OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AAIE?ANUeEI? NI?AAE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

E?AAAOeUe A?EOI? IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 336.763:336.711

?IC?IAEA OA AI?IAAAeAEAIIss IAOe?IIAEUeII?

NENOAIE IANIAEO AEAEO?IIIEO IEAOAAE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Noie — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?i?oaiia Aiaoie?e
Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y
aaie?anueei? ni?aae,

?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoiaieiaa Na?oeaia
Aaeaioei?aia,

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y
aaie?anueei? ni?aae,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith
o?iain?a,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio

I??ioi?/aiei Ieaenaiae?
Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee
aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e
e?aa?iaoeee oa ?ioi?iaoeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a o?iain?a ?
e?aaeeoo,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo ia 14.00
aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.55.081.01 a
Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae ca aae?anith: 244030, i.
Noie, aoe. Niai?ia,39, aoae.? 204.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae ca aae?anith: i. Noie, aoe. Niai?ia,39.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 16 na?iiy1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
Eiaaeaiei A.A. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy

No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo aaie?anueeiai naeoi?a
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi ianya?a ? no?oeoo?e a?ioiaiai iai?ioo,
oneeaaeiaiiyi ?ic?aooie?a, iaiao?aei?noth oieeiaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a ?
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae??aiai eiio?ieth ca nenoaiith a?ioiaiai ia?ao a
Oe?a?i?. Aeeiiaiiy oaeeo neeaaeieo caaaeaiue iiaea aooe caaacia/aii
nooo?aei ?icoe?aiiyi ??cieo aeae?a aaie?anueeeo iineoa, ui iaaeathoueny
aaieaie i?aei?e?inoaai, i?aai?caoe?yi ? ianaeaiith.

Iaei??th ?c oaeeo iineoa, ui aaea oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny ia
ca?oa?aeieo o?iainiaeo ?eieao, ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiieo a?ioae,
noai?aiiy nenoai aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a ? ?ic?aooie?a. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue a Oe?a?i? aaea noai?aii nenoaio aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, ie?ai? aaiee aeei?enoiaothoue aeaye?
aeaiaioe ? nenoaie ca?oa?aeieo ieao?aeieo nenoai, cai?iaaaeaeothoue
aeani? nenoaie .

Aea nueiaiaei? i?aeoeea noaaeoue a?eueo neeaaeia caaaeaiiy, i?ae
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ieao?aeieo ea?oie ie?aieo i?aeia?iaeieo ieao?aeieo
nenoai /e ieao?aeieo nenoai ie?aieo aaie?a. Iinoaea iaaaeueia i?aeoe/ia
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo
ieaoaae?a, caaaeuei? canaaee yei? ?ic?iaeythoueny oao?aoeyie
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie ca ni?eyiiy ?inoeoooo i?iaiicoaaiiy
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. A oe?eiio oey i?iaeaia o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii aena?oeaia aeoaea neaai. Ie?ai? aniaeoe
aeine?aeaeai? a ?iaioao Aaeoey A.I., I?uaiea A.?., Ii?ica A.I.,
Iaoiaieiai? N.A., Naei ?.A., Naaeoea I.?., Naa/aiea A.N.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? oa i?aeoeoe?
o?eueee-ii ?icii/aeiny. Aacith aeey oaei? ?iaioe ? noai?aia
Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii nenoaia aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a aeey th?eaee/ieo
in?a, yea iiaea noaoe iaoiaeieia?/iith oa iaoiaee/iith iniiaith ?ic?iaee
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey ?ic?iaee aeacaii? ieao?aeii? nenoaie ia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a caiia?aaiiy o?iainiaei ?eceeai oa oi?aae?iiy ieie,
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a?ae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie oa
?io?. A ca’yceo c oeei aaaaea?ii, ui oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee.

Noaaey/e ca iaoo iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?noo oa oi?i cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nenoai aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a, aaoi? aeoiaeea, ianaiia?aae, ?c oiai, ui
aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia c?inoath/eie iio?aaaie
oi?aae?iiy o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a aea?aeaa? oa noai?aiiy
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo
ieaoaae?a. Ona aeeeaaeaia e iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ??
aeooaeuei?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoei aeei?enoaii i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oai: «Noai ?
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie» (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 01970044204) oa «No/ani? oaoiieia?? o?iainiai-aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0199a002342).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae oa o?iainiaeo aniaeo?a noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

• iaa?oiooaaoe i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a;

• aecia/eoe iniiai? aeaea?aea aoaeoeaiino? noai?aiiy nenoaie ianiaeo
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a ? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
aioo??oiueinenoaii? oa ciai?oiueinenoaii? aoaeoe;

• ?ic?iaeoe iia? oa aaeaiooaaoe ?nioth/? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie ioe?iee
aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a;

• iaa?oiooaaoe o?iainia? aniaeoe noai?aiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a;

• aeine?aeeoe o?iainia? ?eceee, ui aeieeathoue ia an?o aoaiao ?ic?iaee
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

• iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioe?y oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae oa
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a;

• ?ic?iaeai? noaie i?aai?caoe?? ieao?aeieo nenoai, cae?eniaiiy
?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiieo noai ?ooo a?ioae;

• iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?cie i?aai?caoe??
no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a o/aniee?a ieao?aeieo nenoai ia i?eioeeiao
nie?aea?ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

• cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia iieaciee?a aeey aecia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? aaie?a c
o?aooaaiiyi ii?iaoea?a ia?ao eioo?a;

• iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a ?ic?aooie?a oa cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoai?cie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ia a?o/eciyiiio
a?ioiaiio ?eieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iaa?oioiaaieie i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei
caaaeaiue, i?noey oa ?ie? ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a o nenoai?
a?ioiaiai ia?ao a Oe?a?i?, ai?iaaaeaeai? ieao?aeieo nenoai, no?aooaaii?
?ecee?a oa i?aai?caoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy
?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aaie?anueeeo ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie.

Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia, oa?aeoa?o oa ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo a?o/eciyieo ieao?aeieo nenoai aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae,
a?o/eciyiiai a?ioiaiai ?eieo aaoi?ii aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue
oi?ioaaiiy oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a —
aeaeo?iiieo a?ioae.

Iaa?oioiaai? aaoi?ii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie no?aooaaiiy
?ecee?a o/aniee?a iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a
ia i?eioeeiao nie?aea?ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
iino?eii i?aeo?eioaaoe aenieee ??aaiue iaae?eiino? oa e?ea?aeiino?
i?aai?ciaaieo nenoai, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? oa
i?aai?caoe?? oi?a?ae?, ??aiy iaaeaiiy iineoa ianaeaiith oiui.

I?iaaaeaia aaoi?ii anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ia
oe?a?inueeiio a?ioiaiio ?eieo iiaeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a —
ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie, no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a aeicaiey? niiae?aaoenue, ui
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?iiiceoe?e aaoi?a aoaea ni?eyoe
aeoea?caoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy iaae?eiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ieao?aeieo nenoai c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae ia a?ioiaiio
?eieo Oe?a?ie.

Iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe oa aianai? i?iiiceoe?? aeei?enoai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeo?a Caeii?a Oe?a?ie «I?i ia?a?aooaaiiy a?ioae ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie», «I?i Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie Oe?a?ie», «I?i aaiee ?
aaie?anueeo ae?yeuei?noue», aeeth/ai? aei ii?iaoeaieo oa ?ino?oeoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, aeei?enoiaothoueny a
i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe a aaie?anueeeo onoaiiaao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaea?aeai? aeena?oaioii
iniaenoi ? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo. Iniaenoee
aianie caeiaoaa/a:

• ?ic?iaeaia noaia i?aai?caoe?? ieao?aeieo nenoai, cae?eniaiiy
?ic?aooie?a aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae ? iae?eo noi i?e ?o ia?ai?uaii?;

• cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo oa iaoai?ci i?aai?caoe?? no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a
o/aniee?a ieao?aeieo nenoai;

• iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia iieaciee?a aeey aecia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? o/aniee?a
ieao?aeii? nenoaie;

• cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ieao?aeieo ?ino?oiaio?a ia
a?ioiaiio ?eieo;

• ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe o/aniee?a aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao. Na?aae ieo:

I?aeia?iaeia sseoeinueea eiioa?aioe?y aaie???a e?a?i-/eai?a NIAe ?
Aaeo?? (sseoa, 1997, 1998) ;

Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Noai ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie» (Noie, 1998);

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «I?aai?caoe?y ia?aoiaeo aaie?a Oe?a?ie ia
i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo» (Ee?a, 1997);

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Oeyoe iiaeieaiiy ieao?aeii? e?ece a
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, 1998);

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y ?
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia nenoaia» (Ee?a, 1998).

E??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae oa Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

Iaoeia? ioae?eaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 8 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,7 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 3 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.

Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 174 noi??iee, o o./. ia 18 noi??ieao
?ici?uai? 13 oaaeeoeue, 5 aeiaeaoe?a ? nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c
174 iaeiaioaaiue.

O «Anooi?» iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai?
iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/ei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? canaaee
i?aai?caoe?? ia?ao aeaeo?iiieo a?ioae» aeine?aeaeaii ia?aaeoiiae
oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo a?ioae oa cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ieao?aeieo
nenoai, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny o o?iainiaeo nenoaiao ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, a
oaeiae ia a?o/eciyiiio a?ioiaiio ?eieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «I?aai?caoe?y ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a» anaa?/ii
aena?oeai? i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee ?ic?iaee oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a, i?iaeaie
oi?aae?iiy ?eceeaie ?ic?aooie?a ? ?eceeaie o/aniee?a nenoaie oa
aeeeaaeaia noaia i?aai?caoe?? aenieoaoaoe?? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo
ieaoaae?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? « Aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a»
aeeeaaeaii iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?ic?aooieo aoaeoeaiino? aaie?anueeeo
iineoa, cae?eniaii ?ic?aooiee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a ? aoaeoeaiino?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy iioi/ieo ?aooie?a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e,
aeine?aeaeaii o?iainia? aniaeoe iiaoaeiae ieao?aeii? nenoaie
aacaio?aeiaeo ?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie.

O «Aeniiaeao» ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aoee iaea?aeai? a oiae?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

Aeiaeaoee i?noyoue aeiiii?aeio oeeo?iao ?ioi?iaoe?th, oaaee/i? aeai?,
i?ii?aeiee oa ?ioee ?ethno?aoeaiee iaoa??ae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aiae?c noaio a?ioiaiai ?eieo oa
nenoaie ?ic?aooie?a cana?ae/ea, ui noai?aiiy aeai??aiaai? aaie?anueei?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie aeineoue aino?i iinoaaeei ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ?ic?aooie?a o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?.
Aeei?enoaiiy iaeiie/aiiai ca /an?a N?N? aeina?aeo aeyaeeiny
iaeiaoaeoeaiei, ine?eueee iia? oiiae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
iaea?aeaiiy iath iacaeaaeiino?, iiaee oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
aaie?a c i?aei?e?inoaaie oa aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa iinoaaeee
ia?aae aaie?anueeith nenoaiith iia? caaaeaiiy uiaei ?icaoaeiae nenoaie
aeaeo?iiieo ?ic?aooie?a. I?aeoe/ii aeaeo?iii? a?io? oa nenoaie ?o ia?ao
? ?ic?aooie?a aoee a Oe?a?i? noai?ai? caiiai. A oeueiio aaciina?aaeith
i?aeoe/io o/anoue a?aa ? aaoi? aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaia oa cai?iaaaeaeaia ia i?ioyc? 1992-1993 ??. Iaoe?iiaeueiei
aaieii Oe?a?ie nenoaia aeaeo?iiieo i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?ic?aooie?a aoea
aeineoue aoaeoeaiith ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany iaaenieith aa?o?noth ?ic?iaee
oa aenieoaoaoe??, iaae?ei?noth ? oi?o?eiaai?noth i?ia?aiieo ? aia?aoieo
cania?a nenoaie, i?inoith aenieoaoaoe?? i?ia?aiii-oaoi?/ieo cania?a,
noeneeie oa?i?iaie cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oiui. I?e noai?aii? nenoaie
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?eioeeiiai iia? i?ia?aii?, iaoiaee/i? oa
i?aai?caoe?ei? ??oaiiy, a i?eioeeiiaeie iiiaioaie noaee: iiaia a?aeiiaa
a?ae iaia?iaeo iin??a ?ioi?iaoe??, aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo
eiii’thoa??a ? ???a?o?/ii-ia?aaeia iiaoaeiaa nenoaie.

Aeaeaoee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie ia ?ic?iaeo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy,
iiaea?i?caoe?th oa aenieoaoaoe?th nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a ca 1995
— 1998 ??. neeaee 65,2 iei.a?i., aai aeecueei 35 iei. aeiea??a NOA. A
1998 ?. aoei ia?iaeaii 82,5 iei. ieaoaae?a ia noio iiiaae 387 ie?ae.a?i.
(oaae.1).

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ieao?aeii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie oeyoii ia?aaiaeo NAI ia
iiao oaoi?/io ieaooi?io Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii o 1996-1997 ??.
aeei?enoaii 2,9 ?c 3,2 i?eueeii?a aeiea??a NOA ?inoeoooe?eii? iiceee
Na?oiaiai Aaieo.

Oaaeeoey 1

Iniiai? e?euee?ni? iieacieee ooieoe?iioaaiiy NAI o 1994-1998 ??.

??e Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ieaoaae?a ca ??e, iei.oo. Caaaeueia noia
ieaoaae?a ca ??e, iei.a?eaaiue

1994 45,8 258846

1995 59,6 288850

1996 68,1 479265

1997 76,1 565805

1998 82,5 387254

Aeioiaee a?ae aenieoaoaoe?? nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a ca 1995-1998
??. neeaee 116,7 iei.a?i., aai aeecueei 66 iei.aeie. NOA.

Cai?iaaaeaeaia nenoaia aeaeo?iiieo ?ic?aooie?a ia ia? aiaeia?a o e?a?iao
eieeoiueiai N?N? ? iaaeeaea?oueny aei ??aiy a?aeiia?aeieo nenoai
?icaeiaieo e?a?i ?a?iie ? na?oo.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe oae?
i?eioeeiia? ?acoeueoaoe: i?enei?aiiy cae?eniaiiy ?ic?aooie?a oa ia?ao
eioo?a, ui aeaei ciiao aea?eueieoe aeecueei 5% a?ioiai? iane; ciaioaiiy
aeieoiaioiia?ao i?eaeecii ia 20%; nooo?aa cieaeaiiy a??ia?aeiino?
oaeueneo?eaoe?? i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?ic?aooieiaeo aeieoiaio?a, caaaeyee
/iio cieceeany i?eoiaaia ai?n?y, iia’ycaia c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aei ia?ao
eioo?a, io?eiaieo ca i?ae?iaeaieie aeieoiaioaie; iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca
noaiii a?ioiai? iane a aea?aeaa?, cieaeaiiy caeoe?a aea?aeaae oa
i?aei?e?ioe?a a?ae iecueei? oaeaeeino? aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a oa
aeei?enoaiiy i?ae?iaeaieo ieao?aeieo aeieoiaio?a; i?aeaeuaiiy
iiaeeeainoae eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie
eiio?iethaaoe cae?eniaiiy ieaoaae?a.

Aeaeo?iii? ieao?aei? nenoaie, ui ae?thoue iei? a Oe?a?i?,
aeei?enoiaothoue ieao?aei? aei?o/aiiy oa ieao?aei? aeiiae. I?e
i?iaeooaaiiy NAI ca iniiao acyoee ci?no iaia?iaiai aei?o/aiiy. ?io?
nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ?ic?aooie?a Oe?a?ie (aioo??oiueiaaie?anuee? nenoaie,
nenoaie «ee??io-aaie») iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe ca’ycie ?c NAI, a oiio
oi?iaoe oa ci?no aeaeo?iiieo aeieoiaio?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a oeeo
nenoaiao, iathoue caaacia/oaaoe iiaiioe?iiee ?ioa?oaen oeeo nenoai ?c
NAI. Ioaea, a aeieoiaioao oeeo nenoai iiaeii? aooe ia?aaeaa/ai? an?
?aea?ceoe aeey oiai, uia aiie iiaee aooe ia?aoai?ai? o oi?iao ieao?aeieo
aeieoiaio?a NAI ?c iaaeaiiyi on??? iaiao?aeii? aeey NAI ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ieao?aei? nenoaie ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith ani?oeiaioo iineoa, ui
i?iiiiothoue aaiee nai?i ee??ioai. Ine?eueee ee??ioe nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ca oiiaaie ? oa?aeoa?ii
ae?iaieoeoaa, iaiaaeaeiaioo oiui, oi oiiaao eiieo?aioe?? aaiee iiaeii?
?ic?iaeyoe niaoe?aeuei? ae?eia? oa ?eieia? no?aoaa?? aeei?enoaiiy
ieao?aeieo iineoa, ae??ooth/e, /e ni?iiiaei? aiie eiieo?oaaoe a
iaiaaeaiiio naeoi?? ?eieo ieao?aeieo iineoa ? i?iiiioaaoe ee??ioai
a?eueo oe?ieee ?o iaa??.

A ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo o?aaeeoe?ei? aacaio?aeia? ieao?aei?
?ino?oiaioe (/aee, ieao?aei? aei?o/aiiy oiui) aeineoue ?iciianthaeaeai?,
iaeiae inoaii?i /anii ona oe?oa ai?iaaaeaeothoueny nenoaie ianiaeo
(niiaeea/eo) ieaoaae?a ?c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo oaoiieia?e. Inoaii?i
neiaii ieao?aeii? nenoaie ? nenoaia ianiaeo ieaoaae?a ca oiaa?e oa
iineoae ca aeiiiiiaith ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie. O oeeo nenoaiao caae?yi?
e?aaeeoi? ea?oee, aeaaaoi? ea?oee aai «aeaeo?iii? aaiaioe?». Aei oe???
ae a?oie iaeaaeaoue ea?oee aeey io?eiaiiy a?ioae c aaie?anueeeo
aaoiiao?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino?, iniiai? aeiiae aei aeaniee?a ea?oie
? iciaee nenoai aeineoue iiae?ai?, aae aeae?eeoe ?o a ie?aiee eean
ieao?aeieo nenoai. Cie?aia, ni?eueieie ?enaie iiaeia aaaaeaoe ea?oeiao
oaoiieia?th, iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ei?enooaa/a,
ia?aa??ee /eiiino? o?ainaeoe?? oiui.

?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? noaia i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe c
ieao?aeiith ea?oeith, ia?ae?e ?aea?ceo?a, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee o/aniee?a
ieao?aeii? nenoaie oiui /?oei aecia/athoue ii?iaoeai? oa ?ino?oeoeai?
ia?aiao?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ? iiaeooue aooe i?eeiyo? aei
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Ie?ai? aaiee iiaeooue naiino?eii noai?thaaoe aioo??oi? iaeiiai?oaioi? oa
aaaaoiai?oaioi? ieao?aei? nenoaie oa ai?ooaaoe aeey canoinoaaiiy a
iaaeao ae?? oeeo nenoai ieao?aei? ea?oee. O ?ac? noai?aiiy aaieaie
aioo??oiuei? aaaaoiai?oaioii? ieao?aeii? nenoaie ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue ?? ae?yeuei?noue, aca?iia?aeiineie
i?ae o/anieeaie, aaie?anuee? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?ei? iiia?e o/aniee?a oa
aooaaeoa?nueea iiaeaeue aca?ii?ic?aooie?a iathoue aooe ocaiaeaeai? c
Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii Oe?a?ie a 30-aeaiiee oa?i?i aei ii/aoeo ai?n??
ieao?aeieo ea?oie.

C?o/i?noue ea?oeiai? nenoaie ?ic?aooie?a aeey ei?enooaa/a iieyaa?, ia?o
ca ana, a oiio, ui eiio ia iio??aii iaoe i?e nia? aaeeeo noio aio?aee
i?e a?aea?aeoaaii? iaaacei?a. E??i oiai, iayai?noue ea?oie aeicaiey?
caiia?aoe iaaieo oi?iaeueiinoae, iia’ycaieo c aeaea/ath aaie?anueeeo
/ae?a.

Ae?oaa ia?aaaaa ea?oie, yea anaa?/ii ?icaeyiooa a ?iaio?, iieyaa? o
iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy e?aaeeoo. A ea?oeia?e nenoai? ?ic?aooie?a e?aaeeo
iaaea?oueny iieoioeth aaoiiaoe/ii, aac niaoe?aeueiiai caa?iaiiy a aaie.
O iiiaio eoi?ae? aeei?enoiao?oueny e?aaeeoia e?i?y, i?e/iio e?i?o ??
iiaeiai a?aeiiaethaaoeny a i??o iiaaoaiiy ai?ao. Iieoiaoeue
ei?enoo?oueny e?aaeeoii aac noyaiaiiy a?aenioe?a i?ioyaii iaaiiai
oa?i?io. E??i oiai, a?i iiaea ca aaaeaiiyi a?aeno?i/eoe aeieaoo ai?ao ca
iaae? i?eueaiaiai ia??iaeo, niea/oth/e aaieo a?aenioee.

Ua iaeia ia?aaaaa ea?oeiaeo ?ic?aooie?a — io?eiaiiy ei?enooaa/ai
?ioi?iaoe?? a?ae aaieo a oae?e oi?i?, ui a?i iiaea ia?aa??eoe eiaeio
o?ainaeoe?th ? aenoiooe i?aoaic?? a ?ac? iai?aaeeueiiai ?? ioi?ieaiiy.

O?ainaeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ieao?aeieo ea?oie a?aee?eee iia? ia?niaeoeae
o?iainiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?icoe?eee
iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy aaie?anueeiai i?eaooeo. Aaiee noyaothoue eii?n?ei?
oa a?aenioee ye c aeaniee?a ea?oie, oae ?c oi?aiaaeueiee?a. Oae,
aaie-aeaae? iaea?aeo? a?ae oi?aiaaeueiee?a aeeneiio aeey iieaoe
oi?aiaaeueieo ?aooie?a, a oaeiae ia? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
nai?o iia?aoe?e eiooe, ui caa??aathoueny oi?aiaaeueieeaie ia ?aooieao o
aaieo. E??i oiai, aaie iiaea i?iaeaaaoe oi?aiaaeueieeo iineoae,
cieaeoth/e i?e oeueiio noaaeo aeeneiioo ? iaaeath/e eiio aeiaeaoeia?
i?eueae.

sse cana?ae/eei aeine?aeaeaiiy, c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaie?anueeeo aaoiiao?a, aaieai aeioe?eueii ia’?aeioaaoe
nai? ia?aae? oa iaaeaaaoe iiaeeea?noue ee??ioai ei?enooaaoeny aaoiiaoaie
??cieo aaie?a ia aaeeeeo oa?eoi??yo. Ni?eueia ia?aaea aaieiiao?a – oea
ni?eueia i?aei?e?inoai e?eueeio o?iainiaeo onoaiia. I?aai?caoe?eio
no?oeoo?o oeueiai i?aei?e?inoaa oa niaoeeo?/i? aeaoae? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia?aae? iiaeii? aecia/aoe aaiee-o/anieee a?aeiia?aeii? nenoaie.

Iaiao?aeii ?ic??ciyoe aea? nenoaie aenieoaoaoe?? oa?i?iae?a: 1)
nenoaio, caniiaaio ia i?yiiio ? iino?eiiio ca’yceo oa?i?iaea c aaieii
ee??ioa, ? 2) «iai?yio», aai «aaoiiiiio» nenoaio.

Ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie ia?oiai oeio iiaeia i?aeeeth/eoeny aei ?aooieo
ee??ioa ? iaaaeii aeaaaooaaoe eiai, ui aa?aioo? a?ioiaa caaacia/aiiy
ieaoaaeo. Oey nenoaia ia? aeaa iaaeie?ee. Ia?o ca ana, aiia iio?aao?
iayaiino? oaei? ae e?eueeino? oa?i?iae?a, ye aaie?a aai i?aai?caoe?e,
ye? aeioneathoue ea?oee oa aaaeooue ?aooiee ee??io?a. Aeey oeueiai
iio??aia a?eueia i?noea ? ca?eueoaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, iacaeaaeii
a?ae oiai, ca /ee ?aooiie aiie cae?eniththoueny. Ianeoaiaoaaiiy
oa?i?iaea aeineoue neeaaeia, eiai aeeiio? eane?, yeee iiaeiai
i?ae?aooaaoe noio iieoiie ? ioi?ieoe iieaoo. Ae?oaee iaaeie?e — iino?eia
caaaioaaeai?noue e?i?e oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e ? aeo?aoe ia ?o iino?eio
aenieoaoaoe?th. Oeae iaaeie?e iiaeia iii’yeoeoe, canoinoaaaoe
oaoiieia?th «iaeaoii? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??».

I?e nenoai? ae?oaiai oeio eana ia ca’ycaia aaciina?aaeiuei ? iino?eii c
o?iainiaei oeaio?ii. Ca aeiiiiiaith nae?aoiiai eiaeo oa?i?iae nii/aoeo
«ia?aa??y?» i?aai i?aae’yaieea ea?oee ia ?? aeei?enoaiiy, a iio?i, o
?ac? iaiao?aeiino?, — eiai i?aai aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeth ea?oeo ia oo /e
?ioo noio. I?ney oeueiai a?i aaiaeeoue o iai’youe caaaeueio noio
iieoiee. Ia??iaee/ii, ye i?aaeei, uiaeaiii, ?ioi?iaoe?y c iai’yo?
ia?aaea?oueny aei o?iainiaiai oeaio?o o c?icoi?e?e aeey eiii’thoa?a
oi?i?. Oey ia?aaea/a iiaea cae?enithaaoeny aai o?ce/ii, ui nueiaiaei?
iaoiaeeoueny iaaeoi aei?iai, aai aaciina?aaeiuei oaeaoiiii, o aiaeeie
iaeieae/iai oa?eoo ia oaeaoiii? ia?aaiai?e. I?e iaioiio nooiai?
aaoiiaoecaoe?? eiia?naio iiaea aai iaoe i?inoee i?eno??e aeey ia?aa??ee
i?aa i?aae’yaieea ea?oee ia ?? aeei?enoaiiy, aai ca’ycaoeny oaeaoiiii c
oeaio?ii, ui anoaiiaeth? oaea i?aai.

O?iainia? ?eceee ? iniiaiei ia’?eoii eiio?ieth o ieao?aei?e nenoai?.
Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui aaie?anuee? oa ieao?aei? nenoaie aeoaea o?nii
aca?iiiia’ycai?, ieaoini?iiiaei?noue oa e?ea?aei?noue ie?aieo aaie?a ?
?o ee??io?a caeaaeaoue a?ae iie?oeee oa i?aeoeee aeei?enoaiiy ieao?aeii?
nenoaie o?iainiaeie onoaiiaaie.

Aieiaiee i?eioeei ?aaoethaaiiy ianyao ?ic?aooie?a ? caiia?aaiiy ?eceeai
iieyaa? o noai?aii? iaoai?cio /a?aiaino?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia
caaeaoe i?ioyaii aeiy iioeiaeueiee ianya iaiao?aeii? noie ?ic?aooie?a.
Aeey iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy
/a?ae, eiee iiaeeeaa aii?yaeeoaaiiy ca i??i?eoaoaie oa aeei?enoaiiy
aeai?eoi?a iioei?caoe??. Aioo??oiy i?aai?caoe?y ieao?aeii? nenoaie
iieyaa? a oiio, ui noi?iia-iaea?aeoaa/ iiaea aaaaeaoe ieao?ae inoaoi/iei
aai i?aeoe/ii inoaoi/iei ? ieaioaaoe aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eioo?a,
aeoiaey/e c oeueiai i?eiouaiiy, ui iia’ycaii c iaaieie i?iaeaiaie.
Iaeii/anii aeieea? ieoaiiy, /e iiaea noi?iia-a?aei?aaiee a?aeeeeeaoe
iinoaaeai? o /a?ao ieaoaae?. C iaeiiai aieo, iiaeeea?noue a?aeeeeeaiiy
aeicaiey? oieeiooe ?eceeo ca ?ic?aooieaie, a c ae?oaiai — oea iiaea iaoe
iaaaaeai? iane?aeee c oi/ee ci?o niiae?aaiue oa iiaaae?iee ?ioeo
o/aniee?a. Oey i?iaeaia ? aeooaeueiith a ?ac? canoinoaaiiy iaoai?cio
/a?ae e a on?o ?ioeo aeiaaeeao iaaeneeaiiy iaea?aeoaa/o ieao?aeii?
?ioi?iaoe?? aei aeeiiaiiy inoaoi/iiai ?ic?aooieo.

Iaeei ?c aa??aio?a aa?aiooaaiiy aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a, yeee iiaea aooe
canoiniaaiee o i?eaaoieo NIANI, aeoiaeeoue ?c iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
canoaaiiai caaacia/aiiy, ui iaaea?oueny o/anieeaie. Canoaaa iiaea
iaaeaaaoeny o ?ici??? iiaii? noie aeaaaoiai? iiceoe??, aea e iiaea
iaiaaeoaaoeny eeoa /anoeiith iaeaaeii? aei ?ic?aooieo noie.

Iiaeeea? oaeiae aa?aio?? aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooieo c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?cio
?iciiae?eo caeoe?a i?ae ?ioeie o/anieeaie, oiaoi ia i?eioeeiao
nie?aea?ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Caeaa?eueoiai ?iciiae?e caeoe?a
aeei?enoiao?oueny a ?aieao ee??eiaiaiai iaoai?cio c iaiaaeaiith
e?euee?noth o/aniee?a, ine?eueee oeae i?aeo?ae ia ni?ey? cia/iiio
i?aeaeuaiith aeenoeeie?ie o aeiaaeeo, eiee o/anieee ia ciathoue iaeei
iaeiiai. ?nio? iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy canoaaiiai caaacia/aiiy ?
?iciiae?eo caeoe?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy aeo?ao ia
caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ieaoaae?a, a oaeiae ii?aeiaiiy caoiae?a uiaei
caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a oa caoiae?a noiniaii iaiaaeaiiy ?o
ianyao.

Aaie-ai?oaio (aaie-aeaae?), ui ? o/anieeii i?aeaaie?anueeeo ieaoaae?a,
iiaeiai noi?ioaaoe ? iino?eii i?aeo?eioaaoe niaoe?aeueiee no?aoiaee
oiiae aeey iia?aoe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi ieao?aeieo ea?oie. No?aoiaee oiiae
ca caiaeith c ?ic?aooieiaei aaieii iiaea aooe noi?iiaaiee ca ?aooiie:
aa?aio?eieo ciaia’ycaiue ieao?aeii? nenoaie (ca?aeii c i?aaeeaie oa
oiiaaie oe??? ieao?aeii? nenoaie); ?ici?uaiiy aeaiiceo?a o
?ic?aooieiaiio aaieo aai ?ioiio aaieo (oe?a?inueeiio aai ?iicaiiiio);
canoaae oe?iieo iaia??a aaieo; aaca?aeeee/iiai iaiie?eoiai ae?aaeeoeaa;
aa?aio?e ?ioiai aaieo.

?ici?? no?aoiaiai oiiaeo, ui oi?io?oueny aaieii-ai?oaioii, ia? aooe
oaeei, uia oiaiiaeeeaeoe ?eceee i?iaaaeaiiy iiaiiai aca?ii?ic?aooieo ca
an?ia aioo??oi?ie iia?aoe?yie, ui aoee cae?eniai? ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ea?oie oeueiai aaieo, o ?ac? eiai iaieaoini?iiiaeiino?.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a iaea?eueo nooo?aee i?iya ciaoiaeeoue, ia?o ca ana,
o i?enei?aii? ?ic?aooie?a, ciaioaii? ianya?a aio?aee a ia?ao, cieaeaii?
aeaa?oi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino? oa aeo?ao ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a,
i?aeaeuaii? oaeaeeino? ia?ao a?ioae, oii?yaeeoaaii? i?ioeano
e?aaeeooaaiiy, i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy eiio?ieth ca o?iainiaeie iioieaie.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea oa cai?iiiiiaai?
eiie?aoi? iieacieee aeey ?ic?aooieo aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
aaie?anueeeo iineoa ?, cie?aia, aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

Aaciaith oi?ioeith aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaie?anueeiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

,

aea: I – i?iaeoeoeai?noue nenoaie (n?aaeiueiaeiaiaa e?euee?noue
aeeiiaieo oiiaieo aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e);

Wi – e?euee?noue aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e ?-ai aeaeo, aeeiiaieo ca ??e;

Bi – eiao?oe??ioe ia?aaiaeo iia?aoe?? ?-ai aeaeo a oiiaio aaie?anueeo
iia?aoe?th;

N – e?euee?noue ?iai/eo aei?a o ?ioe?.

Oiae? e?euee?noue aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e, aeeiiaieo ca ??e (W), neeaaea:

W = M x N, (2)

a nia?aa?o?noue iaei??? iia?aoe?? (N) aoaea aei??aithaaoe:

(3)

aea Z – iioi/i? aeo?aoe ca ??e.

sseui i?eaooeia?noue iaei??? iia?aoe?? (?1) ?ic?aooaaoe ye:

(4)

aea ? – noia i?eaooeo aaieo ca ??e,

oi aa?o?noue iaei??? oiiaii? aaie?anueei? iia?aoe?? (S) iiaeia caienaoe:

S = N + ?1. (5)

Aeoiaey/e ?c neacaiiai aeua, aeey ?ic?aooieo i?e?inoo aa?o?nii? ioe?iee
?acoeueoaoo a aaie?anueeiio ianeoaiaoaaii? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe oi?ioeo:

ae a: St – oe?ia iaei??? oiiaii? aaie?anueei? iia?aoe??;

W^t – i?e??no ianyao aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
INIAI a ?ioe? t;

At – eiao?oe??io aeeneiiooaaiiy aeioiae?a aeey ia??iaeo t;

t – ?iaeaen ?ieo ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo;

t0, T – ii/aoeiaee ? e?ioeaaee ?iee ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? aoaeoeaiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
INIAI iiaeia canoinoaaoe oi?ioeo:

aea: ??O – i?e??no aa?o?nii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoaoo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie
a ?ic?aooieiaiio ia??iae?;

Y?O – ci?ia aeo?ao o aaie?anueeiio ianeoaiaoaaii? a oiiaao INIAI a
?ic?aooieiaiio ia??iae?;

YSPT,I – ci?ia aeo?ao a ?-o?e noi?aei?e noa?? canoinoaaiiy nenoaie a
?ic?aooieiaiio ia??iae?.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a na?ae/aoue, ui a aeiaaino?ieia?e ia?niaeoea?
noai?aiiy INIAI ? aenieiaoaeoeaiei caoiaeii, yeee aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
cia/i? aeiiii?/i? aoaeoe ia o?eueee a aaie?anuee?e nenoai?, aea e a
noi?aeieo noa?ao canoinoaaiiy, ia ye? i?eiaaea? aeecueei 50 %
caaaeueiiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy INIAI.

C iaoith ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie a ?iaio?
cae?eniai? ?ic?aooiee aeey i?eioiiai i?iaeoo, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
?aa?iio oa a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? i?e aeei?enoaii? ca?ieaoieo ea?oie,
aeeaaeieo, eeoaieo, ea?oie ia ACN ? ea?oie i?aei?e?ioe?a.

Iai?eeeaae, ?ic?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ea?oie ia ACN a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio
?aa?ii? i?e ianeoaiaoaaii? 10 ACN iaeiei aaieii cana?ae/ea, ui aeioiae
aaieo ca ??e iiaea neeanoe aeecueei 195 oen.a?i.

Oaaeeoey 2

?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a?ae aeei?enoaiiy ea?oie ia ACN

Iieacieee A aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ?aa?ii?

*enei ACN, oo. 10

(ianeoaiao? iaeei aaie)

Na?aaei?e a?ioiaee iai?io ia iaei?e ACN ca aeaiue, a?i. 550

Na?aaei?e a?ioiaee iai?io ia iaei?e ACN ca i?nyoeue, a?i. 16500

Caaaeueiee a?ioiaee iai?io ia 10 ACN ca i?nyoeue, a?i. 165000

Caaaeueiee a?ioiaee iai?io ia 10 ACN ca ??e, a?i. 1980000

Noaaea cai?o , % 1

Iia?aoe?eiee aeioiae ca ??e, a?i. 19800

Iia?aoe?eiee aeioiae ca ??e, aeie. NOA 4950

Na?aaeiueii?ny/iee caeeoie a?ae ia?aaeiieao ca III, a?i. 49500

Iaia’yceiaa noia ?aca?aoaaiiy, a?i. 5445

Na?aaeiueii?ny/iee caeeoie – /enoee e?aaeeoiee ?ano?n, a?i. 44005

Aeioiae a?ae aeei?enoaiiy na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo caeeoe?a a?ae ia?aaeiieao
ca III, a?i. 16282

Caaaeueiee aeioiae a?ae ianeoaiaoaaiiy ACN ca ??e, a?i. 195384

Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaeueia no?oeoo?a ieao?aeii? nenoaie
aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?eioiiai i?iaeoo neeaaea?oueny c iaeiiai iiaeoey —
ai?n?? ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie, 3-o EAIN — oa?i?iae?a, 50 IIN —
oa?i?iae?a-aaieiiao?a caaaeueiith aa?o?noth i?eaeecii 177000 aeie. NOA.
Oey no?oeoo?a iiaea ioiieoe iaeaniee oeaio? c iiaeeea?noth ?iaioe c
ee??ioaie a 3 onoaiiaao aaieo (ioi?ieaiiy oaiae, aeaea/a ea?oie oiui) ?
noai?eoe 50 ioieo?a ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a, ye a onoaiiaao aaieo, oae ?
ia i?aei?e?inoaao oi?a?ae?.

?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie na?ae/eoue, ui i?e /enaeueiino? ee??io?a 40 iei./ie.
? caaaeueieo aeo?aoao ia i?iaeo (iioi/ieo ? eai?oaeueieo) aeecueei 1,2
ie?ae.aeie. NOA ??/iee aeioiae neeaaea 1,25 ie?ae.aeie. NOA, a oa?i?i
ieoiiino? i?iaeoo aoaea iaioa iaeiiai ?ieo – 11,5 i?nyoe?a (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3

?ic?aooiie aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie, oen.aeie. NOA

Iieacieee Ia??iae /ano

Iaeei ??e Aanue ia??iae

E?euee?noue ee??io?a, oen./ie. 10 40000

Aeo?aoe aaieo:

1 Aa?o?noue iaeaaeiaiiy (?acii ?c aeaioiaeaiiyi ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie)
181,2 366479

2 Aeo?aoe ia ia??iae anoaiiaeaiiy ? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy 63,0
148641

3 Ieaoa i?ioeaneiaiaiai oeaio?o (0,5% a?ae noie iai?ioo ii o?ainaeoe?yi)
95,0 380000

4 Ieaoa i?ioeaneiaiaiio oeaio?o ca aeeiiai? o?ainaeoe?? 16,5 66000

5 Aii?oecaoe?ei? a?ae?aooaaiiy (ca ia??iae) 45,3 9160

6 Aeo?aoe ia ia?niiae aaieo c a?ae?aooaaiiyi o aea?aeaai? oiiaee 36,0
144000

Onueiai aeo?ao: 437,0 1196740

Aeioiaee oa eii?n?? aaieo:

1 Eii?n?y ca ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a (ca ia??iae) 25,0 100000

2 *eno? a?aenioeia? aeioiaee a?ae ?ici?uaiiy ?ano?n?a 39,6 158328

3 Eii?n?y aaieo a?ae noie o?ainaeoe?? c iaea?aeaiiy aio?aee ee??ioii
133,0 532000

4 Eii?n?y aaieo a?ae noie o?ainaeoe?? ii aacaio?aeia?e iieao? oiaa?o ?
iineoa a?ae oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa 114,0 456000

Onueiai aeioiae?a 311,6 1246328

Aaeain: aeioiae/caeoie (+/-) -125,4 + 49588

Ia??iae ieoiiino?, i?nyoe?a — 11,5

Aeniiaee

Noai?aiiy aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie iinoaaeei caaaeaiiy uiaei
?icaoaeiae aeanii? nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ?ic?aooie?a oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy c
o?aooaaiiyi na?oiaiai aeina?aeo iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

?ic?iaeaia oa cai?iaaaeaeaia ca o/anoth aaoi?a ia i?ioyc? 1992-1993 ??.
nenoaia aeaeo?iiieo i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?ic?aooie?a aeyaeeany aoaeoeaiith
oa ae??caeaoiith ? iaaeeaea?oueny aei ??aiy a?aeiia?aeieo nenoai
?icaeiooeo e?a?i. I?e ?? noai?aii? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?eioeeiiai iia?
i?aai?caoe?ei?, aeiiii?/i? oa oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy, ye? noaee aacith aeey
?ic?iaee iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a.

Nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo ?ic?aooie?a iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe iiaiioe?iiee
?ioa?oaen ?c NAI ? ia?aaeaa/aoe an? ?aea?ceoe aeey oiai, uia aiie iiaee
aooe ia?aoai?ai? o oi?iao ieao?aeieo aeieoiaio?a NAI ?c iaaeaiiyi on???
iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O nenoai? aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a iiaeooue aooe caae?yi? e?aaeeoi? ea?oee,
aeaaaoi? ea?oee aai «aeaeo?iii? aaiaioe?». Aei oe??? ae a?oie iaeaaeaoue
ea?oee aeey io?eiaiiy a?ioae c aaie?anueeeo aaoiiao?a.

?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? noaia i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe c ieao?aeiith
ea?oeith, ia?ae?e ?aea?ceo?a, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee o/aniee?a ieao?aeii?
nenoaie /?oei aecia/athoue ii?iaoeai? oa ?ino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie.

Iaeia ?c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ia?aaaa canoinoaaiiy ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie
aeey ei?enooaa/a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aaoiiaoe/ii iaea?aeoaaoe iaaio
noio e?aaeeoo, cacae/ae, aac noyaiaiiy ia i?ioyc? iaaiiai ia??iaeo /ano
a?aenioe?a.

O?ainaeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ieao?aeieo ea?oie a?aee?eee iia? ia?niaeoeae
o?iainiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a ? aeiaeaoeia? aeaea?aea i?eaooe?a
aeey aaie?a. Aaie-aeaae? iiaea iaea?aeoaaoe a?ae oi?aiaaeueieea aeeneiio
aeey iieaoe ?aooie?a, a oaeiae ia? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
nai?o iia?aoe?e eiooe, ui caa??aathoueny oi?aiaaeueieeii ia ?aooieo a
aaieo.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy iaae?eii? ?iaioe ieao?aeii? nenoaie no?aooaaiiy
?ecee?a ?ic?aooie?a oa o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a o/aniee?a iiaeiii
cae?enithaaoeny ca i?eioeeiaie canoaaiiai caaacia/aiiy oa nie?aea?ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a iaea?eueo nooo?aee i?iya ciaoiaeeoue o i?enei?aii?
?ic?aooie?a, ciaioaii? ianya?a aio?aee a ia?ao, cieaeaii? aeaa?oi?nueei?
caai?aiaaiino? oa aeo?ao ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a, i?aeaeuaii?
oaeaeeino? ia?ao a?ioae, oii?yaeeoaaii? i?ioeano e?aaeeooaaiiy,
i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy eiio?ieth ca o?iainiaeie iioieaie, oiaoi a
caaacia/aii? /?oei?, i?ici?i? oa aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe a?ioiaiai ?eieo.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

E?aaaoeue A.I. E?eca ieaoaae?a – i?iaeaia no?oeoo?e i?iieneiaino?, a ia
aaie?anueei? nenoaie // A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie.-1996. —
?3.- N.5-7, 0,2 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A. I??i?eoao – i?aeia?iaeiei ?iaanoeoe?yi // A?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. – 1997. — ?2.-N.26-27, 0,2 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A.I. ?ieanaoe?y ai?aiaeo aeiia o ?aooiie aeoeaioo ia?aeaciiai
aaenaey. – E.: IOe AI «Ae?oe-?ioi?i», 1997. – 80 n., 4,0 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A.I. Iio??aai caeii i?i aaie?anueeo oa?iieoeth // A?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. – 1998. -?1.- N.25-26, 0,2 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A.I. Oi?aae?iiy ?eceeaie i?e i?iaaaeai? i?aeaaie?anueeeo
?ic?aooie?a ia iniia? ieao?aeieo ea?oie //I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. –
Noie:Neiaiaeaiueia — ?i?oe?aoeaa, 1999. – N.133-136, 0,3 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A.I. I?aai?caoe?y i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?ic?aooie?a ia iniia?
ieao?aeieo ea?oie nenoaie Visa ?nternational // A?niee Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae. – 1999. — ?1(6). – N.39-41, 0,3 ae.a.

E?aaaoe A.I. Yeaeo?iiiue eioaeae: a?aiy eee aeaai? // Ie? aeaiaa. –
1999. — ?2. –N.32-35, 0,3 ae.a.

E?aaaoeue A.I. Ieao?aei? ea?oee aeey an??? Oe?a?ie // A?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. – 1999.-?6. – N.20-21, 0,3 ae.a.

AIIOAOe?ss

E?aaaoeue A.I. ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo
aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo. –
Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aaie?anueei? ni?aae, Noie, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeai? i?iaeaie ?ic?iaee oa
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ianiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ieaoaae?a a
Oe?a?i?. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo iaa?oioiaaia
eiioeaioe?y aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao a?ioae, ?ic?iaeai? noaie i?aai?caoe??
ieao?aeieo nenoai ? cae?eniaiiy ?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiieo
noai ?ooo a?ioae, aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?cie
i?aai?caoe?? no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a o/aniee?a ieao?aeieo nenoai ia
i?eioeeiao canoaaiiai caaacia/aiiy oa nie?aea?ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a aeey aecia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? aaie?a ?c
o?aooaaiiyi ii?iaoea?a ia?ao eioo?a, a oaeiae iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee
no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a ?ic?aooie?a oa cai?iiiiiaai? iaoai?cie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ? aeae?a aaie?anueeeo
iineoa ia a?o/eciyiiio a?ioiaiio ?eieo.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? i?iiiceoe?e cia/iith i??ith aeiaaaeaia
oeyoii ?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy a ae?yeueiino? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo
Oe?a?ie oa eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaie?anuee? iineoae, aeaeo?iii? a?io?, ieao?aei?
nenoaie, ieao?aei? ea?oee, aeaeo?iii? ieaoaae?, o?ainaeoe?y, aaieiiao,
oa?i?iae.

AIIIOAOe?ss

E?aaaoe A.I. ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu ianniauo
yeaeo?iiiuo ieaoaaeae. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 – oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo. –
Oe?aeineay aeaaeaiey aaieianeiai aeaea, Noiu, 1999.

Ia iniiaa eco/aiey ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeee e ie?iaiai iiuoa a
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa aia?aua a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a enneaaeiaaiu
aii?inu nicaeaiey yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa e nenoai yeaeo?iiiuo ieaoaaeae.
Iniiauaaynue ia aiaeeca nenoai ?an/aoia, nouanoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa, a ?aaioa
iainiiaaia eiioeaioeey yeaeo?iiiiai ia?auaiey aeaiaa, inaauaiu aii?inu
iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioaiu
iaoiaeieiae/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea aii?inu nicaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu ianniauo yeaeo?iiiuo ieaoaaeae.

Enneaaeiaaiea oai?aoe/aneeo aii?inia nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeoaieie
i?i?aaioeie eiie?aoiuo i?iaeai i?aaiecaoeee yiennee ieaoaaeiuo ea?oi/ae,
ioi?ieaiey niioaaonoaothueo aeieoiaioia, ?aeaeceoia, i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou
ia?niiaea, ioaaonoaaiiinoe o/anoieeia ieaoaaeiuo nenoai e o.i.

Ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ?ac?aaioaiiuo a aeenna?oaoeee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e
eino?oeoeee iainiiaaiu noaiu i?aaiecaoeee ieaoaaeiuo nenoai e
inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia n eniieueciaaieai yeaeo?iiiuo noai aeaeaeaiey
aeaiaa, iainiiaaiu iieacaoaee e i?iaaaeaiu ?an/aou yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae a niioaaonoaee n
ieeioiui i?iaeoii eo aiaae?aiey, a oaeaea aeey yenia?eiaioaeueiiai
?aaeiia e a oeaeii aeey Oe?aeiu.

N oeaeueth iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiie ?aaiou nenoaiu ianniauo yeaeo?iiiuo
ieaoaaeae iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiu
iaoaieciu i?aaiecaoeee no?aoiaaiey ?eneia ?an/aoia e ?eneia o/anoieeia
ieaoaaeiuo nenoai ia i?eioeeiao caeiaiaiai iaania/aiey e nieeaea?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea ?anniio?aiu aiciiaeiinoe aiaae?aiey ia
ioa/anoaaiiii aeaiaaeiii ?uiea iiauo aeaeia oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia e
aaieianeeo oneoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaieianeea oneoae, yeaeo?iiiua aeaiueae, ieaoaaeiua
nenoaiu, ieaoaaeiua ea?oi/ee, yeaeo?iiiua ieaoaaee, o?ainaeoeey,
aaieiiao, oa?ieiae.

SUMMARY

Kravets V. M. The development and introduction of the national system
of mass electronic payments. – Manuscript.

The dissertation for a candidate of economic science degree in
speciality 08.04.01 – finances, money turnover and credit. – Ukrainian
Academy of Banking, Sumy, 1999.

In the dissertation the problems of development and introduction of
the national system of electronic payments in Ukraine are investigated.
On the basis of generalization of world experience the concept of
electronic money turnover is developed, the schemes of payment systems
organization and the mechanism of payments with use of electronic
systems of money turnover are worked out. The mechanism of organization
of risks insurance of the payment systems participants on the principles
of solidary responsibility is offered and the system of indices for the
calculation of bank liquidity is developed. Also the methods of
insurance of the payments risks are worked out and the mechanisms of
introduction of new financial tools and new kinds of bank services in
the Ukrainian monetary market are offered.

The validity of the recommendations and offers is substantially proved
by their practical use in activity of National bank of Ukraine and
commercial banks.

Key words: bank services, electronic money, payment systems, payment
cards, electronic payments, transaction, automatic teller machine,
terminal.

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