oo. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi OII aoei ?icoe?aiiy iaeano? iiaiiai ia?aa?ao ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo ? aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai ca?ia. O ae?oaii - iaaiaee, ?icoe?aiiy iaeano? aaeueioaaiiy ?ae?enoae?caoe??. Ia?aiao?e OII, EI aai ?I aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae ia?ai? oaeei /eiii, uia ioe?ieoe aieea eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? ?aaeeio i?ieaoee ia o?e i?ioeane: ??no ca?ia aonoai?oo (oaiia?aoo?a ii/aoeo ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo -ti1); ?ae?enoae?caoe?th aonoai?oo (oaiia?aoo?o coieiee ?ae?enoae?caoe?? - tp); ia?aoai?aiiy aonoai?oo. Aaaeeeaei aoaeoii i?e?ieaaoaaiiy, iai?eeeaae i?ia??i, noae? ui i?aeaea?oueny EI aai OII, ? noaa?e?caoe?y i?ioean?a no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a aonoai?o?. Aeacaiee aoaeo iaoiiaeaiee i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e coieiaiiy ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aei 900-9250N, o ca`yceo c /ei cia/ii ?icoe?th?oueny iaeanoue i?ae Ar3 ? tp, a ye?e i?ieaoea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaeeaio aonoai?oo a i?ioean? AAe ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaii? ieoiii? iiaa?oi? aonoai?oo. O noae? 09A2N, iai?eeeaae, a?eueoa /anoeia oeueiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiia?aea? iaeano? /anoeiai? ?ae?enoae?caoe??, ui cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue cae??aeaiiy ca?ia ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ciica?ienoino?. O ca`yceo c oeei, a ?iaio? i?ae?a?aii oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e i?ieaoee aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae oaeei /eiii, uia oieeiooe oiia ia?aa?ao /anoeiai? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo (aeea. ?en.3). Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?acoeueoaoii iaeii/aniiai iie?ioaiiy i?oeiino? ? a`yceino? i?e OII aai a i?ioean? eiio?ieueiaaii? AAe ? cae??aiaiiy ca?ia, ine?eueee aiii i?ecaiaeeoue aei noai?aiiy ae??aiica?ienoi? ?ae?enoae?ciaaii? no?oeoo?e aai iaea?aeaiiy ae??aiica?ienoi? aeoyaiooi? ia?ae?enoae?ciaaii? no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo c aenieith ueeuei?noth oaeeo aeaoaeo?a no?oeoo?e, ye aeeneieaoe??, noaa?aieoe? ? aeaoi?iaoe?ei? nioae, oeyoii ea?iaaii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a iaeano? aaeueioaaiiy i?ioeano ciai?oeithaaiiy. A iaio aeiaaeeao aeinyaa?oueny aaeeea ieoiia iiaa?oiy a?aieoeue ca?ai aonoai?oo, ui caaacia/o? oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy oeaio??a e?enoae?caoe?? i?e ianooiiiio eiai ia?aoai?aii?. Aea/aii aieea AAe ia e?iaoeeo ia?aoai?aiiy aonoai?oo a oiiaao aacia?a?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui AAe ia? neeaaeiee aieea ia e?iaoeeo ia?aoai?aiue aonoai?oo ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaea ye i?enei?thaaoe, oae ? aaeueioaaoe eiai ?iciaae. A?aeiii, ui ??aaiue aia?a?? A?aana aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai aonoai?oo caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy caaa?oaiiino? i?ioean?a ciai?oeithaaiiy aei iiiaioo ?iciaaeo ? aecia/a? oa?aeoa? ? eeiaoeeo ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aia?a?? A?aana aonoai?oo i?ae aieeaii aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae ? a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeaeuaiiy aia?a?? A?aana oa??oo ca ?aooiie oniaaeeoaaiiy /anoeie aeaoaeo?a aonoai?oo, ye? ooai?eeeny a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe??. AAe i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao (1150-10500N) ?i?oe?th? aeae?eaiiy ea?aii?o?eaeieo oac a aonoai?o?. *anoee, ui aeae?eythoueny a oeeo oiiaao, ?ici??ii 10-25 ii ia iathoue i???ioaoe?eiiai ca”yceo c iao?eoeath. Aiie ni?eythoue cae??aiaiith ca?ia, oiia?eueiththoue ?ae?enoae?caoe?th aonoai?oo ? ? aeiaeaoeiaeie oeaio?aie ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? i?e ianooiiiio ia?aoai?aii?. Oaeei /eiii, yeui iniiaiith aeiiaith aei noae? ? aeniea oaea?ia a”yce?noue i?e aeinoaoi?e i?oeiino?, oi aeioe?eueii aieeaaoe aeaoi?iaoe??th, ia?o ca ana, ia ciai?oeithth/? i?ioeane a aonoai?o?, ia aeiiaaath/enue cia/iiai i?iyaeaiiy aeenia?n?eiiai oaa?aeiaiiy. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaa??aaiiy i?ae i?ieaoeo ne?ae aanoe aei iiaeeeai a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, a aeaoi?iaoe?th cae?i/oaaoe ia ieae/a 8000N. I?e ioieiaeaeaii? ia iia?o?? i?ney cae?i/aiiy AAe a noae? ANo3 oi?io?oueny oa?eoii-ia?e?oia no?oeoo?a c ??ciei nooiaiai aeenia?niino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo. Aeey oaiia?aoo? aeaoi?iaoe??, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue e?oiiica?ienoiio noaio aonoai?oo, aeey an?o nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o?? oa?aeoa?ia a?oaiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaia oa?eoii-ia?e?oia no?oeoo?a. Cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? OII c ianooiiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi ia iia?o?? ia i?iy? oa?aeoa?o no?oeoo?e iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae? ANo3. I?ioa, ye iieacothoue e?euee?ni? aei??thaaiiy aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e na?aaei?e oiiaiee ae?aiao? ca?ai oa?eoo, a oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ciaiueoo?oueny a?ae 15-16 aei 10-14 iei, a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaith aeaoi?iaoe??. Iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a iaeanoue ae??aiica?ienoiai (aeiii?iai?iai) noaio aonoai?oo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ?CA a?ae 8 aei 9,9 iei. Ca?ii aonoai?oo noaeae 09A2OA, 16A2AO i?ney ?I oa EI oaeiae ciaiueoo?oueny a?ae 8-9 aei 6-7 ? aei 4,5-5,5 iei oa a?ae 8-10 aei 5,5-7,5 ? aei 5-6 iei i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 1150 aei 1050 ? aei 920iN, a?aeiia?aeii, oa c?inoaii? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe??. I?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy a i?ioean? OCII nooo?ai i?iy? oa?aeoa? no?oeoo?e. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy, nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? ? o?eaaeino? i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eii? aeo?eiee no?oeoo?a noae? ANo3ni oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth o??? /e ?ioi? e?eueeino? iaaei??iiai ia??aiiaaaeiiai oa?eoo, ae?eyiie c i?iaeoeoaie iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai iie?ii?oiiai ia?aoai?aiiy (ia?oaineoo ? aaei?oo), a oaeiae - eaac?aaoaeoi?aeo. A ?iaioi i?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? ci?ie i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia?oaineoo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe??, a oaeiae o?eaaeino? i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eii? aeaea?aeee i?ney oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ? II on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae. Oe? caeaaeiino? oaeiae iae?i?ei? ? nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae noaio aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai aonoai?oo. I?e iaa??aaii? aei 1000-12000N noaeae c iaaaeeeeie aeiaaaeaie aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th, ye? ooai?ththoue aeenia?ni? aeae?eaiiy ea?aii?o?eae?a, a oiio /ene? ia?aae AAe, /anoeia c ieo ?ic/eith?oueny a aonoai?o?, a i?e ianooiiiio ioieiaeaeaii? ? iie?ii?oiiio ia?aoai?aii? aeae?ey?oueny ciiao o aeaeyae? /anoie ?ici??aie a?ae 1 aei 100 ii. Oe? /anoee cia/ii ci?oeiththoue iaoae, i?aeaeuoth/e a?aieoeth oaeo/ino? ia 150-200 I/ii2. I?ioa oieiaeino?ee?noue oaei? noae?, yea aecia/a?oueny ii /anoei? aieieia o ceii?, aeyaey?oueny cieaeaiith. OII c aeaoi?iaoe??th ia 10-70% i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai cae??aiaiiy ca?ai aonoai?oo ?, ye iane?aeie, oa?eoo, ui ooai?th?oueny c iueiai. Oaea cae??aiaiiy ca?ia caaacia/o?oueny /anoeaie ea?aii?o?eae?a ?ici??aie i?ae 5 ? 100 ii, ui ooai?ththoueny c ia?aiane/aiiai aonoai?oo a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ioieiaeaeaiiy, ? a ?acoeueoao? eiaaoeyoe?? i?e iaa??aaii? ua a?eueo ae??aieo /anoie, ui aeaeieeeeny o oa?eo?. Oe? /anoee ae?thoue ye aeiaeaoeia? oeaio?e e?enoae?caoe?? i?e ia?aoiae? /a?ac An1, a oaeiae ye aeeth/aiiy, ui cieaeothoue noia?io aia?a?th a?aieoeue, aea ?yae aeine?aeiee?a aaaeathoue, ui oeaio?aie e?enoae?caoe?? neoaeaoue ia nai? /anoee, a ?io? aeaiaioe no?oeoo?e, aeenia?aoaaiith yeeo ni?eythoue ea?aii?o?eaee i?e iiia?aaei?e AAe. Iniaeea?noth aieeao aeenia?nieo aeae?eaiue ea?aii?o?eae?a o i?ioean? OII i?e cieaeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao ? nooo?aa oiia?eueiaiiy i?ioean?a ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeaoi?iiaaiiai aonoai?oo. Ooai?aiith aeenia?nii? e?ioeaai? no?oeoo?e a noaeyo 15A2AOAein ? 16A2AO o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ni?ey? aeieeiaiiy o aeno?aei?e no?oeoo?? aaeeei? e?eueeino? oeaio??a e?enoae?caoe??. OCII ? OII c ioieiaeaeaiiyi ia iia?o?? oa?eoii-ia?e?oieo noaeae a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? ae??aiica?ienoiai aonoai?oo ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ci?oeiaiiy noae? a ii??aiyii? c aa?y/aeaoaiei noaiii (a?aieoey oaeo/ino? c?inoa? ia 40-50 I/ii2), aea cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?o ieanoe/i?noue, a'yce?noue ? oieiaeino?ee?noue. Aeaoi?iaoe?y a i?ioean? OCII ? i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae aeeeeeathoue ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiane/aiiy aoaeaoeai oa?eoo, yeee ooai?th?oueny, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ci?iith eiai i?e?ioaa?aeino?. Oiio a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii, a ye?e i??? i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ney OII iiaea iaoe aieea ia i?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?iaeoeo?a ?iciaaeo aonoai?oo. I?e?ioaa?ae?noue iaaei??iiai oa?eoo ?inoa a ?acoeueoao? oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy. sseui a aa?y/aeaoaiiio noai? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeueoa-oace, iai?eeeaae noae? 15A2AOAein, noaiiaeoue 1540-2100 I/ii2 (iaea?eueo /anoi cono??/a?oueny cia/aiiy 1820 I/ii2), oi i?ney ?I aiia i?aeaeueeanue aei I0,196 1750-2600 I/ii2. Ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ney OCII i?ecaiaeeoue aei ye?nii? ci?ie oa?aeoa?o no?oeoo?e aeine?aeaeoaaii? noae? 15A2AOAein. O i?ioean? i?ieaoee oa?eoii-ia?e?oieo noaeae a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? ae??aiica?ienoiai aonoai?oo c aeaoi?iaoe??th o 10-70% ? i?enei?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy a noae? oi?iothoue ci?oaio no?oeoo?o: iaaei??iee (ia??aiiaaaeiee) oa?eo, i?iaeoeoe i?ii?aeiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? ?aeeiaee aeeneieaoe?eiee iaeaoiee ia?oaineo. Iaaei??iee oa?eo aeae?ey?oueny i?e ioieiaeaeaii? noae? 15A2AOAein a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aonoai?oecaoe??, a ianooii? ?ioaineai? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e cieaeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao a i?ioean? ?I ?i?oe?thaaee eiai aeae?eaiiy ii a?aieoeyo eieeoi?o aonoai?oieo ca?ai ? nioaao aeaoi?iaoe??. I?ney AOII ? i?enei?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy noaeue i?noeoue ??cio e?euee?noue iaaei??iiai oa?eoo (a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaith aeaoi?iaoe??), yeee aeae?eeany ii iaaeao eieeoi?o aonoai?oieo ca?ai ? ia nioaao aeaoi?iaoe??, i?iaeoeoe i?ii?aeiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? iecueeiaoaeaoeaaee ?aeeiaee aeeneieaoe?eiee ia?oaineo. Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeei?a ci?oeiaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o noae? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith ia? oaoiieia?y ?? ae?iaieoeoaa. Inoaii?i /anii aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eythoue ?aaoethaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?e noae? e?iaoeeith oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue ia aoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy aa?y/aeaoaiiai eenoa i?ney i?ieaoee. II eeno?a i?ney ?I aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe a ?? i?e?ino?oeoo?? ae??aiica?ieno? oa?eo ? aaei?o, caaaeyee /iio a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo caaacia/o?oueny aenieee eiiieaen aeanoeainoae noae?. I?e oeueiio i?aeaeuai? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy ?iaeyoue iiaeeeaei ae?iaieoeoai eeno?a oiaueiith 6-30 ii ? a?eueoa ?c noaeae c Caea iaioa 0,36. I?aeaeuaiiy aiiiaaiiino? iaoaeo ? a?aenooi?noue nioaanoino? a?aecia/aii a i?ieao? i?ney ioieiaeaeaiiy eiai aei 4000N ?c oaeaee?noth 10-250/n. Oaoiieia?/i? aa??aioe aeaioiaeaiiy eeno?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue II i?ney ?o AAe, iieacaee cia/ia ciaioaiiy ?iceeaeo aeanoeainoae ii aeiaaeei? ?iceaoo - ii /aniaiio iii?o eiai a?aeoeeaiiy ia ia?aaeuoaaee 40 I/ii2 (i?e cae/aei?e oaoiieia?? - 90 I/ii2). Oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa eeno?a ?c noaeae EI a?aeiia?aeathoue e?auei na?oiaei iieacieeai a iaeano? na??eieo oaoiieia?/ieo oeeee?a. Oaiia?aoo?e noaiiaeyoue: iaa??aaiiy aeno?aeieo neya?a 11500N, /i?iiai? i?ieaoee - 1100-9500N, ii/aoeo /enoiai? i?ieaoee 830-8000N. Aeo?eiea ? caaa?oaiiy aeaoi?ioaaiiy a i?aee?eoe/i?e iaeano? cae?eniththoueny i?e 740-6800N ?c noia?iei nooiaiai iaoeneo ia /enoia?e noaae?? 60-70%. I?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? ci?ie oaa?aeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae a i?ioean? OCII ? OII a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaith aeaoi?iaoe??, a?ae nooiaith aeaoi?iaoe?? ? o?eaaeino? i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eii? aeaea?aeee, a oaeiae - caeaaeiino? ci?ie ia?aiao??a aonoai?oieo ca?ai, oaeeo ye: na?aaei?e ae?aiao? ca?ai aiiia?ae ? acaeiaae iai?yieo aeaoi?iaoe??, na?aaei?e oiiaiee ae?aiao? ca?ai aonoai?oo(oaae.7, ?en.3), eiao?oe??io?a ??ciica?ienoino? aiiia?ae (Eia) ? ii iai?yieo (Eaa) aeaoi?iaoe??, a oaeiae eiao?oe??io ia??aiia?niino? Eo ca?ai, yeee aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ae?aiao??a ca?ai acaeiaae ? aiiia?ae iai?yieo aeaoi?iaoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aeaoi?iaoe?y noai?th? a aonoai?o? ? a oaea aeae?eaiiio iaaei??iiio oa?eo? no?oeoo?o c a?eueo aenieith caaaeueiith u?euei?noth iaaeineiiaeinoae aoaeiae aiane?aeie iaeeaio, ye? ? caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy noano?oeoo?ieo iiaoaeia i?e ianooiiiio aacaeeooc?eiiio ia?aoai?aii? aonoai?oo a ia?oaineo ? oniaaeeoaaii? aeacaieo aeua aeaoaeo?a ia?oaineoii, yeee, o ca'yceo c oeei, ia? i?aeaeuaio i?oei?noue ? ieanoe/i?noue. Iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei ci?oeiaiiy a i?ioean? OII ? AOII aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ? ca?eueoaiiy aeenia?niino? ia?oaineoieo ieanoei, yea yaii niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney OII ? AOII aiane?aeie cae??aiaiiy aeno?aeiiai aonoai?oiiai ca?ia. I?ioa, - i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? noaeae ia aa?oi iia'ycoaaoe o?eueee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi i?ioyaeiino? a?aieoeue, ye? aeieothoue ?oo aeeneieaoe?e: i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aonoai?oo i?ioean eiacaiiy ? aioo??ca?iiaei, oiio iaeio c iniiaieo ?ieae i?e ci?oeiaii? aoae?aaeueieo noaeae a?ae?a?athoue a?aieoe? aeie?a, o?aaiaio?a, iie?aii?a ? eii??ie, a ia o?eueee a?aieoe? ca?ai. Iieacaii, ui OII aeine?aeaeaieo noaeae ca iioei?ciaaieie ?aaeeiaie ii?yae ?c ci?oeiaiiyi i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? e?eoeino?, yea iia'ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi o no?oeoo?? aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai aonoai?oo noano?oeoo?e, oniaaeeiaoaaii? e?ioeaaei no?oeoo?iei noaiii i?e ioieiaeaeaii?. ?aae?caoe?y noano?oeoo?iiai iaoai?cio ci?oeiaiiy a ?acoeueoao? aeai?o iioeiaeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?eii-oa?i?/ieo ? /aniaeo ia?aiao??a ia?iaee caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy a aoae?aaeueieo noaeyo aeineiiaei? noaca?iiai? no?oeoo?e, a ?acoeueoao? /iai i?ieao ia? a?eueo aenie? ??ai? i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?, a'yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? iaeii/anii. Caaaeath/?, ui cia/i? ci?ie aeanoeainoae aecia/athoueny oa?aeoa?ii no?oeoo?e, aoei aeine?aeaeaii e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o noaeae 09A2OA oa 14O2AI? i?ney ??cieo oa?i?/ieo ? iaoai?ei-oa?i?/ieo ae?e a i?ioean? OCII ? OII. Oiieo no?oeoo?o noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii i?ina?/oth/i? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? i?e i?enei?thth/?e iai?oc? 100 eA. I?ney aa?ooaaiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy 11500N a noae? 09A2OA oi?io?oueny e?eueea no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, a o. /. ? ia?aeaeueieo iaeia iaei?e aeiaaeo ?aeie-e?enoae?a (-oace. Oiaueia e?enoae?a aeinyaa? a na?aaeiueiio 2-3 iei, ui iathoue i?aeoe/ii iaeia i???iooaaiiy. Non?aei? e?enoaee neaai ?ici???ioiaai? iaeei a?aeiinii iaeiiai. Ana?aaeei? ?aeie niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaia u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e (a iaaeao 109-1010 ni-2). Ia ae?eyieao c a?eueo iecueeith u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?e aeaei? ae??ai? /anoee aeae?eaiue eiiieaenieo ea?aii?o?eae?a aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th, iae/ano?oa ie?oaei? oi?ie, ?ici??ii 20-40 ii. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth i?e?ino?oeoo?e noae? 09A2OA i?ney aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aonoai?oecaoe?? ? i?enei?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy, yea neeaaea?oueny a iniiaiiio c iaeao?a e?oiieo ?aeeiaeo e?enoae?a, ? i?enooi?noue oaeiae ? aeenia?nieo ino??aoe?a aenieiaoaeaoeaaiai ia?oaineoo ?ici??ie 2-3 iei. Iaaeiei ieo aeyaeai? ae?eyiee oa?eoo c i?aeaeuaiith u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?e. E?enoaee ia?oaineoo iathoue e?iciiiae?aio oi?io ? ooai?ththoue oa?iiiiae?ai? ainaiae?. E?enoaee neeaaeathoueny c ia/ie oiieeo aea?eiee?a ia?oaineoo c aaa?oonii (259)-aaiia. Ii?oieia?y, aioo??oiy aoaeiaa ? aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy oeeo e?enoae?a ia?oaineoo na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aiie ooai?eeeny a iaeanoyo aonoai?oo, iane/aieo aoaeaoeai aei aaoaeoi?aeiiai noaio, - ia?a?iciiae?e aoaeaoeth ia?aaeoaaa ? coiiaea ooai?aiiy e?enoae?a ieanoei/anoiai ia?oaineoo. Ino??aee ia?oaineoo (259) cono??/athoueny oaeiae i?ae e?enoaeaie aaei?oo ia aie/anoi? oi?ie,- oaeaeoa anueiai ooo ooai?th?oueny ca?ienoee aaei?o - oaiia?aoo?a eiai ooai?aiiy aeaui aeua, i?ae o aie/anoeo e?enoae?a. E??i aa?oiueiai aaei?oo, a no?oeoo?? noae? 09A2OA i?ney aa?ooaaiiy c tc=11500N ooai?ththoueny aaeee? ae?eyiee iaeaoiiai ia?oaineoo. C aiae?co aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo ci?ie?a aeaeii, ui iaeaoe neeaaeathoueny c aeiaaeo ia?oaineoieo e?enoae?a, ia?aeaeueieo iaeei iaeiiio c oiaueiith a?ey 0,2-0,4 iei. I?ioa, cono??/athoueny e?enoaee oiaueiith aei 1 iei. U?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e a ieo cia/ii aeua, i?ae o aa?oiueiio aaei?o?, /anoee ea?aii?o?eae?a ia niinoa??aathoueny. Iiaeeeai, aiie ia anoeaathoue aeae?eyoeny /a?ac aeineoue iecueeo oaiia?aoo?o ooai?aiiy iaeaoiiai ia?oaineoo. Aiae?c oiiei? no?oeoo?e noae? 09A2OA i?ney ta=11500N, aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ieaoeith ia 10-70% o ieaei?e /anoei? (-iaeano? (a iaeano? a?aenooiino? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo) ? a IE? c ianooiiei i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi iieacaa, ui a aeine?aeaeoaai?e noae? niinoa??aathoueny a iniiaiiio o? ae no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia?, ui e i?ney cae/aeiiai aa?ooaaiiy. I?ioa, aeaoi?iaoe?y i?e a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao a ieaei?e /anoei? (-iaeano? ? IE? aiineoue iii?oio ci?io o no?oeoo?o c cia/iei aeenia?aoaaiiyi on?o no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo. E?euee?noue e?oiieo ia?aeaeueieo ?aeie aa?oiueiai aaei?oo ciaioo?oueny. Ia?aaaaeathoue ia/ee a?eueo oiieeo ? a?eueo ei?ioeeo e?enoae?a aa?oiueiai aaei?oo. Ino??aoe? aoa?i?/iiai ? iaeaoe ?aeeiaiai ia?oaineoo oaeiae ae??ai?o?. Niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo ?ioaineaia aeae?eaiiy ie?oaeeo ea?aii?o?eae?a aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th. Aeaye? a?aieoe? i?ae e?enoaeaie iathoue aeineoue iai?aaeeueio ceacaaiiiae?aio oi?io. Oea iia'ycaii c aaeueioaaiiyi ? coieieith ae?eyiie a?aieoe? ia a?eueo e?oiieo /anoeao. I?aeaeuaiiy nooiaith noia?ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaii? noae? a (((-iaeano? a?ae 15-20 aei 50-70% oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei cae??aiaiiy e?enoae?a aaei?oo ? iaeaoiiai ia?oaineoo. I?ioa, aeaoi?iaoe?y aeno?aeiiai aonoai?oo ciaioo? ?ieoaaoe?eiee ia??iae aeeooc?eiiai (((-ia?aoai?aiiy ? aeeeeea? iiyao ca?ai iie?aae?e/iiai oa?eoo. A oeeo ca?iao /anoeiee ea?aii?o?eae?a a?eueo e?oii?, i?ae o non?aei?o e?enoaeao aaei?oo c a?eueo aenieith, i?ae o oa?eo?, u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?e. Oae? ci?ie a no?oeoo?? iiyniththoue aeayeo ci?io aeanoeainoae noae? 09A2OA i?e ca?eueoaii? noia?iiai nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a?ae 15-20% aei 50-70%. I?e ioieiaeaeaii? ia iia?o?? i?ney EI ? ?I a IE? c aeaoi?iaoe??th a?ae 10 aei 70% o noae? 09A2OA ooai?th?oueny no?oeoo?a, yea neeaaea?oueny c iie?aae?e/iiai oa?eoo ? iaeanoae ?c ci?oaiith no?oeoo?ith, a yeeo oi?iothoueny eieii?? ia?e?oo c aeiaaeie ? oiieeie ieanoeiaie oeaiaioeoo. E??i ieanoei/anoiai ia?e?oo a /anoei? aonoai?oo, iaio caaaa/ai?e aoaeaoeai, a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aoai?aiiy a eaac?aaoaeoi?ae. Ooo o oa?eoi?e iao?eoe? ooai?ththoueny a?eueo a?oa? ? ei?ioe? ieanoeiee oeaiaioeoo c a?eueoith a?aenoaiith i?ae ieie, i?ae a ieanoei/anoiio ia?e?o?. Ca?eueoaiiy noia?iiai nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 45-70% ca?eueoo? e?euee?noue eaac?aaoaeoi?aeo a ii??aiyii? c aeaoi?iaoe??th ia 15-20%. I?ney aa?ooaaiiy ? OII a noae? 09A2OA oi?io?oueny ci?oaia no?oeoo?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c iaeao?a e?oiieo e?enoae?a aa?oiueiai aaei?oo c ino??aeaie aenieiaoaeaoeaaiai ia?oaineoo ? iaeanoae ?aeeiaiai ia?oaineoo. Aeaoi?iaoe?y aeno?aeiiai aonoai?oo i?ieaoeith a IE? aeeeeea? ci?io ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e: ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue e?oiieo ? aeiaaeo e?enoae?a aaei?oo ? ia?aaaaeathoue a?eueo ei?ioe? ? oiie? e?enoaee. A?aeaoaa?oueny cae??aiaiiy iaeao?a ?aeeiaiai ? ino?iaoe?a aioo??oiuei aea?eieeiaaiiai ia?oaineoo. Ca?eueoaiiy noia?iiai nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy a?ae 15-20% aei 45-70% aeeeeea? iiyao ca?ai iie?aae?e/iiai oa?eoo, ca ?aooiie /iai cieaeothoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino?. Iayai?noue ino??aoe?a aenieiaoaeaoeaaiai ia?oaineoo cieaeo? oa?aeoa?enoeee a'yceino? noae? 09A2OA i?ney aa?ooaaiiy ye c ie?aiiai, oae ? c i?ieaoiiai iaa??ao. Aa?ooaaiiy o aiae? a?ae oaiia?aoo? aonoai?oecaoe?? aac aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy a noae? 14O2AI? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai iaeaoiiai ia?oaineoo. Ia?oaineoi? e?enoaee e?enoaeia?ao?/ii iaaiei /eiii i???ioiaai? a?aeiinii aei aeno?aeiiai aonoai?oiiai ca?ia,- na?aaei?e oiiaiee ae?aiao? yeiai noaiiaeoue 14,1 iei, a eiao?oe??io ??ciica?ienoino? aei??aith? 0,48. Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ia 20% (ca iaeei i?io?ae) c iine?aeoth/ei II oi?io? noae? i???ioiaaio no?oeoo?o aeeneieaoe?eiiai ia?oaineoo c ii??aiyii aaeeeith i?ioyaei?noth iaeao?a. Aeieea? oyaeaiiy, ui i?e cnoaiiio i?ioean? ia?aaoaeiae ??aoie iaeaoe e?enoae?a ia?oaineoo a non?aei?o ni?eyoeeai i???ioiaaieo aonoai?oieo ca?iao ? i?ae i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iaeei iaeiiai. I?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ia 10-70% ? o?e aea oaiia?aoo?? c oi?iothoueny o aeaeyae? aeenia?aiaaieo aeae?eaiue ii??aiyii ??aiiaaaeii? oi?ie, ui ooai?ththoue ae??aiiaeenia?nio noi?o c iaaei??iei oa?eoii. I?ae /an ae?? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?c nooiaiai 10-70% ? i?ney ?? cae?i/aiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aoaeaoeth ?c caaaa/aiiyi eiai a ie?aieo i?e?iia'?iao ia iiiaeeiieo ieiueiao eiacaiiy, oiaoi a oe?eiio a?aeaoaa?oueny, naiai ?iaeo, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, yea iieaaoo? i?ci?oa aeae?eaiiy iaaei??iiai oa?eoo a i?e?iia'?iao, aea eiioeaio?aoe?y aoaeaoeth cieaeaia. Ia i?eeeaae? noaeae 09A2OA i 14O2AI? i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII, aeeiiai? ?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith aeyaeaiiy aca?iica'yceo i?ae iai?oaeaiei noaiii iaoaeo i?e iaaaioaaeaii?, ia?aiao?aie ia?iaee ? aeanoeainoyie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui OII ? AOII oi?iothoue e?enoaeia?ao?/io oaenoo?o a ia?oaineoieo ieanoeiao, yea oaeiae nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeanoeaino? noae? ? ?o ai?cio?ii?th. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aea?? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a OII (i?e aeineoue aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao aeaoi?iaoe??) aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe oaeiae ? iia? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee noaeae c aeoaeueiith no?oeoo?ith. Ca aeiiiiiaith o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ?aaeeio OII ? niaoe?aeueiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ieaoo c e?aii?eia?aaioeaai? noae? iiaeia iaea?aeaoe oa?eoio no?oeoo?o c ?cieueiaaieie ia?oaineoieie ino??aoeyie. O?i?/iee neeaae oe??? noae? i?e ioieiaeaeaii? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei iio??aiiai oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e, yea i?eaeecii ia 80% neeaaea?oueny c iie?aiiaeueiiai oa?eoo, ? oei naiei – aei caaaa/aiiy aoaeaoeai caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo, yeee iio?i i?e a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ia?aoai?th?oueny a ia?oaineo. A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? a?aeia?aaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy. Ia i?eeeaae? noaeae 09A2OA, 15A2AOAein ? 14O2AI? ?icaeyioo? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae a i?ioean? OCII ? OII c aeaoi?iaoe??th a ieaei?e /anoei? (-iaeano? ? IE?, ui caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy ci?oaieo no?oeoo?: iaaei??iiai oa?eoo, ae??aiiaeenia?niiai aaei?oo ? ia?oaineoo, ai?no ? ?iciiae?e yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaith aeaoi?iaoe??, o?eaaeino? i?neyaeaoi?iaoe?eii? aeo?eiee ? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy. I?e cae?eniaii? ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy iaea?aeaia cia/ia ci?ia no?oeoo?e, iai?eeeaae o noae? 14O2AI? - a?ae ia?oaineoii? (iiiaae 90%) i?ney AOII c aeaoi?iaoe??th ia 60% ca o?e i?ioiaee i?e 900-9500N ? II aei ci?oaii? oa?eoii-aaei?oii-ia?oaineoii? i?ney aeaoi?iaoe?? ia 60% i?e 750-8000N, i?ney aeaoi?iaoe?eii? aeo?eiee i?ioyaii 5 n ? II ieiaeaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciei ??aiai iaea?aeaieo aeanoeainoae. I?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae a ?acoeueoao? OCII ? OII iaoiiaeaia oe?eani?yiiaaieie ci?iaie a ?acoeueoao? AAe aonoai?oo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noai?aiiyi oa?i?/ii no?eei? iie?aii?ciaaii? noano?oeoo?e, yea ii?yae ?c caaaeueiei aeenia?aoaaiiyi no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, aecia/a? ? caaacia/o? caaaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino? aoae?aaeueieo noaeae. Aeinyaiaiiy a i?ieao? c aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae a ?acoeueoao? OCII ? OII aeacaiiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aa?aioo? aeinoaoith iaae?ei?noue, cia/ii ?icoe?th? iaeano? ?o iiaeeeaiai canoinoaaiiy ? caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy iaoaeiai?noeino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e. Aecia/aii aieea oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a OCII ? OII ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e. Aeine?aeaeai? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?e ?icoyaiaii?, ii?? a'yceiio ? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith, a oaeiae i?iaaaeai? o?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a EI, ?I, OII ? OCII c i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi. Ia?ai? iioei?ciaai? ia?aiao?e OCII ? OII noaeae aeey iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e. I?iaeaia ?oeioaaiiy iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e, aeaioiaeaieo c aenieii?oeieo noaeae, yaey? aeeeth/io aaaeeea?noue aeey aoae?aieoeoaa. I?aeoe/ii an? eiino?oeoe?? i?noyoue eiioeaio?aoi?e iai?oa aai oaoiieia?/iiai, aai eiino?oeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oiio iaeaaaeeea?oa oiiaa, a?ae yei? caeaaeeoue ?oeioaaiiy - ??aaiue e?eoe/ii? iai?oae a i?noeyo aeaoaeo?a ? eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oa, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ianoaa?eueiiai ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e. Oiio aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?aaeei?a ci?oeiaiiy ia ci?io o??ueiino?eeino? noaeae c a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? aei 600 I/ii2 ? a?eueoa. Cia/ia ci?oeiaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae a ?acoeueoao? AOII aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe a?eueo aeinoia??i? ?acoeueoaoe ii aecia/aiith o??ueiino?eeino? E1n, oae ye i?e oeueiio a?eueo iiaii aeio?eio?oueny oiiaa ieineiaeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a ono? o??ueie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny. Aeey ioe?iee o??ueiino?eeino? c a?eueo iecueeeie cia/aiiyie i?oeiino? aeei?enoaee iaoiae J-?ioaa?aea. Nooo?aith ia?aaaaith J-?ioaa?aea ? oa, ui a?i aeiionea? aeei?enoaiiy c?ace?a cia/ii iaioeo ?ici???a, i?ae o?, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey ioe?iee E1n. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aeine?aeaeoaai? noae? i?ney ?I ? AOII iathoue a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy a"yceino? ?oeioaaiiy E1n ? J1n, i?ae a a/e noai?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iieacothoue, ui i?ae cia/aiiyie a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ? o??ueiino?ee?noth niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue. Aeaeii, ui oa?iiiaoai?/ia ci?oeiaiiy ii iioei?ciaaieo ?aaeeiao i?e cia/iiio i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy i?oeiino? iaoiiaeth? ? aenie? cia/aiiy a'yceino? ?oeioaaiiy E1n, ui ia? i?noea iaeii/ania i?aeaeuaiiy a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ? E1n. Aeniea ii??i?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiith e?eoeeo o??uei a?oioo?oueny ia ni?eyoeeaiio noano?oeoo?iiio noai?, iaea?aeaiiio a ?acoeueoao? oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, OII ? AOII caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iinoi ? oaea?ii? a'yceino? ENU, ENV ? ENO (a iaeano? ci?oaieo ceii?a), oieiaeino?eeino? (O50 cieaeo?oueny a?ae -40...-50 aei -60...-80°N), a oaeiae nooo?ai ci?iththoue oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy, ca?eueoothoue e?euee?noue a'ycei? neeaaeiai? o ceii? c?ace?a ye a ii??aiyii? c aa?y/aeaoaiei noaiii, oae ? a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiith ia?iaeith. ?aaeeie oa?iiiaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? iaeii/anii i?aeaeuothoue ? ?? o??ueiino?ee?noue (oaae.14-15). A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei ci?oeiaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy aeenia?niino? ia?oaineoieo ? aaei?oieo ieanoei aiane?aeeii cae??aiaiiy aeno?aeiiai aonoai?oiiai ca?ia a i?ioean? OII ? EI. Oaeei /eiii, i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? iia"ycaia ?c ca?eueoaiiyi i?ioyaeiino? a?aieoeue, ye? aeieothoue ?oo aeeneieaoe?e, a oaeiae ?c ci?iaie a e?enoaeao aonoai?oo ? oa?eoo. Cae??aiaiiy ia?oaineoieo e?enoae?a aeinyaa?oueny ia o?eueee nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe?? aonoai?oo, a e ci?iith oaiia?aoo? aonoai?oecaoe?? ? aeaoi?iaoe??. A i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe?? no?ee?noue aonoai?oo ci?ith?oueny: ia ia?oiio aoai? aiia ??cei cieaeo?oueny, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo aoaeaoeth ? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ?, ye iane?aeie, aei iiaeeeai? iiyae iaia?oaineoieo i?iaeoeo?a ?iciaaeo (aaei?oo ? oa?eoo). Ci?oeiaiiy i?e OII a?aeaoaa?oueny a iane?aeie aieeao iaeeaio, ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy oa ?i., a ?acoeueoaoii cieaeaiiy i?oeiino? ? nooi?iue ?ae?enoae?caoe?? noae?. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ia?iaea ca ?ano?nicaa??aath/eie ?aaeeiaie OCII ? OII caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a i?oeiino? a?eueo ye o aeaa ?ace, o??ueiino?eeino? a?eueo ye ia 50% (o ii??aiyii? c a/e noaiii) ? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e O50 aei -60 - -70°N. A ?acoeueoao? ii?yae c iioeiaeueieie oaiia?aoo?aie ia?ai? ? a?iia?aei? iioeiaeuei? nooiai? ?aciaiai iaoeneo (i?e aeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao), a oaeiae noia?i? iaoenee i?e AAe, ui caaacia/othoue ii?yae c i?aeaeuaiiyi i?oeiino? aeinoaoi? ??ai? ieanoe/iino? ? iniaeeai oaea?ii? ? a'yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aenieii?oeieo noaeae eean?a N450-N590 (? a?eueoa) aeey aeaioiaeaiiy caa?ieo eiino?oeoe?e no?eio?oueny /a?ac aenieo aa?o?noue eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? iia??oaiiy caa?thaaiino?. O ca'yceo c oeei ?icaeyioo? iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy aenieii?oeieo noai?a ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e ia e?ioeaa?e noaae?? aeaioiaeaiiy i?ieaoo aac aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy noaeae. Aeeiiaii ioe?ieo aeeaaeo ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ci?oeiaiiy (??cieo no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo) o ci?io a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ? oaiia?aoo?e O50 c ??ciei oeiii no?oeoo?e, iaea?aeaii? i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII, EI, ?I oa ?i. Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? (T ? O50 a?ae ?ici??o ca?ai, noaca?ai ?aeenia?nieo /anoie, u?eueiino? aeeneieaoe?e oa ?i. i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee. O i'yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue c OII noaeae ?c cieaeaiei (o ii??aiyii? c aeiiaaie ?nioth/i? IOAe aeey aeacaiiai aeua eeano noaeae) ai?noii aoaeaoeth, oeio 06A2OA a?aeaeuaii? a'yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino? aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ??cieo ?aaeei?a ci?oeiaiiy ia iniiai? aeanoeaino? ? ia?ai? iioei?ciaai? ia?aiao?e ia?iaee noaeae c 0,06-0,07%N i?aeaeuaii? a'yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino?. Iieacaii, ui iaeiei c iniiaieo aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo cania?a iaea?aeaiiy noaeae i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? aeey aoae?aieoeoaa, a o./. o aeaeyae? oo?eina, ca?ac ia Oe?a?i? ? ca ?oaaaeai ? EI. A caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth (a?ae 0,06-0,07 aei 0,13%) ? e?eueeino? i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeiaaaie ia noaeyo oeueiai eeano i?ney EI iiaeooue aooe caaacia/ai? ??ci? ??ai? i?oeiino?. Oae, ia noaeyo c 0,10-0,12%N EI ca iioei?ciaaieie ?aaeeiaie caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo ??ai?a i?oeiino? (a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?ieaaoaaiiy): eeano N450 aeinyaathoueny a ?acoeueoao? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy aaiaae??i a e?eueeino? 0,05-0,08%; N490-N550 - aaiaae??i (0,05-0,08%) oa i?ia??i (0,03-0,05%); N550-N590 - aaiaae??i (0,05-0,08%), i?ia??i (0,03-0,05%) ? oeoaiii (0,01-0,02%); iiiaae N590 - oa ae, c aeiaeaoeiaeie i?e?iaeiaaaeaie iie?aaeaio (0,1-0,3%), i?ae? (0,1-0,3%) ? i?eaeth (0,1-0,3%). A aeoaeeao iaaaaeai? iioeiaeuei?, c oi/ee ci?o aoaeoeaiino? ci?oeiaiiy ? aa?oino? noae?, i?e?iaeiaaaee eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. I?ioa, iniiaieie iaaeie?eaie oaei? nenoaie eaaoaaiiy ? ia?iaee ? iaea?aeaiiy aenieiai Naea, ui iia??oo? caa?thaai?noue i iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia aoai? /enoiai? i?ieaoee noia?ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iiiaae 70% i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeaoi?iaoe?? 740-680°N. A ?acoeueoao? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy aeacaieie aeua aeaiaioaie i?iii?oe?iiaeueii ?o e?eueeino? c?inoa? aa?o?noue noae?, ? ui iniaeeai iai?eionoeii, i?iii?oe?iiaeueii ca?eueoaiith i?oeiino? cieaeothoueny ieanoe/i?noue ? a'yce?noue, iniaeeai ENV o iaeano? a?ae'?iieo oaiia?aoo?. Cieaeo?oueny e?euee?noue a'ycei? neeaaeiai? o ceii? c?ace?a i?ney aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue. Cieaeaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth a noaeyo EI aei 0,05-0,08% i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? ia 15-20% ? a?aeiia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy ieanoe/iino? ? a'yceino?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeii/aniiai ii?aeiaiiy aenie?o ??ai?a i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?, a'yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino? aac aeei?enoaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? eaaoth/eo aeiaaaie c iaoith oieeiooe iia??oaiiy caa?thaaiino? ? cia/iiai iiaei?iae/aiiy noae? aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe /eno? ca aeii?oeaie noae? c 0,05-0,08%N ? no/ani? ia?niaeoeai? oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iaieoeoaa. Aei oaeeo ia?niaeoeaieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeia a?aeianoe oa?iiiaoai?/io eiio?ieueiaaio ia?iaeo (OIEI), yea ii?aeio? iioeiaeueio nenoaio i?e?ieaaoaaiiy noae? ?c cia/iith noia?iith aeaoi?iaoe??th (ia 70-80%) c cae?i/aiiyi ?? a iaeano? a?aenooiino? ?ae?enoae?caoe??. A ?iaio? i?iaaaeaia OIEI iaeiia?e?oii? noae? c ai?noii aoaeaoeth 0,06%, ia?aaioeth - 1,46%, n??ee - 0,005%, i?e?ieaaiaaii? aaiaae??i (0,06%) ? i?ia??i (0,03%) c iaiaaeaiiyi ai?noo oeoaio iaioa 0,02% ? Naea=0,35-0,36. A ?acoeueoao? oaei? ia?iaee ?c noia?iith aeaoi?iaoe??th iiiaae 60-70% a iaeano? a?aenooiino? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo c aeei?enoaiiyi II ?c oaeaeeinoyie 10-150/n, a o. /. ? ia?a?aaiiai (aei na?aaeiueiianiaeo oaiia?aoo? 480-6000N), iaea?aeaia ae??aiiaeenia?nia ci?oaia oa?eoii-aaei?oii-ia?e?oia no?oeoo?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c 70-80% ae??aiica?ienoiai iie?aiiaeueiiai oa?eoo ? 20-30% ?ioi? oace. Ia?aooiie ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e aeine?aeaeoaaii? noae? i?ney OIEI iieacaa, ui na?aaei?e oiiaiee ?ici?? ca?ai oa?eoo ci?ith?oueny a?ae 5,5 aei 7,0 iei i?ney ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o?? ? noaiiaeoue 2,9-3,6 iei i?ney II. Na?aaei?e ?ici?? ia?e?oieo ? aaei?oieo eieii?e noaiiaeoue aeecueei 2-3,5 iei. Aei??thaaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo iieacaee, ui a iane?aeie ae?? aeenia?n?eiiai, aeeneieaoe?eiiai, oaa?aei?ic/eiiiai ? noano?oeoo?iiai iaoai?ci?a c?inoa? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue oa?eoo a?ae 1650-1750 I/ii2 (a a/e noai?) aei 2100-2200 I/ii2 'i?ney OIEI c ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??, aei 2400-2450 I/ii2 i?ney OIEI c ia?a?aaiei II ? aei 2550-2700 I/ii2 i?ney OIEI c II ?c oaeaee?noth 10-15 °/n. A ?acoeueoao? OIEI c noia?iith aeaoi?iaoe??th ia 60-70% a iaeano? a?aenooiino? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo a?aieoey oaeo/ino? noae? ci?ith?oueny a?ae 440-480 I/ii2 (ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??) aei 560-590 I/ii2 (ia?a?aaia i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 480-6000N II) ? aei 640-680 I/ii2 (II i?ney OIEI) i?e ci?i? (5 a?ae 34,6% aei 26% ? aei 22%, a?aeiia?aeii. I?ioa, a ?acoeueoao? oaei? ia?iaee cia/ii c?inoa? a'yce?noue noae?, iniaeeai i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo c?ace?a a iaeano? a?ae'?iieo oaiia?aoo? (ENV i?e -40 ? -70°N ), yea ci?ith?oueny a?ae 1,96 ? 1,45 IAeae/i2 aei 2,1 ? 1,8 IAeae/i2 ? aei 2,0 ? 1,76 IAeae/i2 a?aeiia?aeii, a oaiia?aoo?a O50 cieaeo?oueny a?ae -60…-700N i?ney OIEI c ioieiaeaeaiiyi ia iia?o?? aei -80...-90°N i?ney OIEI c i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi. Iieacaii, ui OIEI ? ia?niaeoeaiei ?ano?nicaa??aath/ei aeiiii?/iei ? aeieia?/iei caniaii ae?iaieoeoaa caa?thaaiiai iaae?eiiai i?ieaoo i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? aeey iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aenie? ??ai? a'yceino? ? i?oeiino?, ye? ii?aeiothoueny c i?aeaeuaiith oieiaeino?ee?noth ? iecueeei Naea, aeinyaathoueny iioei?caoe??th i?e?ieaaoaaiiy, oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ia?iaee ? ?aaeei?a II aiane?aeie oi?ioaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoiai oa?eoo c noano?oeoo?ith a e?eueeino? 70-75% ? aeenia?nieo eieii?e ae?oai? oace (ia?e?oo ? aaei?oo) a e?eueeino? 25-30%. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aieea i?e?ieaaoaaiiy ?aae?co?oueny ye /a?ac eiai ae?th ia ciai?oeithth/? i?ioeane a aonoai?o?, a ioaea ? ia aaee/eio ca?ia aonoai?oo ? oa?eoo, oae ? /a?ac ci?oeiaiiy ca ?aooiie aeae?eaiiy aeenia?nieo /anoeiie. I?a?aoe?y a?aieoeue ? noaa?aieoeue a iie? eiaa?aioieo /anoeiie aaaea aei iineaaeaiiy aai onoiaiiy eiaa?aioiino?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy i?aeoacii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??. Iaea?eueo iiaia aeei?enoaiiy ea?aii?o?eaeiiai ci?oeiaiiy i?e EI iiaeeeaa a noaeyo ?c 0,05-0,06%N. A ?iaio? aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oae?e noae?, yea aei oiai ae ia? i?aeaeuaio caa?thaai?noue. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th (0,03-0,04%) ia aeanoeaino? eeno?a oiaueiith 12 ii noaeae ( ?c ai?noii 0,06 ? 0,11% N) i?ney i?ieaoee ca ??cieie ?aaeeiaie c ia?a?aaiei II (40-450/n) aei oaiia?aoo? 480-6000N. sse aoei iieacaii aeua, i?ia?e aoaeoeaiee aeey iie?ioaiiy eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae noaeae o anueiio aeine?aeaeaiiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? caaa?oaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? (ye a ieaei?e /anoei? (-iaeano? - aeua ? ieae/a oaiia?aoo?e ?ae?enoae?caoe??, oae ? a (+(-iaeano?). A?i i?aeaeuo? i?oei?noue, oaea?io a”yce?noue ? cieaeo? e?eoe/io oaiia?aoo?o a”ycei-e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo O50 i?e noia?i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? OII a?eueoa 60-70%. Iaea?eueoee aoaeo ci?oeiaiiy (70-80 IIa) niinoa??aa?oueny a oaiia?aoo?i?e iaeano? aeae?eaiiy ea?aii?o?eaeii? oace i?ia?th ? aaiaae?th. Cieaeaiiy O50 i?ae aieeaii aeiaaaee i?ia?th i?e iaci?iieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao?ao i?ieaoee ? ioieiaeaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii noaiiaeoue 35-500N, ui iiai?noth iaoiiaeaii cae??aiaiiyi ca?ia aonoai?oo ? ye iane?aeie ca?ia oa?eoo (ia 2,5-5 iei) ? oi?ioaaiiyi noano?oeoo?e. I?aeaeuaiiy oaea?ii? a`yceino? iaeneiaeueii ae?aaeaia i?e tei = 925-8750N (KCV-40 c?inoa? ia 0,7-0,9 IAeae/i2), ui iaoiiaeaia ia o?eueee cae??aiaiiyi ca?ia, a e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ci?iith oa?aeoa?o ?oeioaaiiy: a?ae e?eoei-a”yceiai aei iiai?noth a”yceiai. A oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? ai?noo ia?aaioeth 0,8-1,7% iaaaeeea aeiaaaea i?ia?th (0,02-0,04%) a noaeue c ??ciei ai?noii a?ae 0,05% aei 0,14-0,20% N, i?ieaoaio ca oaoiieia?/iith noaiith EI, ?I /e OII c i?enei?aiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi ? oaiia?aoo?ith cae?i/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e 920-8000N, i?aeaeuo? a?aieoeth oaeo/ino? ia 60 IIa, i?e oeueiio (a c?inoa? iaioa - ia 25-35IIa. Ci?oeiaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iacia/iei cieaeaiiyi (5 ? neaai aieeaa? ia oaea?io a”yceinoue. I?ioa, i?e?ieaaoaaiiy i?ia??i i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith: O50 cieaeo?oueny ia 25-300N. A oinoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaoa??aee ii ?ic?iaoe? OO ia ae?iaieoeoai IE “Acianoaeue” noaeae ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a ia iniia? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a ae?iaeoeoaa oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo. Aenia?eiaioe ii OII, EI ? ?I iieacaee, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia, c iiceoe?e oi?ioaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoiai aonoai?oo, ?icae?eueia aai ni?eueia eaaoaaiiy i?ia??i a e?eueeino? 0,03-0,04%, aaiaae??i - 0,05-0,08%, a yeui iaiao?aeii, oeoaiii a e?eueeino? O?ao-0,02-0,03% (aaaeaii o ni?aa?aeiioaii? eiiiiiaio?a V+Nb+Ti<0,17%). A ?iaio? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee iaoai?ci aieeao i?e?ieaaoaaiiy i?ia??i ? aaiaae??i ia cae??aiaiiy aonoai?oo ? e?ioeaai? no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? OII ? OIEI c i?aeaeuaiiyi i?oeiino? ia?aaioeaaeo ? e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo noaeae aei eean?a N450 ? N550 c i?aeaeuaiiyi ?o iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ? a`yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aac iia??oaiiy caa?thaaiino?. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ?ic?iaoe? e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae ? aecia/aiith aieeao ?aaeei?a OCII, OII ? EI c II aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeine?aeaeai? noae? 06A2OA, 09A2OA, 10A2AO oa ?i. Ca ??aiyie iniiaieo aeanoeainoae iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ??cieo oei?a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny eiiieaenii iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, iai?eeeaae, noae? 09A2OA, ui ia? a oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaiiio noai? aai i?ney EI (o=440-600 I/ii2 i?e (5 a?ae 20 aei 36%, oaea?i?e a`yceino? ENU-40 a?ae 0,8 aei 3,0 IAeae/i2, O50 ieae/a -50…-600N a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo ia?iaee ? iio??aieo ??ai?a i?oeiino?. E?aii?eia?aaioeaaa noaeue, iioei?ciaaiiai ii ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th neeaaeo, ia? a?eueo iecueeee Naea=0,33-0,36 ? a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue aeanoeainoae a ii??aiyii? ?c noaeyie-aiaeiaaie (09A2N, 10A2N1 oa ?i.) ? iaaeeaea?oueny ca ??aiai aeanoeainoae aei noae? 15ONIAe, oi/a ? aeaoaaoa ca ia? i?e ae?iaieoeoa?. I?ioa, aeacai? aeua ia?ee noaeae (c ??aiyie (o a?ae 330 aei 700 I/ii2 ) ia ciaoiaeyoue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy i?e ae?iaieoeoa? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e o ca`yceo c oei, ui ca?ac a Oe?a?i? ia ?nio? IOAe ia ae?iaieoeoai i?ieaoo c oeeo noaeae ? ?o canoinoaaiiy o i?iaeoio aeieoiaioaoe?th ia ae?iaieoeoai aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e. Ia?ai? iioei?ciaai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Si:Mn–1,0:1,0-1,28 ? iioeiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?th ? aaiaae?th ? iaei??th c iaiao?aeieo oiia iaeii/aniiai i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ? noai?aiiy aeaoaaeo caa?thaaieo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae (aeea.iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 23739A). Aiie aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoi?/ieo oiia OO 14-1-135-97, OO 14-1-136-97, OO 14-1-133-97, OO 14-1-134-97 ia ae?iaieoeoai i?ieaoo c i?e?ieaaiaaieo ? e?aiiaia?aaioeaaeo noaeae iioei?ciaaiiai neeaaeo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa oa ?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaiiy ca ?ano?nicaa??aath/eie oaoiieia?yie OII. O ca`yceo c oeei, ?ic?iaeaiee oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ? inai?ia a oiiaao IE “Acianoaeue” ae?iaieoeoai oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo ca?aeii aei aeiia, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue oaoi?/iei oiiaai ae?iaieoeoaa eeno?a c e?aiiaia?aaioeaaeo (A-N1-An ? A-N2-An) oa i?e?ieaaiaaieo (A-A1-An ? A-A2-An) noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a. ?ic?iaeaii oaeiae oaoi?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia canoinoaaiiy oeeo noaeae. O?i?/iee neeaae ? aeanoeaino? i?ieaoo ?c noaeae A-N1-An, ? A-N2-An, A-A1-An ? A-A2-An i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a ?I, EI ? OII i?aeaeuaii? ? aeniei? i?oeiino?, a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia OO 14-1-135-97, OO 14-1-136-97, OO 14-1-133-97, OO 14-1-134-97, iaaaaeaii a oaae.16. O nueiiiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeai? oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ? aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaiiai i?ieaoo a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo; i?e?ino?oeoo?a ? aeanoeaino? caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue eeno?a c oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaieo noaeae i?ney caa?thaaiiy a oiiaao caaiae?a iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e (CIE); aeiiae aei caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue ? i?eoiaii? ciie aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae iniaeeaino? caa?thaaiiy i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae EI a oiiaao CIE. Na?aae eiiieaeno i?iaeai noai?aiiy aenieii?oeieo ? iaeii/anii oieiaeino?eeeo noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue iie?ioaiith ?? caa?thaaiino?. sse?noue caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue eenoiaiai i?ieaoo, a o./. ? c i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae, a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny aeanoeainoyie ciie oa?i?/iiai aieeao (COA) ? iaoaeo oaa, cia/aiiy ??ai?a i?oeiino?, oaea?ii? a`yceino? (iniaeeai iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii?) yeeo iiaeooue aooe iaaeinoaoi?. O ca`yceo c oeei, aoa ?ioa?an aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue ? COA i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae oeio 09A2OA ? 06A2OA i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a EI ? OII, caa?aieo o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao AeCIE ?i.Aaaooe?ia, a oaeiae Caii??cueeiai ? A?eai?iaenueeiai CIE. I?ioa, a?aenooi?noue ia CIE iaoa??ae?a ? oethn?a, ui canoiniaothoueny aeey caa?thaaiiy o?oa, aeicaieeea aei?iaoaaoe aeey caa?thaaiiy oeeo noaeae i?ney EI ? OII iayai? ? oe?iei canoiniaoaai? aeey caa?thaaiiy iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae caa?thaaeuei? iaoa??aee (Na08A2N, 10IIA oa ?i.) ca ??cieie ?aaeeiaie caa?thaaiiy. Ia CIE i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue (?c canoinoaaiiyi ??cieo caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a) eeno?a c iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae ??cieo ??ai?a i?oeiino? ? i?ney ??cieo ia?iaie. Aeine?aeaeoaaee o?i?/iee neeaae iniiaiiai iaoaeo ? caa?iiai c`?aeiaiiy, a oaeiae i?e?ino?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? COA ? oaa noae? 09A2OA i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee ? caa?thaaiiy ia AeCIE Aaaooe?ia, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae.17-20. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaieo ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae i?ney EI ? OII o ae?iaieoeoai iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeiaaa? ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e ?, a?aeiia?aeii, eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae a i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy ? iiioaaeo eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ? aeiiii?/iiai canoinoaaiiy a ieo noaeae ??cieo ??ai?a i?oeiino?. A?aeiii, ui ia?ao?ae aei aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaii? noae? c a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? aei 540 I/ii2 (aeeth/ii) ia aeeeeea? ?noioii? ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ia CIE, i?e/iio ia?iaea iiaea aeeiioaaoenue ia iayaiiio iaeaaeiaii? aac nooo?aiai ca?eueoaiiy o?oaeii?noeino?. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? aei 600-900 I/ii2 aeiaaa? iaaieo ci?i a ?nioth/?e oaoiieia?? ? ca?eueoaiiy o?oaeii?noeino? oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e (( a 1,6 ?ace). Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae i?ney EI ? OII, a oiio /ene? ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo, a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?yo neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo - cieaeaiiy ?o iane, a oaeiae aa?oino? eiino?oeoe?e i?e caaacia/aii? iaiao?aeii? iaae?eiino?. A /anoei? oaoiieia?/iino? ? cieaeaiiy iane oa?i?/ii ci?oeiai? noae? i?ney EI ? OII ? ni?eyoeeaei iaoa??aeii aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy a eiino?oeoe?yo ?iciiai i?ecia/aiiy. I?ioa, iaeia o?eueee cieaeaiiy iane eiino?oeoe?e o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia ? aeinoaoi?i aeey canoinoaaiiy a?eueo i?oeii? noae?. Ae?oaa iaiaei?iia oiiaa - iaea?aeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo i?e i?aeaeuaii? iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e. Aa?o?noue i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae i?ney EI ? OII aeua aa?oino? cae/aeieo iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? ? iecueeieaaiaaieo, oiio cai?ia aoaea ?aioaaaeueiith a oiio aeiaaeeo - eiee iiaei?iae/aiiy iaoaeo ia?ae?e?oueny aeiiii??th a ?acoeueoao? cieaeaiiy iane eiino?oeoe?? ? ca?eueoaiiyi ?? iaae?eiino? (oaae.21). Caeaoaaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia ia o?eueee oei, ui ?c ciaioaiiyi iane cieaeo?oueny aa?o?noue aeo?a/aiiai iaoa??aeo, a ? oei, ui - iaeaea i?iii?oe?eii ciaioothoueny ? aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy, o?ainii?ooaaiiy, a oaeiae iiioaae eiino?oeoe?e. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe i?iii?oe?iiaeueio cieaeaiith iaoaeii?noeino? iiaeeea?noue cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a i?e aeaioiaeaii? ? iiioaaeo. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o?i?/iee neeaae ? oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa, ui aecia/athoue i?e?ino?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? i?ieaoo, ia?niaeoeaieo noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeyoe c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?aaeoe?? ia oa?i?/iee oeeee caa?thaaiiy. Iaea?eueo aenieo i?oei?noue ? oieiaeino?ee?noue COA ? caa?ieo c`?aeiaiue caaacia/othoue noae?, ui i?noyoue iaioa 0,12% aoaeaoeth ? i?e?ieaaiaai? i?ia??i (0,03-0,04%), aaiaae??i (0,06-0,08%), a yeui iaiao?aeii, oeoaiii (O?ao=0,02-0,03%), iie?aaeaiii (0,2-0,5%) ? ai?ii (0,003%). Oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa aeacaieo aeua noaeae inai?ia ? ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino? IE “Acianoaeue” oa ?ioeo IE oe?eeii iiaeooue caaacia/eoe aoae?aaeueio aaeocue Oe?a?ie ye?niei i?ieaoii a iaiao?aeieo ianyaao. Ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaieie iiaeie IOAe aeacai? aeua noae? i?ney ia?iaee ca iioei?ciaaieie ?aaeeiaie (ca ??aiai aeanoeainoae, caa?thaai?noth ? aa?o?noth) iiai?noth caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai caiiaiee?a ? AI?I 11-23-81* ia iinoa/aiiy eiino?oeoe?e aeey aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaiiy. Oaeoe/iee ??aaiue i?oeiino?, a`yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino? cia/ii ia?aaeuo? aeiiae aei noaeae aiaeia?/ieo eean?a i?oeiino? ?nioth/eo IOAe aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy ? ?aca?aoa??a. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai aonoai?oo ? e?ioeaai? i?e?ino?oeo?e, ye? caaacia/othoue ??ci? eeane i?oeiino? ? aeinoaoith iaae?ei?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? ia?aiao??a AeOI ia iniia? aea/aiiy oiiei? e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e, noai?aii? i?ae /an ae?? ia iaoae cia/ieo ?aciaeo ? noia?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a i?ioean? aa?y/i? i?ieaoee ? i?enei?aiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy c iaoith aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo ?aaeei?a OCII ? OII aeine?aeaeaieo (canoiniaoaaieo ? iiaeo) ia?ie noaeae. ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae noai?aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? ia IE Oe?a?ie ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e OCII ? OII noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e c ?aiaeiaaieo ??aiae i?oeiino?, ui caaacia/othoue eeane: N245, N275, N305, N325, N360, N390, N420, N450, N490, N520, N550, N590, N640, N690, N740, N790, N840, N890 ? ii?aeiaiiy aeiia IOAe ia ae?iaieoeoai ? canoinoaaiiy i?ieaoo aeey aoae?aieoeoaa c iiceoe?e ii?aeiaiiy i?oeiino? c iaeneiaeueiei cieaeaiiyi iaoa??aeii?noeino?. Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?ei? caeaaeiino? ?icae?eueiiai ? ni?eueiiai aieeao aoaeaoeth, ia?aaioeth, e?aii?th, i?ia?th, aaiaae?th oa caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a i?ioean? OII, iieacieee aeanoeainoae ? aa?o?noue noaeae. Ia?ai? eiioeaio?aoe?? Si:Mn–1,0:1,0-1,28, ye? ? iioei?ciaaieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iaeii/aniiai i?aeaeuaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino?, a`yceino?, oieiaeino?eeino? ? noai?aiiy aeaoaaeo caa?thaaieo aoae?aaeueieo noaeae. Ia?ai? iioeiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?th (0,03-0,04%) ? aaiaae?th (0,06-0,08%), ye? caaacia/othoue cae??aiaiiy no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo ? e?ioeaai? i?e?ino?oeoo?e a i?ioean? OII ? OIEI , i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a i?oeiino? noaeae c 0,05-0,20%N aei eean?a N450-N550 ? a?eueoa c i?aeaeuaiiyi ?o oieiaeino?eeino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? aac iia??oaiiy caa?thaaiino?. Iaea?aeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? ?CA a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo i?e iaa??aaii? ? anoaiiaeai? oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo ? e?ioey ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo ca?ia an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae. ?ic?iaeai? iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaai? noae? iioei?ciaaiiai (ii aoaaeaoeth, ia?aaioeth ? e?aii?th, a oaeiae i?ia?th ? aaiaae?th) neeaaeo, c iiceoe?e i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae iaoiaeaie AeOI, iaae?eiino? c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi aa?oino?, aeey aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?aca?aoa?iaoaeoaaiiy, a oieiae caniae i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeanoeainoae. Iaea?aeai? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? ??cieo eean?a i?oeiino? a?ae N305 aei N790 a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? ?aaeeio OCII aai OII, ye? aeicaieythoue cae?enieoe ?yae i?eioeeiiai iiaeo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue ? noai?eoe iaio iaoaeii?noe? (aeiiii?y i?ieaoo ? caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a o aoae?aieoeoa? noaiiaeoeia 10-35%) ? a?eueo iaae?ei? eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aca?aoa?e. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao ia no?oeoo?o ? iiaeeeaino? ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanaie ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo a iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo ??cieo nenoai eaaoaaiiy ca ?aooiie ci?ie ia?aiao??a ia?iaee oaeeo, ye oaiia?aoo?e aonoai?oecaoe?? ? aeaoi?iaoe??, nooiai? ?aciaiai oa noia?iiai iaoeneo, o?eaaeinoae aeo?eiie ? oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeai? i?ioeane aeeiai?/ii? iie?aii?caoe??, aeeiai?/ii? ? noaoe/ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aonoai?oo a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? ia?aiao??a AeOI noaeae ?, ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai, anoaiiaeai? iia? caeaaeiino? i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith ? nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe??, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ia?aiao?aie no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoyie, c ae?oaiai. Anoaiiaeaii aieea oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oiia i?ieaoee ia ci?io ia?aiao??a aonoai?oo ? e?ioeaai? i?e?ino?oeoo? c noia?iith aeaoi?iaoe??th 35-70% ia aoai? /enoiai? i?ieaoee a ( aai (+(-iaeano? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia ??ai? aeanoeainoae noaeae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieii?oei? noaie eean?a N330-N490 iiaeooue aooe iaea?aeai? ia noae? ANo3ni a ?acoeueoao? OII ? ?I ii iioei?ciaaieo oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aiao?ao c aeaoi?iaoe??th a ieaei?e /anoei? ( aai (+(-iaeano? c II ? a?aeioneii i?e 500-6000N i?ioyaii aiaeeie; N440-N590 - ia iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo i?ney EI ca iioei?ciaaieie oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie c aeaoi?iaoe??th a ieaei?e /anoei? ( aai (+(-iaeano?; iiiaae N590 a i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo oeio 09A2OA 16A2AO, 15A2AOAein oa ?i. a ?acoeueoao? OII ? ?I ca iioei?ciaaieie oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie c aeaoi?iaoe??th a ieaei?e /anoei? ( aai (+(-iaeano? c II ? a?aeioneii i?e 600-6700N i?ioyaii aiaeeie; iiiaae N690 - ia noaeyo oeio 14O2AI? oa ?i. a ?acoeueoao? ?I ? OII ca iioei?ciaaieie oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoe?eieie ?aaeeiaie c ioieiaeaeaiiyi ia iia?o??; iiiaae N790 - ia noaeyo oeio 14O2AI? oa ?i. a ?acoeueoao? OII ? ?I c II ? a?aeioneii i?e 600-650 0N i?ioyaii aiaeeie. Anoaiiaeaii aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? i?ae a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? ? oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oieiaeino?eeino? ? o??ueiinoieeino? aoae?aaeueieo noaeae ?c ci?oaiith no?oeoo?ith. Aeyaeai? iaeano? no?oeoo?ieo noai?a, iaea?aeaieo a ?acoeueoao? oi?ioaaiiy ae??aiiai ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo ? noai?aiiy iie?aii?ciaaii? ? o?aaiaioiaaii? noano?oeoo?e, ye? caaacia/othoue e?au? ii?aeiaiiy a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? noaeae. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ? canai?ii ia IE “Acianoaeue” ae?iaieoeoai oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo ca?aeii c aeiiaaie ?ic?iaeaieo oaoi?/ieo oiia OO-14-1-135-97, OO 14-1-136-97, OO 14-1-133-97, OO 14-1-134-97 c e?aii?eia?aaioeaaeo (A-N?-An ? A-N2-An) ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo (A-A?-An ? A-A2-An) noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a OII i?aeaeuaii? ? aeniei? i?oeiino? aeey aoae?aaeueieo iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia canoinoaaiiy oeeo noaeae a iaoaeieiino?oeoe?yo. O i?ioean? caa?thaaiiy ca iioei?ciaaieie oaoiieia?/ieie ?aaeeiaie a oiiaao CIE Oe?a?ie ? NIAe eeno?a c iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae a iaoae? COA i?e ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iiaiiii? aia?a?? caa??aa?oueny ae??aiiaeenia?nia no?oeoo?a, noai?aia a i?ioean? EI ? OII, yea caaacia/o? ??aiii?oei?noue iniiaiiio iaoaeo ? cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a”yceino? (ENU-40 iiiaae 0,39 IAeae/i2 - 0,49 IAeae/i2) iaa?oue ?c canoinoaaiiyi caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, iayaieo ia CIE, ui oe?eeii caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai IOAe aei canoiniaoaaieo iei? noaeae aeey aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiia?aeieo ??ai?a i?oeiino? ? iaa?oue nooo?ai ia?aaeuo? ?o. Aiae?c iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae caa?ieo c”?aeiaiue eeno?a ?c noae? 09A2OA c Naea=0,39-0,42 i?ney OII ? EI c II (? a?aeioneii) ?c (a=560-600 I/ii2, caa?aieo ia CIE, iieacaa, ui caa?thaaiiy ca iioei?ciaaieie ?aaeeiaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi ye?nieo caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a caaacia/o? ??aiii?oei?noue caa?iiai c”?aeiaiue iniiaiiio iaoaeo i?e ia?aaeuaii? aeiia IOAe uiaei a”yceino? ? oieiaeino?eeino? aeey iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae a?aeiia?aeieo ??ai?a i?oeiino?. Canoinoaaiiy i?ieaoo o aeaeyae? oianoeo eeno?a c iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- ? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae ?, cie?aia, ?c noaeae 06A2OA, 09A2OA oa ?? iiaeeo?eaoe?e A-A?-An ? A-A2-An, iaea?aeaiiai ca aaeineiiaeaieie oaoiieia?yie OII ? ?I, EI c II (? a?aeioneii) c i?aeaeuaiei ??aiai aeanoeainoae, caaacia/o? aeiiii?th aei 10-35% iaoaeo ? caa?thaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aca?aoa??a. Iniiaiee ai?no aeena?oaoe?? iioaeeeiaaii a iiiia?ao?yo, noaooyo oa ?i. ioae?eaoe?yo Aieueoaeia A.I., ?e/aaia A.I., Oei?ia A.E. Oa?ie/aneay e oa?iiiaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae.- Aeiii?iiao?ianuee: Ni/.-1994.-232 n. Aieueoaeia A.I., ?e/aaia A.I. Oa?iiiaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae.- Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, Aeae-ai AeIao? -1990.-223 n. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I., Oei?ia A.E. Oa?ie/aneay e oa?iiiaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea ?aaeeiia oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey noaeae aeey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee/Ainiee aeaaeaii?: Iaoe. oa iioi?i. athe. IAeAAA//Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-Aeae-ai IAeAAA.-1997.- ? 2.-N. 23-32. ?e/aaia A.I. ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia e nicaeaiea ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee oa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey n i?ieaoiiai iaa?aaa e oa?iiiaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee ieceioaea?iaeenouo e ieceieaae?iaaiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae // O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAAA “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.-1997.-N.122-124. ?e/aaia A.I. Iee?ino?oeoo?a e naienoaa naa?iuo niaaeeiaiee eenoia ec iee?ieaae?iaaiiie noaee iinea ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia oi?i/iaiey /Ainiee aeaaeaii?: Iaoe. oa iioi?i. athe. IAeAAA// Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.- Aeae-ai IAeAAA.- 1997.- N 4.-34-42. ?e/aaia A.I. ?ac?aaioea yooaeoeaiuo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo ?aaeeiia oa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey noaeae aeey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee // O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAAA // Aei?i?iiao?ianuee..- Aeae-ai IAeAAA.- 1998.- N.102-117. ?e/aaia A.I. 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E aii?ino iioeiecaoeee oaeo/anoe i?e oi?i/iaiee no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae//O ca. iaoe. i?.“Iaoa?eaeu aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa”.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1993.-N.67-69 Aeeyiea noano?oeoo?iiai oi?i/iaiey ia i?i/iinoue e ayceinoue noaee // A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I. ?e/aaia, A.?.Aaaaiia, I.A.Ayciaie//Iaoaeo?a?eia oa a??ie/i?oaeia i?iieneia?noue.-1988.-N 3.-N.35-38 Aa?aiaiei A.I., ?e/aaia A.I. Computer modeling of the thermal strengthening processes from rolling of building steels//O ca.iaoe.i?.“Iaoa?eaeu aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa”.-Aei-nuee.-1993.-N.76-78 Oei?ia A.E.,Iia??aia I.A.,?e/aaia A.I.,Neoo?i A.O. Aaee/eia ca?ia aonoaieoa e auai? ia?aiao?ia IOI// O ca.iaoe.i?.IAeAAA“I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”-Aei-ne.-1995.-N39-42 Oeo/oaaiua iaeiia?eeoiua noaee ni no?oeoo?ie eaieue/aoiai oa??eoa/A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I. ?e/aaia, TH.?.Ieeei/aiei, I.A.Eea?aeue //Iiauoaiea naienoa e yenieoaoaoeeiiiie iaaeaaeiinoe oa?ie/anee ia?aaioaiiiai i?ieaoa.-I.: Iaoaeo?aey.-1988.-N.19-22. Iiauoaiea eiiieaena iaoaie/aneeo naienoa noaee iinea eiio?iee?oaiie i?ieaoee e iineaaeothuaai oeo/oaiey // A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I.?e/aaia, A.A.Eeethoaiie, I.A.Iia??aia//O ca. iaoe. i?aoeue “Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa o?oa”.-Aei-nuee.-1985.-N.27-29. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I., Iia?aaiay I.A. Aeeyiea ia?aiao?ia no?oeoo?u aunieii?i/iie eiino?oeoeeiiiie noaee ia aa i?i/iinoue e ayceinoue//No?oeoo?a e iioeiaeueiia oi?i/iaiea eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia// I?aeaoc. ca. iaoe. i?.-Iiainea??nuee.-1988.-N.31-35. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I. Yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiua no?ieoaeueiua noaee e oaoiieiaee eo i?iecaiaenoaa aeey naa?eaaaiuo iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee // O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAAA "I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey"/ Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.- 1996.-C.38-41. Aeeyiea oa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey n i?ieaoiiai iaa?aaa ia iiauoaiea i?i/iinoe e oeaaeinoieeinoe noaeae aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee/A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I.?e/aaia, A.I.Eoeueyineiaa, A.?. Nooiie?i, A.?.Oei?iaa// Iaoaeo?a?eia oa a??ie/i?oaeia i?iieoeia?noue.- 1990.-N 1.-N.66-68. Aieueoaeia A.?., Aeaeiaei E.I., ?e/aaia A.I., Eeethoaiie A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?aaeeiia oa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey ia iaoaie/aneea naienoaa noaee 09A2N// O ca. iaoe. i?aoeue IAeAAA “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-Aeae-ai IAeAAA.-1995.-N.127-129. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I., Aa?aiaiei A.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoae?aaeueieo noaeae// O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAAA "Iiaeaee?iaaiea e au/eneeoaeueiue yenia?eiaio a iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiee"//Iaeana.-1996.-C.-70-71. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I. ?aaeecaoeey noano?oeoo?iiai iaoaiecia oi?i/iaiey - ?aca?a iaeiia?aiaiiiai iiauoaiey i?i/iinoe, ayceinoe e ieanoe/iinoe no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae // O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAAA "I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey"/Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1996.-C.37-38. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I. I?eiaiaiea oa?iiiaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey eiino?oeoeaiie i?i/iinoe no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae//“Iauaiiia e iiaa?oiinoiia oi?i/iaiea eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae”.-Iiainea??nuee.-1991.- O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAOE.- N.53-58. Aeeyiea ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia oa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey n i?ieaoiiai iaa?aaa ia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u e naienoa eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae//A.?.Aieueoaeia,A.I.?e/aaia,A.E.Oei?ia/O ca. iaoe.i?.IAeAAA “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.-Aei-nuee, Aeae-ai IAeAAA.-1995.-N.46-47. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae iinea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiie i?ieaoee e caeaeee ec iaaee?eoe/aneiai eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo?//A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I.?e/aaia, E.I.Aeaeiaei, E.A. Eoenaiei// O ca. iaoe. i?. “No?oeoo?a e naienoaa iaoa?eaeia”.-Iiaieociaoeuee.-1988.-C.94-95. Bolshakov V.I., Rychagov V.N. Development of theoretical bases and development of highly effective resource-concerving technology of metal rolled stock substructural hardening for building constructions// O ca. iaoe. i?. IAeAAA“I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1995.-N.68-69 Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I., Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa aunieii?i/iuo noaeae iooai AOII // O ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue “Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa iaoaeeii?ieaoa iooai oa?ie/aneie e oa?iiiaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee”.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1988.- N.14-15. Bolshakov V.I., Rychagov V.N., Pogrebnaya N.E. Development, investigation and implementation of high-resistance economically alloyed steel having yield strength 600 MPa and more into welded steel structures//O na.iaoe.i?.IAeAAA"I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey".-Aei-nuee,1995.-N.70-71 ?e/aaia A.I.,Aieueoaeia A.?. Eciaiaiea aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u oa?iioi?i/iaiiie no?ieoaeueiie noaee i?e neiaeiii iaa?oaeaiee//Iaoaeo?a?eia oa a??ie/i?oaeia i?iieneia?noue,1990.-3.-N.21 Eeiaoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey aiaei?iaea n aeaoaeoaie no?oeoo?u noaeae // A.?.Aieueoaeia, E.I. Aeaeiaei, A.I.?e/aaia, I.A.E?aieaiee, A.A.Eeaoiy // O ca. iaoe. i?. “Aeeoooceiiii-eiiia?aoeaiua yaeaiey a nenoaiao iaoaee-ecioiiu aiaei?iaea. Iaoaee-aiaei?iae-92”.-Aeiiaoeuee.-1992.-*.I.- N.58-60. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iee?ino?oeoo?u aunieii?i/iie no?ieoaeueiie noaee a i?ioeanna oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey //Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue “No?oeoo?a e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey eaae?iaaiiuo noaeae”. - Ee?a. - 1991.-N.37-38. Aieueoaeia A.?., ?e/aaia A.I. ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiay i?ieaoea n onei?aiiui ioeaaeaeaieai- yooaeoeaiue iooue iieo/aiey ia?niaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee// O ca. iaoe.i?.IAeAAA “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1997.-N.113-115. Oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae iiauoaiiie ayceinoe e oeaaeinoieeinoe aeey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee//A.?. Aieueoaeia, A.I. ?e/aaia, A.E. Oei?ia, A.A. Aoeyiaea, A.A. Eo?aetheia, E.N. Oeoiithe// O ca. iaoe. i?. IAeAAA “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-1998.-N.124-125. Aeeyiea oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aaeeiia naa?ee ia ea/anoai naa?iuo niaaeeiaiey iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae iinea eiio?iee?oaiie i?ieaoee//A.?. Aieueoaeia, A.I. ?e/aaia, A.E. Oei?ia, A.I. Eoeueyiaiei//O ca. iaoe.i?.IAeAAA“I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey.-Aei-nuee.-1998.-N.125-127. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 23739A. ??oaiiy ? 97031477a?ae 9.03.1998. Eean IIE 6N22N 38.04. Eiino?oeoeeiiiay ieceieaae?iaaiiay noaeue// A.E.Oei?ia, A.?.Aieueoaeia, A.I.?e/aaia, N.E. Eaeeiianueeee, I.I.Aoeyiaea, A.A.Eo?aetheia, E.N. Oeoiithe oa ?i.//Cayaeaii 28.03.1997.-12 n. AIIOAOeIss ?e/aaia A.I. ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?ano?nicaa?aaath/eo oaoiieiaie ciioeithth/eo ia?iaie eiino?oeoeieieo noaeae aeey aoaeiaaeueieo iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoeie: Aeiii?iiao?ianuee.-1999. O aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi aenaioeaii no/anii oyaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa oice/iiai iaoaeiciaanoaa, yei aacothoueny ia eiiieaeniiio aea/aii? e?enoaei/ii? aoaeiae, eiiaoeee oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, i?e?iaee e iaoaieciia ciioeiaiiy iniiaieo eeania iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- oa iie?ieaaiaaieo noaeae aeey caa?thaaeueieo iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoeie iiney ?icieo oa?ii/ieo oa oa?iiiaoaii/ieo aeiyiue. ?icaeyiooi ia?niaeoeaii caniae oa oaoiieiai/ii noaie iiaeaeuaiiy ?iaiy aeanoeainoae iaoaeii?ieaoo aeey noaeaaeo aoaeiaaeueieo eiino?oeoeie ia iiaenoaai eiiieaeniiai aiaeico no?oeoo?ii? oai?i? iioeiinoi oa ca'yceo iiae oiii/iei neeaaeii oa iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie ia?iaee c iaeiiai aieo oa ia?aiao?aie no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoyie - c ae?oaiai. A?aoiaoth/e neooaoeith, ui neeaaeaaony o e?a?ii c aia?ai?ano?naie oa eaaoth/eie aeiiioeaie o aeena?oaoeii iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eaeieaia noai?aiith aoaeoeaieo oaoiieiaie oa?ii/iiai ciioeaiiy c i?ieaoiiai iaa?iaaiiy oa oa?iiiaoaii/ii? ia?iaee aoaeiaaeueieo noaeae ca ?aooiie iaeii/aniaiai aeeth/aiey a aeith ?icieo iaoaiiciia ciioeiaiiy a caeaaeiinoi aiae nenoaie eaaoaaiiy, ?aaeeio ia?iaee oa oaeaeeinoi ioieiaeaeaiiy iaoaeii?ieaoo. Ia iniiai aeeiiaieo o aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi aeineiaeaeaiue iiaei?e?inoaai - ae?iaieeai oa niiaeeaa/ai iaoaeii?iaeoeoei? cai?iiiiiaaii aoaeoeaii ?ano?ninaa?aaath/i oaoiieiae/ii ?aaeeie ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiiioeiiai i?ieaoo ic cae/aeieo iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo, iecueei- oa iie?ieaaiaaieo noaeae, o oiio /enei ic cieaeaiei aiinoii aoaeaoeth, c iiaeaeuaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iioeiinoi, ieanoe/iinoi, oieiaeonoieeinoi oa a'yceinoi ?oeioaaiiy, oaoiiei-aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue oa iniaeeainoi eiai canoinoaaiiy o noaeaaeo aoaeiaaeueieo eiino?oeoeiyo ye aiaeiiaiaeaeueiiai, oae i ianiaiai i?ecia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii oaoii/i? oiiae ia ae?iaieoeoai ia IE “Acianoaeue” eenoiaiai i?ieaoo ?c noaeae 09A2OA ? 09A2N (oa ?o aiaeia?a A-A1-An, A-A2-An, A-N1-An ? A-A2-An) aeey aoaeiaaeueieo eiino?oeoeie ? ?aca?aoa??a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ia ?o canoinoaaiiy. Eeth/iai neiaa: oa?iiiaoaii/ia ia?iaea, oa?ii/ia ciioeiaiiy c i?ieaoiiai iaa?iaaiiy, ?aaeaiaioiaaia (eiio?ieueiaaia) i?ieaoea, ae?iai?/ia aeaoi?iaoeiy, i?enei?aia ioieiaeaeaiiy, aa?ooaaiiy, iioei?caoe?y o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, i?e?ieaaoaaiiy, ca?ii aonoaiioo, ?ae?enoaeecaoeiy, iieeaiiecaoeiy, o?aaiaioiaaia noano?oeoo?a, eean iioeiinoi, iaoa?eaeiiicoeinoue, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiiy, ieanoe/iinoue, a'yceinoue ?oeioaaiiy, oieiaeonoieeinoue, aoaeiaaeueia eiino?oeoeiy, aoaeoeaiinoue canoinoaaiiy, caa?ia c'?aeiaiiy, ciia oa?ii/iiai aieeao. SUMMARY The modern consideration connected with the theoretical and physical aspects of metal science were studied in presented thesis. This approach is characterised by complex investigation of crystal structure, kynetics of phase changes of nature and mechanisms of strengthening of main groups of low carbon and low alloyed steels for the welded metal structures after various thermal and thermomechanical influences. The most promising means and the technological schemes of rising the metalrolling properties level for steel structures have been considered. It was made on the base of complex analysis and interconnections between the chemical structure and the main treatment parameters on the one hand and the parameters and properties of structure on the other hand. Taking into consideration the situotion with energy resources and alloyed addings in the thesis special attention was paid to the creation of highly efficiend technologies of thermal treatment with rolling heating and thermomechanical treatment of structural steels by means of simultaneous engaging into action the different strengthening mechanisms dependent on alloyed system, treatment regime and colling rate of metalrolling. On the base of literature review and scientific investigations made by the author during last years, some highly efficiend resourse saving technological regimes of production of highly strength metalrolling from common low carbon, low perlite and low alloyed steel including steels with low carbon content with higher strength characteristics tough characteristics frost resistance and crack resistance the technic and economic efficiency and especially its application in steel structures of both critical and mass purposes have been proposed for the enterprises, for those who produce and consume metal production. A number of technical conditions and recomendations for the use and for the "Azovstal" production of sheet metalrolling optimized structure steels 09A2OA and 09A2N for steel structures is suggested. The recomendations for its application have been worhed out. AIIIOAOeEss ?u/aaia A.I. ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee oi?i/iythueo ia?aaioie eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae aeey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee.-Aeiai?iiao?iane.-1999. A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa inaauaiu nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey oai?aoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai iaoaeeiaaaeaiey, aace?othueany ia eiiieaeniii eco/aiee e?enoaeee/aneiai no?iaiey, eeiaoeee oaciauo i?aa?auaiee, i?e?iaeu e iaoaieciia oi?i/iaiey iniiaiuo eeannia ieceioaea?iaeenouo e ieceieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae aeey naa?eaaaiuo no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee iinea ?acee/iuo oa?ie/aneeo e oa?iiiaoaie/aneeo aicaeaenoaee. Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ai?y/aaeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai aonoaieoa e eiia/iie iee?ino?oeoo?u, iaania/eaathuea ?acee/iua o?iaie i?i/iinoe e aeinoaoi/ioth iaaeaaeiinoue iieo/aiiuo iaoa?eaeia a caaeneiinoe io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e ia?aiao?ia AeOI ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey oiieie e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u, nicaeaiiie ai a?aiy aeaenoaey ia iaoaee cia/eoaeueiuo ?aciauo e noiia?iuo aeaoi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna ai?y/ae i?ieaoee e iineaaeothuaai onei?aiiiai ioeaaeaeaiey n oeaeueth auai?a iioeiaeueiuo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo ?aaeeiia OOII e OII enneaaeiaaiiuo (i?eiaiyaiuo e ?ac?aaioaiiuo) ia?ie noaeae. ?ac?aaioaiu iecei- e iee?ieaae?iaaiiua noaee iioeiece?iaaiiiai (n iiceoeee iiauoaiey o?iaiy naienoa e nieaeaiey noieiinoe) ninoaaa e oai?aoe/aneea iniiau ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee AeOI (OOII e OII), iaania/eaathueo iiauoaiea eeannia i?i/iinoe nouanoaothueo e iiauo noaeae ia iniiaaiee onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioaeaiey ?ae?enoaeeecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e aeeyiey eo ia oi?ie?iaaiea aonoaieoiie e eiia/iie iee?ino?oeoo?u ca n/ao eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaiee oiieie no?oeoo?u. Auyaeaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey noaeae a caaeneiinoe io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e ?aaeeia ia?aaioee. ?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoe/aneea iniiau nicaeaiey e ?aaeecaoeee ia IE Oe?aeiu ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee OOII e OII ieceioaea?iaeenoie, iecei- e iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee n oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa noaeae n ?aiaee?iaaiiuie o?iaiyie i?i/iinoe, niioaaonoaothueie eeannai: N245, N275, N305, C325, N360, N390, N420, N450, N490, N520, N550, N590, N640, N690, N740, N790, N840, N890 e iauaaeeiaiey o?aaiaaiee IOAe ia i?iecaiaenoai e i?eiaiaiea i?ieaoa aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa n aaeeiuo iiceoeee eeanneoeeaoeee ii eeannai i?i/iinoe e n oeaeueth iaeneiaeueiiai nieaeaiey iaoa?eaeiaieinoe. Onoaiiaeaiu iioeiaeueiua eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua caaeneiinoe ?acaeaeueiiai e niaianoiiai aeeyiey eaae?othueo e iee?ieaae?othueo (oaea?iaea, ia?aaioea, e?aiiey, ieiaey, aaiaaeey) eiiiiiaioia ia caeiiiia?iinoe no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey, iieacaoaee iaoaie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo (i?i/iinoe, ayceinoe, oeaaeinoieeinoe, naa?eaaaiinoe) naienoa e noieiinoue no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae. Iieacaii, /oi auai? eiioeaio?aoeee Si:In-1,0:1,0-1,28 yaeyaony iioeiece?iaaiiui niioiioaieai e iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iaeiia?aiaiiiai iiauoaiey i?i/iinoe, ayceinoe, oeaaeinoieeinoe e nicaeaiey aeaoaauo naa?eaaaiuo noaeae no?ieoaeueiiai aeeaiaciia (ni. iaoaio Oe?aeiu ? 23739A) ca n/ao oi?ie?iaaiey iioeiaeueiie iee?ino?oeoo?u e noano?oeoo?u. Iieo/aiu oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe eciaiaiey ?acia?a ca?ai aonoaieoa i?e iaa?aaa e onoaiiaeaiu oaiia?aoo?u ia/aea e eiioea eioaineaiiai ?inoa ca?ia anao enneaaeoaiuo noaeae a caaeneiinoe io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa. Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey ia no?oeoo?o aonoaieoa e aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannaie i?aa?auaiey ia?aioeaaeaeaiiiai aonoaieoa a noaeyo ?acee/iuo nenoai eaae?iaaiey ca n/ao eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia ia?aaioee, oaeeo eae oaiia?aoo?a aonoaieoecaoeee e aeaoi?iaoeee, noaiaie ?aciaie e noiia?iie aeaoi?iaoeee, aeeeoaeueiinoue auaea?aeae e nei?inoue ioeaaeaeaiey. Eco/aiu i?ioeannu aeeiaie/aneie iieeaiiecaoeee, aeeiaie/aneie e noaoe/aneie ?ae?enoaeeecaoeee aonoaieoa a caaeneiinoe io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e ia?aiao?ia AeOI a oneiaeyo ?acee/iie noaiaie caaa?oaiiinoe i?ioeannia oi?i/iaiey e ?acoi?i/iaiey enneaaeoaiuo noaeae e ia iniiaaiee yoiai onoaiiaeaiu iiaua caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo oaiia?aoo?ie e noaiaiueth aeaoi?iaoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ia?aiao?aie no?oeoo?u e naienoaaie - n ae?oaie. Onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoeeiiiuo oneiaee i?ieaoee n noiia?iie aeaoi?iaoeeae 35-70% ia eiia/iii yoaia i?ieaoee a iaae- e iaaee?eoe/aneie iaeanoyo ia eciaiaiea ia?aiao?ia aonoaieoiie e eiia/iie iee?ino?oeoo? e, niioaaonoaaiii, ia i?i/iinoue, ieanoe/iinoue, ayceinoue, oeaaeinoieeinoue e o?aueiinoieeinoue enneaaeoaiuo noaeae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aunieii?i/iua ninoiyiey iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu a noaeyo n i?aaeaeii oaeo/anoe 330...490 I/ii2 ia noaee ANo3ni a ?acoeueoaoa OII e ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiie i?ieaoee ii iioeiece?iaaiiui oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui ?aaeeiai n aeaoi?iaoeeae a ieaeiae /anoe (-iaeanoe eee IEE n onei?aiiui ioeaaeaeaieai e ioioneii i?e 500-600iN a oa/aiea /ana; - 440...590 I/ii2 - ia iecei- e iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeyo iinea EI ii iioeiece?iaaiiui oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui ?aaeeiai n aeaoi?iaoeeae a ieaeiae /anoe (-iaeanoe eee IEE; - aieaa 590 I/ii2 a iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeyo oeia 09A2OA e ae?; noaeyo oa??eoii-ia?eeoiiai eeanna oeia 16A2AO, 15A2AOAein e ae?. a ?acoeueoaoa ?I e OII ii iioeiece?iaaiiui oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui ?aaeeiai n aeaoi?iaoeeae a ieaeiae /anoe (-iaeanoe eee IEE n onei?aiiui ioeaaeaeaieai e ioioneii i?e 600-670iN a oa/aiea /ana; - aieaa 690 I/ii2 - ia noaeyo oeia 14O2AI? e ae?. a ?acoeueoaoa ?I e OII ii iioeiece?iaaiiui oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui ?aaeeiai n iineaaeothuei ioeaaeaeaieai ia aicaeooa; -aieaa 790 I/ii2 - ia noaee 14O2AI? e ae?. a ?acoeueoaoa ?I e OII n onei?aiiui ioeaaeaeaieai e ioioneii i?e 600-650iN a oa/aiea /ana. Iieacaii, /oi iaoaie/aneea naienoaa iee?ieaae?iaaiiie ieiaeai e aaiaaeeai noaee n niaea?aeaieai 0,06%N iinea OIEI ii iioeiece?iaaiiiio ?aaeeio n onei?aiiui i?a?aaiiui ioeaaeaeaieai iaoiaeyony a neaaeothueo i?aaeaeao:(o-470-570IIa; (a-570-670IIa; (5-22,7-33,4%; ENU-60-0,95-2,7 IAeae/i2; ENV-40-0,8-2,6 IAeae/i2; aeiey aieieia ia ia?acoeao ENV-40-95-100%, a O50 - ieaea -80-90iN. Iaoaie/aneea naienoaa iee?ieaae?iaaiiie ieiaeai e aaiaaeeai noaee noaee n niaea?aeaieai oaea?iaea 0,12% iinea OII ii iioeiece?iaaiiui ?aaeeiai n onei?aiiui i?a?aaiiui ioeaaeaeaieai iaoiaeyony a neaaeothueo i?aaeaeao: (o-510-630 IIa; (a-590-690 IIa; (5-21,2-31,3%; ENU-60-0,8-1,7 IAeae/i2; ENV-40-0,7-1,6 IAeae/i2; aeiey aieieia ia ia?acoeao ENV-40-85-100%. Oaeia ni/aoaiea naienoa a ieiaeeniaea?aeaueo noaeyo aeinoeaiooi ca n/ao oi?ie?iaaiey iaeeica?ienoie no?oeoo?u aonoaieoa n iieeaiieciaaiiie eee o?aaiaioe?iaaiiie noano?oeoo?ie, iaeeica?ienoie oa??eoii-ia?eeoiie no?oeoo?ie iinea i?ieaoee ii iioeiece?iaaiiiio ?aaeeio n ioeaaeaeaieai ia aicaeooa e iaeeiaeenia?niie oa??eoii-aaeieoiie no?oeoo?ie n ?acee/iui niioiioaieai oac iinea OIEI n i?a?aaiiui onei?aiiui ioeaaeaeaieai ni nei?inoyie io 2-3 aei 25-40i/n (iioeiaeueii 10-15i/n). Iieacai yeno?aiaeueiue oa?aeoa? caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo i?aaeaeii oaeo/anoe e oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeaaeinoieeinoe e o?aueiinoieeinoe noaeae ni niaoaiiie no?oeoo?ie. Auyaeaiiua iaeanoe iioeiaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo ninoiyiee iieo/aiu a ?acoeueoaoa oi?ie?iaaiey iaeeiai ?ae?enoaeeeciaaiiiai ca?ia aonoaieoa e nicaeaiey iieeaiieciaaiiie e o?aaiaioe?iaaiiie noano?oeoo?u, iaania/eaathueo iaeeo/oea ni/aoaiey i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe e o?aueiinoieeinoe noaeae. Aiaeec iaoaie/aneeo naienoa iieacae, /oi ii cia/aieyi (a, (o, (5, ENU, ENV e O50 ieiaeeniaea?aeauea noaee iinea EI e OII ii iioeiece?iaaiiiio ?aaeeio iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?ytho i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi niioaaonoaothueo OO e NIeI II-23-81* aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee e ?aca?aoa?ia. Ia iniiaaiee onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaee e IOAe ia i?iecaiaenoai oienoieenoiaiai i?ieaoa ec iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo e e?aiiaia?aaioeaauo noaeae iioeiece?iaaiiiai ninoaaa aeey no?ieoaeueiuo e ?aca?aoa?iuo eiino?oeoeee ii ?ano?ninaa?aaathuei oaoiieiaeyi OOII e OII. ?ac?aaioaiu e i?aaeeiaeaiu oaoie/aneea oneiaey ia i?iecaiaenoai ia IE “Acianoaeue” eenoiaiai iaoaeeii?ieaoa ec iee?ieaae?iaaiiie ieiaeai 09A2OA e e?aiiaia?aaioeaaie 09A2N (e eo aiaeiaia A-A1-An e A-A2-An, A-N1-An e A-A2-An) noaeae iioeiece?iaaiiiai ninoaaa aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee e iiaeaioiaeai i?iaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia eo i?eiaiaiea. A i?ioeanna naa?ee ii iioeiaeueiui ?aaeeiai a oneiaeyo caaiaeia iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee eenoia ec iecei- e iee?ieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae a iaoaeea IOC i?e ?aaeaiaioaoeee iiaiiiie yia?aee nio?aiyaony iaeeiaeenia?niay no?oeoo?a, nicaeaiiay a i?ioeanna EI e oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao ?aaiii?i/iinoue iniiaiiio iaoaeeo e cia/aiey oaea?iie ayceinoe ENU-40 aieaa 0,39 IAeae/i2, a i?e i?eioaeeoaeueiii ioeaaeaeaiee - aieaa 0,49 IAeae/i2 aeaaea n i?eiaiaieai naa?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia, eiathueony ia CIE, /oi oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi IOAe e i?eiaiyaiui iuia noaeyi aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiae i?i/iinoe e nouanoaaiii i?aainoiaeeo eo. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oa?iiiaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea, oa?ie/aneia oi?i/iaiea n i?ieaoiiai iaa?aaa, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiay (eiio?iee?oaiay) i?ieaoea, aeaoi?iaoeey, onei?aiiia ioeaaeaeaiea, caeaeea, iioeiecaoeey oeie/aneiai ninoaaa, iee?ieaae?iaaiea, ca?ii aonoaieoa, aeeiaie/aneay ?ae?enoaeeecaoeey, iieeaiiecaoeey, o?aaiaioe?iaaiiay noano?oeoo?a, eeann i?i/iinoe, iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea, ieanoe/iinoue, ayceinoue ?ac?ooaiey, oeaaeinoieeinoue, no?ieoaeueiay eiino?oeoeey, yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey, naa?iia niaaeeiaiea, ciia oa?ie/aneiai aeeyiey. PAGE 10

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