9

IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss OA?*IAEO OAOIIEIA?E

Iaeueiee ??eia Aanee?aia

OAeE 664. 84: 633. 654

?IC?IAEA OAOIIEIA?? EIINA?AIAAIEO

OA?*IAEO I?IAeOEO?A ?C IOOO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.18.13 – oaoiieia?y eiina?aiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaaeai?e-?aaeiee

aeaaeai?? e?aa?iaoe/ieo iaoe

Oeaoiaiaaoi Ai?en Eueaiae/ ,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? eiina?aoaaiiy

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Noi?iaeoe Aaeaioeia Ieeiea?aia,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? eiina?aoaaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Aa?o?aea? sse?a A?eai?iae/,

o??ia “A?nia”(i.Iaeana), aieiaiee oaoiieia

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oiie/ Aaeeia Iaian?aia,

Iieoaanueeee eiiia?aoeaiee ?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe?? oa?/iaeo

ae?iaieoeoa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo

oaoiieia?e, i?iaeaiia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaai?aoi??y,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 “ o?aaiy 1999?. i 13 30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.088.01 Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith: 270039,
i.Iaeana, aoe.Eaiaoia, 112.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith: 270039,
i.Iaeana, aoe.Eaiaoia, 112.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 “ ea?oiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee ae.o.i., i?ioani?
Ieeeiaiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oaia??oi?i /anii a?eueoa iieiaeie ae?iaethaaiiai
a?eea oa aia?a?? ethaenoai iaea?aeo? ca ?aooiie o?ueio eoeueoo? —
ioaieoe?, ?eno, eoeo?oaece, oi/a na?oiaa ?ineeiia oei?a aeeth/a? iaeaea
350 oen. aeae?a. I???ioaoe?y ia oaea iaea /enei aeae?a iaoiiaeth? aenieo
caeaaei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae ??cieo iani?eyoeeaeo a?ieia?/ieo oa
ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, ye? ??cei cieaeothoue a?iaeae.

Ca?iiaiaia? ? ia o?eueee aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ?ineeiiiai a?eea, aea e
iaia’yceiaei eiiiiiaioii ?ic?iaethaaieo ca?ac aeueoa?iaoeaieo nenoai
caiea?ianoaa.

O?aaeeoe?eieie aiaiaeie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny o ae?iaieoeoa?
eiina?aiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a, ? ai?io, eaaniey ? ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue inoaii?o ?ie?a — niy. Ioo ye ne?iaeia aeey eiina?aoaaiiy
i?iieneiaiai cia/aiiy iiee ua ia iaea?aeaa, oi/a oey aiaiaa eoeueoo?a ?
ia?niaeoeaiith o i?aaeaiieo canooeeaeo ?aeiiao Oe?a?ie ? iiaea neeanoe
na?eicio eiieo?aioe?th ai?ioo, eio?ee noi?oue ia ia?oiio i?noe? na?aae
aiaiaeo a NIAe ca ?ici??aie iin?aieo ieiu.

Oe?iiee o?i?/iee neeaae iooo ? eiai ia?aaaae ia?aae ai?ioii ca aaaaoueia
aa?ioaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie i?e ??cei i?aeiyoiio cia/aii? ca?iiaiaiaeo
aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoai?aiiy iooo c iaeia?aeiii? a oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaio eoeueoo?o, ui no?eio?oueny a?aenooi?noth oa?/iaeo
ni?o?a. ?o aeaaaeaiiyi a inoaii? ?iee caeia?oueny naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iee
?inoeooo OAAI (i.Iaeana), aaea cai?iiiioaaaoe aeey aeine?aeaeaiue iia?
ni?oe.

Oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ia?a?iaee oa eiina?aoaaiiy aiaiaeo eoeueoo?
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio iniiaieo aoai?a: iiia?aaeiuei? aieiaioaieiai?
ia?iaee (AOI) – caii/oaaiiy ? aeaiooaaiiy, oa caeeth/iiai —
noa?ee?caoe??. A i?ioean? ia?oeo aeaio a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaooaiiy ca?ai oa
?ici’yeoaiiy ?o ca ?aooiie ca’ycoaaiiy aiaee a?aeiia?aeii a?eeaie oa
e?ioiaeai, i?e noa?ee?caoe?? iaeii/anii c i?e?ia?ieia?/iith
noaa?euei?noth aeinyaa?oueny ? eoe?ia?ia aioiai?noue aia?a.

Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a oeeo i?ioean?a aaco?oueny ia
iaea?aeaii? oa aeei?enoaii? a?aeiia?aeieo e?iaoe/ieo iieaciee?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue caeiiii??i?noue oeeo i?ioean?a.

Ioo – iao?aaeeoe?eia ne?iaeia aeey eiina?aii? i?iieneiaino? ?
oaoiieia?/iee ?aaeaiaio ae?iaieoeoaa eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
?c iooo a?aenooi?e. Aeei?enoaiiy ae ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?e,
?ic?iaeaieo aeey ?ioeo aeae?a aiaiaeo, iio?aao? ?oiueiai aiae?co ?
ei?aeooaaiiy a?aeiinii aei iooo, ine?eueee aiie iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
i?aeoe/ii o?eueee aeey ni? ? oi aeey iaeiiai ni?oo ? ine?eueee aieea
oaoiieia?/ieo (o?i?/ieo) iniaeeainoae ne?iaeie ? iaa?oue ni?o?a ia
aoaeoeai?noue iaaooaiiy ? oaa?ae?noue aiaiaeo i?e AOI cia/iee.

Aieea ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae ia iaaooaiiy ?ieiee iano?eueee cia/iee, ui
/ano? aeiaaeee, eiee aiae caeeoathoueny oaa?aeeie ? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue
eoe?ia?i?e aioiaiino? i?ney noa?ee?caoe?? ca ?aaeeiaie, ia?aa??aieie
aaaaoi??/iei aeina?aeii.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa oaeiae i?enay/aia aeooaeueiei oa ia?niaeoeaiei ieoaiiyi
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iooo a eiina?aio i?iieneia?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iai?yieii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAeAOO «?ic?iaea
oaoiieia?e iiaeo aeae?a oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ?c iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeae?a
ne?iaeie».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th eiina?aiaaieo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iooo c iaoeiaei iaa?oiooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a o?ueio
aoai?a eiina?aoaaiiy — caii/oaaiiy, aeaiooaaiiy oa noa?ee?caoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1.I?iaanoe aiae?c ia?aiao??a iiia?aaeiuei? aieiai-oaieiai? ia?iaee
aiaiaeo noiniaii aei iooo.

2.Aeine?aeeoe i?ioean caii/oaaiiy iooo oa ?ioeo aeae?a aiaiaeo eoeueoo?
? io?eiaoe ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaaooaiiy ? cieaeaiiy ?oiuei?
oaa?aeino? a ni?oiaiio ?ic??c?.

3.Aea/eoe aieea ia e?iaoeeo iaaooaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai oaeoi?a.

4.Aecia/eoe eiinoaioe ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy fi aiaiaeo i?e caii/oaaii? oa
iaa?oiooaaoe ia?aiao?e oeueiai i?ioeano.

5.Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe ia?aiao?e i?ioeano aeaiooaaiiy aia?a iooo.

6.Aeine?aeeoe e?iaoeeo oa?i?/iiai ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo, aecia/eoe
a?aeiia?aei? e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe oa aeei?enoaoe ?o aeey ?ic?aooieo
?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ioe?iee nooiaiy oaa?aeino? aia?a iooo i?e
noa?ee?caoe??.

7.Cai?iiiioaaoe ani?oeiaio ? ?ic?iaeoe ?aoeaioo?e eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a c iooo.

8.?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?aaeeie noa?ee?caoe??, aeeth/ath/e ?o
i?e?ia?ieia?/io oa ?aieia?/io ioe?ieo.

9.Iaea?aeaoe ye?nio ioe?ieo ne?iaeie oa eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a c iooo.

10.?ic?iaeoe i?iaeo ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? (IOAe) ia
cai?iiiiiaaio oaoiieia?th eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iooo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Iaea?aeaia ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea e?iaoeee iaaooaiiy ??cieo
aeae?a oa ni?o?a aiaiaeo i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao a i?ioean? caii/oaaiiy.

2. Aecia/ai? e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy fi, eio?? aeey
ai?ioo, iooo, a oaeiae aeey ni? a ni?oiaiio ?ic??c? iaea?aeai? aia?oa.

3. Aeine?aeaeaia e?iaoeea ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo i?e oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe?
ia noaae?yo oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ca?ai iooo i?e eiina?aoaaii?.
Aia?oa iaea?aeai? eiinoaioe oa?iino?eeino? ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo i?e
noa?ee?caoe?? — D ? Z, eio?? aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?aooieo ii?iaoeaiiai oa
oaeoe/iiai ?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ioe?iee eoe?ia?ii? aioiaiino? aia?a
i?e noa?ee?caoe?? — «aoaeoeai?noue ?ici’yeoaiiy» aia?a, yeee aaaaeaii
aia?oa.

4. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iooo, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? aaaeaiiy i?ioeano ca aeaiia noaiaie: c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?ioeano aeaiooaaiiy ? aac iueiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y
eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iao?aaeeoe?eiiai aeaeo aiaiai?
ne?iaeie — iooo, IOAe (?aoeaioo?e, OO ? O?) aeey i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oaeeo aeae?a eiina?a?a c iooo:

— ioo iaoo?aeueiee;

— ioo a aoeueeii?;

— ioo a oiiaoiiio nion?;

— ioo c i’ynii a aoeueeii?;

— ioo c e?eueeith a oiiaoiiio nion?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? oai?aoe/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a
caii/oaaiiy, aeaiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaee ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe??,
aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino? ne?iaeie ? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae a
iaa?oiooaaii? ? ioae?eaoe?? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?ic?iaee
oaoiieia?? ? ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeeny ? aoee noaaeai? ia eaoaae?? oaoiieia?? eiina?aoaaiiy
IAeAOO, a oaeiae ia 57-?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? IAeAOO (i. Iaeana, 1997
?.); ia 58-?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? IAeAOO (i. Iaeana, 1998 ?.); ia
I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo : «I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy oe?aii?iaeoeo?a» (i. Iaeana, 1997
?.); «Aeieia?y ethaeeie ? i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy iieiaeeo a/aieo»,
i?enay/aii? iai’yo? aeaaeai?ea A. E. Oeaoiaiaaoia (i.Iaeana, 1997 ?.);
«Aeieia?y i?no ? ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii» (i. Iaeana, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a oiio /ene? 3 — a iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo IAeAOO ? 1 — a iaoeiaiio aeo?iae?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 186
noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo; neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a,
iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoe?a.
I?noeoue 35 ?enoie?a (29 noi?.), 28 oaaeeoeue (14 noi?.), 5 aeiaeaoe?a
(14 noi?.). Nienie e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny c 264 a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
aeaea?ae (22 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeaii iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa oa?/iaa oe?ii?noue oa
aeei?enoaiiy ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? a oa?/oaaii? oa oaoiieia??;
aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ia?aaaae ca?ia iooo ia?aae ?ioeie ca?iiaiaiaeie oa
ca?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie ca iieacieeaie oa?/iai?, a?ieia?/ii? ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oe?iiino?, oaoiieia?/iei aeanoeainoyi;
i?eaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea oa caeiiii??iino? iiia?aaeiuei? oaieiai?
ia?iaee ca?iiaiaiaeo, aea ?icaeyiooi ?? aieea ia ye?noue aiaiai?
ne?iaeie, niiniae oa ia?aiao?e aieiaioaieiai? ia?iaee oa ?? e?iaoe/i?
caeiiii??iino?. Iieacaia ioe?iea i?ioeano noa?ee?caoe?? ca
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieie, o?i?/ieie oa ?aieia?/ieie iieacieeaie ? i?eaaaeaii
ani?oeiaio oa oa?/iao oe?ii?noue eiina?a?a c aiaiaeo, ye? a aeaiee /an
aeioneathoueny i?iieneia?noth. Naia oea aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe iaoo ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue»
i?eaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa eaai?aoi?iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, i?eaaaeaii ia?ae?e aeei?enoaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue.
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a eaai?aoi??yo eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? eiina?aoaaiiy,
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e,
a oaeiae a naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiio ?inoeooo? OAAI (i.Iaeana).

Ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue: ca?ii ni?, iooo ? ai?ioo ii o?e ni?oe
eiaeiiai. Aeey aea/aiiy i?ioean?a iaaooaiiy oa ?ici’yeoaiiy ca?iiaiaiaeo
i?e caii/oaaii? aeei?enoiaoaaee oaiia?aoo?e 20-60°N c ?ioa?aaeii a 20°N.
I?e aecia/aii? nooiaiy ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a ei?enooaaeenue oai?nueeei
i?eeaaeii — o?iiiao?ii. Aeaiooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia?ith i?e oaiia?aoo??
120°N a aaoieeaa? AA-1.

I?e aea/aii? e?iaoeee oa?i?/iiai ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo
ei?enooaaeenue oano-oeee?iae?aie, ye? i?ia??aaee a ae?oea?eiia?e aai? a
oeueo?aoa?iinoao? OO-15 i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 100, 110 ? 1200N.

?ic?iaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe??
i?iaiaeeee ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ia??aaiiy
i?iaeoeoo ca?aeii c Iieiaeaiiyi i?i ?ic?iaeo ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe?? oa
ianoa?ecaoe?? eiina?a?a oa eiina?aiaaieo iai?aoaa?eeao?a.

Aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a yeino? ne?iaeie oa aioiaeo eiina?a?a
i?iaiaeeee caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueii?
ioe?iee e?iaoeee iaaooaiiy aia?a iooo ? ?ioeo ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? o
i?ioean? caii/oaaiiy c iaoith iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a i?ioeano.

Aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aia?a iooo a oaoiieia?th eiina?aiaaieo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa c’ynoaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a
iiia?aaeiuei? AOI, i?eaaaeaieo aeey ?ioeo aiaiaeo, iaie, a ia?oo /a?ao,
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai? aa??aioe noiniaii iooo ni?oo ?icaiia.
Aeey iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a aecia/aee oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee
— nooi?iue iaaooaiiy ?????, a oaeiae ??aaiue ?ici’yeoaiiy aiaiaeo —
iieaciee oaa?aeino?, °O. Ci?ia oeeo iniiaieo iieaciee?a noaio ne?iaeie
ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy i?e aeai?? niinia?a oa ?aaeei?a oaoiieia?/ii?
ia?iaee ?? o ae?iaieoeoa? eiina?a?a. A?ae oeueiai iiaea caeaaeaoe
?aoeaioo?a ae?iaethaaieo eiina?a?a, ioaea, ? ieoii? aeo?aoe ne?iaeie,
niaeia? oa iiaeeai? aeanoeaino? aioiaiai i?iaeoeoo, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa o?ce/iiai a?aeo
eiina?a?a.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ???oa °O i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae. 1. Aiie
iieacothoue, ui ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey ?ioeo aiaiaeo ia?aiao?e AOI
noiniaii iooo aeathoue ??ci? ?acoeueoaoe ? nei?enoaoenue ieie aeoaea
aaaeei. E??i oiai, a oeeo aa??aioao ia iaoiiaeth?oueny oa ia
a?aoiao?oueny aieea ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae; ia ?aaeaiaioothoueny aaee/eie
oaa?aeino? aia?a, ye? iio??aii aeinyaaoe ia ??cieo

aoaiao AOI.

?c ia?a?aoiaaieo o oaae. 1 aeae?a aiaiaeo iaea?eueoa /enei aa??aio?a
a?aeiineoueny aei ni? oa ai?ioo. Oe? aiaia? ? aoee aea?ai? aeey
ii??aiyiiy ye ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e aeooeoaaii? ia?aiao??a
caii/oaaiiy iooo. Oaeiae a?aoiaoaaeinue, ui oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e
ia?a?iaee aoaeue-yeiai aeaeo ne?iaeie

aeeeoothoue ?? o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?, ? ui niy oa ai?io oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
??ciei o?i?/iei neeaaeii: ai?io aeecueeee aei iooo ii ai?noo a?eea oa
e?ioiaeth (a?aeiia?aeii, % — 20,5 ? 20,1; 44,0 ? 43,2), niy ae
??cei a?ae??ciy?oueny – 34,9 ? 3,5 ? naia o?eueee aeey ni? ? iayaia
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia oaoiieia?y. Cia/iee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano
? ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae ne?iaeie, aea?aiee aeey caii/oaaiiy ??aaiue
oaiia?aoo?e ia ia?aaeuoaaa 600N /a?ac noeeuei?noue a?ee?a aei
aeaiaoo?aoe??, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ao?aoith ?yaeo a?ae?io?eueieo
aeanoeainoae, cie?aia, ca’ycoaaiith aieiae oa iaaooaiith.

Aeey ia’?eoeaii? e?euee?nii? ioe?iee aieeao ia iaaooaiiy i?e?iaee
i?iaeoeoa ? oaiia?aoo?e a i?aeoeoe? oaoiieia?? eiina?aoaaiiy aeey
?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a cai?noue eiinoaioe iaaooaiiy k i?eeiyoa cai?ioiy
aaee/eia – e?iaoe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea – eiinoaioa ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy fi.
Naia ii aaee/ei? fi iiaeia aecia/eoe, aei yei? ne?iaeie aeeae/a ioo ca
nai?ie oaoiieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Aeey ?ic?aooieo fi aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeniiiaioe?aeuei? e?ea? iaaooaiiy aiaiaeo i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao — 20, 40
oa 60°N a ii??aiyii? aeey iooo, ni? oa ai?ioo ii o?ueii ni?oai eiaeiiai
? aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai nooiaiy iaaooaiiy — ?max , ye? aeinyaaeenue
i?e oeueiio. sse i?eeeaae, ia ?en. 1 iaaaaeaii e?ea? ci?ie ????i?e 20°N.
Iaeii/anii ia ?enoieao iaianai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aieea aeine?aeaeaieo ?aaeei?a ia oaa?ae?noue ca?ai.

a) a)
a)

?en.1. Ci?ia iaaooaiiy oa oaa?aeino? ca?iiaiaiaeo o i?ioean?
caii/oaaiiy

i?e 20°N

a) niy: a) ioo:
a) ai?io:

1- A?eaae?y Iaeanueea 1- ?icaiia 1-
Oiiac

2- Aeueoa?? 2- E?aniieoonueeee 2-
I?eia/aiei

3- Oni?o 3- Ieaenaiae?eo eioaeiee 3-
Oeaaeianueeee tha?eaeiee

E?ea? iaaooaiiy iooo ? e?ea? ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy i?e 600N i?aaenoaaeai?
ia ?en.2, a ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee e?iaoe/ieo e?eaeo – a oaae.2.

a)
a)

?en.2. Ci?ia iaaooaiiy iooo i?e caii/oaaii? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 600N:

a) e?ea? iaaooaiiy; a) e?ea? ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy;

1- ?icaiia; 2- E?aniieoonueeee; 3- Ieaenaiae?eo

Oaaeeoey 2

E?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe, iaeneiaeueiee nooi?iue iaaooaiiy oa aeinyaiooa

oaa?ae?noue aiaiaeo eoeueoo? i?e caii/oaaii?

Aeae aiaiaeoNi?oe aiaiaeoOaiia?aoo?a caii/oaaiiy, 0N204060max, %fi,

oaO0max, %fi,

oaO0max, %fi,

oaO0Ai?ioOiiac79,05183393,02865674,611256I?eia/aiei89,03552995,02135884,
711956Oeaaeianueeee THa?e.101,036629100,31624488,79546NiyA?eaae?y
Iaeanueea128,041734135,317242141,310542Aeueoa??108,060238115,030340128,4
6044Oni?o127,032342130,610048124,65946Ioo?icaiia102,04355498,01596080,77
054E?aniieoonueeee107,04555899,01355882,07456Ieaenaiae?eo
106,045558103,01595297,46754

sse aeaeii c iaaaaeaieo aeaieo, aiaia? ca aeaeiaeie oa ni?oiaeie
iciaeaie i?e caii/oaaii? iiaiaeyoueny ii ??ciiio. Oae, max ni? c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e caii/oaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny (iai?eeeaae, o ni?oo
A?eaae?y Iaeanueea max i?e 200N neeaaea? 128%, i?e 400N – 135,3%, a i?e
600N – 141,3%); a on?o ni?oao iooo max c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
caii/oaaiiy ciaioo?oueny (oae, o ni?oo ?icaiia max i?e 200N neeaaea?
102%, i?e 400N – 98%, i?e 600N – 80,7%). ??ci? ae ni?oe ai?ioo i?e
i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e iiaiaeyoue naaa ii ??ciiio. I/aaeaeii, c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e o iooo ? ai?ioo /anoeio aieiae caae?a?
e?ioiaeue ? a?eee iaaooathoue iaioa. Niy ae a?aeia e?ioiaeai.

??cio iiaaae?ieo i?e caii/oaaii? ni?, ai?ioo ? iooo iiaeia iiynieoe ?
a?ae-i?ii?noth o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo a?ee?a oeeo aiaiaeo: ca?aeii
e?oa?aoo?iei aeaiei,o ni? ia?aaaaea? aiaei?ic/eiia o?aeoe?y, o ai?ioo
– niea?ic/eiia, o iooo /anoee iaio o?aeoe?e i?eaeecii ??ai?.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? iieacothoue, ui e?iaoeea iaaooaiiy aia?a
iooo, ae?aaeaia /a?ac fi, nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e (o
ii??aiyii? c caii/oaaiiyi o aiae? c oaiia?aoo?ith 20°N i?ioean i?e 40°N
i?ioiaeeoue ?ioaineai?oa i?eaeecii a 3 ?ace, a i?e 60°N – a 6,5 ?ac?a)
? i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?oo iooo, ui iiaeia iiynieoe
aeecuee?noth o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a — ?icaiia,
E?aniieoonueeee oa Ieaenaiae?eo ? ui cia/ii iieaaoo? iiaeaeueoee iiooe
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano.

Aaaaea?ii, ui, iiaeeeai, a iiaeaeueoiio ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaoe ni?oo
?icaiia, yeee ia? a?eueo e?oii? ? na?oe? ca?ia o ii??aiyii? c
E?aniieoonueeei oa Ieaenaiae?eoii, oi/a nooi?iue iaaooaiiy
o iueiai i?e 60°N iaioa, i?ae o inoaiiueiai.

Aeey i?aeoe/ieo oe?eae a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe /an
aeinyaiaiiy aoaeue-yeiai caaeaiiai nooiaiy iaaooaiiy , nei?enoaaoenue
??aiyiiyi
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 ,,., , aeaieie i?i max i?e aeai?e
oaiia?aoo?? ? eiinoaioith fi (fi — /an aeanyoee?aoiiai cieaeaiiy (max —
)). Iiaeia, iaaiaee, ciath/e fi ? max, caaeaoenue ?aaeueiei /anii ?
i?iaiicoaaoe aeinyaiaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai nooiaiy iaaooaiiy. Aeey oeueiai
??aiyiiy iiaeia ia?aoai?eoe aei aeaeyaeo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.

Ua iaeiei iiceoeaiei iiiaioii a ?ic?iaethaai?e oaoiieia??
eiina?aoaaiiy iooo, o ii??aiyii? ?c ni?th, ? iaiaia’yceia?noue eouaiiy
aeey aeaio c o?ueio ni?o?a. Ca e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie, aeoeai?noue
?ia?a?oi?a o?eineio (?O) a n?i’yaeieyo iooo (6,77 ia/a) a 5 ?ac?a
a?eueoa, i?ae a iaieiioe? (1,32 ia/a), oiio iiia?aaei? eouaiiy iaei
aoaea ni?eyoe cieaeaiith ?O a ca?iao iooa i?e AOI, oei a?eueo, ui
ia?iaea iooo ia?ith i?ae oeneii 0,2 0,05 IIa i?ioyaii 20 oaeeei cieaeo?
ai?no ?O c 8,09 ia/a aei 0,88 ia/a (ui a 2,3 ?ace iaioa aeiionoeiiai — 2
ia/a). A aeine?aeaeaieo ni?oao iooo anoaiiaeaiee ai?no ?O a?ae 5,6 aei
10,3 ia/a, a oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie i?e 1200N ia?aaeuothoue 20 oaeeei.

E??i oiai, eouaiiy iooo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a eiina?aao iia??oo? ?o
ciai?oi?e aeaeyae, ai i?ney oaieiai? ia?iaee ca?ia iooo ?iciaaeathoueny
ia n?i’yaeie?, i?e oeueiio e?ioiaeue ca?ia iooo ia?aoiaeeoue a caeeaeo,
aiane?aeie /iai aiia iooi??, ui cieaeo? ye?noue aioiaeo eiina?a?a.

Eouaiiy iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey ni?oo Ieaenaiae?eo c iine?aeoth/ei
ae?iaieoeoaii eiina?aiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a ?c iiae??aiaieo aia?a.

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui
ioo a?ae??ciy?oueny ca nai?ie oaoiieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie a?ae ai?ioo ?
ni?, eio?? aaea aeei?enoiaothoueny a eiina?aoaaii?, ? aeey iueiai
iio??aii aecia/aoe nai? ia?aiao?e ia?iaee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoiiaeaiee oaoiieia?/iei ?aaeaiaioii ??aaiue iaaooaiiy
aiaiaeo o 1,8 ?aca aeey iooo iiaeia aeinyaiooe i?e oaeeo ?aaeeiao
caii/oaaiiy o aiae?: 200N — 360 oa, 400N — 150-180 oa, 600N — 90-120
oa.

I?e oaeeo ia?aiao?ao i?ioeano oaa?ae?noue aia?a neeaaeaea, a?aeiia?aeii,
76-80, 74-78 ? 58-62 0O.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui o?eaae?noue ianooiieo i?ioean?a aeaiooaaiiy oa
noa?ee?caoe?? iai?aaeaia ia cieaeaiiy nooiaiy oaa?aeino?, ia?aaaao ne?ae
a?aeaeaoe aa??aioo caii/oaaiiy c iaeiaioei eiai cia/aiiyi i?e 600N.
Caii/oaaiiy iooa i?e 200N ca?eueoo? oaoiieia?/iee oeeee, a caii/oaaiiy
i?e 90°N iieacaei, ui i?ioyaii 180 oa. i?e oe?e oaiia?aoo?? max
aeinyaea cia/aiiy 88,4%, a cieaeaiiy nooiaiy oaa?aeino? niinoa??aaeiny
aei ??aiy 590O; oe? iieacieee ?aeaioe/i? cia/aiiyi ? 0O, iaea?aeaiei
i?e caii/oaaii? o aiae? c oaiia?aoo?ith 600N.

Iioeiaeueiei aa??aioii aeey caii/oaaiiy iooo ni?oo ?icaiia aea?aii
2 aiae. i?e 600N ( aeinyaa? 180%). Iiaeaeueoa ?ici’yeoaiiy
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny i?e ianooiiiio aoai? AOI – aeaiooaaii?.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano aeaiooaaiiy iooo oa oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?i?/iiai ?ici’yeoaiiy
ca?ai aia?a iooo c ?ic?aooieii a?aeiia?aeieo eiinoaio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaiooaaii? i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy
(aai ae aiii iacia/ia — a?ae 1,2 aei 6,4%), a a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee
iiaeaeueoa ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo (oaae.1). Naia oiio a iiaeaeueoiio
i?e anoaiiaeaii? o?eaaeino? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aeei?enoiaoaaany o?eueee
iaeei oaoiieia?/iee iieaciee — nooi?iue oaa?aeino? aia?a, 0O.

Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e oaa?aeino? i?ney caii/oaaiiy
50-600O aeey aeinyaiaiiy eoe?ia?ii? aioiaiino? aia?a iooo oaa?ae?noth a
150O, ?? cia/aiiy i?ney aeaiooaaiiy iiaeiii aooe ia ??ai? 35-400O
(?en.3).

?en.3. Noaia ci?ie nooiaiy oaa?aeino? (0O) oa iaaooaiiy () aia?a iooo

a i?ioean? eiina?aoaaiiy

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aa??aio?a aeaiooaaiiy aiaiaeo noiniaii
iooo (oaae. 1), e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i iaaeie?ee niiniao aeaiooaaiiy a
eeiey/?e aiae? oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aenieeo oaiia?aoo?
aea?aii niin?a aeaiooaaiiy ia?ith i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1200N.

E?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i o?aeoe?eiee neeaae e?ioiaeth ai?ioo oa
iooo (ai?no ai?eice ? ai?eiiaeoeio a?aeiia?aeii 25,74 ? 68,69% a
ai?in? oa 75,77 ? 20,01% a ioo?) aeicaieeee iiynieoe iai?eeiyoi?noue
aeey iooo aa??aioo aeaiooaaiiy nooiai ca?ia, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey ai?ioo.

C aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo iaea?aeaii
??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, yea iieno? aieea ia?aiao??a i?ioeano aeaiooaaiiy ia
oaa?ae?noue aia?a iooo — oaiia?aoo?e (o1) ? o?eaaeino? (o2):

o=63,75 – 12 o1 – 6,125 o2 – 4,375 o1o2.

Iniiai? ??ai? ? ?ioa?aaee aa??thaaiiy oaeoi??a aea?ai? ia iniia?
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aeey ?ioeo aiaiaeo oa iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue
noiniaii aei iooo.

Anoaiiaeaiee oa?aeoa? ci?ie ? O, iia’ycaiee c o?i?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
ne?iaeie, iai/ii aeaeii ia ?en.3, iaeiaeiaee oaiia?aoo?iee ??aaiue
i?ioean?a aeaiooaaiiy oa noa?ee?caoe?? — 1200N aeicaieeee ii?aeiaoe oe?
i?ioeane oa aea/eoe e?iaoeeo oa?i?/iiai ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo.

Iaea?aeai? e?ea? ci?ie oaa?aeino? aia?a a noaoe?iia?iiio oaieiaiio
?aaeei? (?en.4,a) iathoue aeniiiaioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa?, iiae?aii e?eaei
a?aeie?aiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? e?eaei ?oeioaaiiy aeayeeo o?i?/ieo
?a/iaei, o oiio /ene? ?ici’yeoaiiy e?noeiai? oeaieie ?eae. Aei?yieaiiy
oeeo e?eaeo a iai?aeiaa?eoi?/i?e aiaii?oic? (?en.4,a) aeicaieeei
aecia/eoe a?aeiia?aei? e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe D i?e o?ueio oaiia?aoo?ao :

t, 0C 100 110 120

D, oa. 210,2 161,0 126,7

Ia iniia? oeeo aaee/ei D ?ic?aoiaaia eiinoaioa Z , yea neeaaea? 910N.

a)
a)

?en. 4. E?ea? ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo o aiae? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao:

1 — 1000N; 2 — 1100N; 3 — 1200N

a) a e?i?eieo eii?aeeiaoao; a) a iai?aeiaa?eoi?/ieo eii?aeeiaoao

Iaea?aeai? cia/aiiy eiinoaio D ? Z cia/ii ia?aaa?oothoue aiaeia?/i?
eiinoaioe ?oeioaaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oa o?i?/ieo ?a/iaei ?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaeo oaeaee?noue i?ioean?a ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a oa a
ca’yceo c oeei cia/io o?eaae?noue i?ioeano.

Iaeaea? eiinoaioe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?aooieo /ano aeinyaiaiiy
eoe?ia?ii? aioiaiino? aia?a iooo i?e noa?ee?caoe?? — ?aieia?/iiai
iieacieea «aoaeoeai?noue ?ici’yeoaiiy» ? — a iino?eiiio (?i) oa
ia?ai?iiiio (?ae) oaiia?aoo?iiio iie? ii aiaeia?? c ?ic?aooieaie aaee/ei
eaoaeueiino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaiooaaii? oa noa?ee?caoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
cieaeaiiy ai?noo ai?eice a ioo?, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeiia?aeii c?
ci?iith “neiueiai /enea”, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aca?iica’ycie i?ioean?a
eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth oa ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii i?aeai?o
ani?oeiaioo, ?ic?aooieo ?aoeaioo?, iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith ?aaeei?a
noa?ee?caoe?? iiaeo aeae?a eiina?a?a c ioe?ieith ?o aoaeoeaiino? ca
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieie oa ?aieia?/ieie iieacieeaie ? anoaiiaeaiith ?o
oa?/iai? oe?iiino?.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? ani?oeiaioo oa ?aoeaioo? a ia?oo /a?ao aoei a?aoiaaii, ui
aiae iooo aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eiina?aoaaiiy oe?eeie ca?iaie, aac
eouaiiy.

Aeey iioei?caoe?? ?aoeaioo? eiina?a?a aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy, eio?ee aaaaea?oueny eeane/iei aeey ??oaiiy caaea/ oaeiai
?iaeo (oae caaieo “caaea/ i?i ae??oo”), ye? aoee ae??oai? ia IE ?AI
?N/OO c aeiiiiiaith neiieaeniiai iaoiaeo, ?aae?ciaaiiai a ?ic?aooieia?e
eiii’thoa?i?e i?ia?ai? “SIMPLEX”.

A iniiao ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie iieeaaeai? ye iaa?oioiaai?
ia?aiao?e iiia?aaeiuei? AOI, oae ? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie oaa?aeino? aia?a
i?e oa?i?/iiio aieea? (?en.4), ca?aeii yeei ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo a?ae
ii/aoeiai? oaa?aeino? O0 aei Oe = 150O a aioiaiio i?iaeoeo? iiaeia
aeinyaiooe aeaiia niiniaaie:

I — o?aaeeoe?eiei, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? — noia?iith
ae??th aeaiooaaiiy ? noa?ee?caoe??; O0 = 35-40 iaeeieoeue;

II — o?eueee ca ?aooiie noa?ee?caoe??, aeeeth/aiiyi i?ioeano
aeaiooaaiiy;

O0 = 60 iaeeieoeue;

Aa??aio II (iiaee), a?aoiao? o?i?/i? iniaeeaino? ne?iaeie ?
noaa iiaeeeaei o?eueee i?ney aea/aiiy e?iaoeee ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a iooo.
?ai?oa aeey aiaiaeo a?i ia aeei?enoiaoaaany.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ae?oaee aa??aio iiaeia i?iiiioaaoe o?eueee aeey
eiina?a?a c iaeiei eiiiiiaioii — aiaaie iooo, iai?eeeaae, iaoo?aeueieo ?
a aoeueeii?. Aeeeth/aiiy oaieiaiai i?ioeano c oaoiieia?/ii? noaie ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye aia?aicaa??aath/o oaoiieia?th. I?e iayaiino? a i?iaeoeo?
?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a, iai?eeeaae, oiiaoiiai niono, ca?eueoaiiy /ano
noa?ee?caoe?? ca ?aooiie aeeeth/aiiy aeaiooaaiiy iaaaoeaii a?ae?a’?oueny
ia ?o yeino?.

Caeeth/iee aoai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano eiina?aoaaiiy iooo —
noa?ee?caoe?y — iai?aaeaiee ia caaacia/aiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ii?
noaa?eueiino? eiina?aiaaiiai i?iaeoeoo oa aeinyaiaiiy iaeii/anii
eoe?ia?ii? aioiaiino? aia?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ioe?iea ia?aiao??a
oeueiai i?ioeano aaeeny ca iaia?aae caaeaieie (?ic?aoiaaieie)
iieacieeaie: aaee/ei iaiao?aeii? eaoaeueiino? Fi (ii
Bac.stearothermophilus, z=120C, oa Cl.s?orogenes, z=100C), iaiao?aeiiai
?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a ?i oa oaeoe/iei cia/aiiyi oeeo iieaciee?a i?e
noa?ee?caoe?? ii ?ic?iaeaiei ?aaeeiai, a?aeiia?aeii Fae ? Pae (oaae. 3).

?i – ii?iaoeaia (ieaiiaaia) ?ici’yeoaiiy, ?ic?aoiaoaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiinoaioe De:

Pi = De lg O0/ Oe

aea: O0 ? Oe – a?aeiia?aeii ii/aoeiaa oa ieaiiaaia i?ney oaieiai?
ia?iaee oaa?ae?noue aia?a, 0O;

De – eiinoaioa i?e aoaeiii?e oaiia?aoo??, a ?? yeino? i?eeiyoi 1200N.

?ic?aooiie ?ioaa?aeueiiai ?aieia?/iiai iieacieea oaeoe/iiai
?ici’yeoai-iy aia?a iooo i?e noa?ee?caoe?? – ?ae – aeeiioaaee ii oi?ioe?
iaaeeaeaiiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi eiinoaioe Z:
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 aea: k ?=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.

?ic?aooiie ia?aaiaeieo eiao?oe??io?a k? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 100-1300N
aeeiiaiee ia IE ?AI ?N/OO.

Oaaeeoey 3

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe?? eiina?a?a c iooo a oa?? III-82-500

Iaeiaioaaiiy eiina?a?a

?I

t,0N

oanoa.*

?aaeei

noa?ee?caoe??Eaoaeuei?noue,

oi. oa.Aoaeoeai?noue ?ici’yeoaiiy aia?a, oi.oa.NeiaieFIFAe?I?AeIoo
iaoo?aeueiee

(c aeaiooaaiiyi)

5,9
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000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18,72

25,3

47-54

52,2Ioo iaoo?aeueiee

(aac aeaiooaaiiy)

5,9
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c020003a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffafffffff60020000af0200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000600015000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657
720526f6d616e00007f040000002d01000008000000320a77012c0102000000313209000
000320ab002f400030000003132310015000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000000
402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007f040000002d01010004000000f0010
00008000000320a40023a000100000046000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000
00010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000
0002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000

18,72

43,46

76,3

77,23

Ioo a aoeueeii?

(c aeaiooaaiiyi)

5,9

80picscalex1000100090000032f01000003001500000000000500000009020000000004
00000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005
0000000b0200000000050000000c02e00480071200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010
000000c0ffffffb3ffffff40070000930400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970
650000100109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014
02500240000500000013025002350715000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc04
02001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc8e040000002d01010008000000320a8f
04ad0401000000d10015000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d
6573204e657720526f6d616e00008e040000002d01020004000000f00101000900000032
0a8f04d701030000003132300008000000320aa401e90502000000323508000000320aa4
01220302000000343508000000320aa4015b0002000000323515000000fb0200ff000000
0000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00008e040000002d
01010004000000f001020008000000320ac603e00301000000300010000000fb02c0fe00
00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0
01010008000000320aa401c904010000002d0008000000320aa4010202010000002d000a
00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc0200
0000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00102000300000000
00000000000000

picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000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18,72

19,81

47-54

47,64Ioo a aoeueeii?

(aac aeaiooaaiiy)

5,9
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c020003a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffafffffff60020000af0200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000600015000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657
720526f6d616e000098040000002d01000008000000320a77012a0102000000313209000
000320ab002f200030000003132310015000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000000
402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000098040000002d01010004000000f0010
00008000000320a40023a000100000046000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000
00010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000
0002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000

18,72

42,1

76,3

77,27Ioo a oiiaoiiio

nion?

4,9
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000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8,33

19,6

47-54

52,46Ioo c i’ynii

a aoeueeii?

5,6
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000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14,94

19,1

47-54

58,0

Ioo c e?eueeith a

oiiaoiiio nion?

4,9
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picscalex98010009000003bb00000002001500000000000500000009020000000004000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8,33

19,6

47-54

52,46· oaiia?aoo?a caeeae, aoeueeiio oa oiiaoiiai niono i?e oanoaaii?

Oiiaith iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe?? ? aeeiiaiiy
??aiyiue:

Fae Fi , Pae Pi

sse c?acie, ia ?en.5 iaaaaeaii oaieio?ce/io oa i?e?ia?ieia?/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aaeeio noa?ee?caoe?? eiina?a?a “Ioo iaoo?aeueiee”. Ia
iniia? e?eai? oeneo a aaioe? (?en.5) ?ic?iaeai? ia?aiao?e oeneo a
aaoieeaa? – i?ioeneo.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? c iaoeiaei iaa?oiooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a
iiia?aaeiuei? AOI ? ?aaeei?a noa?ee?caoe??, ye?nii? ne?iaeie (oaae.4)
aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe eiina?ae aeniei? oa?/iai? oe?iiino? (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 4

O?i?/iee neeaae aeine?aeaeaieo aia?a iooo

Ni?oe

ioooIana

1000

ca?ai

(a)

I?ioa?i

Nx6,25,

%

AEe?,

%

Ee?o-eiaeia,

%

E?ioiaeue,

%

Eia?a?oi? o?eineia,

ia/a ca?ia?icaiia330-34018,43,93,544,88,6E?aniieoo- nueeee

250-260

18,9

3,4

4,1

43,2

10,3Ieaenaiae?eo

290-310

17,4

2,9

6,4

41,9

5,6I?ia?aeueiee neeaae ioooNi?oe

ioooiae?iaeaiaioe, ia/100aI?e?iaeaiaioe, iea/100a

Na

K

Ca

Mg

P

Fe

Cu

Zn

Cd?icaiia25,81139,0118,72154,15219,54222,394,00352115,3045,3325E?aniieoo
nueeee-28

21,4

1151,6

128,61

149,57

221,89

4439,95

4,0686

2389,016

5,2044Ieaenaiae?eo23,71101,1113,12153,91218,634825,055,52752083,2475,564
1

Oaaeeoey 5

Oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?/iai? oe?iiino? eiina?a?a c iooo

(ia 100 a ?noeaii? /anoeie)

Ani?oeiaio eiina?a?a

Ai-aea

A?e-ee

AEe?Caa. aoaea

aiaeeEe?o-

eiae-ia

Cieai?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie

Aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noueNaKCaMgPFea ? a i ei ?e ? a ? a i eeeaeeAeaeIoo
iaoo?aeueiee72,36,71,6718,11,231,002436164421480,9114,75479,7Ioo a
aoeueeii?69,6

7,72,2918,11,231,052737765431581,0118,95497,2Ioo a oiiaoiiio nion?

68,3

7,3

1,72

20,1

1,36

1,24

39

440

73

46

158

1,1

137,05

572,9Ioo c i’ynii a aoeueeii?

65,8

9,5

5,89

16,6

1,13

1,09

33

386

61

42

170

1,3

152,92

639,2Ioo c e?eueeith a oiiaoiiio nion?

80,7

8,8

2,75

6,3

0,41

1,05

21

237

32

11

45

0,6

100,45

419,9

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y iiaeo eiina?aiaaieo i?iaeoeo?a ?c iooo ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae nai?o aiaeia?e ii aeei?enoaiiio iaeaaeiaiith ?
iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ia aoaeue-yeiio eiina?aiiio caaiae? aac
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao.

AENIIAEE

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa ? cae?i/aiei iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, a yeiio ae??oaia
aeooaeueia caaea/a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a c iooo oa oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy eiai a i?iaeoeoao
oa?/oaaiiy, ui ia? aaaeeeaa aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy aeey
Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Cai?iiiiiaai? aeey ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? ia?aiao?e iiia?aaeiuei? AOI
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaecae/aeiith no?ieao?noth ? a?aeiinii iooo —
iao?aaeeoe?eii? aeey eiina?aii? i?iieneiaino? ne?iaeie — aeaee ??ci?
?acoeueoaoe ? ii iaaooaiith (, %), ? ii oaa?aeino? (0O).

2. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui i?e iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao caii/oaaiiy nooi?iue
iaaooaiiy oa ?ici’yeoaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo aeae?a aiaiaeo – ni?, iooo oa
ai?ioo ? aeaeiaith oa ni?oiaith iciaeith oeeo eoeueoo? ? neeaaea?
a?aeiia?aeii (i?e 200N): ,% — 108 -128; 102-106; 79-101; 0O – 34-42;
54-58; 37-43.

3.Iaoiiaeaiee oaoiieia?/iei ?aaeaiaioii ??aaiue iaaooaiiy aiaiaeo a 1,8
?ace aeey iooo iiaeia aeinyaiooe i?e oaeeo ?aaeeiao caii/oaaiiy o aiae?:
200N — 300-360 oa; 400N — 150-180 oa; 600N — 90-120 oa.

4. Eiinoaioe ?ia?oe?? iaaooaiiy fi ??cieo aiaiaeo eoeueoo? i?e
caii/oaaii? aeineoue ??cei a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith, ui e?euee?nii
oa?aeoa?eco? aieea ia iaaooaiiy aeaeo aiaiaeo, ni?oo oa oaiia?aoo?e.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea ni?oo iniaeeai cia/iee aeey ai?ioo oa ni? ?
iacia/iee aeey iooo.

5. ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, yea aaeaeaaoii iieno? aieea aeaiooaaiiy ia
oaa?ae?noue aia?a iooo , i?aaenoaaey?oueny o aeaeyae?: y=63,
75-12×1-6, 125×2-4, 375x1x2,

aea : x1, x2 – oaeoi?e oaiia?aoo?e oa o?eaaeino? i?ioeano.

6. Oa?i?/ia ?ici’yeoaiiy iooo ca ?aooiie eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeueieo
ca?ai, i?i ui na?ae/eoue cieaeaiiy ai?noo ai?eice ? “neiueiai /enea”
ai?eice, i?io?ea? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?iaoeeith ?aaeoe?? I-ai ii?yaeeo
oa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie eiinoaioaie: D100 = 210,2 oa; D110 =162,0
oa; D120 =126,7 oa; Z = 910C.

7. Ia?aiao?aie iiia?aaeiuei? AOI a ?ic?iaeai?e oaoiieia?? eiina?a?a ?c
iooo ni?oo ?icaiia (i?e a?aeiia?aei?e oaa?aeino? ca?ai ) ?:

-caii/oaaiiy: 120 oa. i?e 600N (0O=50-60);

-aeaiooaaiiy (ia?ith): 25-30 oa. i?e 1200N (0O=35-40).

8. ?ic?iaeai? ?aoeaioo?e ? IOAe ia ae?iaieoeoai oaeeo aeae?a eiina?a?a
c aeei?enoaiiyi iooo:

— «Ioo iaoo?aeueiee»;

— «Ioo a aoeueeii?»;

— «Ioo a oiiaoiiio nion?»;

— «Ioo c i’ynii a aoeueeii?»;

— «Ioo c e?eueeith a oiiaoiiio nion?».

9. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?aaeeie noa?ee?caoe?? caaacia/othoue
i?e?ia?ieia?/io noaa?euei?noue i?iaeoeo?a ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aaee/eiaie ?aieia?/iiai iieacieea «aoaeoeai?noue ?ici’yeoaiiy» aia?a
(picscalex100010009000003bb000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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) a 46-54 oi. oa.
(ii o?aaeeoe?ei?e oaoiieia?? — c aeaiooaaiiyi ) ? 76 oi. oa. ( ii iia?e
oaoiieia?? -aac aeaiooaaiiy), ui caaacia/o? eoe?ia?io aioiai?noue aia?a.

10. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iooo
a?aoiao? o?i?/i? iniaeeaino? ne?iaeie, iiaea i?iaiaeeoenue ca aeaiia
noaiaie ? i?e aeei?enoaii? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ia?aiao??a aeicaiey?
iaea?aeaoe iia? i?iaeoeoe aeniei? oa?/iai? oe?iiino?.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oeaoiaiaaoi A. E., Noi?iaeoe A. I., Iaeueiee E. A. Eeiaoe/aneea
caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna aeaaioaieiaie ia?iaioee naiyi iooa // Iaoe.
i?aoe? IAeAOO «I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa oa
niiaeeaaiiy oe?aii?iaeoeo?a». – O.1.- Iaeana: IAeAOO, 1997. — N. 84-86.

2. Oeaoiaiaaoi A. E., Noi?iaeoe A. I., Iaeueiee E. A. Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iienaiea i?ioeanna aeaioe?iaaiey aiaia iooa // Iao/i.o?oaeu IAAIO
«Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey iieiaeuo o/aiuo». — Iaeanna:
Ano?ii?eio, 1997. — N. 31-34.

3. Iaeueiee E. A., Eeoaeia O. I., Noi?iaeoe A. I. Ieia?aeueiue ninoaa
ca?ia iooa // Iaoa?. iaaeae. iao/ii-i?aeo. eiio. „Yeieiaey ai?iaeia e
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo cii». — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — N. 322-326.

4. Iaeueiee ?. A., Oeaoiaiaaoi A. E., Noi?iaeoe A. I. Aiae?c oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee aia?a iooo a oaoiieia??
eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a // Iaoeia? i?aoe? IAeAOO.- Iaeana:
IAeAOO, 1998. — Aei. 18.- N. 67-70.

5. Oeaoiaiaaoi A. E., Iaeueiee E. A., Noi?iaeoe A. I., Oa?noiaeoia A.A.,
Ne/ea?ue A. E. Eeiaoeea iaaooaiey naiyi ca?iiaiaiauo eoeueoo? i?e
caia/eaaiee // Ia?niaeoeau.- 1998.- ?2.- N. 10-14.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaeueiee ?.A. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a ?c iooo.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.13 – oaoiieia?y eiina?aiaaieo
i?iaeoeo?a.

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Iaeana, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a

c iooo c iaoith ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiai o ae?iaieoeoai ? oe?ieiai
aeei?enoaiiy a oa?/oaaii?.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y eiina?aiaaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iooo,
yea aeeth/a? iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a o?ueio iniiaieo aoai?a
i?ioeano eiina?aoaaiiy – caii/oaaiiy, aeaiooaaiiy oa noa?ee?caoe??.

A iniiao iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a iieeaaeaii a?aeiia?aei?
e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiiii??iinoae aeine?aeaeaieo i?ioean?a.

Ioe?iea i?ioeano noa?ee?caoe?? i?iaaaeaia ii i?e?ia?ieia?/iei oa
?aieia?/iei iieacieeai. Cai?iiiiiaaii ani?oeiaio iiaeo aeae?a eiina?a?a
c iooo oa aeine?aeaeaia ?o oa?/iaa oe?ii?noue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ioo, caii/oaaiiy, aeaiooaaiiy, noa?ee?caoe?y, e?iaoeea,
iaaooaiiy, oaa?ae?noue, oa?i?/ia ?ici’yeoaiiy, ?aieia?y, eiina?aiaai?
i?iaeoeoe.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaeueiee E.A. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee eiina?ae?iaaiiuo ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia ec iooa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.13 – oaoiieiaey
eiina?ae?iaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia.

Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey ieuaauo oaoiieiaee,
Iaeanna,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee oaoiieiaee ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia ec iooa n oeaeueth aiaae?aiey aai a i?iecaiaenoai e oe?ieiai
eniieueciaaiey a ieoaiee.

?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey eiina?ae?iaaiiuo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia ec
iooa, aeeth/athuay iao/iia iainiiaaiea ia?aiao?ia o?ao iniiaiuo yoaiia
i?ioeanna eiina?ae?iaaiey – caia/eaaiey, aeaioe?iaaiey e noa?eeecaoeee.

A iniiao iainiiaaiey ia?aiao?ia iieiaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea
eeiaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiiiia?iinoae enneaaeiaaiiuo i?ioeannia.

Ioeaiea i?ioeanna noa?eeecaoeee i?iaaaeaia ii iee?iaeieiae/aneei e
?aieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi. I?aaeeiaeai anni?oeiaio iiauo aeaeia
eiina?aia ec iooa e enneaaeiaaia eo ieuaaay oeaiiinoue.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ioo, caia/eaaiea, aeaioe?iaaiea, noa?eeecaoeey,
eia?oeey, iaaooaiea, oaa?aeinoue, oaieiaia ?aciya/aiea, ?aieiaey,
eiina?ae?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou.

ANNOTATION

Ialnik I.V. — Processing the technology of nanned foodstuff from
nut-peas.- The manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a speciality 05.18.13 — technology of
canned products.

Odessa state academy of the food technologies, Odessa, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the problems of processing the
technology of foodstuff from nut-peas with the purpose of introduction
it in manufacture and wide usage in human nutrition. Nut-peas —
untraditional raw material for preservation, therefore under development
of technology its advantage are appreciated in comparison with
traditional objects of preservation — peas and soy-beans. On chemical
structure — to the contents of protein, fat and starch nut is close to
peas (protein and starch accordingly, % — 20,1 and 20,5; 43,2 and 44,0)
and differs from soy-beans (starch accordingly, % — 34,9 and 3,5) a
little.

Unfortunately, at the Ukraine and at the other CIS countries the
nut-peas, as raw material for preservation, industrial importance has
not received, and you see just this leguminous culture is perspective in
southern droughty areas of Ukraine, besides it more high-plant, than
peas, is suitable to the mechanised planting, not lie down and not
dehisce, and can, as against soy-beans, to not be exposed hull at
preservation.

There was developed the technology of the canned foodstuff from
nut-peas including a scientific substantiation of three basic stages
parameters of preservation pro-cess — soak, boil and sterilization.
During first two occurs swelling of grains and softening them at the
expense of linkage of water accordingly by protein and starch, under
sterilization — simultaneously with microbiological stability the
culinary readiness of beans is reached also. In a basis of a
substantiation of parameters are fixed appropriate kinetic
characteristic of laws of the investigated processes.

The necessity for development of individual parameters of the
specified processes with reference to nut-peas is confirmed as the
carried out analysis of working technologies of preservation of
soy-beans and peas, and revealed distinctions in swelling of this raw
material under soak. The process of the soak in water investigated at
temperatures 20,40 and 600N with reference to three grades of each kind
of raw material. The influence of raw material kind, grade and
temperature of process on the swelling is appreciated with the help of
kinetic constants of inertia swelling fi, is significant for soy-beans
and peas. For nut-peas kinetic of the swelling of beans expressed
through fi, practically does not depend on grades, that facilitates the
further search is scientific — reasonable of parameters of process. The
level, caused by the technological rules, swelling leguminous in 1,8
for nut-peas is possible to reach at the following modes soak in water:
200N — 300-360 min; 400N -150-180 min; 600N — 90-120 min.

With reference to boil the optimization of parameters of process
is carried out. The equation of regression is received, using which, it
is possible, being set temperature and time, to calculate achievable in
process boil the degree of hardness of beans nut-peas. It is
established, that under boil nut-peas at temperatures is higher 1000N
practically there is no increase of a degree swelling, and there is a
further softening of beans estimated by parameter — a degree of
hardness, 0O, which ambassador boil should make 35-400 O.

The exponential character of change of hardness connected with
chemical features nut-peas, namely prevalence in nut-peas starch of
amyloza (up to 80 %), allowed to establish laws of process of the
thermal softening with the temperatures 100, 110 and 1200N and various
temporary expositions and to establish the appropriate constants D and
Z, having with which it is possible beforehand to predict achievement at
any stage of heat treatment of the given degree of hardness, including
15-20 units after sterilization and to offer the conducting process of
preservation of nut-beans by two circuits: traditional — total influence
boil and sterilization, and only at the expense of sterilization by
exception of process boil.

Responsible for process of the softening of nut-peas at
preservation it is necessary to consider the process of the starch glue,
to what the decrease of the contents of the amyloza characterized » by
dark blue number » testifies.

It was offered the assortment of the new kinds of canned food
from nut-peas and their food value is investigated.

It is developed the scientific — reasonable modes of
sterilization with reference to container ???-82-500 with modes
backpressure.

The estimation of sterilization process is carried out by
microbiological and reological parameters: to sizes required lethal Fi
and required size » of efficiency of the softening » Pi with the
subsequent account of their actual size at sterilization on the
developed modes, accordingly Fae and Pae.

The developed technology of canned food from nut-peas can be carried out
by two circuits: traditional — with boil of beans and new — without
boil; does not differ from the analogies on the used equipment and can
be carried out at any canning factory without additional expenses.

Key words: nut-peas, soak, boil, sterilization, inertia,
swelling, hardness, thermal softening, reology, canned foodstuff.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 08.10.1998. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16.

Ia’?i 1,0 oiia ae?oe.a?e. Caiiaeaiiy ? 469. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

A?aeae?e iie?a?ao?? IAeAOO (i. Iaeana, aoe. Eaiaoia, 112).

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