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AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO «EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA»

Aa?aoeueeee TH??e Iiaeyiiae/

OAeE 621.316.761.2

?AAEEIE AEAEO?E*IEO IA?AAE ? NENOAI AEAEO?IIINOA*AIIss C? NOAOE*IEIE
OE?ENOI?IEIE EIIIAINAOI?AIE

(IAOIAeIEIA?ss AIAE?CO)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.14.02 — Aeaeo?e/i? noaioe??, ia?aae? ? nenoaie

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

E ue a ? a 1 9 9 9

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ? nenoai

Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ? nenoai

AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

AEo?ao?anueeee Aiaoie?e Aaeaioeiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie

«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»

Ci??i Aeaaeeai Aieiaeeie?iae/

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oe?a?inueei? ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeaaeai??

Aa?nueeee A?eoi? Ieaen?eiae/

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee ?AAe IAI Oe?a?ie

Oaae?e Anaaieiae Naaae?eiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e oa nenoai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 6 » eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.02

o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

ca aae?anith: 290013, i.Euea?a, aoe. N. Aaiaea?e, 12, aoae.114 a.e.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe?

Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 27 » aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A.?.Ei?oae

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Noai oa ?icaeoie aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie a
no/anieo oiiaao, ye ? aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? aaeeei? e?a?ie, ia iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe, ia oi?eath/enue i?iaeai oa oaiaeaioe?e oe??? aaeoc? o
na?oiaiio ianooaa?. *eneaii? i?aeia?iaei? oa aea?aeaai? aia?aaoe/i?
eiioa?aioe?? cia/io oaaao i?eae?eythoue oei i?iaeaiai, eio?? aeieeathoue
a aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe? e?a?i c oae caaiith ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith. Aiie
caa?oathoue oaaao ia oa, ui aeaaeae? iano?eeea?oeie aeiiaaie oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee, ye iaeiiai c iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a aeiiii?ee aoaeue-e?a?ie, ? i?i?i?caoe?y ao?ao, i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? yeino? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy, iuaaei?noue aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy.

Oniaaeeoaaaoe i?ney ?icaaeo N?N? iiooaeio ? aia?aicao?aoio aaaeeo
i?iieneia?noue, iaaoaeoeaio nenoaio ?iciiae?eo oa iae?eo aeaeo?iaia?a??,
Oe?a?ia iieieeany ia oii? caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece o aeoaea aaaeeeo
«noa?oiaeo» oiiaao. Ia aaeath/enue o a?eueo aeeaieee aeiiii?/iee aiae?c,
oe?eeii i/aaeaeiei o oeeo oiiaao ? iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy a
aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe? cania?a oa caoiae?a, ui aeicaieythoue caaacia/oaaoe
ye?nia oa iaae?eia aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c i?i?iaeueieie oaoiieia?/ieie
aeo?aoaie.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy yeino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? a
aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao ? canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueii i?ecia/aieo aeey
oeueiai i?eno?i?a. Iaeieie c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo i?eno?i?a i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? oa ?aaoethaaiiy ?aaeei?a, ui ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy
a aeaeo?e/ieo nenoaiao, ? noaoe/i? oe?enoi?i? eiiiainaoi?e (NOE).
Caaaeyee nai?i o?ce/iei aeanoeainoyi aiie iiaeooue ae??ooaaoe aaaaoi
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c aenieoaoaoe??th oa ooieoe?iioaaiiyi aeaeo?e/ieo
ia?aae, ye? aeeaeyoue iaeiiaaioe?ei? iaaaioaaeaiiy (iiooaei? ci?ii?
iaaaioaaeaiiy, /anoi c iae?i?eieie oa ianeiao?e/ieie ia?aiao?aie).

Aeina?ae i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy NOE, iaa?iiaaeaeaiee
aaaaoueia a?aeiieie aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieie eiioea?iaie ( ABB, GENERAL
ELECTRIC, GEUMONT SCHNEIDER, MITSUBISHI, SIEMENS, TOSHIBA, WESTINGHOUSE
oa ?io?) iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieie aeey canoinoaaiiy o nenoaiao
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? noaie NOE ia aac?
ea?iaaieo oe?enoi?aie ooioiaeo ?aaeoi??a, oae caaieo
oe?enoi?ii-?aaeoi?ieo a?oi (O?A), oa ia?aeaeueieo o?eueo??a aeueo
aa?iii?e, eio?? i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe o?eueo?i-eiiiainoth/ei eieii (OEE). A
Oe?a?i? oaeiae cae?enith?oueny oe?eee niaeo? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ic?iaie, iiaycaieo c oeei iai?yiii. Iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e oa ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o iieaco?, ui iaae
i?iaeaiaie oeueiai iai?yio i?aoeththoue a ?AAe IAI Oe?a?ie,
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «EI?», I?eacianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, a oaeiae IAe? Aia?aiia?aaei?iaeo
, Oyaei?iiaeaeo?ii?iaeo, CII «Ia?aoai?thaa/» e ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?yo.

sse ? i/?eoaaeiny, aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe?? iieacaa, ui NOE iaaeathoue
iiaeo aeanoeainoae aeaeo?e/iei ia?aaeai ? aeicaieythoue nooo?ai
iie?aueoe ?aaeeie i?e?aeiaieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Ii?yae c oeei aeyaeeeny
iia? i?iaeaie, ui iio?aaoaaee aea/aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iiyniaiiy. ?o
iiaeia ocaaaeueieoe ianooiieie iieiaeaiiyie:

· yeith iiaeiia aooe aeioe?eueia neeiaa noaia NOE a eiie?aoieo
canoinoaaiiyo?

· yeith iiaeiia aooe iioeiaeueia no?oeoo?a nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy NOE o
eiie?aoieo canoinoaaiiyo?

· ye aeinoia??ii ioe?ieoe oaoi?/io aoaeoeai?noue NOE o aeaeo?e/ieo
ia?aaeao ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy ia noaae?? ii?aoethaaiiy eiie?aoii? noaie?

· a ye?e i??? ci?ith?oueny oa?aeoa? ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a o ia?aaeao c
NOE, ye aiie aieeaathoue ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae? oa
aea?? iaeaaeiaiiy NOE?

Ia ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ni?yiiaai? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Iaeyae ia??iaee/ii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oe?ieo
i?aeoe/io caoe?eaaeai?noue oaiaoeeith aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano?
ie?aneaieo i?iaeai a onueiio na?o?. Oae, ?iai/a a?oia ?AAA Working Group
79.2 on SVC oa ?iai/a a?oia CIGRE Working Group 38-01 ua o 1986 ?.
iioae?eiaaee ia?ae?e, ui i?noeoue iiiaae 400 noaoae oa aeiiia?aeae,
iaae?oeiaaieo o ia??iaee/i?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oa iiaycaieo
c? caaaeaieie i?iaeaiaie. Inoaii?i /anii a aeo?iaeao ?AAA na??e PAS,
PWRD, IA, aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo aeo?iaeao NIAe oa ?ioeo a?aeiieo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeaeaiiyo ui?ieo ae?oeo?oueny ii 8-15 noaoae,
i?enay/aieo ??ciei aniaeoai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Ana oea aeaco? ia
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeaeo?e/i?
ia?aae?, ui i?noyoue NOE ? i?ecia/ai? aeey aeeaeaiiy iiooaeieo
iaaaioaaeaiue i?iieneiaiai, eiioiaeueiiai oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
naeoi??a, ye? ie?aneai? aeua ye iaeiiaaioe?ei?. O ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny
o?eueee noaia NOE, ui neeaaea?oueny c OEE oa O?A ( caaaeueiii?eeiyo?
i?aeia?iaei? nei?i/aiiy FC oa TCR, a?aeiia?aeii). I?iaeaie canoinoaaiiy
noaoe/ieo eiiiainaoi??a o iaa?no?aeueieo aeaeo?iia?aaea/ao aeoiaeyoue ca
?aiee oe??? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaiaoeea ?iaioe
iia’ycaia c iaeiei ?c iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo iai?yi?a eaoaae?e aeaeo?e/ieo
ia?aae oa nenoai Euea?anueei? iie?oaoi?ee, yeee a?aeia?aaea? iiiaae
25-e?oi?e aeina?ae ?ic?iaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?? cania?a
ii?iae?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae. ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiaeaie c AAI
«Euea?aaia?ai», Aeiiaoeueeei oa Iiaieociaoeueeei iaoaeo?a?eieie
caaiaeaie, Eaaaaeeinueeei ACE, a oaeiae aea?aeathaeaeaoieie oaiaie,
eio?? aeeiioaaeeny a ?aieao: i?aeaoc?anueei? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie
«Yeiiiiey yeaeo?iyia?aee» (Iaeac I?iaoco N?N? ? 703 a?ae 1.06.1982 ?.);
eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o aoc?a ca i?iaeaiith
«Iioa?e yeaeo?iyia?aee e eo eiiiainaoeey» ia 1981-85 ??., caoaa?aeaeaiei
iaeacii I?iaoco N?N? ? 443 a?ae 28.04.1980 ?.; ?anioae?eainueei?
i?ia?aie «Aiaae?eoue ono?ienoaa noaoe/aneeo eiiiainaoi?ia a
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo naoyo, iaania/eaathueo iiauoaiea
ea/anoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee e nieaeaiea ?anoiaea aa ia o?ainii?o»
(?I.01.13.Oe.11); aea?aeaaii? i/o i?ia?aie «?icaeoie ia?aoai?thaaeueii?
oaoi?ee ye can?a aia?ai- oa ?ano?nicaa??aaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai
??aiy i?iaeoeoe?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy» (i?iaeo 39 «Ciaioaiiy ao?ao aia?a??
a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao ca aeiiiiiaith NOE»).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae c NOE,
ni?yiiaaii? ia noai?aiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeooaaiiy NOE aeey
ia?aae ? nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue.
Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio?aaoaaei cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue o
aeaio aaaeeeaeo aca?iiiia’ycaieo iai?yiao: noai?aiiy iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a ia?aae c iaeyaeo ia
?ic?iaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo noai NOE oa ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiae?a aiae?co
aieeao NOE ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae? c ??cieie oeiaie iaaaioaaeaiue.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ?icaycoaaeeny ianooii? caaea/?:

· ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo iniia ea?oaaiiy NOE, i?ecia/aieo aeey
eiiiainaoe?? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ci?iieo ianeiao?e/ieo ? iae?i?eieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae?;

· ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee i??e aieeao NOE ia ?aaeeie aeaeo?e/ieo
ia?aae c aeeiai?/ieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie;

· aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a o aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao ?c
NOE;

· noai?aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeaeae aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ?c NOE aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ao?aeieo oa noaoe?iia?ieo ?aaeei?a;

· ii?aoethaaiiy ia iniia? iiaeaeueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiae?a ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee noaoe?iia?ieo ?
ia?ao?aeieo ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ?c NOE;

· ii?aoethaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aeai?o ia?aiao??a ? ?aaeei?a NOE
aeey aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. ?icaeiooi e ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae ea?oaaiiy NOE a ia?aaeao
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy ci?iieo ianeiao?e/ieo ? iae?i?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo i?aeoiae?a oea aea? iiaeeea?noue ia iniia? ?aeeiiai
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo noai?thaaoe iioeiaeuei? no?oeoo?e nenoai
?aaoethaaiiy NOE a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao c ??cieie oeiaie iaaaioaaeaiue
caeaaeii a?ae aeiia eiiiainaoe??.

2. Noi?ioeueiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaee ioe?iee i??e eiiiainaoe??
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae? ca
aeiiiiiaith NOE, ye? ii??aiyii c a?aeiieie iaoiaeaie, ui iia?othoue
aea?aaeaioieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, aeicaieythoue a?aoiaoaaoe ae?eni?
o?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee NOE oa aeanoeaino? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy.

3. ?icaeiooi iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a o ia?aaeao c
?cieueiaaiith iaeo?aeeth, ye? i?noyoue NOE, i?ae /an caieeaiue ia
caieth. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii ioe?ieo ia?aiai?oa ia iaeaaeiaii? NOE i?ae
/an caieeaiue ia caieth cae?enithaaoe ia iniia? iaoiaeo /anoioiiai
?icae?eaiiy i?ioean?a, ui aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? eiino?oeoe??
NOE oa oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae?.

4. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae oa no?oeoo?o iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ?c NOE oa aeeiai?/ieie
iaaaioaaeaiiyie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo iiaeaeae oea aeicaiey?
noai?thaaoe aoaeoeai? iaoeii? iaeaoe ye aeaiaioe aio/eeo nenoai
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy, eio?? aaeaeaaoii
a?aeia?aaeathoue i?ioeane a eieao ea?oaaiiy oa neeiai? noaie.

5. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeaeae oa cae?eniaieo aenia?eiaio?a
anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a ia?aae ?c NOE,
ye? aecia/athoue e?eoe/i? oaeoi?e aeai?o ia?aiao??a iaeaaeiaiiy NOE. Ia
iniia? ii??aiyiiy c o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoiaeeeith iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue
oa ii?yaeie a?aooaaiiy oeeo oaeoi??a i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy noai NOE aeey
ia?aae ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeai?o ia?aiao??a aeaiiooth/eo e?e aeey
??cieo noai oe?enoi?ii-?aaeoi?ieo a?oi NOE. A?aei?ii?noue ?? a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiaeee iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? i?eeiyooy iioeiaeueieo
i?iaeoieo ??oaiue caeaaeii a?ae iniaeeainoae eiino?oeoe?? O?A ?
ia?aiao??a ia?aae?.

7. Aeyaeaii i?e/eie e iiaeaii iiyniaiiy yaeua noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino
a ia?aaeao c ?cieueiaaiith iaeo?aeeth, iieacaii eiai iniaeeaino? o
ia?aaeao c NOE. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee oiia aeieeiaiiy oa
?nioaaiiy noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino. Aeacai? niiniae eiai
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa onoiaiiy.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iiaei aianeii o iaoiaeieia?th aiae?co aeaeo?e/ieo
ia?aae aeniei? iai?oae, yeee iiaycaiee c aeei?enoaiiyi aoaeoeaieo
cania?a eiiiainaoe??, ui a iiai?e i??? aienothoueny o caaaeueio na?oiao
oaiaeaioe?th ?icaeoeo aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo nenoai: oi?ioaaiiy oae caaieo
Aio/eeo Nenoai Aeaeo?iia?aaea/? Ci?iiiai No?oio ( aiae. FACTS ).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe oa i?eioeeie
iiaoaeiae nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy NOE aeicaieeee noai?eoe iaoeii? iiaeae?
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae ?c NOE oa ??cieie oeiaie
iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia iniia? oeeo iiaeaeae noai?aii eiiieaen iaa/aeueieo
iaoeiieo iaeao?a, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a o/aiaiio i?ioean?.

2. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo oa ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a o
ia?aaeao ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? i?noyoue NOE, oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy ?inoeoooo
«Oyaei?iiaeaeo?ii?iaeo» (Iineaa).

3. Iaoeii? iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a ? ?aaeei?a NOE
aeei?enoaii a i?ioean? ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeoo eiiiainaoe?? ?aaeoeaii?
iiooaeiino? aeey oyaiaeo i?aenoaioe?e AAO «Eaaaaeeinueeee ACE» ? AAO
«Ieoaeeianueeee AAeE» (?in?enueea Oaaea?aoe?y).

4. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy caieeaiue ia caieth a ia?aaeao c NOE,
iaoiaeeee aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeaiiooth/eo e?e oa ei?eaoaaiiy
ia?aiao??a o?eueo??a aeei?enoaii a i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy noaie NOE
aeey i?aenoaioe?? 110/35/10 eA «Oa?anaa» Caea?iaooyiaeaia?ai.

5. Oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy, ui cai?iiiiiaai? ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa caoeuai? iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee, aeei?enoaii a
i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy noaie NOE aeey Aeiiaoeueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai
caaiaeo.

6. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino aeei?enoaii i?ae
/an noai?aiiy i?eno?i?a caoenoo o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae a ia?aaeao c
?cieueiaaiith iaeo?aeeth, oaoi?/ia iiaecia yeeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee. Oe? i?eno?i? ai?iaaaeaeaii ia ae?th/eo
i?aenoaioe?yo aia?ainenoai Oe?a?ie.

7. Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo o ?iaio? iaoiaeee aeai?o iaeaaeiaiiy oa
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE aoei cae?eniaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy anoaiiaeaiiy NOE ia oyaiaeo i?aenoaioe?yo ?yaeo
a??ie/i-aeaeiaoaieo eiia?iao?a ?in??, ia iniia? yeiai (ca o/anoth
aaoi?a) a?aeaoaaeeny oaiaea?i? ia?aaiai?e c eiioea?iaie SIEMENS oa ABB
noiniaii iinoa/aiiy iaeaaeiaiiy NOE.

Iniaenoee aianie. O ?iaioao iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? aaoi?o
iaeaaeaoue: [8-12,22,27,29,47,49,51,52] — iinoaiiaea caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue, o/anoue a aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a; [13] —
iaoeiia iiaeaeue oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy;
[14,20,23,24,25,50,54,58,59] — iaa?oiooaaiiy noaie, ?ic?aooiie
ia?aiao??a NOE oa ?aaeei?a ?iaioe; [15-17,19,28] — oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a ?aaoethaaiiy NOE oa aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a
?aaeeio; [18] — iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iiooaeiino? aeaiiooth/eo e?e;
[21,26] — o/anoue o iaeaaiaeaeoaaeueieo ?iaioao oa aenia?eiaioao, aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a; [30] — ii?aoethaaiiy iiaeae? NOE; [31,39] — no?oeoo?ia
noaia ?aaoeyoi?a oa i?eioeeie aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a ?aaoethaaiiy; [32]
— i?eioeei eii?aeeiaoe?? ?II o?ainoi?iaoi?a oa ?aaoeyoi?a NOE; [33] —
i?eioeeiiaa noaia NOE; [34,42,43] — aea?? ia?aiao??a nenoaie
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy; [35,38] — i?eioeeiiaa noaia i?ae’?aeiaiiy O?A;
[36,37] — i?eioeei iiaoaeiae oa no?oeoo?ia noaia caoenoo; [40,41] —
i?eioeeie aei??thaaiiy neeaaeiaeo no?oio; [44] — i?eioeeie aei??thaaiiy
ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio; [48,53] — iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aieeao NOE ia
ia?aaeo; [55-57] — iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
ii?eethaeiai? ia: Ananithci?e ia?aae? «?an/ao, o/ao e aiaeec iioa?ue
yeaeo?iyia?aee a yeaeo?e/aneeo naoyo e ia?ii?eyoey ii eo nieaeaieth»,
Iineaa, 1982 ?.; Eiioa?aioe?? «Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee
a i?iiuoeaiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo naoyo», Iineaa, 1982 ?.; Ananithci?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iiaeaee?iaaiea yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneeo nenoai»,
Aaeo, 1982 ?.; ?V ?anioa-e?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu yia?aaoeee. I?aia?aciaaiea, noaaeeecaoeey
ia?aiao?ia e o?ainii?o yeaeo?iyia?aee», Ee?a, 1985 ?.; ?? i ???
neiiic?oiao «Metody matematyczne w elektroenergetyce», Caeiiaia, 1988,
1993 ??.; ??? ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Ono?ienoaa i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee aeey eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey a
yia?aaoeea» , Oa?e?a, 1988 a.; I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Systemy
elektroenegetyczne — eksploatacja i rozwj», A?ioeeaa, 1989 ?.; 1
Ananithciiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio neiiic?oi? «Yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea e
yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiea aeoaiauo yeaeo?iia/ae», Oa?e?n?, 1988 a.;
Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia e
n?aaenoa yeiiiiee yeaeo?iyia?aee a yeaeo?e/aneeo nenoaiao e nenoaiao
yeaeo?iniaa-aeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o?ainii?oa»,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1990 ?.; ??? I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai yeaeo?i-niaaaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee», Ia??oiieue, 1994 ?.; 9-th Power Systems Conference,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1994 ?.; I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa-?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ?.Ioethy, Euea?a, 1995 ?.; 1
I?ae-ia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy
a aeaeo?i-aia?aaoeoe? oa aeaeo?ioaoi?oe?», Euea?a, 1995 ?.;
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Energetyka przyszoci: Tendencje,
kierunki, metody», *ainoioiaa, 1995 ?.; 6 oa 7 I?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao
«Short circuit currents in power systems», Eue?ae, 1994 ?., Aa?oaaa 1996
?.; 14 oa 15 I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Electromagnetic phenomena in
nonlinear circuits», Iiciaiue, 1996 ?.; Eue?ae, 1998 ?.; 3 oa 4
I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «Prognozowanie w
elektroenergetyce», *ainoioiaa, 1996 ?., 1998 ?. ; I?aeia?iaei?e
aaio?ce/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua enneaaeiaaiey n
eiio?iee?oaiuie enoi/ieeaie», Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996 ?.; 4 I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Electric power quality and utilization», E?ae?a, 1997 ?.;
1 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Safe power electronic systems», Aa?oaaa,
1998 ?.; 9 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Elektroenergetika’98», Eio?oea,
1998 ?., a oaeiae nai?ia?ao oa eiioa?aioe?yo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o 78
ioae?eaoe?yo(9- iaeiiin?aieo), na?aae yeeo 33 noaoo? o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
aeaeaiiyo, 16 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa, 29 aeiiia?aeae oa oac o iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?oeiien neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ii ?iaio?, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 211 iaeiaioaaiue,
aeiaeaoe?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a.
Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 300 noi??ieao, o oiio /ene? aiia i?noeoue
80 ?ethno?aoe?e oa 16 oaaeeoeue.

E I ? I O E E E C I ? N O ? I A I O E

O anooi? ?ice?eoi noai i?iaeaie oa iaa?oioiaaii caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue,
aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cae?eniaii aiae?c aeina?aeo canoinoaaiiy NOE o
ia?aaeao ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy. Canoinoaaiiy NOE ye ?ica’ycaiiy aaaaoueio
i?iaeai aenieoaoaoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae iia’ycaia c ?iciianthaeaeaiith
aeeeaiith: aeeaaeai? ?iaanoeoe?? — io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao. I?e/iio ??
iic??ia i?inoioa o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iaooiaoo?oueny ia oe?eee niaeo?
oeo /e ?ioeo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo ioe?iie, ui ? aecia/aeueieie a
eiie?aoieo aeiaaeeao. C iaei??? noi?iie — oea nenoaia iaoe?iiaeueieo
ii?i yeino? oa aeiia aei ?aaeeio, ui oi?iothoue i??o iaiao?aeiino?
canoinoaaiiy cania?a eiiiainaoe??, a c ae?oai? — iiaeeeaino? aea?aii?
noaie NOE oa ?? ?aaoethaaiiy, ?ioeie neiaaie oaeoi?e, eio??
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue aoaeoeai?noue aea?aiiai ??oaiiy. Aeina?ae
aenieoaoaoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae iieaco?, ui aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiei ?
canoinoaaiiy NOE a:

· nenoaiao aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iiooaeieo aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ae oa
i?ieaoieo noai?a;

· oyaiaeo ia?aaeao a?aee?eoeo ea?’???a oa aeaeo?io?ainii?oo;

· ia?aaeao aeeaeaiiy iiooaeieo aneio?iiieo i?eaiae?a (oaooe, aa?a?i?
?aeiie oiui);

· ?icaaeoaeaieo ia?aaeao caaaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui aenieoaoothoueny a
iaeaeaaeieo ?aeiiao.

Caa?oath/enue aei ia?a?aoiaaieo ia?aae, iiaeia icia/eoe eiei i?iaeai,
ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue a o?e /e ?io?e i??? ?o aenieoaoaoe?th oa
aeiaaathoue canoinoaaiiy cania?a ii?iae?caoe??:

· ci?ia ?aaeei?a niiaeeaaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeaeeinoyie a?ae
aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a ia naeoiaeo aei iaeeieoeue ia aiaeeio;

· iecueeee eiao?oe??io iiooaeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy;

· ci?iiee oa?aeoa? ianeiao???;

· iae?i?ei?noue iaaaioaaeaiiy;

· cia/ia /anoioa iaia?caiiy i?iaiae?a iia?o?yieo EAI o cii?
aenieoaoaoe?? NOE.

Iane?aeee oeeo aieea?a i?iyaeythoueny o:

· cieaeaii? aeiiii?/iino? oa iaae?eiino? ia?aae;

· iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio aeiiaai ii?i yeino?;

· iia??oaii? ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee, a /anoi ? iioeiaeaeaii? iaeaaeiaiiy
oa aia?aoo?e, ui aeeaeoueny a?ae oeeo ia?aae.

Cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ia?aae ca oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aenieoaoaoe?eieo
?aaeei?a, eio?? aecia/athoue oiiae canoinoaaiiy oa no?oeoo?o NOE.

Noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiae aei noai NOE oa nenoai ?o ?aaoethaaiiy aeey ia?aae
??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy. Iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?a NOE iio?aao?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ii?aoethaaiiy aeey eiie?aoieo aeiaaee?a canoinoaaiiy.
Oea oi?ea?oueny ye neeiai? noaie oae ? nenoaie ea?oaaiiy. Oiio aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iaae?eii? oa aoaeoeaii? aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aae? c NOE
iaiao?aeiei ? ?aoaeueia aea/aiiy ?o aca?iiaieeao ye a noaoe?iia?ieo, oae
? a ia?ao?aeieo ?aaeeiao. Ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co oaeeo
ia?aae iieeaaeaii a iniiao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe .

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee oai?aoe/iei iniiaai iiaoaeiae nenoai
?aaoethaaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiith aeai?o aeaaa/?a ia?aiao??a ?aaoethaaiiy
NOE aeey ia?aae aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy ci?iieo ianeiao?e/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

Iaoiaee ? niiniae iieno aeanoeainoae aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioean?a o eieao c
ianeioni?aeieie no?oiaie ? iai?oaaie aei oeueiai /ano ia iathoue
iaeiicia/iiai o?aeooaaiiy. Oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
a?aeii? o oaia??oi?e /an aecia/aiiy neeaaeiaeo iiaii? iiooaeiino?
ae??oothoue on? i?iaeaie a on?o canoinoaaiiyo, o?aaa niiae?aaoeny ia
i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeaaao?a o oeueiio iai?yi? ua ? a iaeaooiueiio. O oe?e
neooaoe?? o?aaa iiaiaeeoeny c aeoieith, ui aeooaeueiei ? ie?aneaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo aeiia aei iieno neeaaeiaeo iiooaeiino?, eio??, aacoth/enue ia
no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? oai??e iiooaeiino?, ? iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeieie o
eiie?aoieo canoinoaaiiyo. O ?iaio? cae?eniaii aiae?c iniiaieo oai??e
iiooaeiino?, a oaeiae iieacai? ?o iiceoeai? noi?iie oa iaaeie?ee c
iiaeyaeo caaea/ iiaoaeiae no?oeoo? nenoai oaeaeeiae?th/i? eiiiainaoe??
?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?, aeioe?eueiiai aeai?o ia?aiao??a ?aaoethaaiiy.

Iieacaii, ui ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie oyaeaiiyie, ye? aacothoueny ia
?ioaa?aeueiiio o?aeooaaii? neeaaeiaeo iiooaeiino?, aia?aaoe/i? i?ioeane
a o?eoacieo eieao c? ci?iieie ia?aiao?aie /anoi aea?aeii iienoaaoe ia
iniia? oai??? ieoo?ai? ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?, ui aeo?ea? c iiiyooy
ieoo?aeo i?inoi?iaeo aaeoi??a. I?inoi?ia? aaeoi?e wmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  @???&??yyyy?????AyyyIyyy???l?? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??e???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????|?(1)sseui, iai?eeeaae, o ??aiyii? (1)
no?oie oa iai?oae oa?aeoa?ecothoue ianeiao?e/ia oa iae?i?eia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oi ieoo?a? iiooaeiino? aoaeooue i?noeoe iino?ei? oa
ci?ii? neeaaeia?. Tiaoi:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy`??A?? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-??????z????:????a????F???u?
th??????O ?iaio? cae?eniaii iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae no?oeoo?
nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy noaoe/ieo eiiiainaoi??a c a?aooaaiiyi ?o o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae aeey ia?aae aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e cai?iiiiiaaiee ocaaaeueiaiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioethaaiiy
i?eioeei?a ?aaoethaaiiy NOE, iiaeia io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy eiiiainaoe?? o
??cieo eii?aeeiaoieo aacenao. Aea?? oi?ie caieno aecia/a?oueny aeiiaaie
eiie?aoieo canoinoaaiue. Oea iia’ycaii c oaeeie i?iaeaiaie ye iieacieee
niioai?aiiy no?oi?a oa iai?oa o nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy, no?oeoo?a oa
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaaa/?a ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio, o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? neeiai?
noaie noaoe/iiai eiiiainaoi?a. Cie?aia, aeei?enoiaoth/e ieoo?a?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iiooaeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ca (2), ??aiyiiy eiiiainaoe??
a?aeiinii iaiao?aeieo i?aeoacieo ?aaeoeaieo iiooaeiinoae eiiiainaoi?a
iiaeaii iiaeaoe o aeaeyae?:

wmetafile8? ??C???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??“?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ueM???ue????e????©???
?B ???? ????‰????I???&p???! ???u??
???????»????-????!???wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??“?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ueR???ue»????i????®???
? ????E ????R???????u?th??????wmetafile8?
?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??“?? ???&?
?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ue3???ue????I????

(3)aea wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???A?? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????~?d????~?$???~????~?Ae???
~?Ae???~?„???~?@???~?? ???u?th??????Iiae?aii iiaeia
io?eiaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia?aiao?aie eiiiainaoi?a oa ia?aiao?aie
?aaeeio iaaaioaaeaiiy o oacieo eii?aeeiaoao(no?oie, iiooaeiino?) /e
eii?aeeiaoao Oi?oane’th.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeathoueny iaoiaee ioe?iee aieeao NOE ia ?aaeeie
aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae.

Eiiiainaoe?y eieeaaiue ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?. Iaei??th c i?iaeai
eiiiainaoe?? aieeao oaeaeeici?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ia?aaeo ?
caaacia/aiiy aaaeaii? oaeaeeiae?? eiiiainaoi?a. Iniaeeai aeooaeueiei
oea noa? o aeiaaeeo oaeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ye aeoaia? noaeaieaaeeuei? ia/?
(AeNI), ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeno?aiaeueieie oaeaeeinoyie ci?ie
ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio. A ?aaeueieo oiiaao caaaeaee ?nio? iaaiee /an
cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe?? , eio?ee coiiaeaiee i?eioeeiaie aei??thaaiiy oa
ia?iaee ia?aiao??a ?aaoethaaiiy, a oaeiae iniaeeainoyie neeiai? noaie
NOE. Aiae?c aeaco? ia ni?a?ici??i?noue oaeaeeinoae ci?ie ia?aiao??a
iaaaioaaeaiiy oa ia?aiao??a eiiiainaoi?a. Oiio, c? ca?eueoaiiyi /anoioe
eieeaaiue f ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaaiith aiie?ooaeith Qf , i?e caaeaiiio aoaea c?inoaoe aaee/eia
ianeiiiainiaaieo eieeaaiue ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? nenoaie Qsf .
O ?iaio? ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiae ioe?iee ianeiiiainiaaieo eieeaaiue
?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? o ia?aae? c NOE, ui aaco?oueny ia ii??aiyii?
eiiieaenieo aiie?ooae aa?iii?/ieo neeaaeiaeo niaeo??a eieeaaiue
?aaeoeaieo iiooaeiinoae iaaaioaaeaiiy oa NOE. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
a?aeiini? caeeoeia? eieeaaiiy ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? ia?aae?
cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/aoe ye ooieoe?th /anoioe:

wmetafile8? ??b???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??t?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????<U???<???pO ???T ???u?? ???????"????-???????0M???-?????0U???Ue?????Ue??? ??Ue?‘???u?th??????Ia ?en.1 iieacai? caeaaeiino? a?aeiinieo caeeoeiaeo eieeaaiue ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? a?ae ?o /anoioe i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo . Iiaeia ia?aeiiaoeny, ui, ii/eiath/e c aeayei? a?aie/ii? /anoioe fa? , eiiiainaoi? aoaea i?aeneethaaoe eieeaaiiy ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?, ? /ei a?eueoei ? cai?ciaiiy eiiiai-naoe??, oei ieae/ei ? cia/aiiy a?aie/ii? /anoioe. Oea, i?e?iaeii, iia??oo? aoaeo eiiiainaoe?? a oe?eiio. Eiiiainaoe?y eieeaaiue iai?oae. Ii?ioaaiiy eieeaaiue iai?oae cae?enith?oueny ca i??ith aieeao eieeaaiue na?oeiaiai iioieo (oe?ea?o) eaii ?icaea?thaaiiy ia c?? ethaeeie. Oiio aoaeoeai?noue eiiiainaoe?? eieeaaiue iai?oae ca aeiiiiiaith NOE iiaeiia ioe?ithaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ii?ioaaiiy eieeaaiue iai?oae. Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE c iaoith cieaeaiiy oe?ea?o i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae, yeee aaco?oueny ia ianooiieo i?eiouaiiyo: · i?ioean eieeaaiue ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? (iai?oae) iaaaioaaeaiiy ? noaoe?iia?iei ? ai?ieneio?oueny iaaiith iaia?a?aiith /anoioiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith a iaaeao aiae?ciaaiiai niaeo?o; · a?aeii? /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a aiae?ciaaii? nenoaie; · ?icaeyaea?oueny e?i?eia iaeiioacia iiaeaeue nenoaie. A?aoiaoth/e oe? i?eiouaiiy, aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy NOE iiaeaii ioe?ieoe ca a?aeiinieie aea?aaeaioieie caeeoeiaeie eieeaaiiyie iai?oae: wmetafile8? ??”??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A ???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyya??c?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????????v???o????OeI ???u?? ???????"????-????THI???U???-?????U ???e?|???e?|???e?–???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??µ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya ??*?? ???&? ?MathType?? ???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??P??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??*?? ???&? ?MathType?? ???u?th??????Oae iiaeaia cia/aiiy eiiiainiaaiiai oe?ea?o aeicaiey?, a i?eioeei?, nei?enoaoeny /anoioiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith NOE ( RU ) a i?ioean? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? eiai canoinoaaiiy a ia?aaeao aeeaeaiiy aoaeue-yeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ca oiiae, ui ie ia?ii oa?aeoa?i? /anoioi? niaeo?e eieeaaiue iai?oae a ia?aaeao aeeaeaiiy oeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ( Uf ). Ia iniia? oeueiai iaoiaeo, iiaeaii cae?enieoe ioe?ii/iee aiae?c, aeei?enoiaoth/e /anoioio ai?ieneiaoe?th an?o aeaiaio?a nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy. Ia ?en.2 iieacaiee i?eeeaae ooieoe?i-iaeueii? noaie nenoaie aeaeo?i-iinoa/aiiy AeNI aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao NOE ia oe?ea? iai?oae a oi/oe? ni?eueiiai i?ae'?aeiaiiy. On? aeiee ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie ?aae?cothoue ia?aaeaoi? ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a i?eioeeiiai? noaie o /anoioiiio iie? ? = j2f . C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ia?aaeaoia ooieoe?y on??? nenoaie iiaea aooe iiaeaia a ianooii?e oi?i?: wmetafile8? ??’??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA ??o?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????ueF???ue< ???u?th??????Oiae? cia/aiiy eiiiainiaaiiai oe?ea?o iai?oae iiaeia iiaeaoe o aeaeyae?: wmetafile8? ??M??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??*?? ???&? ?MathType??  ???u?????????"????-?????r??????r_ ???_ ????A ???AA ???????A???u?th??????Ia ?en.3 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aeey aeiaaeeo aeei?enoai-iy ?aaoeyoi?a i?iii?oe?eiiai oeio c ??cieie cia/aiiyie /ano cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe?? 1. Ioe?ithth/e ?acoeue-oaoe, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i/?eoaaoe aeniei? i??e eiiiainaoe?? oe?ea?o iai?oae iiaeeeai o?eueee o aeiaaeeo aeoaea iaeiai aea?aaeaioiiai /ano cao?eiee ae?? eiiiainaoe?? 1. Ii in? i?aeeiao a?aeeeaaeaii aaee/eio caeeoeiaiai oe?ea?o Nk , ui aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith (5), a ii in? aanoeen - a?aeiinio iiooaei?noue NOE. Ca oiiae, ui 1=0 iiaeia aeinyaiooe iaeneiaeueiiai cieaeaiiy eieeaaiue ia 80% i?e Qk /Sa.e.c. = 1,0 , aea aaea i?e 1 = 5 in ? Qk /Sa.e.c. 0,9 aiii ia ia?aaeuo? 65 %. Eiiiainaoe?y ci?iii? ianeiao???. ?acii ?c canoinoaaiiyi NOE o ia?aaeao aeeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a, ii?yae c i?iaeaiith noaa?e?caoe?? iai?oae (a?aeoeeaiue oa eieeaaiue) aeiaiaeeoueny ?aooaaoeny c iaiao?aei?noth neiao?oaaiiy ?aaeeio. O aeiaaeeo ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue iaoiaee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? neiao?oaaiiy iai?oae ca aeiiiiiaith NOE iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe??, ine?eueee /ei oaeaeoeie ? ci?ie iaaaioaaeaiiy, oei ieae/ith noa? aoaeoeai?noue eiiiainaoe?? ianeiao???. Aeey ioe?iee caeeoeiai? ianeiao??? o nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c NOE ii?aoeueiaaii /anoioiee iaoiae, ui aeei?enoiao? a?aeiia aea?aaeaiooaaiiy ci?iiiai ianeiao?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy noiith ci?iiiai o?eoaciiai neiao?e/iiai oa ci?iiiai iaeiioaciiai iaaaioaaeaiue. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo caaea/a neiao?oaaiiy ci?iiiai o?eoaciiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooa ia iniia? ia?aiao?e/ieo noai Ooaeiiaoea, ui oi?iothoueny oiiaii iaia?a?aii c caaeaiei cai?ciaiiyi a?aeiinii ci?i iaeiioaciiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aiae?co cae?eniaia ioe?iea caeeoeiai? ianeiao??? no?oio a aea?aaeaioi?e noai? i?e cai?ciaii? ae?? NOE a iaaeao 5...15 in. A?aooaaiiy a?eueoiai /ano cai?ciaiiy ia aeeeeea? i?aeoe/iiai caoe?eaaeaiiy, ine?eueee, ye iieacaii aeua, aea?aaeaioia cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe?? a?eueoa a?ae 15 in ia iiaea aooe i?eeiyoei aeey NOE, ye? i?iaeoothoueny ca oiiaith cieaeaiiy oe?ea?o a?ae aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ae. Iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueia a?aeiinia cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa cai?ioii? iine?aeiaiino? no?oio a eiiiainiaai?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ianooiiith /anoioiith ooieoe??th: wmetafile8? ??[??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyya??)?? ???&? ?MathType??  ???u?????????"????-?????>????????????
???u?????????»????-????1/4F???1/4(???u?th??????(10)aea
=2f — eieiaa /anoioa iiaeoethth/eo eieeaaiue no?oio aea?aaeaioiiai
iaeiioaciiai iaaaioaaeaiiy; — /an cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe??; m —
aeeaeia iiaeoeyoe?? eieeaaiue.

Ia ?en.4 iaaaaeai? caeaaeiino? iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue k2? max ye
ooieoe?e /anoioe eieeaaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny c caaeaiei
cia/aiiyi aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? m, o aeiaaeeo cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe?? =
5, 10, 15 in . Oe? caeaaeiino? ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith a?aeiinii? caeeoeiai?
ianeiao??? no?oi?a, ui ia? i?noea o nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c NOE.

?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae a ia?aae?. ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? ea?oaaiiy
?aaeeiii NOE aeey caaacia/aiiy oiia ?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae a aeaeo?e/i?e
ia?aae?. Aeathoueny niiniae aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ?aaoethaaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiia ?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae ia oeiao i?aenoaioe?? oa
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?e/ii? ia?aae?. A oiiaao i?aenoaioe?? c
?aaoeueiaaieie o?ainoi?iaoi?aie ieaaia ?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae ia aoi?eiieo
oeiao aeioe?eueii i?aai?coaaoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?II oeeo
o?ainoi?iaoi??a. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a cae?eniaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii?
eii?aeeiaoe?? i?ae aaee/eiith nooiaiy ia?aieeaiiy ?II, aaaeaiei
noaoeciii ?aaoethaaiiy oa iiooaei?noth NOE. Iiooaei?noue NOE, ui
anoaiiaeth?oueny ia i?aenoaioe??, aeae?a?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi ?yaeo
oaeoi??a ? ? a caaea/? ?aaoethaaiiy iai?oae aaee/eiith aecia/aiith.
A?aoiaoth/e oea, iieacaia iaoiaeeea aeai?o aaaeaiiai nooiaiy ia?aieeaiiy
?II aeey caaacia/aiiy caaeaiiai noaoecio ?aaoethaaiiy NOE.

Niin?a ?aaoethaaiiy NOE o ia?aae? c iaoith caaacia/aiiy caaeaiiai caeiio
?aaoethaaiiy aieeaa? ? ia aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae?.
Cae?eniaii aiae?c ci?i noaoecio ?aaoethaaiiy ia ci?ie ao?ao aia?a?? a
ia?aae?. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue i?ae /an aeai?o eiao?oe??ioa noaoecio
?aaoethaaiiy NOE c iaoith i?aeo?eioaaiiy iaaiiai caeiio ci?ie iai?oae ia
oeiao i?aenoaioe??, e??i a?aooaaiiy aeiia ia?aae?, yea aeeaeoueny a?ae
oei aoi?eiii? iai?oae i?aenoaioe??, a?aooaaoe aieea oa?aeoa?enoeee
?aaoethaaiiy ia aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee ia?aae? aeniei? iai?oae.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iiaeaethaaiith noaoe?iia?ieo ?aaeei?a
nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiiue c NOE. Ooo
iaaaaeai? oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe cae?eniaieo iaoeiieo aeia?eiaio?a ?
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE o oeeo
ia?aaeao ?c a?aooaaiiyi ae?enieo o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiaio?a
nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy. O i?iaeooaaii? aeeneon?eiith ? i?iaeaia:
iane?eueee iaa?oioiaaieie ? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE o
?aaeueieo ia?aaeao ia iniia? ooieoe?eieo noai, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoue
ni?iuai? iaeiioaci? iiaeae? aeaiaio?a? Aaaeeeaei oaeiae ? ieoaiiy i?i
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaoeyoi??a ??cii? no?oeoo?e o eiie?aoieo noaiao NOE.
?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae iaoeiieo iiaeaeae NOE oa ia?aae ?c
iaeiiaaioe?eieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo noai NOE oa no?oeoo? ?o ?aaoeyoi??a o ia?aaeao
??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy. Ia ?en.5 iaaaaeaia no?oeoo?ia noaia iiaeae? nenoaie
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy oaeaeeici?iiiai ianeiao?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea
aeei?enoaia a aeine?aeaeaiiyo. A aiae?ciaai?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaii aieea NOE ia eieeaaiiy iai?oae o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy a
eiai noai? ?aaoeyoi??a ?ic?ieiaiiai oeio, iiaoaeiaaieo ia iniia? ??cieo
aeai?eoi?a c aeaaa/aie ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio, ye? oi?iothoue aeo?aei?
neaiaee ia ianooiieo i?eioeeiao aei??thaaiiy:

ieoo?aiai cia/aiiy aeoeaii? neeaaeiai? no?oio ( aeaaa/ RC )

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`#???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy #??»?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????¦[????? ???u??
???????»????-????’????O???-?????U????9????
9???????¦v ????§ ???-????’§ ???i
???-?????oe
????T????T????:???|`???|h???u?th??????wmetafile
8? ??/??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  ?%???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyyA$??A?? ???&? ?MathType??`
???u?????????»????-?????ii ???O? ???u??
???????»????-????U? ???Ya ???-?????Ye ???aG
???aG
???a-???L1/2???0i???-????8i???¶5???-?????
¶=???>›???>›???>

(12)aeoeaii? iiooaeiino? ( aeaaa/ AP )

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy??????????wmetafile8? ??w???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@%???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?%??j?? ???&?
?MathType??°???u?th??????(13)Aeey iai/iino? o ae?acao (11) — (13)
i?eeiyoa aeiiouaiiy neioni?aeiino? iai?oae ia oeiao. Neeaaeia? neaiae?a
IRC , IIC , IAP c ?iaeaenii 1 icia/athoue ei?eniee neaiae, a c
?iaeaenii d — neaiae niioai?aiiy. Ia oeeo i?eioeeiao aei??thaaiiy
ii?aoeueiaai? iaoeii? iiaeae? aeaaa/?a, ye? a?aoiaothoue oaeiae
ianeioni?aei?noue iai?oae.

Ci?ie no?oi?a (iiooaeiinoae) AeNI a?aeaoaathoueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, ca
?aooiie ci?ie aeoeaieo iii??a aeoa oa, a iaio?e i???, ia?aiao??a eiioo?a
aeeaeaiiy. A iaoeii?e iiaeae? nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy ci?ie ?aaeeio
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?i?oothoueny /a?ac a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie oacieo aeoeaieo
iii??a o iine?aeiaieo aeoeaii-?iaeoeoeaieo eieao:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy`??»?? ???&?
?MathType??????u?th??????Ii?aoeueiaaia iaoeiia iiaeaeue aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a ?iaioe NOE o ia?aaeao aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
oaeaeeici?iieo iae?i?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe ye
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaaioaaeaiiy oae ? iniaeeaino? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo, io?eiai? o aeaeyae? ieoo?aeo cia/aiue eii?aeeiao
?aaeeio, aeae? iiaeathoueny o aeaeyae? /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee NOE,
oiaoi /anoioieo caeaaeiinoae i??e cieaeaiiy eieeaaiue iai?oae o nenoai?
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy ca aeiiiiiaith NOE aeaiiai oeio. *anoioia
oa?aeoa?enoeea NOE «aae?a? o naaa» an? iniaeeaino? neeiai? noaie oa
nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy aeaiiai oeio NOE ? ? iaea?eueo ?ethno?aoeaiei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi eiai aoaeoeaiino?, ui iniaeeai i?eaaaeeai c iaeyaeo ia
i?iaeoio ioe?ieo. Ia ?en.6 cia?aaeai? /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeine?aeaeoaaii? noaie NOE c ??cieie oeiaie aeaaa/?a, a oaeiae, aeey
ii??aiyiiy, iaaaaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ocaaaeueiaiiai noaoe/iiai
eiiiainaoi?a c aea?aaeaioieie /anaie cai?ciaiiy eiiiainaoe?? 5 oa 10 in,
ui io?eiai? ia iniia? no?oeoo?ii? iaeiie?i?eii? canooiii? noaie,
?icaeyiooi? a 3 ?icae?e?. Inoaii? ? aaca?aeiinieie uiaei oeio nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy ? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ni?iuaieie oa aaeaeaaoieie /anoioieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie NOE. Aiae?coth/e
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeei?enoaiiy
aeaaa/?a ?ioaa?aeueiiai oeio caaacia/o? aeuo aoaeoeai?noue NOE. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo aa?iii?e o no?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeia niinoa??aaoe
a?eueo nooo?ao ia?aaaao aeaaa/?a iiooaeiino? ?ioaa?aeueiiai oeio.
Iiaeaia o oaeiio aeaeyae? i??a aieeao NOE ia eieeaaiiy iai?oae a nenoai?
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy aeei?enoaia a cai?iiiiiaai?e iaoiaeeoe? ioe?iee
caeeoeiaiai oe?ea?o.

Ii?aoeueiaai? i?eioeeie iiaeaethaaiiy nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy NOE
aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe aaeaeaaoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeoeaiino?
canoinoaaiiy NOE. Iieacaii, ui /ania? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeaeeiae?? ia
iiaeooue aooe a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE.

Ia iniia? cae?eniaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaai? oa caiaoaioiaai?
noaie nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy NOE oa aeaaa/?a ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio, ui
aeicaieythoue ?aae?coaaoe oaeaeeiae?th/o eiiiainaoe?th eieeaaiue
iai?oae.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue caieeaiiy ia caieth a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao c NOE.
Noaie NOE, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a ia?aaeao aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ye i?aaeei, eiiieaeoothoueny
iaeaaeiaiiyi, ui i?ae’?aeio?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei aei oei 6-35 eA
i?aenoaioe?e. *anoi aei oeeo oei /a?ac eaaaeuei? /e iia?o?yi? e?i??
i?ae’?aeio?oueny ? iaaaioaaeaiiy. sse a?aeiii, ia?aae? 6-35 eA
i?aoeththoue c ?cieueiaaieie aai ?aciiainii-cacaieaieie iaeo?aeyie.
Caieeaiiy ia caieth o oaeeo ia?aaeao iiaea aooe i?e/eiith
aeieeiaiiy iaaacia/ieo ia?aiai?oa ia iaeaaeiaii? NOE. Iniaeeai
iaaacia/ieie ? ia?aiai?oae, ye? aeieeathoue ye iane?aeie iano?eeeo
(iiaoi?ieo) caieeaiue ia caieth. *anoi aiie noi?iaiaeaeothoueny
iiaoi?ii-iano?eeeie aeoaaie o i?noe? iioeiaeaeaiiy.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iaoeii?e iiaeae? aieeao ciai?oi?o a?aeiinii aei
NOE ia?aiai?oa ia ?iaioo eiai iaeaaeiaiiy i?eeiyoa a?iioaca I.Aaeyeiaa,
yea a iaai?e i??? a?aeia?aaea? iniaeeaino? ?aaeueiiai i?ioeano i?ae /an
iiaoi?ii-iano?eeeo caieeaiue ia caieth. Ia aaee/eio ia?aiai?oa o
i?ioean? caieeaiiy ia caieth aieeaa? ?yae oaeoi??a: aeoeai? iii?e
aeaiaio?a ia?aae?, aaee/eia i?aeoacieo ?iiinoae, iayai?noue
o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae. Aaeaeaaoia ?o a?aooaaiiy aeicaieeei io?eiaoe
?aaeuei? aaee/eie aie?ooae oa caanaiiy ia?aiai?oa. ??ai? ia?aiai?oa i?ae
/an caieeaiue ia caieth aecia/athoueny aeniei/anoioieie a?eueieie
neeaaeiaeie i?ioeano. Iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo iaeiioaciiai caieeaiiy ia
caieth aoaeo aeo?niaiiy o no?oiii?iaiaeao iiaea aooe a?aoiaaiee ca
/anoioith a?eueieo eieeaaiue, yeo iaaeeaeaii iiaeia ioe?ieoe ca ae?acii:

wmetafile8? ??°???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
Aa???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy ??c?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????Aeey ioe?iee ??aiy ia?aiai?oa ia
oe?enoi?ao OA cai?iiiiiaaia ni?iuaia iiaeaeue, yea aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaa?oioiaaia ia iiai?e aaeaeaaoi?e iiaeae?. Ine?eueee ia?ao?aeia iai?oaa
ia aeieiaiiio oe?enoi?? a ia?ao?aeiiio ?aaeei? ? noiith aeiooaii?
iai?oae iniiaii? /anoioe oa a?eueii? neeaaeiai? aeniei? /anoioe, yea
aeieea? a ?acoeueoao? caieeaiiy ia caieth, oi aeioe?eueii ?icaeyiooe
i?ioean ?o oi?ioaaiiy ye noio aeaio a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioean?a. Oea
a?aeia?aaea? ?aeath cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo ioe?iee ia?aiai?oa o oeueiio
aeiaaeeo. Io?eiaia oaeei /eiii ni?iuaia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe
ioe?ieo aeniei/anoioii? neeaaeiai? ia?ao?aeii? iai?oae ia aeieiaiiio
iea/? OA i?ae /an iaeiioaciiai caieeaiiy ia caieth o ia?aae?.
?ic?aoiaoth/e i?e wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ????? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??Y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyyyyy ??m?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????,???????S????e???S?TH?
??eTH???X’ ???`’ ???Xu???`u???u?th??????Ia ?en.7
iieacai? inoeeeia?aie ia?aiai?oa o aeine?aeaeoaai?e noai?, io?eiai? ia
iiai?e iiaeae?, a ia ?en.8 caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??ioa KO a?ae /anoioe
a?eueieo eieeaaiue i?e ??cieo aeiaaeeiao (lK ) eaaaey ANA-10-2(3240),
yeee c’?aeio? ooioiaee ?aaeoi? oa oe?enoi?iee aeie aeine?aeaeoaaii?
noaie NOE, io?eiai? ia ni?iuai?e iiaeae?. Oe? caeaaeiino? iieacothoue,
ui c ?inoii /anoioe aeanieo eieeaaiue o noaiao aac aeaiiooth/eo e?e
c?inoa? e?aoi?noue ia?ao?aeii? ia?aiai?oae ia oe?enoi?ao a?aeiinii oe???
ae neeaaeiai? ia oeiao. I?e/iio /ei a?eueoa aeiaaeeia eaaaey oei
e?aoi?noue aeua. Anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiiooth/eo eaiie ia aeaiaeao OA
aeicaiey? iaiaaeoaaoe ia?ao?aei? ia?aiai?oae ia oe?enoi?ao. A
caaaeueiiio ae, iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui i?e ii?aoethaaii? noai O?A aeey
eiie?aoieo i?aenoaioe?e iio??aii iaiaaaoeny ?icoaoiaoaaoe ooioia?
?aaeoi?e ? oe?enoi?i? aeiee ia iaaeaeae?e a?aenoai? iaeei a?ae iaeiiai,
oieeath/e oaeei /eiii ca?eueoaiiy ao?aeieo ?iiinoae OA. O i?ioeeaaeiiio
aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeii ca?eueooaaoe iiooaei?noue aeaiiooth/eo eaiie.

A?aeiii, ui iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e aeaiiooth/i? eaiee iiaeii?
a?aeiia?aeaoe i?i?iaeueiei ao?aoai a aeoeaiiio iii?? ca oiiae
caaacia/aiiy aaaeaii? aeiionoeii? aiie?ooaee aeeeaeo eiiooaoe?eii?
iai?oae i?ney aeieiaiiy oe?enoi?a oa iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? oaeaeeino?
ia?inoaiiy oe??? iai?oae.

A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
aeaiiooth/eo eaiie a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aenieoaoaoe?? NOE. ?ii?noue
aeaiiooth/i? eaiee aaaeaii aeae?aoe i?i?iaeueiith aeey caaeaiiai
aeaiiooaaiiy, ine?eueee aeania aiia aecia/a? aaee/eio ao?ao. C ?ioiai
aieo, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aaee/eiaie ?iiino? aeaiiooth/i? eaiee CD oa
ao?aeii? ?iiino? OA Cao aecia/a? aaee/eio oaea?iiai eiao?oe??ioa. Oiio
ao?aeia ?ii?noue OA Cao aecia/a? i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeia cia/aiiy
?iiino? aeaiiooth/i? eaiee.

Iieacaii, ui aeoeaiee ii?? aeaiiooth/i? eaiee, yeee iaiao?aeiee aeey
caaacia/aiiy caaeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa aeaiiooaaiiy kD , iiaeaii aea?aoe ca
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A?
???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy@ ??c?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????????”???a???
???oae???Oe ???u??
???????»????-????TH???U???-?????Ud???e?A???e?
A???e?: ???u?th??????m1 — eiao?oe??io, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae noaie
c’?aeiaiue O?A oa aeaiiooth/i? eaiee;

LR — ?iaeoeoeai?noue oace O?A;

, n — ia?aiao?e aea?aaeaioiiai eieeaaeueiiai eiioo?a, noai?aiiai O?A oa
aeaiiooth/ith eaieith.

O aeiaaeeo a?aeiinii aenieeo aeanieo /anoio ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano, ui
aeieea? i?ae /an iiaoi?ii-iano?eeeo caieeaiue ia caieth a ia?aae?,
aeaiiooth/? eaiee nooo?ai iaiaaeothoue iaaaaeai? ia oe?enoi?ao ciai?oi?
ia?aiai?oae. sseui iio??aii aeiaeoeny a?eueoiai aeaiiooaaiiy i?e
a?aeiinii iecueeeo aeanieo /anoioao ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano, oi iaiao?aeii
ca?eueooaaoe aeaiiooth/o ?ii?noue. Oey caeaaei?noue iiaea
i?ine?aeeoaaoeny ca ?en.8. Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiiooth/eo eaiie
o noai? O?A iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoe aeiiae aeaiiooaaiiy ye eiiooaoe?eieo
ia?aiai?oa, oae ? ia?aiai?oa, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an ciai?oi?o
caieeaiue ia caieth /e ?ioeo iioeiaeaeaiue o ia?aae?.

Iiaoi?ii-iano?ee? caieeaiiy ia caieth a i?e?aeiai?e ia?aae? ? oaeiae
i?e/eiith cia/ieo ia?aiai?oa ia o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi?ao OEE. Ine?eueee
iaeo?aeueia oi/ea o?eueo?a iacacaieaia, oi aei iicaeiaaeiuei? ?cieyoe??
o?eueo?iaiai ?aaeoi?a aoaea i?eeeaaeaoeny o?eueee aeniei/anoioia
neeaaeiaa ia?ao?aeii? iai?oae, ui iaaiei /eiii ae?eeoueny i?ae
aeaiaioaie o?eueo?a. Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo ?icae?eaiiy
i?ioean?a aeey ioe?iee ia?ao?aeii? iai?oae ia o?eueo?iaiio ?aaeoi?? o
oac? c caieeaiiyi ia caieth io?eiaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

wmetafile8? ??+???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyya??E?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????1/4Y???1/4wmetafile8?
??S??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy«yyy???‹?? ???&?
?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????1/4µ???1/4…???1/4
???1/4’???u?th??????Aiae?coth/e oe? ae?ace, iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
oi?ioeo (18) aeey ioe?iee ia?aiai?oa ia o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi?ao o aeiaaeeo
caieeaiue ia caieth o i?e?aeiai?e ia?aae?.

Aiie?ooaea ia?aiai?oae ia o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaio
oaeoi??a: /anoioe iano?ithaaiiy o?eueo?a oa /anoioe aeanieo eieeaaiue
i?ae /an iaeiioaciiai caieeaiiy ia caieth, yea, a naith /a?ao,
aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith onoaeaiiai cia/aiiy no?oio iaeiioaciiai
caieeaiiy ia caieth. Ia ?en.9 iieacai? caeaaeiino? a?aeiinieo
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue aiie?ooae ia?aiai?oa ia o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi?ao
a?ae a?aeiinii? /anoioe iano?ithaaiiy o?eueo??a. C iaaaaeaieo
caeaaeiinoae aeaeii, ui a?eueo iaaacia/ieie aeey o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi??a ?
caieeaiiy ia caieth a ia?aaeao c a?aeiinii aaeeeeie no?oiaie caieeaiiy
ia caieth. I?e/iio a oaeeo ia?aaeao iacia/iei ? aieea o?ainoi?iaoi??a
iai?oae ia ciaioaiiy aiie?ooaee aeniei/anoioii? neeaaeiai? ia?ao?aeii?
iai?oae ia oeiao i?aenoaioe??.

sse anoaiiaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ??aaiue ni?aoethaaiiy aaioeeueieo
?ic?yaeiee?a ia oeiao 10…35 eA i?aenoaioe?e i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
??aaiue ia?aiai?oa ia oe?enoi?ao O?A. Ine?eueee iiooaei?noue
?icn?thaaiiy iae?i?eieo iaiaaeoaa/?a (aa?enoi??a), eio??
anoaiiaeththoueny ia?aeaeueii aei eiaeiiai oe?enoi?a iea/a OA ?
iacia/iith, ciai?oi? ia?aiai?oae cia/ii? e?aoiino?, ye iieaco? aeina?ae,
iiaeooue ni?e/eiyoe iioeiaeaeaiiy aa?enoi??a, a iio?i ? oe?enoi??a. O
?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny iaoiaeeea aeai?o aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoae-ieneaeieo
?ic?yaeiee?a, ui a?aoiao? eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? O?A oa aeaiiooth/eo
eaiie. O?eueee o oaeiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia /aeaoe iaae?eii?, o?eaaei?
aenieoaoaoe?? OA, ia aeeaaeath/e aeiaeaoeiaeo cania?a o caiane ii
oe?enoi?ao.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oa iai?e?iieo iane?aee?a i?ae /an caieeaiue
ia caieth ? iioeiaeaeaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae. O aeayeeo ia?aaeao
oey i?iaeaia ? iniaeeai aino?ith, i?i ui na?ae/eoue noaoenoe/iee aiae?c.
Aeo?ae c eaaeo o?ainoi?iaoi?a iai?oae (o?ueio oac /e iaei???), yeee
aeei?enoiao?oueny ye aeaaa/ iai?oae aeey ?aaoeyoi?a NOE, ? i?e/eiith
iai?aaeeueii? ?iaioe aai aeieiaiiy nenoaie eiiiainaoe?? a oe?eiio.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iioeiaeaeaiue o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae, ye? iaee i?noea
a ae?th/?e aeaeo?e/i?e ia?aae?, oa a?aeiia?aeieo iiaeaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaii, ui i?e/eiith oeeo iioeiaeaeaiue ?
noaaa?iii?/iee ?aciiain, yeee caoaeaeo?oueny oei/aniaeie caieeaiiyie ia
caieth o ia?aae? c ?cieueiaaiith iaeo?aeeth ca iaaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ??
ia?aiao??a. Ia ?en.10 iieacai? iaoeii? inoeeeia?aie, ui ?ethno?othoue
aeieeiaiiy noaaa?iii?/ieo eieeaaiue. Iai?oaa a iaeo?ae? neeiaiai
o?ainoi?iaoi?a ia? /anoioo i?eaeecii ??aio iieiaei? i?iieneiai? (0,5f0
). Oey iai?oaa aeiaea?oueny c iai?oaaie oac A, A, N, ui iaoiiaeth?
??ciee oa?aeoa? ?o niioai?aiue. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, onoaeaiee
?aaeei noaaa?iii?/ieo eieeaaiue noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iia?eueii ci?iiith
iai?oaith ioeueiai? iine?aeiaiino?, /anoioa yei? caeaaeeoue a?ae
ia?aiao??a noaie ? ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 1,6…5 Aoe. Oey neeaaeiaa ?
i?e/eiith ia??iaee/ii? ci?ie oi?ie iai?oae ye o iaeo?ae?, oae ? o oacao,
i?ioa ia? a?aeiinii iaeo aaee/eio. Na?aaei? ca ia??iae iiaoi?aiiy
ae?th/a cia/aiiy ia?aeiiiai no?oio o?ainoi?iaoi?a iai?oae CIII-35 i?ae
/an noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino a aeine?aeaeoaai?e noai? neeaaea? 0,3 A ,
ui a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie ia?aaeuo? aeiionoeia cia/aiiy eiai no?oio
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Oaeo ?nioaaiiy noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino /a?aiaee ia?niiae i?aenoaioe??
iiaea niinoa??aaoe ca i?eeaaeaie, ui eiio?ieththoue oacio iai?oao,
ine?eueee ae?th/? cia/aiiy an?o o?ueio oacieo iai?oa c?inoathoue
i?aeoe/ii aei aaee/eie e?i?eii? iai?oae ? no??eee i?eeaae?a
eieeaathoueny c /anoioith iai?oae ioeueiai? iine?aeiaiino? ieae/i?
/anoioe. Iieacaii, ui iaene-iaeueia cia/aiiy no?oio iaeiioaciiai
caieeaiiy ia caieth, i?e yeiio iiaeeeaa i?aeo?eiaiiy noaaa?iii?/iiai
?aciiaino a ia?aae? ca oiiae caaeaii? iai?oae, aecia/a?oueny
?iaeoeoeaiei iii?ii iane/aiiy ia?aeiii? iaiioee OI, cia/aiiyi
eiao?oe??io?a k0 (oa?aeoa?enoeea iaai?oii? nenoaie OI ) oa km (
a?aeiinia iaeneiaeueia iioieic/aieaiiy ):

wmetafile8? ??n???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??8?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????uey???uei
???ue+???ue„???u?th??????O oinoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi
eiiooaoe?ei? ?aaeeie, ui iathoue i?noea o ia?aaeao c NOE ?
noi?iaiaeaeothoue ii?iaeueio aenieoaoaoe?th oaeeo ia?aae. sse iieaco?
aeina?ae oa cae?eniai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eii? oa
o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy NOE ? ia?aae? iaiao?aeii ciaoe ?o
aeanoeaino? oa aca?iiae?th o ia?ao?aeieo ?aaeeiao, a oaeiae i?eeiyoe
a?aeiia?aei? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy aeey iaiaaeaiiy ae?? noi?iaiaeaeoth/eo
ia?aiai?oa oa iaaeno?oi?a.

A ia?aaeao c NOE aecia/aeueiee aieea ia nenoaie caoenoo ia?aae? oa NOE,
?o eiino?oeoe?th oa nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy iathoue ianooii? eiiooaoe??:

· aa?ieiaiiy oa aeieiaiiy iiooaeieo o?ainoi?iaoi??a;

· aa?ieiaiiy oa aeieiaiiy o?eueo??a aeueo aa?iii?e NOE;

· aa?ieiaiiy oa aeieiaiiy iiooaeieo iaaaioaaeaiue, cie?aia aneio?iiieo
aeaeaoi?a.

I?ae /an aa?ieiaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi?a aeieeathoue ia?ao?aei? no?oie, eio??
i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe eeaeeaie no?oi?a iaiaai?/oaaiiy (ENI). Aiie iathoue
cia/i? aaee/eie, ye? /anoi aeinyaathoue 6…8 e?aoieo cia/aiue a?aeiinii
iii?iaeueiiai no?oio o?ainoi?iaoi?a, ? o?eaathoue aeae?eueea naeoiae.
Aa?ieiaiiy i?/ieo o?ainoi?iaoi??a iiaea aooe i?e/eiith i?aeaeuaii?
iioeiaeaeoaaiino? o?ainoi?iaoi??a ia?aae? /a?ac iaaei??i? aeeiai?/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e??ieaiiy ?o iaiioie. Ia?i? aa?iii?ee o no?oiao
aa?ieiaiiy iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei ia?aiai?oa o nenoaiao
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy AeNI c NOE, yeui ia ye?enue c iayaieo /anoio aeieea?
??cei ae?aaeaiee ia?aeaeueiee ?aciiain o aeiaaeeo neaaei? i??e
aeaiiooaaiiy.

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie ia?aaeaie c iaeyaeo ia canoinoaaiiy NOE, o yeeo
no?oie aa?ieiaiiy iathoue cia/i? aaee/eie ? ni?e/eiythoue cia/i?
aeeiai?/i? oa aeaeo?iiaai?oi? cao?aiiy, ? nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
iiooaeieo oa iaaeiiooaeieo AeNI. *anoioa eiiooaoe?e i?/ieo
o?ainoi?iaoi??a aecia/a?oueny oaoiieia?/iei ?aaeeiii aeieaaeaiiy iaoaeo
? iiaea aeinyaaoe 30…40 ?ac ia aeiao. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ia
iaoeii?e iiaeae? ?aaeueii? nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy, iieacaii? ia
?en.11. E??i oiai, o oe?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy aoee cae?eniai?
aenia?eiaioe, ui aeaee ciiao cao?enoaaoe a?ey 50 i?ioean?a oa?ieiaiue
i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a. A ?acoeueoao? io?eiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a,
ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aa?ieiaiiy.

No?oie aa?ieiaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi??a i?noyoue oe?ieee niaeo? aa?iii?e.
Iniaeea?noth oeueiai niaeo?o ? eiai ci?ia i?ioyaii /ano caanaiiy no?oio
aa?ieiaiiy. Ia ?en.12 iaaaaeaia iaoeiia inoeeeia?aia no?oio aa?ieiaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoi?a ? a?aeiia?aei? /ania? caeaaeiino? aiie?ooae 1, 2, 3
aa?iii?e oeueiai no?oio, iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? aiae?co Oo?’? a
iine?aeiaieo ia??iaeao (oae caaiiai eaac?-aiae?co Oo?’?). Ca?aene
aeaeii, ui aaee/eie aiie?ooae ie?aieo aa?iii?e iathoue ??ciee oa?aeoa?
ci?ie c ieeiii /ano. I?ioyaii /ano caanaiiy no?oio aa?ieiaiiy aiie
iiaeooue a iaai? ia??iaee niaaeaoe, a a ?io? — c?inoaoe. O?eaae?noue
oaeeo ia??iae?a aecia/a?oueny caaaeueiei /anii caanaiiy no?oio
aa?ieiaiiy. Iiooaei?noue eiiiainaoe?? o oeeo ia?aaeao ? oaeith, ui
?aciiaini? /anoioe ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao 2…8 aa?iii?e, aaee/eie yeeo
? nooo?aeie o no?oi? aa?ieiaiiy. O aeiaaeeo aeieeiaiiy oei/aniaiai
?aciiaino ia iaaieo /anoioao i?ae /an aa?ieiaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ie?aieo o?eueo??a, a oaeiae iiaeooue
aeieeaoe ia?aiai?oae ia oeiao. Iaoooth/e iacia/iith ??cieoeath o oi?i?
no?oio, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiie?ooaea no?oio iaeiicia/ii
aecia/a?oueny aiie?ooaeith ?iaeoeoe??, i?e/iio ia ia? ??cieoe?, yeei
/eiii aiia aeinyaiooa. Ei?enooth/enue oaeei i?aeoiaeii, iiaeaii aaaaeaoe
aiie?ooaeo no?oio aa?ieiaiiy o eiaeiee ia??iae ?iai/i? /anoioe i?ioyaii
ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano iacaeaaeiith a?ae ia?aae?noi???. O ?iaio?
i?iaiae?ciaaii caeaaeiino? aa?iii?e no?oio aa?ieiaiiy i?/iiai
o?ainoi?iaoi?a o aeine?aeaeoaai?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy ye ooieoe??
aiie?ooaee no?oio aa?ieiaiiy, ca yeeie iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe ye
ci?iththoueny aiie?ooaee ie?aieo aa?iii?e no?oio c? ci?iith aiie?ooaee
no?oio aa?ieiaiiy. C oeeo caeaaeiinoae ynii aeaeii, ui a aeayeeo
?aaeeiao oa?ieiaiiy iaeneiaeuei? aiie?ooaee no?oi?a ie?aieo aeueo
aa?iii?e iiaeooue iaoe i?noea o?eueee /a?ac aeayeee /an i?ney ii/aoeo
aa?ieiaiiy, yeee aecia/a?oueny i?ioeanii caanaiiy no?oio aa?ieiaiiy. Ia
?en.13 iaaaaeai? inoeeeia?aie aa?ieiaiiy i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a o
nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c? noaiith OEE, iaaaaeaiith ia ?en.11.
?ethno?aoeai?noue oeeo inoeeeia?ai iieyaa? o oiio, ui ia ieo ae?acii
aeaeii oa?aeoa? ci?ie no?oio oa iai?oae ae?oai? aa?iii?ee o eie?
o?eueo?a oe??? aa?iii?ee. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aa?ieiaiiy
i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a o oe?e aea nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy o aeiaaeeo
i?ae’?aeiaiiy aei oei i?aenoaioe?? o?eueee EA iiooaei?noth 30 IAA, ui
ia?aaeaa/aeany aeey eiiiainaoe?? ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? ye
aeueoa?iaoeaiee aa??aio, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?ao?aeiiai ia?aeaeueiiai
?aciiaino ia 6 aa?iii?oe?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy AeNI, iaeaaeiaii? iia?o?yieie
aeieea/aie aeyaeei nooo?a? ??ai? ia?aiai?oa ye ia oeiao i?aenoaioe??,
oae ? ia noi?ii? i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a, eio?ee aeieea?oueny. Aeieiaiiy
i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaeeie i?ioeanaie ye
iaeiioaci? «c??ce» no?oi?a o eaia?ao aeieea/a, aeiooai? (a??ooaeuei?)
iaeii/ani? ia?eae no?oi?a o o?ueio oacao. E??i oiai, iniaeea?noth oaeeo
aeieiaiue ? aaaaoie?aoi? iiaoi?i? i?iaeooy i?aeeiioaeoieo i?ii?aee?a
aeieea/a, ui ii?iaeaeo? oae caaia yaeua «aneaeaoe?? ia?aiai?oa». A
?acoeueoao? iiaeaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a aoei anoaiiaeaii:

· ca?eueoaiiy aea?aaeaioieo ?iiinoae c iaio noi??i aeieea/a ca?eueoo?
eiia??i?noue o?eoaciiai iaeii/aniiai a??ooaeueiiai ia?eao no?oi?a /a?ac
ca?eueoaiiy no?oi?a iiaoi?ieo caiaethaaiue o ia?o?e oac?, ui
aeieea?oueny;

· iie?auaiiy ?ic?eaii? caeaoiino? aeieea/a (a?eueo e?ooa
aieueo-naeoiaeia oa?aeoa?enoeea) ca oiiae ca?eueoaiiy aeanieo /anoio
eiioo??a iiaea ni?e/eiyoe nooo?a? ??ai? ia?aiai?oa i?e iiaoi?ieo
caiaethaaiiyo, ui o naith /a?ao i?aeaeuo? eiia??i?noue a??ooaeueieo
o?eoacieo ia?ea?a noi?iaiaeaeoth/eo no?oi?a;

· c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy AeNI ciaioo?oueny oaeaee?noue
ia?inoaiiy iai?oae ia eiioaeoao aeieea/a i?e iiaoi?ieo caiaethaaiiyo,
ui, o naith /a?ao, ciaioo? eiia??i?noue naieo caiaethaaiue ? iaeii/anieo
a??ooaeueieo ia?ea?a no?oi?a;

· ine?eueee ?iai/? no?oie ia/? ci?iththoueny o oe?ieeo iaaeao, oi i?e
caaeaieo aea?aaeaioieo ?iiinoyo nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iiaeooue
aeyaeyoeny oae? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia?aiao?aie eiioo??a, ye? i?e
aeai?e aieueo-naeoiaei?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeieea/a aoaeooue ni?e/eiyoe
«aneaeaoe?th» ia?aiai?oa i?ae /an aeieiaiiy. Oae? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o
aeine?aeaeoaai?e noai? niinoa??aathoueny i?e iaaaeeeeo ?iai/eo no?oiao
ia/? — (0,15…0,4) Iiii.

Na?aae oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/athoue aeiiae aei eiino?oeoe?? oa caoeno?a
iaeaaeiaiiy NOE, iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue aa?ieiaiiy oa aeieiaiiy o?eueo??a NOE o ii?iaeueieo
aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?aaeeiao ia?aae?. Oe? eiiooaoe?? iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe
cia/i? ia?aiai?oae. sseui aeieiaiiy eiea o?eueo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae
/an ia?oiai ia?aoiaeo no?oio aeieiaiiy /a?ac ioeue ? aeieea/ aeo?eio?
iai?oao a?aeiiaeaiiy, eio?a aeieea? ia eiai eiioaeoao, oi i?ioean ia
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaacia/ieie ia?aiai?oaaie. I?ioa c aeieeiaiiyi
iiaoi?ieo caiaethaaiue aeoae a i?aeeiioaeoieo i?ii?aeeao o eieao
o?eueo??a iiaeooue aeieeaoe nooo?ai a?eueo? ia?aiai?oae oa iaaeno?oie
i?ae i?ae /an ?o aa?ieiaiiy. Aeieiaiiy ie?aieo o?eueo??a OEE, no?oie
eio?eo i?noyoue ??ciee niaeo? ? aaee/eie aa?iii?e, ia? nai? iniaeeaino?.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no aa?iii?e o no?oi? aeieiaiiy
o?eueo?a i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue ia?ao?aeieo ia?aiai?oa. Aaee/eia caeeoeiai?
iai?oae caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae aca?iiiai cnoao oac i?ae iniiaiith oa
aeuith aa?iii?eaie no?oio o?eueo?a. Iaeaeu? ??ai? ia?aiai?oa
niinoa??aathoueny, eiee ia?ii aeecuee? aei ioey eooe cnoao oac. C ?inoii
caeeoeiai? iai?oae ia oacao o?eueo?a o i?ioean? aeieiaiiy c?inoa?
iai?oaa a?aeiiaeaiiy ia eiioaeoao aeieea/a, aeeeeeath/e a?eueoo
eiia??i?noue iiaoi?ieo caiaethaaiue ? oei naiei noai?thth/e a?eueo
aaaee? oiiae aeieiaiiy.

Ia ?en.14 iieacai? inoeeeia?aie eii?aeeiao ?aaeeio aeey aeiaaeeo
iiaoi?iiai caiaethaaiiy aeoae i?ae eiioaeoaie aeieea/a o i?ioean?
aeieiaiiy o?eueo?a ae?oai? aa?iii?ee o aeine?aeaeoaai?e noai?.
Anoaiiaeaii iniaeea?noue, yea ? caaaeueiith a oeeo oiiaao: yeui
caiaethaaiiy aeoae o i?aeeiioaeoiiio i?ii?aeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny o oac? c
iaeneiaeueiith iai?oaith a?aeiiaeaiiy, oi iaeneiaeuei? ia?aiai?oae
niinoa??aathoueny ia ?ioeo oacao. O oaae.1 iieacai? iaeneiaeuei?
aaee/eie ia?aiai?oa ia o?eueo?ao, ye ooieoe?? ai?noo aa?iii?ee
iano?ithaaiiy oeueiai o?eueo?a, i?ae /an eiai aeieiaiiy c iaeiie?aoiei
iiaoi?iei caiaethaaiiyi i?aeeiioaeoiiai i?ii?aeeo ia?oi? oace. Aeaeii,
ui aaee/eie ia?aiai?oa ia iaeaaeiaii? a oeeo oiiaao caeaaeaoue a?ae
ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a iano?ithaaiiy o?eueo?a.

Oaaeeoey 1

Caeaaei?noue e?aoiinoae iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei ia?aiai?oa ia o?eueo?ao

o noai? NOE (?en.11) a?ae ai?noo aa?iii?ee iano?ithaaiiy

Ai?no aa?iii?ee Ii?yaeie
o?eueo?aiano?ithaaiiyO2O3O505,084,514,2825%5,344,634,3250%5,714,824,3910
0%6,385,184,56I?ei?oea: E?aoiino? aecia/ai? a?aeiinii aiie?ooaee
iii?iaeueii? oacii? iai?oae.

Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui o aeiaaeeo iaeeie/ieo iiaoi?ieo caiaethaaiue aeoae
a i?aeeiioaeoieo i?ii?aeeao aeieea/?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey eiiooaoe??
o?eueo??a, ia iaeaaeiaii? iiaeooue c’yaeyoeny iaaeiionoei? ia?aiai?oae.
Oey iniaeea?noue i?ioeano aeiaaa? anoaiiaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo cania?a
iaiaaeaiiy eiiooaoe?eieo ia?aiai?oa. O ia?oo /a?ao oea a?aeiineoueny aei
o?eueo??a ieae/eo ii?yaee?a.

A?aeiiei niiniaii caoenoo aioeia?aeaeueii? ia?e oe?enoi??a a?ae
iaaei??ieo ae?th/eo iai?oa ? aeei?enoaiiy ?o i?e?iaeii? aeanoeaino?
«naiicaoeuaoeny» oeyoii i?eioniaiai aieeaiiy iaeiiai c oe?enoi??a i?ae
/an aeieeiaiiy ia?aiai?oae. Ca o/anoth aaoi?a ia aeacaiiio i?eioeei?
ii?aoeueiaaia nenoaia caoenoo OA NOE a?ae ia?aiai?oa. Iieacaia iaoiaeeea
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?cieyoe?? OA i?e aeei?enoaii? oeueiai caoenoo oa aeai?o
eiai ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee. I?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioeane a ia?aae? i?ae /an
ni?aoethaaiiy caoenoo.

Caaaeueiith i?aeoeeith a i?iaeooaaii? OEE aeey noai NOE, eio??
i?ecia/ai? aeey oeo /e ?ioeo ia?aae, ? aeei?enoaiiy iieaciee?a
ianeioni?aeiino? onoaeaieo ?aaeei?a oa /anoioieo aeanoeainoae nenoaie,
eio?? iaiao?aei? aeey aeai?o iiooaeiinoae oa ia?aiao??a ie?aieo
o?eueo??a. sse iieaco? aeina?ae, eiiooaoe?ei? ?aaeeie o aeayeeo nenoaiao
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy /anoi aeeeeeathoue ia?aaaioaaeaiiy o?eueo??a OEE /e
i?iaeooy ?cieyoe?? ?o ie?aieo aeaiaio?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui a i?ioean? ii?aoethaaiiy
noai OEE iniaeeaa oaaaa iiaeiia aooe caa?iooa ia ae?th ia?aiai?oa oa
iaaeno?oi?a, ye? ae?thoue ia eiiaeainaoi?i? aaoa?a? oa ?aaeoi?e
o?eueo??a. C iaeyaeo ia oea, e??i naieo aaee/ei ia?ao?aeieo no?oi?a oa
iai?oa, aaaeeeaith ? oaeiae ?o o?eaae?noue oa /anoioa iiaoi?thaaiino?.
Aeina?ae iieaco?, ui ?ic?aooiie o?eueee ia cia/aiiy aeiionoeii?
?iioeuenii? ia?aiai?oae ceaaiaee ia ? aeinoaoiueith oiiaith iaae?eii?
aenieoaoaoe?? ?cieyoe?? o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi??a. Ia?aiai?oae iaaii?
o?eaaeino?, ye? ca aiie?ooaeaie ? iaioeie a?ae aeiionoeii? aaee/eie
iiaeooue noai?thaaoe i?noeaa? /anoeia? ?ic?yaee, ui ni?e/eiththoue
i?enei?aia noa??iiy ?cieyoe??. Oea iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe /a?ac aeayeee /an
aei caaaeueiiai ia?ae?eooy ?cieyoe?? a?ae aeaui ieae/eo ia?aiai?oa.
Iiae?aia ea?oeia neeaaea?oueny c ae??th iaaeno?oi?a. ?ic?aooiie
oaieiai? oa aeeiai?/ii? no?eeino? o?eueo?iaiai ?aaeoi?a i?e no?oi?
ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy, ua ia ae??oo? i?iaeaie iaae?eii? eiai
aenieoaoaoe??. *anoi iiaoi?thaai? aeeiai?/i? iaaeno?oie aeeeeeathoue
iaoai?/ia «cio/aiiy» , ui ? i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy /ano aenieoaoaoe??
?aaeoi?a. Oe? yaeua iineoaeeee iniiaith aeey ie?aneaiiy aeiionoeieo
aaee/ei ia?aiai?oa oa iaaeno?oi?a nooeo ?aaeoi??a caeaaeii a?ae /anoioe
?o iiaoi?thaaiino?.

C iaeyaeo ia iiaoi?thaai?noue aenieoaoaoe?ei? ?aaeeie nenoaie
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy aeaeo?iaeoaiai? ia/?, ui i?noeoue NOE, iiaeia
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ianooiiei /eiii:

· onoaeaiee ?aaeei — i?ioyaii ?ieo;

· aa?ieiaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi??a AeNI — 5…10 oen. ia ??e;

· aa?ieiaiiy o?eueo??a OEE — aei 1 oen. ia ??e;

· iiaoi?i? caiaethaaiiy aeoae i?ae eiioaeoaie aeieea/?a OEE — aei 1 oen.
ia ??e.

Ia?ae?/ai? ?aaeeie ? e?eoe/ieie a i?ioean? aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
o?eueo?iaeo ?aaeoi??a oa eiiaeainaoi?ieo aaoa?ae, ine?eueee aeathoue
oa?aeoa?io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aiie?ooaee no?oi?a oa iai?oa ia aeaiaioao
o?eueo??a ? ?o o?eaae?noue.

Aeey i?eeeaaeo, a oaae.2 iaaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? ia?aiao?e o?eueo?iaiai
?aaeoi?a ae?oai? aa?iii?ee, ye? iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe o
aeine?aeaeoaai?e nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy. Aiie iiaeai? o ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoiaeeeith aeai?o.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ii??aiyeuei? ia?aiao?e O?2 o noai? NOE ( ?en.11)

Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo?ic?aooieiaa iai?oaa, eA ?ic?aooieiaee no?oi, eA
?ic?aooieiaee no?oi e.c., eA O?aaeeoe?eia9,40,381,2C o?aooaaiiyi
eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a39,6*0,385,0*I?ei?oea:*?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aaeeio aa?ieiaiiy i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a.

Aeeiai?/i? ia?aiai?oae a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue ? a i?ioean? aeai?o
ia?aiao??a eiiaeainaoi?ieo aaoa?ae OEE. I?ioa iaaeno?oie o o?eueo?ao, ui
niinoa??aathoueny o iiaeeeaeo eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeeiao, ye i?aaeei, ?
iaioeie a?ae no?oi?a aca?iiiai ?ic?yaeo eiiaeainaoi??a, ia ye? aiie
?ic?aoiaai?. O ca’yceo c oeei aecia/aeueieie ? aeania aiie?ooaee ?
o?eaaeino? ia?aiai?oa, eio?? ae?thoue ia eiiaeainaoi?i? aaoa?a? OEE a
aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?aaeeiao. Aeey i?eeeaaeo, a oaae.3 iaaaaeai?
ii??aiyeuei? ?ic?aooieia? ia?aiao?e EA o?eueo?a ae?oai? aa?iii?ee,
io?eiai? ia iniia? caaaeaieo i?aeoiae?a.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ii??aiyeuei? ia?aiao?e EA o?eueo?a ae?oai? aa?iii?ee ( ?en.11)

Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo?ic?aooieiaa

iai?oaa, eA ?ic?aooieiaee no?oi, eA ?ic?aooieiaa iiooaei?noue, IAA
O?aaeeoe?eia32,80,3837,1C o?aooaaiiyi

eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a48,7*0,3855,2I?ei?oea:*?ic?aooieiaa cia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeeio aa?ieiaiiy i?/iiai o?ainoi?iaoi?a.

Oeae i?eeeaae iieaco?, ui iiooaei?noue EA o?eueo?a ae?oai? aa?iii?ee o
noai? NOE, yeee i?aoeth? a nenoai? aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iiooaeii? AeNI,
iiaeiia aooe ia 40…50% a?eueoith, i?ae ?? iiooaei?noue, aecia/aia c
oiiae onoaeaiiai ?aaeeio. sse i?aaeei, aecia/aeueieie i?e oeueiio ?
?aaeeie aa?ieiaiiy i?/ieo o?ainoi?iaoi??a.

Aeey aiae?ciaaii? nenoaie aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy aeyaeeiny, ui e?eoe/ieie
?ic?aooieiaeie iai?oaaie aeey aeai?o EA o?eueo??a o?aouei? oa i’yoi?
aa?iii?e OEE ? ?ic?aooieia? iai?oae onoaeaiiai ?aaeeio. Oea icia/a?, ui
ca aeaieo oiia aaee/eie eii?aeeiao eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a ia iathoue
aieeao ia aea?? ia?aiao??a EA oeeo o?eueo??a (ia a?aei?io a?ae O?).

A E N I I A E E

O ?iaio? ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeieia?th aiae?co ?aaeei?a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae
oa nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue c NOE, eio?a
ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee ? ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeooaaiiy NOE o oeeo ia?aaeao. Aiia ioiieth?
i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy, iaoiaee aeai?o iaeaaeiaiiy oa
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE, iaoeiio nenoaio aiae?co ?aaeei?a
ia?aae oa nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c NOE. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o aeei?enoaiiy iiaeia
ocaaaeueieoe ianooiieie iieiaeaiiyie.

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, yeee i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy NOE a aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaeao aeeaeaiiy iiooaeieo
iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa ?o aeiiii?/i? ia?aaaae iaae ?ioeie
caniaaie ii?iae?caoe?? ?aaeei?a, iieacaii, ui i?iaeooaaiiy NOE iineoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iio?aao? aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a aiae?co oa
ioe?iee aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a ia?aae c oeeie i?eno?iyie. Ia
ae??oaiiy aeacaii? i?iaeaie ni?yiiaai? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii?
?iaioe.

2. ?icaeiooi ? ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae iiaoaeiae nenoai
?aaoethaaiiy noaoe/ieo eiiiainaoi??a o nenoaiao aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
iaeiiaaioe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Oea noai?th? iniiao aeey ?aae?caoe??
aeioe?eueieo no?oeoo? nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy NOE ? aeai?o oei?a aeaaa/?a
ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia eiiiainaoe??.

3. Ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaee ioe?iee aieeao NOE ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae?, ui
aeicaieythoue a?aoiaoaaoe, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo, ae?eni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee NOE ? iniaeeaino? ?aaeei?a naieo ia?aae. Cai?iiiiiaaii
niiniae aeai?o ia?aiao??a NOE a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeei?a
aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae c iaeyaeo ia aeiiae ii?i yeino? aeaeo?iaia?a??.

4. ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?o iaoeiii? iiaeae? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a
aeaeo?e/ii? ia?aae? c aeeiai?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, yea i?noeoue NOE.
Noai?aia iiaeeea?noue a?aeoai?thaaoe ae?eni? oa?aeoa?enoeee neeiai?
noaie oa ?aaoeyoi?a NOE, a oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe aeeiai?eo ci?ie,
ianeiao??th oa iae?i?ei?noue iaaaioaaeaiue. Iiaeaeue aeicaiey?
cae?enithaaoe ia?aa??eo i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ia i?eioeeiiai iia?e iniia? —
aecia/aoe aoaeo eiiiainaoe?? a «aaeaeaaoieo» eii?aeeiaoao,
ei?enooth/enue aeiiaaie e?eoa???a ii?i yeino? aeaeo?iaia?a??.

5. ?icaeiooi iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue caieeaiiy ia caieth a ia?aaeao c NOE. Anoaiiaeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ioe?iee ??ai?a
ia?aiai?oa ia iaeaaeiaii? NOE i?ae /an iiaoi?ii-iano?eeeo caieeaiue ia
caieth a i?e?aeiai?e ia?aae?.

6. Ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeaiiooth/eo
e?e aeey oe?enoi?ii-?aaeoi?ieo a?oi NOE ? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?o aieea ia
??aaiue ia?aiai?oa, ui aeicaiey? aeae?aoe aeioe?euei? noaie caoenoo.

7. Iiyniaii i?e/eie, anoaiiaeaii oiiae ?nioaaiiy oa caanaiiy
noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino, ui aeeeeea?oueny ei?ioei/anieie caieeaiiyie
ia caieth o ia?aaeao c ?cieueiaaiith iaeo?aeeth. Cai?iiiiiaaii
?iaeaia?iee iaoiae ioe?iee oiia ?nioaaiiy noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino.
Anoaiiaeaii ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio
noaaa?iii?/iiai ?aciiaino, ia iniia? yeeo ?ic?iaeai? i?eno?i? caoenoo
o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae o oeeo ia?aaeao.

8. Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane aa?ieiaiiy/aeieiaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi??a o
nenoaiao aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c NOE ? anoaiiaeaii ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee.
Iieacaii iniaeeaino? aa?iii?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e aa?ieiaiiyo
o?ainoi?iaoi??a o oeeo ia?aaeao oa iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue
a?aooaaiiy eiiooaoe?e o?ainoi?iaoi??a i?ae /an ?ic?iaeaiiy noai NOE.

9. Aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? aeieiaiiy o?eueo??a NOE, anoaiiaeaii
caeaaeiino? noi?iaiaeaeoth/eo ia?aiai?oa a?ae oa?aeoa?enoee aeieea/?a oa
ianeioni?aeiino? no?oi?a o?eueo??a. Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue oa ii?yaeie
a?aooaaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee eiiooaoe?eieo ?aaeei?a nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
c NOE o i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy noai OEE oa aeai?o eiioooth/eo aeieea/?a,
ii?aoethaaiiy cania?a iaiaaeaiiy ia?aiai?oa.

10. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy o i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy,
oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a aenieoaoaoe?th a ae?th/? aeaeo?e/i?
ia?aae?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia?aeieie aeieoiaioaie. Ia neeia? noaie
? no?oeoo?e nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy NOE, noaie aeaaa/?a ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio,
noaie caoeno?a oa iaiaaeaiiy ia?aiai?oa ? iaaeno?oi?a, ?ic?iaeai? ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, io?eiaii aaoi?nuee?
na?aeioeoaa oa iaoaioe.

INIIAI? Ioae?eaoe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. Eiiiainaoe?y ianeiao??? noaoe/ieie eiiiainaoi?aie a
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2. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. *anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaoe/ieo oe?enoi?ieo
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— N. 7-12.

3. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. ?aaeoeaia iiooaei?noue — icia/aiiy oa eiiiainaoe?y
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4. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. I?eioeeie ?aaoethaaiiy noaoe/ieo eiiiainaoi??a ia
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5. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. Ia?aiao?e aeaiiooth/eo eaiie oe?enoi?ii-?aaeoi?ieo
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1. — N. 35-39 .

6. Varetski J. Static VAR compensator for voltage control and network
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1996. — ? 2. — S. 51-55.

7. Varetski J., Ravlyk A., Koziol R., Biernat Z. Computer aided
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supply system // Jako i uytkowanie energii elektrycznej. — 1998. — ? 2.
— S. 77-84.

8. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., AEo?ao?anueeee A.A. ?aaoethaaiiy NOE ia oeiao
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9. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., AEo?ao?anueeee A.A., Eain TH.A., ?aaeee I.I.,
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Oaoi?/ia aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea. — 1996. — ? 5. — N. 54-58.

10. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., Aaoi? C.I. Ia?aiai?oae ia oe?enoi?ao noaoe/ieo
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11. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., ?aaeee I.I., Aaoi? C.I. Iniaeeaino?
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? 3. — N. 61-63.

12. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A., AEo?aoianeee A.A., Eain TH.A.,
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13. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Eain TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A. Aeeyiea ianeiiao?ee
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14. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., AEo?aoianeee A.A., Oaeaiaoaiue O.I. Noaoe/aneee
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? 213. — N. 7-12.

15. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Eain TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A. Auno?iaeaenoaothuay
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16. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A., Eain TH.A. Iiiaoionoie/eainoue
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17. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A., Eain TH.A. Aeao/eee ia?aiao?ia
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iieeoaoi. ei-oa. — 1986. — ? 204. — N. 10-13.

18. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Naaaaea I.N. Oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?enoi?ii-?aaeoi?iuo
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19. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Aaiaiiae/ A.A., Eain TH.A. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey
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— 1985. — ? 194. — N.22-25.

20. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Ia?oa/ A.N., Eiaai I.N., Oiae ss.O. ?ac?aaioea e
i?iaeoe?iaaiea noaoe/aneiai eiiiainaoi?a n eiiieaeniui
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? 19. — N.40-43.

21. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Oaeaiaoaiue O.I., Iaeneiiae/ E.I. Iaeioi?ua
?acoeueoaou ioneiauo eniuoaiee noaoe/aneiai eiiiainaoi?a n
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? 174. — N. 33-37.

22. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Eeaeuaa A.I. I oeoeooaoeeyo /anoioiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee naoe n onoa-iiaeie noaoe/aneiai eiiiainaoi?a // Aanoi.
Eueaia. iieeoaoi. ei-oa. — 1982. — ? 159. — N. 14-17.

23. Aa?aoeeee TH.A., AEo?aoianeee A.A., Ia?oa/ A.N., Aeaieethe A.A.,
Naaaaea I.N., ?iceeaaeae N.I., Oiae ss.O. ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaiea
noaiu noaoe/aneiai oe?enoi?iiai eiiiainaoi?a aeey Iiaiaieuineie
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35-37.

24. Aaieeia A.A., Ea?oaoia E.E., Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Ia?oa/ A.N.
Aeaenoaothuea noaoe/aneea enoi/ieee ?aaeoeaiie iiuiinoe a yeaeo?e/aneeo
nenoaiao // Iaaeaaae. na. o?. «Iioeiecaoeey ?aaeeiia yia?aaoe/aneeo
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25. AEo?ao?anueeee A.A., Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., Aaoi? C.I. I?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? noaoe/ieo oe?enoi?ieo eiiiainaoi??a a aeaeo?e/ieo
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26. AEo?aoianeee A.A., Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Oaeaiaoaiue O.I., Oiae ss.O.,
Iaoeaie/ A.O., Oa?aiaoa C.E. Iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiay onoaiiaea
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27. AEo?ao?anueeee A.A., Aaoi? C.I., Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., ?aaeee I.I.
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28. Aiei A.O., Aa?aoeeee TH.A. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey
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29. Ia?oa/ A.N., Oa?/aiei A.A., Aa?aoeeee TH.A., Aoaeui A.E.
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30. Ia?oa/ A.N., Naaaaea I.N., Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. ?ic?aooiie no?oi?a
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31. A.n. ? 1198646. NNN?. Nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey / TH.A.Aa?aoeeee,
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32. A.n. ? 1275641. NNN?. Nenoaia yeaeo?iieoaiey iaa?ocee /
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n.

33. A.n. ? 1515253. NNN?. Noaoe/aneee oe?enoi?iue eiiiainaoi? /
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34. A.n. ? 1614139. NNN?. Niinia oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey
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A.I. No?yiai, A.A. Oa?/aiei, A.E. Ae?iaei, A.I. Eo?eueei, A.I. Oaoa?ia.
— Iioae. 15.12.90, AE ? 46. — 3 n.

35. Iao. ? 2004042. ?inney. Iiaenoaioeey ia?aiaiiiai oiea / TH.A.
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— 4 n.

36. Iao. ? 2293. Oe?a?ia. Nenoaia ?aaoethaaiiy noaoe/iiai oe?enoi?iiai
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26.12.94, Athe. ? 5-1. — 6 n.

37. Iao. ? 2015602. ?inney. Nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey noaoe/aneiai
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38. Iao. ? 24018. Oe?a?ia. I?aenoaioe?y ci?iiiai no?oio / TH.I.
Aa?aoeueeee, A.A. AEo?a-o?anueeee, C.I. Aaoi?. — Iioae.31.08.98,
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39. A.n. ? 1091273. NNN?. ?aaoeyoi? noaoe/aneiai eiiiainaoi?a / TH.A.
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40. A.n. ? 1205039. NNN?. Auno?iaeaenoaothuee aeao/ee ninoaaeythueo
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41. A.n. ? 1385083. NNN?. Aeao/ee aeoeaiie ninoaaeythuae oiea /
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12. — 6 n.

42. A.n. ? 1559438. NNN?. Nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey aeoaiaie
noaeaiea-aeeueiie ia/e / TH.A.Eain, A.A.Aaiaiiae/, TH.A.Aa?aoeeee,
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43. A.n. ? 1649687. NNN?. Nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey aeoaiaie
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44. Iao. ? 17170A. Oe?a?ia. I?eno??e caoenoo o?ainoi?iaoi??a iai?oae
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46. Varetski J. Transient overvoltages on SVC equipment due to earth
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47. Varetski J., Bachor Z. On conditions of existing and suppressing
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48. Varetski J., Pastuh O. SVC control characteristics in network power
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49. Varetski J., Jurahovski A., Kens J., Ravlyk A. Influence of load
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50. Varetski J., Bachor Z. SVC for traction load supply network // Proc.
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51. Varetski J., Bachor Z., Ravlyk A. Subharmonic resonance in 35 kV
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52. Varetski J., Bachor Z., Ravlyk A. Transients in 10-35 kV electric
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53. Varetski J., Jurahovski A. Economic perfomances of dynamic VAR
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P.109-112.

54. Varetski J., Jurahovski A. Static thyristor compensator for mountain
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55. Varetski J., Segeda M. Short circuit currents solution for nonlinear
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58. Varetski J., Jurahovski A., Kens J. The design reguirements and
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59. Aa?aoeueeee TH.I., AEo?ao?anueeee A.A. Canoinoaaiiy noaoe/iiai
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Aa?aoeueeee TH.I. ?aaeeie aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae oa nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy
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?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.14.02 — aeaeo?e/i? noaioe??, ia?aae? ? nenoaie. —
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae oa nenoai aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy c? noaoe/ieie
oe?enoi?ieie eiiiainaoi?aie, ui i?ecia/ai? aeey aeeaeaiiy iiooaeieo
iaaaioaaeaiue i?iieneiaiai, n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeiai oa eiioiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeoooi iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo
ia?aae, cai?iiiiiaaii oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iia? niiniae ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy NOE, aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii oa iiyniaii aeaye?
i?ioeane, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aenieoaoaoe?ei? ?aaeeie oeeo ia?aae.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee aeai?o iaeaaeiaiiy NOE, ye? a?aoiaothoue ia?aiao?e
oeeo ?aaeei?a ? aeicaieythoue nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?nue
aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aae? a oe?eiio. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
ai?iaiaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo aenieoaoaoe?? oa i?iaeooaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?e/ia ia?aaea, noaoe/iee oe?enoi?iee eiiiainaoi?,
ye?noue aeaeo?iaia?a??, iaoeiia iiaeaethaaiiy, ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane.

Varetsky Y.O. Performances of electrical networks and power supply
systems with static thyristor compensators ( analysis methodology ). —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Science Doctor’s degree by specialty 05.14.02 — alectrical
plants, networks and systems. — State University «Lvivska Polytechnica»,
Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to problems of operation and investigation
of electrical networks which contain static thyristor compensators and
are used for electrical supply of high power industrial, rural and
public utility loads. The dissertation develops an investigation
technique of the networks. There are proposed new methods of static
thyristor compensators efficiency evaluations and theoretical
verification is made, there are firstly investigated and cleared some
processes, which take place in operation conditions of the networks.
There are proposed approaches to selecting the static thyristor
compensators equipment considering the operation condition measures. The
approaches allow to improve the whole network operation reliability
significantly. The basic results of the work have been commissioned into
operation and designing practice.

Key words: electrical network, static thyristor compensator, electric
power quality, computer aided modeling, transients.

Aa?aoeeee TH.A. ?aaeeiu yeaeo?e/aneeo naoae e nenoai yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey,
niaea?aeaueo noaoe/aneea oe?enoi?iua eiiiainaoi?u ( iaoiaeieiaey aiaeeca
). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.14.02 — yeaeo?e/aneea noaioeee, naoe e nenoaiu. —
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao «Eueaeanueea iieeoyoieea», Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e enneaaeiaaiey
yeaeo?e/aneeo naoae e nenoai yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey, niaea?aeaueo noaoe/aneea
oe?enoi?iua eiiiainaoi?u (NOE) e i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey
iiuiuo iaa?ocie i?iiuoeaiiiai, naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai e eiioiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey. A aeenna?oaoeee ?acaeoa iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaiey oaeeo
naoae, i?aaeeiaeaiu e oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiu iiaua niiniau ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey NOE, aia?aua enneaaeiaaiu e iauyniaiu iaeioi?ua
i?ioeannu, nii?iaiaeaeathuea yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ?aaeeiu oaeeo naoae.

I?iecaaaeai aiaeec iiuoa i?eiaiaiey NOE a yeaeo?e/aneeo naoyo e nenoaiao
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey n ?acee/iuie oeiaie iaa?ocie. Noi?ioee?iaaiu
o?aaiaaiey e neeiaui noaiai e nenoaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey NOE. Iieacaii, /oi
NOE aeieaeiu ?ac?aaaouaaoueny n o/aoii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee a
caaeneiinoe io oneiaee i?eiaiaiey.

Inouanoaeai aiaeec iniiaiuo oai?ee iiuiinoe e iiaeoiaeia e iienaieth
yia?aaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a iaeeiaeiuo o?aooaciuo yeaeo?e/aneeo oeaiyo
n oi/ee c?aiey aii?inia eiiiainaoeee. Ia iniiaa iaiauaiiiai iiaeoiaea
iieo/aiu o?aaiaiey eiiiainaoeee a ?acee/iuo eii?aeeiaoiuo aacenao. Yoi
iicaieyao noi?ioee?iaaoue aeai?eoiu ?aaoee?iaaiey noaoe/aneeo
eiiiainaoi?ia aeey ?acee/iuo naoae e o?aaiaaiee eiiiainaoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeu ioeaiee aeeyiey NOE ia eieaaaiey ?aaeoeaiie
iiuiinoe e iai?yaeaiey, o?iaaiue ia?aiaiiie ianeiiao?ee a nenoaia
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey ?anniio?aiiuo
aeai?eoiia ?aaoee?iaaiey NOE aeey iieo/aiey aeaeaoaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
?aaeeiia. Aiaeece?oaony aeeyiea oneiaee ?aaoee?iaaiey NOE a
yeaeo?e/aceie naoe ia o?iaaiue iioa?ue aeoeaiie iiuiinoe.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee auno?iaeaenoaothueo nenoai
?aaoee?iaaiey NOE. Ia iaoeiiie iiaeaee nenoaiu yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey
auno?ieciaiythuaeny ianeiiao?e/iie iaa?ocee, niaea?aeauae NOE,
enneaaeiaaiu ?acee/iua no?oeoo?u nenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey NOE e aeao/eee
ia?aiao?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iieo/aiu /anoioiua oa?aeoa?enoeee NOE aeey
yoeo neo/aaa, eioi?ua io?aaeatho yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeaaeaiey eieaaaiee
iai?yaeaiey a enneaaeoaiie nenoaia ia ?acee/iuo /anoioao eciaiaiey
iaa?ocee. I?aaeeiaeaiiua iiaeaee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
aaeaeaaoiie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey NOE caaeaiiiai oeia a
ethaie ?anniao?eaaaiie nenoaia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey n i?enouei ae
oa?aeoa?ii eciaiaiee iaa?ocee. A ioee/ee io oi?iuaiiuo ioeaiie oaeie
iiaeoiae iicaieyao o/anoue ana iniaaiiinoe NOE e eciaiaiee iaa?ocee. A
naith i/a?aaeue, /anoioiua oa?aeoa?enoeee NOE, iieo/aiiua ia oaeie
iiaeaee e aieaa oi/ii io?aaeathuea eae naienoaa eiie?aoiie noaiu oae e
iniaaiiinoe aa ?aaoeyoi?a, iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a i?iaeoiuo
ioeaieao yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey yoiai oeia NOE a caaeaiiie nenoaia
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey.

Iniaia ianoi i?e ?ac?aaioea noai NOE oaeaeyaony enneaaeiaaieth
ia?aiai?yaeaiee, aicaeaenoaothueo ia aai iai?oaeiaaiea a
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ?aaeeiao. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa iianiuo enoi/ieeia
aiaoieo ia?aiai?yaeaiee yaeythony iaeiioaciua caiueaiey ia caieth a
yeaeo?e/aneie naoe n eciee?iaaiiie iaeo?aeueth, i?eniaaeeiaiiie e iauei
n NOE oeiai iiaenoaioeee. A ?aaioa inouanoaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia
i?e caiueaieyo ia caieth ia iaoeiiie iiaeaee oeacaiiie yeaeo?e/aneie
naoe, niaea?aeauae NOE. Iieacaii aeeyiea ia?aiao?ia naoe, a oaeaea
ia?aiao?ia e eiino?oeoeee NOE ia o?iaaiue ia?aiai?yaeaiee ia oe?enoi?ao
e oeeueo?iauo ?aaeoi?ao i?e caiueaieyo ia caieth a naoe. A ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiee nicaeaiu oi?iuaiiua iiaeaee ioeaiee ia?aiai?yaeaiee ia
iai?oaeiaaiee NOE a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo i?eiaiaiey.

Inouanoaeaii enneaaeiaaiea noaaa?iiie/aneiai ?aciiaina, aicieeathuaai
i?e caiueaieyo ia caieth a yeaeo?e/aneie naoe n eciee?iaaiiie
iaeo?aeueth, e iieacaii aai aeeyiea ia ?aaeei ?aaiou NOE. Aeaiu
iauyniaiea oece/aneie ea?oeiu i?ioeanna e oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?aiao?ia
?aaeeia naoe a yoeo oneiaeyo, iicaieythuea eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue aai e
inouanoaeoue auiieiaiea niioaaonoaothuae caueou. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
ioeaiee oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey e nouanoaiaaiey noaaa?iiie/aneiai
?aciiaina.

Aaaeiui oneiaeai iaania/aiey aeeeoaeueiie e iaaeaaeiie yenieoaoaoeee NOE
a nenoaiao yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey ?acee/iiai iacia/aiey yaeyaony i?aaeeueiue
o/ao oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoiaeiuo i?ioeannia, aicieeathueo a ?aaeeiao
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ia?aeeth/aiee. E iei a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao
ioianoe aeeth/aiey/ioeeth/aiey o?ainoi?iaoi?ia a nenoaia
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey, oeeueo?iauo oeaiae NOE, iiuiuo aneio?iiiuo
aeaeaaoaeae. Ia ?ac?aaioaiiuo iaoeiiuo iiaeaeyo a ?aaioa inouanoaeaii
enneaaeiaaiea yoeo ?aaeeiia. Iieacaiu eo iniaaiiinoe eiaiii a nenoaiao
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey n NOE e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aoiaeiuo i?ioeannia. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeu auai?a
iai?oaeiaaiey NOE, o/eouaathuea ia?aiao?u yoeo ?aaeeiia e iicaieythuea
nouanoaaiii iiauneoue iaaeaaeiinoue yenieoaoaoeee naoe a oeaeii.
Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo yenieoaoaoeee e
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey caiaoaioiaaiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?e/aneay naoue, noaoe/aneee oe?enoi?iue
eiiiainaoi?, ea/anoai yeaeo?iyia?aee, iaoeiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea,
ia?aoiaeiua i?ioeannu.

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