?INOEOOO INEOIEIA?? ?I. A.N. EINOTHEA

AII OE?A?IE

N A A A E Ue ? A A Aaea??y Na?a??aia

OAeE 159.9: 37.015.3

INEOIEIAI-IAAeAAIA?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss IAAE*IE IENAIIIAI IIAEAIIss O
Ae?OAE NOA?OIAI AeIOE?EUeIIAI A?EO

19.00.07 — iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y ineoieia?? iaa/aiiy.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – *aiae?aa Iaoae?y Aanee?aia, aeieoi?
ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?. ?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII
Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – Ne?ei/aiei Ieaenaiae?
Aaneeueiae/,

aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

ineoieia??

– Iaiueeiaa Ieaia ?aai?aia, eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee. ?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, eaai?aoi??y ineoieia?? iniaenoino?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
A.Noaoaieea, I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ineoieia??, i.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 7 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 1300 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 01.48.01 a ?inoeooo? ineoieia?? ?iai?
A.N. Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe.
Iaiuee?anueea,2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ineoieia??
?iai? A.N. Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe.
Iaiuee?anueea, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 6 » eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeaen??aa I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe AeINE?AeAEAIIss. I?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy iiaeaii?aeo
cae?aiinoae ia aoai? ?aiiueiai iioiaaiaco aeeoeie aecia/a?oueny ?o
i?ia?aeiith ?ieeth ye a ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ooieoe?e, oae ? iniaenoino? a
oe?eiio (E.?.Aiaeiae/, E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.N.Einothe, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
I.?.E?n?ia, A.I.Ethae?inueea, A.A.Iao?ianueeee, I.? Aeaen??aa, A.I.Aaee,
N.Ae.Iaeneiaiei, I.A.*aiae?aa, Ne?ei/aiei I.A., Aeaieaeaiei A.E. oa ?i.
).

Na?aae aaaaoueio i?iaeai, ni?yiiaaieo ia oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
aeioe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, iaei??th c iaeneeaaei?oeo oa
aeooaeueieo ? ?icaeoie iiaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienueia.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienueia ? /eoaiiy neeaaea?oueny c nenoaie
ae?e, iia’ycaieo c ia?aeiaeoaaiiyi neooiaeo ia?ac?a caoe?a o ci?ia?
ia?ace aoea, ia?aeiaeoaaiiyi ci?iaeo aoea ? ne?a o nenoaio iine?aeiaieo
?oo?a ?oee, iaiao?aeieo aeey caieno, ? oaea ?ioa. Iniaeeaa i?noea a
cacia/ai?e nenoai? caeia? ?ooiaa noa?a. ?acii c oei aeai? aaaaoueio
aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i iaaeinoaoi?noue ?icaeoeo o ae?oae ci?iaeo,
neooiaeo, oaeoeeueii-e?ianoaoe/ieo a?ae/ooo?a (I.N.Aio, I.A.?iiie?oiaa,
?.I.Ianotheiaa, O.A.O?ee/aaa oa ?i.), ui nooo?ai iicia/a?oueny ia
i?ioean? ?o iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo, caeaoiino? aei canai?iiy
a?aeiia?aeieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie .

Iniaeeaino? iaieiae?iiy ae?oueie a?ao?/ieie iaae/eaie aeiaaathoue
ieeueii? oaaae aei i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioia/i? ?iaioe c ae?oueie
aeioe?eueiiai a?eo. ?yae iaaeaaia?a /E.E. Eociaoeiaa, E.A. Ai?aooeia,
E.I. Nieieiaa/ aaaaeathoue, ui oni?o o oeueiio ieai? caaacia/othoue
caiyooy c iaa/aiiy ae?oae a?aiioiino?. I?e oeueiio ia?aoeo?iaea oiiai o
a?aoaie iiaeiia i?ioiaeeoe ieoo?ai, ia a?aeaa?oath/e oaaae oiai, ooi
ieoa /60/. Oeueiai nooiaiy aaoiiaoecio a?ao?/i? iaae/ee aeinyaathoue ia
iae?aco, a ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno niaoe?aeueieo i noiooi?o ai?aa. I?e
oeueiio, ye a?aecia/athoue aeine?aeieee, ni?yiiaai?noue ?oo?a
ia?aaeie?//y, eeno?, iaeueoe?a ?oee i?ae /an ienueia iiaeiia aooe oaeith
ae, yeith aiia aoaa? i?e ienuei?: caa?oo aiec, o iaoee?, ce?aa iai?aai;
caeiaiiy i ?icaeiaiiy iaeueoe?a iiaeiii aooe oi/ii oaeei, ye i?e
ienuei?. Aei iiiaioo iciaeiieaiiy c ia?oith ?oeiieniith e?oa?ith an?
aeaiaioe ?yaeeiaeo e?oa? aoaeooue aaea canai?i? ae?oueie.

Aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a o aaeoc? iiae /A.I. Aiaoo, I.?. ?nai?ia, I.I.
AEeie?i, I.I. Eieueoeiaa, E.O. Ni??iaa oa ?io?/ aaaaeathoue, ui aeey
oni?oiiai iaa/aiiy ienueio iaiao?aeia aeia?a eii?aeeiaoe?y i?ae
iiaeaii?aeie /a?oeeoeyoe?eieie/ ?ooaie i ?ooaie ?oee i?ae /an ienueia.
Iaei?ino?oa ai?aaa, yea anoaiiaeth? oaeo eii?aeeiaoe?th, — e?/eeee. I?e
oeueiio eiaeiee ?eoi?/iee aeoeaio noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?ooaie ?oee. E??i
oeueiai, i?iiiiothoueny oae? ?ape oa ai?aae aeey ?icaeoeo ?oee e
ieii??o: ?a?e /aeeaeaeoe/i? oeio «Ciaeaee i/eia», iano?euei? «?eaia
eiaey», nii?oeai? «No??eueaa ii i?oai?»/; ai?aae /aeoe?aiiy a?ca?oieo,
yeee cia?aaeaiee naiith aeeoeiith ia aeiooe?; aeiiaeueiaoaaiiy /anoei
a?ca?oieo; a?ao?/iee aeeeoaio/ .

A/ai? aaaaeathoue, ui ?icaeoie ae??aii? iioi?eee iaeueoe?a ?oe iiceoeaii
aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie aeeoy/iai iiaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icaeoie oiieeo
?oo?a iaeueoe?a ?oe iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaieo cii ei?e
aieiaiiai iiceo. O niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? ia? i?noea iien ?yaeo
i?eeii?a aeey ?icaeoeo iioi?eee iaeueoe?a ?oe o ae?oae c ii?ooaiiyi iiae
/I.N. AEoeiaa, I.A. ?iiie?oiaa, I.N. Iaacia?, E. ?. ?inoyaaeeiaa oa
?io?/.

Aeaye? a/ai? /I. ?. Ica?aoeueeee, E. A. Ua?aaeiaa oa ?io?/ i?e aea/aii?
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy a?ao?/ieo iaae/ie ae?oae anoaiiaeee o?niee
aca?iica’ycie i?ae oeeie iaae/eaie i i?aeoe/ieie ae?yie, ye?
aeeiiothoueny ia o?ieao ?o/ii? i?aoe?. Oe? aeine?aee aeathoue i?aenoaao
?icaeyaeaoe caiyooy ?c ??cieo aeae?a ?o/ii? i?aoe? ye iaeei ?c niinia?a
i?aeaioiaee ?oee aeioeieyo aei iaieiae?iiy ienueiii o oeie?. Iaeiae
ia?ic?iaeaieie caeeoeeeny ieoaiiy iniaeeainoae aca?iiae?? ineo?/ieo
ooieoe?e o i?ioean? iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie aeioe?eueiiai a?eo.
Oea a naith /a?ao noa? ia caaaae? ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy,
ni?yiiaaii? ia i?aeaioiaeo aeioeieyo aei iaieiae?iiy ienaiiei iiaeaiiyi.

sse na?ae/eoue no/ania i?aeoeea, o?aaeeoe?eia nenoaia iaa/aiiy ienueio
ia caaacia/o? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a iaeaaeiei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino?
eae?a?ao??, iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy a aeioe?eueiiio a?oe? iaoiiaeth?oueny no/anieie
caaaeaiiyie ?icaoaeiae ina?oe ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao, noai?aiiy
iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey iaeiiai?oiai ?ice?eooy iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae
eiaeii? aeeoeie ye noa’?eoa aeanii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

OAIA AeINE?AeAEAIIss aoiaeeoue aei eiiieaenii? oaie eaai?aoi???
ineoieia?? iaa/aiiy ?inoeoooo ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie
“Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe ?icaeaath/iai iaa/aiiy a ??cieo ina?oi?o nenoaiao”
(? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01964006951).

IA’AEO AeINE?AeAEAIIss — i?ioean iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo o noa?oeo
aeioeieyo.

I?AAeIAO AeINE?AeAEAIIss — ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae e iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo iaae/ie ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy.

IAOA AeINE?AeAEAIIss iieyaaea o aecia/aii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia,
ci?noo e i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia iioei?caoe?th i?ioeano
iaieiae?iiy noa?oeie aeioeieyoaie iaae/eaie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy

A?IIOACA AeINE?AeAEAIIss: iioei?caoe?y iaa/aiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia
oi?ioaaiiy o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo iaae/ie ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy, caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, ui ni?ey? ?ioaa?aoe??
ineo?/ieo ooieoe?e (iiaeaii?ai?ooiaeo, iiaeaii?aineooiaeo, ci?iaeo,
?ooiaeo), ui neeaaeathoue iaoai?ci ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ia?aa??ee a?iioace
aoee iinoaaeai? oae? CAAAeAIIss:

1.Aecia/eoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ae?oae
noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo a oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy.

2.?ic?iaeoe nenoaio ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a ??aiy ?icaeoeo
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy.

3. Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o
i?ioean? iaieiae?iiy noa?oeie aeioeieyoaie a?ao?/ieie oi?iiyie ?
iaae/eaie.

4.?ic?iaeoe e ai?iaoaaoe iaoiaee oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
iiaeaiith ca oiia niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy.

5.?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy noa?oeo aeioeieyo ienaiiiio iiaeaiith.

IAOIAeIEIA?*IO INIIAO AeINE?AeAEAIIss NEEAEE:

— caaaeueii-oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie,
i?i ia?ic?eaiee aca?iica’ycie ieneaiiy ? iiaeaiiy, iiaeeeaino? aeeoeie a
canai?ii? iiaiiai iaoa??aeo;

— iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?a ? iiaiciaaoe?a, iaaeaaia?a ? iaoiaeeno?a i?i
iiao, iiaeaiiy, iniiai? iai?yiee ? iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee aei ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy, ?aea? i??i?eoaoii? ?ie? iiae ye aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino?.

IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss — oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio (eiinoaooth/ee oa oi?ioth/ee), a
oaeiae iecea ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiae?a, aiae?c i?iaeoeo?a
ae?yeueiino?, aan?aea, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy. A aeine?aeaeaii?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?eeiie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aecia/aii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaiiy oa
ienueia, o c’ynoaaii? e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo iieaciee?a ??aiy ?icaeoeo
iiae oa ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy noa?oeo aeioeieyo, a oaeiae o ?ic?iaoe?
i?ia?aie iaa/aiiy, yea ii?aeio? ?icaeoie i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o
ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo.

OAI?AOE*IA CIA*AIIss aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?icoe?aii? oyaeaiue i?i
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo iiae oa ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy noa?oeo aeioeieyo, o iaoeiaiio ia??oiooaaii? iaoiae?a ?
i?eeii?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy oiiaiaoe/iiai ni?eeiyooy,
?icaeoie ae??aii? iioi?eee oa ci?iaiai eii?aeeioaaiiy.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss AeINE?AeAEAIIss iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie
iaa/aiiy ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui ni?eythoue iioei?caoe??
?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeeoeie ?, ye iane?aeie, i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy
?? aioiaiino? aei iaa/aiiy ienueio.

IAAe?EI?NOUe ? A??IA?AeI?NOUe ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/oaaeeny iaoiaeieia?/iei ia??oiooaaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue o
ae??oaii? caaaeaiue aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno
iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? ? caaaeaiiyi, ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth
aea??ee, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?co io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, noaoenoe/iith ioe?ieith aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Ia?iaea
? iaa?? aeaieo cae?eniai? o oaenoiaiio ?aaeaeoi?? Microsoft Word 8.0
aeey Windows 95.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? IIEIAEAIIss:

— ?icaeoie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? iaeii/ania canoinoaaiiy
naini-iioi?ieo ooieoe?e aeeoeie oa ?ioaa?aoe?th oaeeo ineo?/ieo ooieoe?e
(iiaeaii?ai?ooiaeo, iiaeaii?aineooiaeo, ci?iaeo, e?ianoaoe/ieo) o
i?ioean? niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy;

— i?ia?aeiith ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iith oiiaith oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?y ?icaeaath/iai iaa/aiiy, ui aeeth/a?
noai?aiiy ?a?iaeo ? i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?e, ?icaeoie ? oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue oa ?i.;

— oi?ioaaiiy o aeioe?eueiee?a iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith ?o aioiaiino? aei oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy.

AI?IAAAeAEAIIss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIIss cae?enithaaeiny o aeeoy/eo
naaeeao ? 1, 4, 35, 10, 29 i?noa Ae?oaee?aee o i?aeaioia/eo iiaeaii?aeo
a?oiao, aeeoy/iio eiiieaen? «Iaae?eea» i.E?aiaoi?nuee. ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo i?nueeiai a?aeae?eo ina?oe,
cai?iiiiiaai? ia oaeoeueoaoao ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a EAA?, ye iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee aeey a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a oa aeoiaaoaeae aeeoy/eo caeeaae?a.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Eoeueoo?a: ina?oa: i?iaeaie, iiooee, oai?/? ciao?aeee»
(A?ii?oey, 1995?.), «O?aaeeoe?? aeoiaaiiy o na?oia?e ia?iaei?e
iaaeaaia?oe?» (??aia, 1995?.), «Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee,
iiooee, i?iaeaie» (*a?i?aoe?, 1996?.). Iaoa??aee aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino? a/eoaeue-aeoiaaoaey»
(AEeoiie?, 1995?.), ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??
E?aiaoi?nueeiai aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo.

INIAENOEE AIANIE AAOI?A. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeai?
naiino?eii. I?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? naiino?eii ? a ni?aaaoi?noa?
noinothoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy ienueia oa /eoaiiy
o aeioe?eueiee?a.

IOAE?EAOe??. I?iaeaie ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeai? a 7 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo.

NO?OEOO?A E IANssA ?IAIOE.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (243), aeiaeaoea; ci?no ?iaioe
aeeeaaeaiee ia 141 noi??ieao. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiaii o 17
oaaeeoeyo, 1 noai?, 1 ae?aa?ai?, 7 ?enoieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??.

O «ANOOI?» iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao
? iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioaco ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoa iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?iaioe, aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:
aeaco?oueny noa?a ai?iaaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? «Aoceia? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
ienueia oa ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ia aeioe?eueiiio aoai? iioiaaiaco»
iiaea?oueny iaeyae i?iaeaie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeeoeie, aiae?cothoueny
oaeoi?e, ui iaoiiaeththoue iiaeaii?aee ?icaeoie noa?oeo aeioeieyo,
aiae?co?oueny no/aniee noai i?iaeaie.

I?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeyaee ia i?iaeaio ?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo ss.A. Eiiainueeiai, E.Ae. Ooeinueeiai, A.I.
Nooiieeinueeiai, ss.A.Aeaionueeiai, N.E.?oa?iooaeia, I.?.Eo??y,
I.I.Eaiioue?aa, I.I.Eaiioue?aa, A.N.Einothea, ?.I.Neieoe? oa ?ioeo,
?icaeyiooi aianie o/aieo o oai??th oa i?aeoeeo iaa/aiiy ienaiiiio
iiaeaiith.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c eiea e?oa?aoo?e, ui noino?oueny ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui oey i?iaeaia i?eaa?oaea oaaao
oao?aoe?a ??cieo iai?yie?a, ye? aenoaaee /eiaei aeoiie ? i?iiiceoe?e.
?acii c oei ia iiaeia ia iii?oeoe iaaio iaeiia?/i?noue aeine?aeieoeueei?
aeoiee, ui iieyaa? a aeii?ioth/?e oaac? aei caaaeueii – oai?aoe/ieo
ieoaiue iiae ? iiaeaiiy, aca?iica’yceo iiaeaiiy c ieneaiiyi,
eeaneo?eaoe?? iiaeaiiy oa oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai aeae?a. I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeioeieyo o iaaeaaia?oe? oa ineoieia?? ?ic?iaeaia ua
iaaeinoaoiuei.

?noi??y ?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeeth/a? ?yae neeaaeieo aoai?a, ye?
iathoue ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ye a iiaeaii?aiio, oae ? a ineo?/iiio
?icaeoeo aeeoeie.

Aea/aiiy ia?aae?noi??? ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ?icii/eia?oueny c e?eeo
iiaiia?iaeaeaiiai. A?aeiii, ui e?ee ye i?aena?aeiia a?ieia?/ia ?aaeoe?y
ia ? caniaii eiioi?eaoe?? aeey aeeoeie. I?ioa a?i a?ae?a?a? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?? iiaii-a?oeeoeyoe?eiiai aia?aoo, aac /iai
iaiiaeeeaee iiaeaeueoee iiaeaii?aee ?icaeoie ethaeeie.

O?c?ieia?/iith iniiaith oeeo aeinyaiaiue ? aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy
iaiao?aeieo aeey ienueia neooiaeo, ci?iaeo oa e?ianoaoe/ieo
iiae?aciee?a, eiioeaio?aoe?y caoaeaeaiiy oa aaeueioaaiiy o a?aeiia?aeieo
oe?eyo ?ooiai? ciie ei?e, o??aiiaaaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy oa aaeueioaaiiy i?e
cia?aaeaii? iaei?ino?oeo oi?i ? ?o c’?aeiaiue oa ooai?aiiy aaeeeiai
/enea oei/aniaeo ca’yce?a.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e oe? aeinyaiaiiy c ineoieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, iiaeia
neacaoe, ui aeeoeia iiaiiao? o aeioe?eueiee ia??iae ai?iiy noaaeoe
ia?aae niaith aeaiaioa?i? a?ao?/i? caaaeaiiy, iaa/a?oueny eiio?iethaaoe
i?ioean ?o ??oaiiy e, aeinyaath/e oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy ?o, iaieiae?aa?
ai?iiyi oi?aaeyoe ia o?eueee nai?ie ?ooaie, aea e nai?th oaaaith. ?iaeoa
eaaeo/e, a?ae ?aoeaeoi?ieo ?oo?a ia iniia? iane?aeoaaiiy aeeoeia
ia?aoiaeeoue aei na?aeiieo oe?eani?yiiaaieo ae?e.

Iica noii?ao, ui i?ioean iaa/aiiy a?ao?/iei iaae/eai ienueia o oeie? ?
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iaaeoi neeaaeiiai e ??ciia?/iiai o?c?ieia?/iiai,
ineoieia?/iiai oa iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, yeee ii/eia?oueny oaea c
?aiiueiai aeeoeinoaa. sseeie a ne?iiieie ia aoee a?ao?/i? aeinyaiaiiy
aeioeieyo c oi/ee ci?o aei?ineiai, aeey aeeoeie aiie iathoue aaeeea
ina?oi? oa aeoiaia cia/aiiy.

Iaaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c i?ioeano ?icaeoeo a?ao?/ieo oi?iue ia
aeioe?eueiiio aoai? iioiaaiaco aea? i?aenoaae i?eionoeoe, ui
a?aei?iiino? a oni?oiino? aeeiiaiiy ia?oeo a?ao?/ieo ai?aa o oeie?
iaoiiaeththoueny ia?aaeon?i ??cieoeath a ciai?oi?o oiiaao ?icaeoeo
aeeoeie – iayai?noth aai a?aenooi?noth i?eeeaaeo noa?oeo, a?aei?iiinoyie
a iaoa??aeueieo caniaao oa oiiaao, ni?eyoeeaeo aeey aeei?enoaiiy
aeeoeiith ??ciiiai?oieo a?ao?/ieo ai?aa, ??ciei noaaeaiiyi noa?oeo aei
?acoeueoao?a ai?aa.

?noi??y ?icaeoeo aeania ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ii/eia?oueny c canai?iiy
aeeoeiith ia?oeo ciae?a, aeinooiieo iai/iiio ni?eeiaiith.

Oaeeie ciaeaie ? aeanoe. Ia aeoieo E.N. Aeaionueeiai, aeano ? ienueiii o
iia?o??, a ienueiiaee ciae — cae??ieaiei aeanoii. Ca’ycie aeanoo c
ienaiiei iiaeaiiyi aeiaiaeeoueny ia iniia? iaethaaiiy oa a?e ae?oae.

?icaeoie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy ?aea a?ae iaethaaiiy ?a/ae oa «iaethaaiiy»
iiaeaiiy. ?noioi? ci?ie a ?icaeoeo iiaeaiiy aeeoeie a?aeaoaathoueny a
oe?eueiiio a?oe?. Iaa/aiiy o oeie? ii?iaeaeo? iiao iio?aao a iaieiae?ii?
iiaeaiiyi, aiii noa? iniiaith eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith ?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeeoeie ?
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaii?ai? noa?e caaaeii, a oaeiae ii?aeiaiiy
i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a a iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? aeeoeie.
Iniaeeaino? ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy, ?noi??y eiai ?icaeoeo aeathoue i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oeae aeae iiaeaiiy ? aeuei ??aiai iiaeaii?aiai
?icaeoeo ethaeeie, iieacieeii ?? ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo.

Ae?OAEE ?ICAe?E «Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? o
noa?oeo aeioeieyo iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy» i?enay/aii ?acoeueoaoai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoeoe?
iniiaieo eiai aoai?a.

I?ioeaaeo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeaeany c o?ueio aoai?a.

Iaoa ia?oiai aoaio — aeyaeoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy noa?oeo aeioeieyo, a oaeiae iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ?o canai?iiy a
oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy o aeioe?eueiiio caeeaae?. Aeey
cacia/aii? iaoe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ??ci? iaoiaee ? i?eeiie.

Ia ?? aoai? iaoa iieyaaea a ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaoe?? iniiaieo i?ioean?a
oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienueia.

Ia ??? aoai? i?iaiaeeany aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, neeaaeaeany i?ia?aia
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany oi?iaeiaae 1993-1997 ??. o
aeioe?eueieo caeeaaeao ? 2, 28, 35 i?noa Ae?oaee?aee o i?aeaioia/eo oa
noa?oeo a?oiao.

Aenia?eiaioii aoei ioiieaii 8 a?oi aeioeieyo (160 ae?oae 5 oa 6 ?ieo
aeeooy) ii 4 noa?oeo oa i?aeaioia/eo a?oi ia eiinoaooth/iio aoai? oa
aeioeieyo (160 ae?oae 5 oa 6 ?ieo aeeooy) a oi?ioth/iio aenia?eiaio?.
Caaaeueiee ianya ae?oae eiinoaooth/iai oa oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaio?a —
320 in?a. Aea?? a?eiaeo a?oi cae?enithaaany o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
aeine?aeaeaiiyie E.N. Aeaionueeiai, I.A. Caii?iaeoey oa O.N. Eiia?iai?.
Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai? aenia?eiaioaeueia oa eiio?ieueia
a?oia ae?oae, a yeeo o ??ai?e i??? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny an? niiniae
i?aeaioiaee ae?oae aei ienueia, a oaeiae i?ine?aeaeoaaany aca?iica’ycie
ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe ? iiaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeenue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino? oa ?ioa?ane ae?oae.

Caaea/? eiinoaooth/iai aoaio iieyaaee a:

Aecia/aii? aeo?aeiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe ? iiaeaiiy o
ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo.

Anoaiiaeaii? oa?aeoa?o e iniaeeainoae i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o
ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo.

C’ynoaaii? caeaaeiino? i?ae ia?aa?aii i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ?ioaa?aoeaieo
i?ioean?a ? iniaeeainoyie iaieiae?iiy iiaeaiiyi.

Caeaaeii a?ae iaoe, caaaeaiiy, ci?noo ia?ai? a?aeiia?aei? iaoiaee
aea/aiiy: ?ioi?iaoeaiee, ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee, ?ica?aeoaaeueiee, ?a?iaee
oiui.

Iaoiaee/iith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy ?ooiaeo ia?aaeoiia ienueia ia?ai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?.A. Oea??ii?: ia?aci?noue, iine?aeiai?noue, ?a?iaee
oa?aeoa? ai?aa; O.N. Eiia?iai?: i?aai?caoe?y i???ioiaii –
aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy ?aeiino? ci?iai? oa
iioi?ii? eii?aeeiaoe??, ?aaoeyoe?y a?ao?/ieo ?oo?a /a?ac iioi?i?
a?ae/oooy, aiae?c ?ooiai? iiaaae?iee, ?i?oaoe?y, iiaoi?aiiy neiaanii?
?ino?oeoe??; I.ss. Aaeueia??ia ? I.N. Iaio?ii?: iiaoaii?noue o ?icaeoeo
i???ioiaaieo ae?e iaethea, a oaeiae iaaee/ii – i?io?eaeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? A.O. Aaca?iiai: ia??iaee/ia ia?aeeth/aiiy aeecueeiai ci?o
ia aeenoaioiee, aianaiiy naini?iiai ??ciiiai?ooy oa ?eoi?/ii?
ci?iai-?ooeeai? aeoeaiino? ia ??ai? oe?e?niiai i?aai?cio, a oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee aea/aiiy noaio oniiai iiaeaiiy – A.?.
Nae?aa?noiaa, I.O. Iinotheiai? oa ?i.

I?e canoinoaaii? iaoiaeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai eaai?aoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo
a?aoiaoaaeany iaiao?aei?noue ia?aianaiiy oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ae?iaeaieo ia
iaeiiio iaoa??ae?, ia ?io? neooaoe?? iiaeaiiy. Aoaeoeai?noue iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a cia/i?e i??? aecia/eeanue ? oei, ye naia aeeoeia aa?a
o/anoue a aenia?eiaio?, yea ?e i?e oeueiio a?aeaaaeaia ?ieue, yeee
nooi?iue ?? ?i?oe?aoeaiino? a oeueiio i?ioean?. Aenia?eiaioaoi?
ni?yiiao? ineoieiai – iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean oae, uia ae?oe ana aeoeai?oa
a?aee o/anoue o eiioi?eaoeaieo iia?aoe?yo.

I?e i?aai?caoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ea?oaaeeny oaeeie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie:

caaaeaiiy ia iiaeii? aoee o?eaaeeie a /an?;

aiie iiaeii? i?iaiaeeoeny a iani?oiiio oaii?, uia aeeoeia iaea
iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe caaaeaiiy, na?aeiii aei?aaeoe iiaeeeao iiieeeo;

caaaeaiiy iiaeiia aooe oe?eaaei, caoiiethaaoe aeeoeio, oiio a iiaeaii?
iiaeiai aooe i?enooi?i aeaiaio ciaaaiiy, iaai?iaee ca oni?oia aeeiiaiiy,
yne?aaa e aeioaiia ioi?ieaiiy;

caaaeaiiy, ai?aae iiaeooue aooe /anoeiith caaaeueiiiaa/aeueiiai caiyooy,
i?iaiaeeoeny a iaeei ?c ?aaeeiieo iiiaio?a (ia i?iaoeyioe?, i?ae /an
a?aeii/eieo oiui);

o i?aenoieia? aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue aenia?eiaioaoi? iaia’yceiai caioi/o?
an?o ae?oae, a?aecia/a? iaee?aueo ? ia?oey? ianooiiiai ?aco iiaee
aa??aio a?e aai cian?i iiao a?o.

Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany o aeaa aoaie:

Ia ia?oiio aoai? a oiae? eaai?aoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo aea/aany ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie iiaeaiiy ? ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo aea/aany oa?aeoa? i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo
ca’yce?a.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ae?oae aeaiiai a?eo a ia?aeiaeoaaii?
?ioi?iaoe??, ni?eeiyoi? ia neoo, o na??? iaeiicia/ieo ?ooiaeo aeo?a
/?ooiaa a?aeoai?aiiy ?eoi?/ieo no?oeoo?/ aeei?enoiaoaaeany iiaeeo?eiaaia
iaoiaeeea A.?.Eo??y /1947/ aeey aea/aiiy neooiiioi?ieo eii?aeeiaoe?e.
Nooue iiaeeo?eaoe?? iieyaaea a oaeiio ia?aoai?aii? caaaeaiue, yea
aeicaieyei a aiae?coaaoe ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiy ia eeoa c ye?niiai, aea ?
c e?euee?niiai aieo. Eiaeia ?eoi?/ia no?oeoo?a neeaaeaeany c naaiaio?a —
“ia/ie”, ye? ??cieeeny e?euee?noth ia’?aeiaieo o ieo neaiae?a /. …/..
. …/ oiui.

Nooi?noue aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoiaeeee iieyaaea, cie?aia, a oae?e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeioeieyo, yea
noai?thaaea ni?eyoeeaee a?oio aeey oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?icaeaath/iai
iaa/aiiy, a niiioeaii? ae?oae aei naiino?eiiai iaea?aeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
ciaiue ? oi?iue.

Aoei ?aae?ciaaii ?yae iaoiaeee c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o noa?oeo
aeioeieyo. I?ia?aeiith iaoiaeeeith noaee aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy Eo???, ye? nie?aeeny ia aeeiiaiiy i?ia c
i?aeaiae?caoi?ii? aca?iiae??.

Ia iniia? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeae?eaii i’youe iiaeaii?aeo ??ai?a
noa?oeo aeioeieyo: aenieee, aeuana?aaeiueiai, na?aaei?e,
ieae/ana?aaeiueiai, iecueeee.

O ae?oae c aenieeie ??aiyie iaia ii?ooaiue o oiiaiaoe/i?e aoaeia? iiae,
iiaeaiiy i?aaeeueia, /?oea. ?oea ?icaeiaia aeia?a: aeeoeia aiaaiaii
aieiae?? ie?aoeai, iiaeeoeyie. Aeia?a i???ioo?oueny a i?inoi??,
eii?aeeio? ?ooe, aeaaaa ? ni?eoia. Iaethe iiaea i?aaeeueii ia?aianoe aei
cioeoa iaei?ino?oee a?ao?/iee ia?ac (o?ao?o, oci?), ui ni?eeia?oueny
ci?iai ia a?aenoai? (c eeanii? aeioee).

Ae?oe c ??aiai aeuana?aaeiueiai ?iaeyoue iacia/i? iiieeee i?e ia?aa??oe?
oiiaiaoe/iiai neooo. ?ieiee niinoa??aa?oueny iaaei?icaeiai?noue ae??aii?
ioneoeaoo?e iaeueoe?a ia caiyooyo c iaethaaiiy aai aie?eaoe??.

Ae?oe c na?aaei?ie ??aiyie ?iaeyoue iiieeee o oiiaiaoe/i?e aoaeia?
iiae, a?aei?/athoueny ie?ai? iciaee iaaei?icaeiaiiy i???ioaoe?? a
i?inoi??, eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a, iaaeinoaoiuei ni?eoi?.

O ae?oae ieae/ana?aaeiueiai ??aiy noi?iiaai? iiiyooy caoeiaee aiae?c oa
caoeiaee neioac, aea i?aeoe/ii ae?oe a?ae/oaathoue o?oaeiiu? i?e
aeae?eaii? ie?aieo caoe?a. Ae??aia iioi?eea ?oe iaaeinoaoiuei ?icaeiaia,
ui aeyaey?oueny o iaieiae?iino?, iaaeio?eioaaii? e?i?e i?e ae??caii?
o?ao?ie aai caoo?eoiaoaaii? ?o ie?aoeai. A?eueo-iaio i?aaeeueii
i???ioothoueny i?e aecia/aii? aaiiao?e/ieo o?ao?, aea o?aieythoueny
iiieeee i?e aecia/aii? oaeeo i?inoi?iaeo iiiyoue, ye i?aai?o/-e?ai?o/.

Aei iecueeiai ??aiy iaeaaeaoue ae?oe c iaaei?icaeiaiei iiaeaiiyi
(iaiao?aeiee aeiaeyae eiaiiaaea), ?oee ?icaeiai? neaai: ie?aoeai,
iiaeeoeyie i?aoeththoue neaai. I???ioaoe?y a i?inoi??, eii?aeeiaoe?y
?oo?a ?icaeioo? neaai, iaethee iaca?aai?, iaei?ooeea?. I?e ia?aianaii?
a?ao?/iiai ia?aco, ui ni?eeia?oueny ci?iai ia a?aenoai?, aeiioneathoueny
a?oa? ia?ae?o/oaaiiy. Ianya ci?iaiai ni?eeiaiiy iaaaaaoi ieae/a
na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a?eiai? a?oie.

Oaeei /eiii, noi?iiaai?noue iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy o noa?oeo
aeioeieyo ? aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith ?icaeoeo ? aioiaiino? aei
oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy.

Iniiaieie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo iiae oa oi?ioaaiiy
iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo ?:

nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie aeioe?eueiiai a?eo —
oea iaieiae?iiy ii?iaie ? i?aaeeaie ??aeii? iiae, ye? aecia/athoueny
aeey eiaeiiai a?eiaiai aoaio;

iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeoiaaoaey;

aieiae?iiy aeoiaaoaeai iniiaaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue,
a?aooaaiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae aeeoeie;

oe?eani?yiiaaia iaa/aiiy iiaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy;

caeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei aeoeaii? iiaeaii?ai? ?iaioe;

noeioethaaiiy aeeoeie aei naiino?eieo niinoa?aaeaiue iaae iiaith, aei
naii?icaeoeo ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy.

I?aenoieiaee aiae?c aeaieo aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

Iaeiei ?c iaaeie?e?a ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ae?oae ianoaaeaieo eaoaai??e
? a?aeoeeaiiy o cae?eniaii? i?ioean?a ?ioaa?aoe?? ??ciiiiaeaeueii?
ia?oeaioeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaaeinoaoi?noue i?ioean?a ?ioaa?aoe?? iiaeia iiynieoe ?acoeueoaoii
ia?aeiii? /oei/aniai?/ iaaei?icaeiaiino? i?aenaini?ieo ca’yce?a.

Iaea?eueo ae?acii iaaeinoaoi?noue i?aenaini?ii? aca?iiae??
eiinoaoo?oueny i?ae /an naiino?eiiai a?aeoai?aiiy iine?aeiaieo ?yae?a
?eoi?/ieo no?oeoo?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?o/ c oeei a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia oaeineiiaeaiiy
?ioaa?aoeaieo ia?oeaioeaieo i?ioean?a.

C iaoith io?eiaiiy a?eueo iiaeeaeaii? ea?oeie ia oeueiio aoai?
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c’yniaoaaeiny eiei ieoaiue uiaei
iiaeeeaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeo?a iaaeinoaoiino? i?aeiiaeaeueiiai
?ioaa?oaaiiy ia?oeaioeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c i?iyaaie o?oaeiiu?a i?e
canai?ii? iaae/ie ienueia.

Aeyaeaia e?euee?nia ? ye?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaeie?e?a ienueia ia aoea
iaeii??aeiith. C iaoith aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? o an?o oeeo ae?oae aoei
i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy noaio noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie caoeiaiai aiae?co,
ine?eueee noi?iiaai?noue caoeiaiai aiae?co ? aaaeeeaei iieacieeii
aioiaiino? aei iaa/aiiy a?aiioe. Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iiaeeeaino? ae?oae
aei aiae?co caoeiaiai ? caoei — aoeaaiiai neeaaeo ne?a ? ?a/aiue,
i?aaenoaaeaieo a oniiio aa??aio?.

sse ? ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ae?oe caciaaaee iaea?eueoeo o?oaeiiu?a i?e
aeeiiaii? an?o caaaeaiue aeaii? na???, i?i ui na?ae/aoue iaaenie?
iieacieee, aeeiiaiiy i?ia, iiaeai? o oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey ? 1.

Na?aaei? iieacieee aeeiiaiiy i?ia ia i?aeaiae?caoi?i? aca?iiae?? (a %)

A?oia

aeine?ae-aeoaaieo Neooi-iioi?i? eii?aeeiaoe?? I?inoi?iaa eii?aeeio-aaiiy
A?ao?/ia caiaeueiaea ?eoi?/ieo no?oeoo? Aenooeoaaiiy ?eoi?/ieo no?oeoo?
ca a?ao?/iei c?aceii

Eiio?ieueia 20 40 40 30

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? — «I?eioeeie e i?aai?caoe?y i?ioeaaeo?e
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo» — iienaii aenia?eiaioaeueio iaoiaeeeo
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? noa?oeo aeioeieyo, iiaeaii aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy ca aenia?eiaioaeueiith i?ia?aiith.

C? neiaii ye iniiaiith cia/ouith iaeeieoeath iiaeaiiy noa?o?
aeioeieyoa iathoue ni?aao c ia?oeo aei?a iaa/aiiy o aeioe?eueiiio
caeeaae?.

Naia a neia? iiiyooy iaea?aeo? iaiao?aeio aeey ni?eeoaaiiy
iaoa??aeueio iaieiieo. Cia/aiiy neiaa, yea iicia/a? iiiyooy,
oiiaeeeaeth? iia?oaaiiy oeei iiiyooyi, ieneaiiy iei. Iiiyo?eia ieneaiiy
?icii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny naia o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo,
?icaeaath/enue oa oaeineiiaethth/enue i?ioyaii onueiai aeeooy ethaeeie.

Ci?noiaio aaco iaa/aeueiiai aenia?eiaioo neeaee “Oeiiaa i?ia?aia a
aeeoy/iio naaeeo”, i?ia?aia “Aeeoeia a aeioe?euei? ?iee” /ea??aieoeoai
aeey aeoiaaoae?a aeeoy/eo naaee?a oa aaouee?a/.

A aenia?eiaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee ? oi?ie ?iaioe:

caiyooy /o?iioaeuei?, i?aea?oiia?/;

?a?e;

?iaeea?aeoaeueia ?iaioa;

?a?ia? ai?aae, caaaeaiiy;

?iaioa c aaoueeaie.

Iaoa ?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie iieyaaea a oi?ioaaii? o ae?oae
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie:

Ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe.

Neooiaiai ni?eeiyooy.

Iioeei — i?inoi?iaeo oyaeaiue.

Aiinoe/ieo ooieoe?e.

Oiiaiaoe/iiai ni?eeiaiiy.

Caiyooy c oi?ioaaiiy neooiaiai ? oiiaiaoe/iiai ni?eeiyooy, iioeei —
i?inoi?iaeo caeaoiinoae i?iaiaeeeeny o?e/? ia oeaeaeaiue, a ?iaioa c
?icaeoeo ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe ? i?aeaioiaee ?oee aeeoeie aei ienueia
aaeany uiaeiy, oiaoi i’youe ?ac?a ia oeaeaeaiue. Caiyooy /a?aoaaeeny
i?ae niaith, ia eiaeai aeae caiyoue aoea aeae?eaia iaeiaeiaa e?euee?noue
/ano.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?ia iieacaa, ui i?ae
ae?oueie eiio?ieueii? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi ?niothoue nooo?a?
a?aei?iiino?.

Ana aeuaneacaia aeicaieeei iai c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aea/aiiy
iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ioean?a i?aeaiae?caoi?ii? ?ioaa?aoe??
neooiai? oa ci?iai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ia oe?e iniia? iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy o ae?oae aeioe?eueiiai a?eo iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye iniiao aeey niaoe?aeueii? iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie a
aeioe?eueieo caeeaaeao.

O ae?oae a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a noi?iiaai?
iaae/ee o?eiaiiy ie?aoey, ?o/ee. Iaae/ee iaethaaiiy e?i?e —
ai?eciioaeueieo, oiieeo, oianoeo — aoee canai?i? ae?oueie aeia?a, aea
iaaeinoaoiuei i?oeii /70%/. Oe? ae?oe aeia?eueii iiaee ?aaoethaaoe neeo
iaoeneoaaiiy ie?aoey, ?o/ee. Aiae?coth/e ?iaioe ae?oae, aoei
eiinoaoiaaii, ui iaae/ee i?eieiaiiy ?ooo a iio??ai?e i?noe? canai?ii
iai?oeii, aeai? iaae/ee ciaoiaeyoueny a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy /50%/, ui
ae noino?oueny ae?oae eiio?ieueii? a?oie, oi o ieo oe? iaae/ee iaeaea ia
noi?iiaai?, eeoa o 30% aeai? iaae/ee ciaoiaeyoueny a i?ioean?
noaiiaeaiiy. O ae?oae a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao aeyaeaii aeinoaoi?
canai?iiy iaae/ie ci?ie ?ooo i?ae eooii: a eiio?ieueieo a?oiao aeai?
iaae/ee canai?i? eeoa iaiieiaeio; ae?oe a oeeo a?oiao ia iiaeooue
i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe ?oo ni?ai??iino? a?ae??ce?a ca aeiaaeeiith
/i?yiieooiee, eaaae?ao/; ae?oe iaeththoue iaeaiuee? oaoeiee ?
iai?iii?oe?eii aaeee? a?eia, aeaa??; aai ae aieiaa o ni?aiai? aaae
a?eueoa ca ooeoa, aoaeceee a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ici??ai aieiae. On? ae?oe a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao ni?aa?aeiinyoue a?ae??cee ca aeiaaeeiith.

O ae?oae a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao ?aaoethaaiiy ?ooo o a?aeiia?aeiino?
aei caaaeaiue cia?aaeaiiy ?icaeiaii aeineoue aeia?a /80%/. O ae?oae a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao a?i ?icaeiaiee e?aua, oi/a ? ciaoiaeeoueny ia
iaaeinoaoiueiio ??ai? /57%/. Ui ae noino?oueny oaeeo caaaeaiue, ye
“Ii/a?aiaa a?aeaeiaiiy iaeueoe?a”, “C?iae a?aoe”, “Oio?oaaiiy” oiui, oi
?acoeueoaoe ooo aiaeia?/i?. Noi?iiaai?noue iaae/ie oio?oaaiiy e oi?iiy
canoaaiooe ?oaeceee o ae?oae a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao noaiiaeee 90%,
a a eiio?ieueieo — eeoa 70%.

Na?aae ianoaaeaieo ae?oae aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi aeyaeaii oanoa?i
ae?oae c ae?aaeaieie oneeaaeiaiiyie o neooiaiio aiae?c? caoeiaeo
?eoi?/ieo no?oeoo?. I?e?iaeii aoei i/?eoaaoe o oeeo ae?oae i?iyao
o?oaeiiu?a o cae?eniaii? i?ioean?a i?aeaiae?caoi?ii? aca?iiae?? o
i?iaao, ye? aeeth/aee neooiao aoa?aioaoe?th. Iaeiae aiae?c aeicaieea
anoaiiaeoe a?aei?iiino? a ?ioaa?aoe?? ??ciiiiaeaeueii? ia?oeaioeaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ae?oueie aeine?aeaeoaaieo a?oi i?e iaaeinoaoiino?
aioo??oiueinaini?iiai neooiaiai aiae?co ? i?e eiai aeinoaoi?e
noi?iiaaiino?.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeaieo ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae eiio?ieueii? ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi na?ae/eoue, ui c?inoaiiy ??aiy aioiaiino?
aeeoeie aei iaieiae?iiy iaae/eaie ienueia a on?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo
a?oiao aeua, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo, oiaoi an? niiniae, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia aioiai?noue aeioeieyo aei
ienueia (oaaeeoey 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

I?aenoieia? ?acoeueoaoe ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae eiio?ieueii? e
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi (a %).

Iieacieee A?oie

Aenia?eiaioaeueia Eiio?ieueia

Oiiaiaoe/iee neoo 94 57

Oiiaoe/ia ni?eeiyooy 84 48

?icoi?iiy iiae 96 53

A?aiaoe/iee no??e 86 55

Ni?eeiyooy eieuei??a 94 71

E?/eeuei? iia?aoe?? 87 62

Iioeei-i?inoi?ia? iia?aoe?? 72 53

Aiinoe/i? iia?aoe?? 78 49

I?aoeacaeaoi?noue 73 41

On? aoaie oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoee aca?iiiia’ycai? e iine?aeiaii
aeiiiaithaaee iaeei iaeiiai. Caaeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe aoee i?iaaaeai? eiio?ieuei?
c??ce, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo cana?ae/eee iiceoeai? c?inoaiiy ??aiy ye
noi?iiaaaaiino? iaae/ie ienueia a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao ae?oae 6-ai
?ieo aeeooy, oae i ca iieaciee?a caaaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo canai?iiy
iaae/ie ienueia.

Ii??aiyeuei? aeai? aoaeoeaiino? canai?iiy iaae/ie ienueia iaaaaeai? a
oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaaeeoey 3.

??ai? noi?iiaaiino? (%) oa caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io canai?iiy iaae/ie
ienueia ae?oueie (m)

??ai? A?oie

Aenia?eiaioaeueia Eiio?ieueia

Aoaie aenia?eiaioo Aoaie aenia?eiaioo

eiinoaooth/ee eiio?ieueiee eiinoaooth/ee Eiio?ieueiee

% m % m % m % m

Aenieee – – 30,00 0,16 – – – –

Aeua-na?aaei?e 20,00 0,24 52,00 0,60 16,00 0,21 34,00 0,40

Na?aaei?e 52,00 0,30 18,00 0,21 60,00 0,30 46,00 0,36

Ieae/a-na?aaei?e – – – – – – – –

Iecueeee 28,00 0,44 – 0,03 24,00 0,49 20,00 0,24

Oaaeeoey cana?ae/o? ci?ie aaee/ei eiaeiiai c ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino?
iaae/ie ienueia o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo, a oaeiae ci?ie
caaaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo canai?iiy ienaiieo iaae/ie ii eiaeiiio ??aith.

sse aa/eii, aenieiai ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie ienueia, ca
?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai c??co, aeinyaee 30% ae?oae
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie (o eiio?ieueiiio aenia?eiaio? oaeeo ae?oae ia
aoei).

Ae?oe aenieiai ??aiy oaeaeei i aaciiieeeiai aeeiioaaee caaaeaiiy.
Aenieiai ??aiy aeinyaee 52% ae?oae aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie (ia ii/aoeo
?ieo ix aoei 20% ). Ae?oe oeueiai ??aiy o aeeiiaii? caaaeaiue aeiioneaee
eeoa iacia/i? iiieeee, ye? eaaei ca aeac?aeith iaaeaaiaa aei?aaeyee. O
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? aei aenieiai ??aiy i?aeiyeinue 34% (o eiio?ieueiiio
c??c? aoei 16%). Eeoa 18% ae?oae aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie (aoei 52%)
caeeoeeiny ia na?aaeiueiio ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie ienueia.
Aiaeii/an ua cia/ia /anoeia ae?oae eiio?ieueii? a?oie (46%)
ciaoiaeeeanue ia na?aaeiueiio ??ai? (aei ii/aoeo aoei 60%). sse
cana?ae/eee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? i?ney
iaa/aiiy ia aoei ae?oae c iecueeei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie ienueia
(aei iaa/aiiy ?o aoei 28%). O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? ia iecueeiio ??ai?
caeeoeeinue 20% ae?oae (aoei 24%).

Iiceoeai? ci?ie a?aeaoeeny a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? e ca iieacieeaie
caaaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo canai?iiy iaae/ie ienueia c eiaeiiai ??aiy.
Oae, neaae?ii, ia ii/aoeo ?ieo a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? m aenieiai
??aiy aei??aithaaa 0, oi a e?ioe? ?ieo a?i noaiiaea oaea 0.16.
Aiaeia?/ii m aeuana?aaeiueiai ??aiy ca?eueoeany c 0.24 aei 0.6 (ia 3.5
iiceoe??). Aiaeii/an m na?aaeiueiai ??aiy a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi?
cieceany c 0.C aei 0.21; a iecueeiai — c 0.44 aei 0.03. O eiio?ieuei?e
a?oi? oaeiae niinoa??aaeiny iacia/ia c?inoaiiy m o ae?oae c
aeuana?aaei?i ??aiai canai?iiy ciaiue (c 0.21 aei 0.4) i na?aaei?i (c
0.3 aei 0.36), a o ae?oae c iecueeei ??aiai canai?iiy ciaiue m cieceany
c 0.49 eeoa aei 0.24.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? oaeiae cana?ae/othoue, ui ae?oyi c aenia?eiaioaeueieo
a?oi aeanoeaee aenieee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? i?ioean?a i?aeaiae?caoi?ii?
?ioaa?aoe?? neooiai? e ci?iai? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?e oeueiio iniaeeai yne?aai
ianoi?iiaai?noue oeueiai aeaeo i?aenaini?ii? aca?iiae?? aenooia? i?e
oneeaaeiaii? ci?noo a?aeiia?aeieo caaaeaiue.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o noa?oeo aeioeieyo aoei ?aae?ciaaii ?yae
iaoiaeee, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie oiiaiaoe/iiai neooo, aiic?no,
?icoi?iiy iiae, ci?iai? eii?aeeiaoe??, ae??aii? iioi?eee ?oe.

O AENIIAEAO c?iaeaii i?aenoiee ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai oai?aoe/iiai
e aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?/aii ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ocaaaeueithth/e, iiaeaii cacia/eoe ?yae iiiaio?a.

1. Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie iieacaa, ui iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy aeeoeie ? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaii?ai? noa?e a oe?eiio, a
oaeiae ii?aeiaiiy i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeie.

2. O?aaeeoe?eia nenoaia iaa/aiiy ia caaacia/o? aeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie
aeeoeie aei iaieiae?iiy ienaiiei iiaeaiiyi.

3. I?ia?aeieie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
ienueia oa /eoaiiy ?:

i?aai?caoe?y ?icaeaath/iai iaa/aiiy;

?icaeoie nainiiioi?ieo ooieoe?e aeeoeie oa ?ioaa?aoe?y ?? ineo?/ieo
ooieoe?e o i?ioean? niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy;

?ioaa?aoe?y i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a o iiaeaii?a?e ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeie;

4. I?ia?aeieie iieacieeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienueia oa /eoaiiy ?:

A. Oiiaiaoe/iee neoo, a?oeeoeyoe?eiee aia?ao.

Aeeoeia c iaaei?icaeiaiei iiaeaiiyi (iaiao?aeiee aeiaeyae eiaiiaaea).

O oiiaiaoe/i?e aoaeia? iiae a caoeiaeiiaeyii? ? iii?oi? ii?ooaiiy
(iaiao?aeia ianoaaeaiiy eiaiiaaea).

Ii?ooaiiy oiiaiaoe/ii? aoaeiae iiae a caoeii?iiiaeyii? iaia, iiaa
i?aaeeueia, /?oea.

A. Ae??ai? i’yce ?oee.

?oea ?icaeiaia iiaaii: ie?aoeai, iiaeeoeyie i?aoeth? iiaaii.

?oea ?icaeiooa iaaeinoaoiuei aeia?a: ie?aoeai, iiaeeoeyie aeeoeia
i?aoeth? c iai?oaith.

?oea ?icaeiaia aeia?a: aeeoeia aiaaiaii aieiae?? ie?aoeai, iiaeeoeyie.

A. I?inoi?iaa i???ioaoe?y, eii?aeeiaoe?y ?oo?a, o?eania ni?eoi?noue.

I???ioaoe?y a i?inoi??, eii?aeeiaoe?y ?oo?a ?icaeioo? iiaaii, iaca?aaia,
iaei?ooeeaa.

A?aei?/athoueny ie?ai? iciaee iaaei?icaeiaiiy i???ioaoe?? a i?inoi??,
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a, iaaeinoaoiuei ni?eoia.

Aeinoaoiuei aeia?a i???ioo?oueny a i?inoi??, eii?aeeio? ?ooe, ?ooeeaa,
ni?eoia.

A. Eii?aeeiaoe?y a nenoai? iei-?oea.

I?e ia?aianaii? a?ao?/iiai ia?aco, ui ni?eeia?oueny ci?iai ia a?aenoai?,
i?eioneathoueny a?oa? ia?ae?o/oaaiiy.

A?ao?/iee ia?ac, ui ni?eeia?oueny ci?iai ia a?aenoai?, ia?aiineoueny a
cioeo ?c iacia/ieie ia?ae?o/oaaiiyie.

Iiaea i?aaeeueii ia?aianoe aei cioeoa iaei?ino?oee a?ao?/iee ia?ac
(o?ao?o, oci?), ui ni?eeia?oueny ci?iai ia a?aenoai? (c eeanii? aeioee).

Ae. Ianya ci?iaiai ni?eeiaiiy (ii e?eueeino? a?aeie?aieaieo ia’?eo?a a
iaethieao — i?nai?oieoeyo, iaethieao c aaeeeith e?euee?noth eiioo??a).

Ia aaaaoi ieae/a na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a?eiai? a?oie.

Ieae/a na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a?eiai? a?oie.

A?aeiia?aea? na?aaei?i iieacieeai a?eiai? a?oie.

A aeine?aeaeaii? aeae?eai? i’youe iiaeaii?aeo ??ai?a noa?oeo aeioeieyo:
aenieee, aeuana?aaeiueiai, na?aaei?e, ieae/a-na?aaeiueiai, iecueeee.

O ae?oae c aenieeie ??aiyie iaia ii?ooaiue o oiiaiaoe/i?e aoaeia? iiae,
iiaeaiiy i?aaeeueia, /?oea. ?oea ?icaeiaia aeia?a: aeeoeia aiaaiaii
aieiae?? ie?aoeai, iiaeeoeyie. Aeia?a i???ioo?oueny a i?inoi??,
eii?aeeio? ?ooe, aeaaaa ? ni?eoia. Iaethe iiaea i?aaeeueii ia?aianoe aei
cioeoa iaei?ino?oee a?ao?/iee ia?ac (o?ao?o, oci?), ui ni?eeia?oueny
ci?iai ia a?aenoai? (c eeanii? aeioee).

Ae?oe c ??aiai aeuana?aaeiueiai ?iaeyoue iacia/i? iiieeee i?e ia?aa??oe?
oiiaiaoe/iiai neooo. ?ieiee niinoa??aa?oueny iaaei?icaeiai?noue ae??aii?
ioneoeaoo?e iaeueoe?a ia caiyooyo c iaethaaiiy aai aie?eaoe??.

Ae?oe c na?aaei?ie ??aiyie ?iaeyoue iiieeee o oiiaiaoe/i?e aoaeia?
iiae, a?aei?/athoueny ie?ai? iciaee iaaei?icaeiaiiy i???ioaoe?? a
i?inoi??, eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a, iaaeinoaoiuei ni?eoi?.

O ae?oae ieae/ana?aaeiueiai ??aiy noi?iiaai? iiiyooy caoeiaee aiae?c oa
caoeiaee neioac, aea i?aeoe/ii ae?oe a?ae/oaathoue o?oaeiiu? i?e
aeae?eaii? ie?aieo caoe?a. Ae??aia iioi?eea ?oe iaaeinoaoiuei ?icaeiaia,
ui aeyaey?oueny o iaieiae?iino?, iaaeio?eioaaii? e?i?e i?e ae??caii?
o?ao?ie aai caoo?eoiaoaaii? ?o ie?aoeai. A?eueo-iaio i?aaeeueii
i???ioothoueny i?e aecia/aii? aaiiao?e/ieo o?ao?, aea o?aieythoueny
iiieeee i?e aecia/aii? oaeeo i?inoi?iaeo iiiyoue, ye i?aai?o/-e?ai?o/.

Aei iecueeiai ??aiy iaeaaeaoue ae?oe c iaaei?icaeiaiei iiaeaiiyi
(iaiao?aeiee aeiaeyae eiaiiaaea), ?oee ?icaeiai? neaai: ie?aoeai,
iiaeeoeyie i?aoeththoue neaai. I???ioaoe?y a i?inoi??, eii?aeeiaoe?y
?oo?a ?icaeioo? neaai, iaethee iaca?aai?, iaei?ooeea?. I?e ia?aianaii?
a?ao?/iiai ia?aco, ui ni?eeia?oueny ci?iai ia a?aenoai?, aeiioneathoueny
a?oa? ia?ae?o/oaaiiy. Ianya ci?iaiai ni?eeiaiiy iaaaaaoi ieae/a
na?aaei?o iieaciee?a a?eiai? a?oie.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie i?eeiiaie, ui ca?eueoothoue ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino?
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy, ? oae?, ui ?icaeaathoue oiiaiaoe/ia ni?eeiyooy,
iioeei-i?inoi?iaa eii?aeeioaaiiy, aiinoe/i? ooieoe??.

Iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? ca’yce?a
i?ae iiaii-?ooiiei, iiaii-neooiaei, ci?iaei ? ?ooiiei aiae?caoi?aie; o
aea/aii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiaeeeainoae e?ai?oeeo ae?oae i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ?o aei iaieiae?iiy iaae/eaie ienueia a oeie?.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. ?ieue oieueeei?o o oi?ioaaii? iiaii? eoeueoo?e iniaenoino? //
Eoeueoo?a: ina?oa: i?iaeaie, iiooee, oai?/? ciao?aeee. Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai — i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. A?iieoey, 1995,

n. 28-30.

2. Ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy o
aeioe?eueiiio a?oe? //Iaoeia? caienee I?aeainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.Aiaiey. – I?aeei, 1998, n. 14-18.

3. ?noi?e/iee aniaeo oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienueia oa ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy //
Ineoieia?y. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aei ???. Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. –Ee?a, 1998, n.70-75.

4. Oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii — aeoeaii? iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey a
nenoai? aeui? ina?oe // Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee,
i?iaeaie. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai — i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.
*a?i?aoe?, 1996, n. 286-289.

5. Iiaia i?aeaioiaea ae?oae aei oeiee. Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy:
Iaoe.-iaoiae. ca./Ee?a,: ?inoeooo ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy,
1997.-Aei.21., n.155-168.

6. Naaaeue?aa A.N. Ae?aaiinoeea ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? o noa?oeo
aeioe?eueiee?a iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy. -E.: Oeaio? I?aeia?iaeii?
ina?oe, 1998, 31n.

7. ?icaeoie naini-iioi?eee o ae?oae aeioe?eueiiai a?eo
(iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee iin?aiee). -E.: Oeaio? I?aeia?iaeii? ina?oe, 1998,
36n.

Naaaeue?aa A.N. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.07 — iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y.
?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy o ae?oae noa?oiai aeioe?eueiiai a?eo. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie i?ae?a?aieo iaoiaeee i?e
oi?ioaaii? iaae/ie ienaiiiai iiaeaiiy oeyoii ?ioaa?aoe??
i?aeaiae?caoi?ieo ca’yce?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ienaiia iiaeaiiy, oiiaoe/iee neoo, ni?eeiyooy,
aiinoe/i? ooieoe??, i?inoi?iaa eii?aeeioaaiiy, ?eoi?/i? no?oeoo?e,
i?aeaiae?caoi?i? ca’ycee.

Naaaeueaaa A.N. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey iioeiecaoeee
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey iaaueia ienueiaiiie ?a/e o aeaoae noa?oaai
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.07 — iaaeaaiae/aneay e aic?anoiay
ineoieiaey. Einoeooo ineoieiaee ei. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1998a.

Enneaaeiaaeny i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iaaueia ienueiaiiie ?a/e o noa?oeo
aeioeieueieeia. Yenia?eiaioaeueiay ?aaioa iieacaea yooaeoeaiinoue
iiaeia?aiiie nenoaiu iaoiaeee ii iao/aieth iaaueai ienueiaiiie ?a/e
iooai eioaa?aoeee iaaeaiaeecaoi?iuo naycae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ienueiaiiay ?a/ue, oiiaoe/aneee neoo, aini?eyoea,
aiinoe/aneea ooieoeee, i?ino?ainoaaiiay eii?aeeiaoeey, ?eoie/aneea
no?oeoo?u, iaaeaiaeecaoi?iua nayce.

Saveliyeva V.S. Psychological and pedagogical conditions of
optimization the process of formation the writing skills of senior
preschool age children. — Manucsript.

Thesis for a Candidate is degree in psychological Science by speciality
19.00.07 — Pedagogical and development psychology. The Institute of
Psychology by name after G.S.Kostiuk /Academy of Pedagogiakal Sciences
of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The process of writing skills formation of senior preschool children
has been investigated. The experiment proved the effeciency of a system
of methods in writing skills teaching by means of integration of
connections between analysers.

Key words: Writing speach, phonemic ear perception, gnostic functions,
space coordination, rythmic structures, connections between analysers.

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