3

AEAAeAI?ss IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAE?IO??O?A??

?i. aeaae. A.I. ?IIIAeAIIAA AII OE?A?IE

??iieue?a A?oo? ?ai?iae/

OAeE 616.832-006-089-06-037-084

I?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeea oneeaaeiaiue

o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai

iiceo oa o?aaoa

Iae?io??o?a?y -14.01.05

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i.. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

/eai-ei?. AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? OeEIAAETHE
A?oae?e ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey

0o?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?. AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

IIE?UOE Ieeiea ?o?aiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a?? Ee?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe NOAOEAAE* Aiaoie?e O?ioeiiae/, aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ee?i?ee o?aaoa oa nieiiiai iiceo ?inoeoooo i?oiiaae?? oa
o?aaiaoieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 18 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.557.01. i?e ?inoeooo?
iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie (250050, i.Ee?a,
aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

3 aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie (250050, i.Ee?a,
aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 14 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eia TH.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa
o?aaoa, ye? aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th nieiiiai iiceo, iiaea
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny oneeaaeiaiiyie, eio?? aeieeathoue i?ae /an iia?aoe??
? a ?aii?e i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeia?
aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo, a?iioi-eaaaiaa?, ai?eii-caiaeuei?, o?ieia?/i?
oneeaaeiaiiy, aino?a na?oeaai-noaeeiia iaaeinoaoi?noue, ii?ooaiiy
o?io?ee, iineeaiiy /e iiyaa iaa?ieia?/iiai aeao?oeeoo, aaeeea
e?iaiao?aoa (A.A.Eaaaaeaiei,1987; M.F. McDonnell et. all, 1990).

E?eoaaiiy oeeo oneeaaeiaiue noai?th? cia/i? o?oaeiiu? ? oiio aaaeeeai ?o
iiia?aaeeoe. Aeey nai?/aniiai i?iaaaeaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo ae?e iaiao?aeii
aecia/eoe ?ecee ?o ?icaeoeo.

Aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo i?iaiinoe/ieo iani?eyoeeaeo iciae, ui
i?aeaeuothoue nooi?iue ?eceeo iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, a?aeiinyoueny:
a?e a?eueoa 60 ?ie?a, eieae?caoe?y iooeeie o oeeiiio oa aa?oi?-a?oaeiiio
a?aeae?e? nieiiiai iiceo, aaeee? ?ici??e iooeeie, iayai?noue i??eiiao??
aei iia?aoe??. ?acoeueoao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy aecia/a?oueny oaeiae
aaaee?noth aeiiia?aoeaiiai noaio oai?iai (J.Seikigeka,1991).

Caaaeueiia?aeii? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeai?, oae ye
ia aeathoue iiaeeeaino? anaa?/iiai e?euee?niiai iae?eo i?iaiinoe/ieo
ni?eyoeeaeo oa iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a. Iia? iiaeeeaino? aecia/aiiy
?eceeo oneeaaeiaiue c aenieei nooiaiai a??ia?aeiino? iiyaeeenue o?eueee
a ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo iaaee/ii? e?aa?iaoeee. Ia?oee aeina?ae
aeei?enoaiiy ?? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ??cieo iaoieia?/ieo noai?a
i?aeoaa?aeea aenieo aoaeoeai?noue oaeiai iaoiaeo (E.A.Aeoiaanueea,1999).

Ieoaiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo a e?oa?aoo?? aena?oeaii iaaeinoaoiuei,
ui ?iaeoue iaa?oioiaaiei iiaeaeueoa ?o aea/aiiy.

Iaoa i?aoe?. Iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei
nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa, ye? aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th nieiiiai iiceo,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee i?neyiia?aoe?eieo
oneeaaeiaiue.

Caaaeaiiy.

1.Aea/eoe oa?aeoa? ? /anoioo iniiaieo i?e/ei oneeaaeiaiue, eio??
aeieeathoue i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo c iooeeiaie nieiiiai iiceo
? o?aaoa, ye? aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th iiceo.

2.C’ynoaaoe i?iaiinoe/io cia/ei?noue ie?aieo ii?oieia?/ieo oa
ee?i?ei-o?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a, ye? aeyaeeeny aei iia?aoe??, i?ae /an
iia?aoe?? oa i?ney cae?i/aiiy ??, a iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue.

3.Aecia/eoe ?ecee oneeaaeiaiue ia iniia? eiii’thoa?iiai
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aiae?co ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee iaea?eueo /anoeo oneeaaeiaiue
(a?iioi-eaaaiaaeo, e?iaioa/?, aeno?aeiiai iaa?yeo iiceo, aino?i?
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino?, o?iiaiaiaie?/ieo) c o?aooaaiiyi
nooiaiy ?eceeo ?o ?icaeoeo.

5. Iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa
o?aaoa, ye? aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th nieiiiai iiceo, aeei?enoiaoth/e
aeai? i?iaiicoaaiiy oa iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee iiaeeeaeo oneeaaeiaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?eia nenoaia ? i?ia?aia
eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, ye? aeieeathoue
i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa, ye?
aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th nieiiiai iiceo.

Aia?oa aeaia e?euee?nia ioe?iea i?iaiinoe/iiai cia/aiiy ?yaeo
ii?oieia?/ieo, ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a a aecia/aii? ?icaeoeo
??cieo oneeaaeiaiue.

Anoaiiaeai? iniiai? i?iaiinoe/i? iani?eyoeea? iciaee iiaeeeaeo
oneeaaeiaiue (a?iioi-eaaaiaaeo, aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
iaaeinoaoiino?, aaeeei? e?iaiao?aoe, nia?o?).

?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiy ?o
?eceeo ?ic?aoiaaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaiicoaaiiy, eio?a aea? ciiao e?ea?th,
aeei?enoiaoth/e caaaeueii i?eeiyo? aeai? ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioe?ieoe nooi?iue ?eceeo ?icaeoeo iaea?eueo /anoeo
oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa
(a?iioi-eaaaiaaeo, aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino?, aaeeei?
e?iaiao?aoe, nia?o?).

Ia iniia? aiae?co ee?i?/iiai iaoa??aeo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiicoaaiiy, aeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iaoiaeeoe? i?io?eaeoeee a?iioi-eaaaiaaeo,
ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue, aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
iaaeinoaoiino?, aaeeei? e?iaiao?aoe, aeno?aeiiai iaa?yeo iiceo,
o?iiaiaiaie?? eaaaiaai? a?oa???, ii?ooaiue ooieoe?e oaciaeo i?aai?a oa
o?io?ee).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa??aee ?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, iae?io??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue
i.Ee?aa, a oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai Oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Aaoi? naiino?eii i?ia?a ee?i?/ia ianoaaeaiiy 200 oai?eo, ?ic?iaea
?ioi?iaoe?ei? ea?oe oa noi?nii c i?ia?ai?noaie ?inoeoooo a?aeae?eo
AIIANO ?ic?iaea i?ia?aio eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co iaoa??aeo,
i?iaiae?coaaa i?e/eie ? oaeoi?e, ye? ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo ??cieo
oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo. Noai?ea
i?iaiinoe/io oaaeeoeth nooiai?a ?eceeo ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue, ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeeee i?io?eaeoeee ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue ia iniia? ?o i?iaiicoaaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?ai? ia ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee
?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie ?acii c
eaoaae?aie iae?io??o?a?? EIAII ? IIO 18 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

O?aaiaioe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia:

1) 2-io c’?cae? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie, 1998 ?ieo,(i.Iaeana);

2) Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie, 1996?.
(i.Euea?a);

3) ?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aianoac?ieia?a Oe?a?ie, 1997?.
(i.Oa?e?a).

Ioae?eaoe??:

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 ?ia?o, a oiio /ene? 3 noaoo?
a aeo?iaeao, c?iaeaii 3 aeiiia?ae? ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 155 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 3-o ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aiae?co io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoea.

A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeeaaeaia ia 17 noi??ieao, 176 aeaea?ae, c ieo 95
ca?oa?aeieo. Aeena?oaoe?th ?ethno?iaaii 30 oaaeeoeyie ? 7 iaethieaie.

Ci?no ?iaioe.

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?iaio? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue 200 oai?eo, iia?iaaieo c
i?eaiaeo iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AIIO ia i?ioyc? 1995-1997 ?ie?a.

*ano?oa anueiai iooeeie eieae?coaaeeny a ieaeiuei-oeeiiio oa
aa?oiuei-a?oaeiiio a?aeae?eao nieiiiai iiceo (N1-D3) (51,7%), aeaui
??aeoa o a?oaeiiio (D4-D11) (26,1%) oa o iiia?aeiai-e?eaeiaiio (22,1%).
O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iooeeie noeneoaaee nieiiee iicie a?eueoa ye ia
1/4 ae?aiao?a (o 51%).

Ii oa?aeoa?o iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy oai?? ?iciiae?eyeenue ianooiiei
/eiii: o 41,0% i?iaaaeaia iiaia aeaeaeaiiy iooeei, o 51,2% — /anoeiaa, o
7,8% aoea c?iaeaia aeaeiii?an?eia eai?iaeoii?y.

O a?eueoino? oai?eo aeei?enoiaoaaany caaei?e aeinooi (92,8%), ??aeoa —
caaei?-aieiaee ( 3,2%) ? o?eueee o 7 oai?eo ia?aaei?-aieiaee oa
ia?aaei?e.

Aeey aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie /ano?o anueiai aeaeaeyeenue aeoaeee aeaio
o?aaoe?a (47,7%), o 43%-o?e oa a?eueoa, ? o?eueee o 9,3%-aeoaeee iaeiiai
o?aaoey.

Iniaeeao oaaao ie i?eae?eyee aea/aiith /anoioe oa oa?aeoa?o
oneeaaeiaiue.

O 20,1% i?ney iia?aoe?? iiyaeeenue /e iineeeeenue ii?ooaiiy aeeoaiiy, o
25%- oacia? ?iceaaee, o 19,1% c’yaeeenue aoeueaa?i? ii?ooaiiy
(iiia?ooaaiiy, ii?ooaiiy eiaoaiiy). Na?aae ?ioeo oneeaaeiaiue
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ai?eii-caiaeuei?
oneeaaeiaiiy: iaaii?iiy ?ai, iai?ia?o, nainen.

Iaaii?iiy niinoa??aaee o 16 oai?eo, iai?iaiaioeaoae?o o 7. *anoei
oneeaaeiaiiyi ?aiiueiai i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo aoee a?iioiiiaaiii??
(o 40 oai?eo). A?ae oneeaaeiaiue iiia?ei 44 oai?eo.

Aeey aeyniaiiy oa?aeoa?o oa i?e/ei ?icaeoeo ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue o
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae o oai?eo c iooeeiaie nieiiiai iiceo ? o?aaoa,
ye? aeeeeeathoue eiii?an?th iiceo, a?aoiaoaaeenue iniiai?
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?i? aeai? oa ?acoeueoaoe aeiaeaoeiaeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Na?aae ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue
?aioaaiia?ao??, iaai?oii-?aciiaini?e ? eiii’thoa?i?e oiiia?ao??.

Aeey eiii’thoa?iiai eiio?ieth oa ia?iaee iaoa??aeo noai?ai? ea?oe
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai iae?eo oai?eo, aei eio?eo caiineeeny aeai?
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ic?iaeaia iaaee/ia ae?aeiaiaa aenia?oia nenoaia, i?ecia/aia aeey
aiae?co oyaeeino? noaio oai?iai. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? iaoiaeee, eio??
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey e?eoaaiiy, aeae?eaiiy a?oi ?eceeo oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy noaio oai?eo, i?iaiaeeeiny o a?aeae?e? AII ANO ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a??. Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue e?eoa??e I??niia
X2, ei?aeyoe?eiee oa aeene?ei?iaoe?eiee aiae?c, ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?iaeaen
Eoeueaaea.

Nii/aoeo ?ic?aoiaoaaee caeaaei?noue /anoioe ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue a?ae 46
ee?i?/ieo oa 50 eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a. A?aeae?aeenue o?eueee o?, eio??
aieeaaee ia /anoioo oneeaaeiaiue. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue oei, ye?
aoee ?ioi?iaoeaieie oa a??ia?aeieie. I?ney oeueiai ii iaoiaeeoe?
Aaeueaea ?aooaaeenue ae?aaiinoe/i? eiao?oe??ioe (AeE) i?iaiinoe/ii
ni?eyoeeaeo oa iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a.

Aaee/eie AeE i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeeaeo iciae aoee iiceoeaieie, a
ni?eyoeeaeo iaaaoeaieie.

Noia ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a (NAeE) aecia/aea ?ecee oneeaaeiaiiy.

O?aaa neacaoe, ui ia an? oneeaaeiaiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae iaeieo ? oeo aea
naieo iciae, o ca’yceo c /ei i?e i?ae?aooieo noie AeE aiia ia aoea
iaeiaeiaith aeey ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue (oaae.1 ).

Oaaeeoey.1

Aaee/eie AeE aeinoia??ieo ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a i?e ??cieo
oneeaaeiaiiyo.

Iciaee

Aeae oneeaaeiaiue, (AeE)Iiaaiii?y

ANNI

E?iaioa/aEaoaeuei?noue

Caaaeuei?

1.Oa?aeoa? iooeei-aeia?iye?nia-3-23/4-2-2-ceiye?nia113/412I?i?inoath/? o
o?aaao223232.??aaiue o?aaeaiiy- N1 – N4443/463- N4 — Ae2443/443- Ae2 ?
ieae/a-4-23/4-5-33.Nooi?iue eiii?an??- < 1/2 ae?aiao?a-53/4-3-33/4- ? 1/2 ae?aiao?a33/4413/44.Noiooi? caoai?thaaiiy- ia ia?-4-73/4-6-2- na?oeaai-noaeeii?3/413/413/4- o?ieia?/i?3/423/4325.?ooia? ii?ooaiiy- ia ia?, iiiiia?ac-8-83/4-5-10- oao?aia?ac423/4337.Ii?ooaiiy aeeoaiiy- ia ia?-13/43/4-13/4- ?23/43/433/49.Ia’?i iia?aoe??- 1 – 2 aeoaeee-2-2-23/4-2- 3 ? a?eueo2133/4210.Aeei?enoaiiy i?e?ineiio- oae-7-6-4-7-811.Aaee/eia ao?aoe e?ia?- F 500 ie3/4-23/43/43/4- > 500
ie3/423/43/43/4A I A E ? C E ? I A ? 12.A?eo?ioeeoe, 10-12/e- < 3.823/43/433- ? 3.8-23/43/4-2-213.Aetheica, iiieue/e- F 6.6-23/4-2-2-1- > 6.643/4333

Nii/aoeo aecia/aany i?iaiic ia?aa?ao i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, aoaea
a?i iaoneeaaeiaiee /e oneeaaeiaiee. Eiee ?ecee oneeaaeiaiue aoa aenieee,
oi iaaeae? i?iaiaeeeeny ooi/iaiiy, yea oea oneeaaeiaiiy (iiaaiii?y,
ANNI, e?iaioa/a, nia?oue).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iniaeeainoae ia?aa?ao i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
i?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue 110 oai?eo c oneeaaeiaiiyie oa
90 aac ieo.

Iaea?eueo /anoeie oneeaaeiaiiyie aoee: iiaaiii?? (40 oai?eo), aino?a
na?oeaai-noaeeiia iaaeinoaoi?noue (38), ?iceaaee ooieoe?? oaciaeo
i?aai?a (34), o?ieia?/i? (75), e?iaiao?aoa a?eueoa 1 e (27), ?iceaaee
o?io?ee (15), aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo (24), e?iaiaeeea a iaaeie?ieee
(11), nainen (20), iai?iaiaioeaoae?o (8), o?iiaiaiaie?y eaaaiaai?
a?oa??? (3). *ano?oa anueiai niinoa??aaee ii?aeiaiiy e?eueeio
oneeaaeiaiue.

Iniiai? aeinoia??i? ? aeniei ?ioi?iaoeai? i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeea?
iciaee oneeaaeiaiiai ia?aa?ao iia?aoe?? oa i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
aeai? o oaaeeoe?. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny:

1. Eieae?caoe?y iooeei o oeeiiio oa aa?oiuei-a?oaeiiio a?aeae?eao
nieiiiai iiceo (AeE=3). 2. Ceiye?niee oa?aeoa? iooeei (AeE=3). 3.
Aaeee? ?? ?ici??e, iio?aaoth/? aeaeaeaiiy aeoaeie o?ueio oa a?eueoa
o?aaoe?a (AeE=2). 4. Iayai?noue oao?aia?aco (AeE=3). 5.No??ieee oaii
?icaeoeo ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue, ye? niinoa??aathoueny i?e iooeeiao o?aaoa
(AeE=3). 6. Iayai?noue o?io?/ieo ?iceaae?a (AeE=4). 7. O?ieia?/i?
caiaeuei? caoai?thaaiiy (AeE=2). 8.Aiai?y (AeE=3). 9.A?ia?ae?eai?y
(AeE=3). 10.Aaiaoo??y (AeE=4).

Ni?eyoeeaeie iciaeaie aoee: aeiaaeee, i?e yeeo iooeeie aoee aeia?iye?ni?
(AeE= 2), iaaaeeeeo ?ici???a (AeE= 2), eieae?caoe?y ieae/a Ae2 (AeE=
3). Oe? oai?? ia no?aaeaeaee noiooi?ie oai?iaaie, ?ooiaee aeao?oeeo aoa
iacia/iee (AeE= 10) ? iia?eueii ia?inoaa (AeE= 1), iia?aoe??
aeeiioaaeeny i?ae i?e?ineiiii (AeE= 8), eaai?aoi?i? iieacieee ia
aeoiaeeee ca iaae? ii?ie (AeE= 5).

sse i?aaeei, o ianoaaeaieo oai?eo niinoa??aaeinue ii?aeiaiiy
iani?eyoeeaeo oa ni?eyoeeaeo iciae. Eiee ia?aaaaeaea noia ia?oeo, NAeE
aoea iiceoeaiith, oi oea na?ae/eei i?i iaaiee ?ecee ?icaeoeo
oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, c? ca?eueoaiiyi noie AeE, ?ecee
ca?eueooaaany (iae.1). Eiee NAeE aoea aeua 15, /anoioa oneeaaeiaiue
aeinyaaea 88%, a eiee NAeE aoea iaioa-15, o?eueee 7%.

Ia’?eoeai?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy aoea ia?aa??aia ia 90 oai?eo eiio?ieueii?
a?oie. A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae iniiaii? a?oie aoee iacia/i? ? iaaeinoia??i?
(iae.1.). Oea aeicaieeei iai oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaio iaoiaeeeo aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue.

sse a?aeiii c aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e, aei iaeieo c iaea?eueo /anoeo
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue a?aeiinyoueny a?iioi-eaaaiaa?, na?aae
yeeo iniiaieie ? a?iioiiiaaiii?y.

Aeiiia?aoe?eia i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaaiii?e iiaea aeaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy aeey
nai?/aniiai i?iaaaeaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo ae?e. Aeey ae??oaiiy oe???
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaii aea? a?oie oai?eo. Iniiaia – 40 iaoe??io?a ?c
i?neyiia?aoe?eiith iiaaiii??th ? eiio?ieueia – 160 aac oeueiai
oneeaaeiaiiy.

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???u?????????»????-??????????B??????????????B????
uiy??????Iae.1. *anoioa ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue o oai?eo iniiaii? oa
eiio?ieueii? a?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae NAeE.

I?e oeueiio aoei aeyaeaii, ui i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeeaeie iciaeaie a
oe?eiio aoee oae?, ye? niinoa??aathoueny ? i?e oneeaaeiaiiio ia?aa?ao
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. E??i oiai, iaee cia/aiiy aioo??oiueiiiceiaa
eieae?caoe?y iooeeie (AeE=3), ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? oaciaeo i?aai?a
(AeE=2), ii?ooaiiy aeeoaiiy (AeE=2), ae?aaeaia eiii?an?y nieiiiai iiceo
(AeE=3) ? iayai?noue e?ioiiai?? (AeE=2). Ia aeyaeaii caeaaeiino? /anoioe
iiaaiii?e a?ae ii?ooaiue o?io?ee, iayaiino? aaiaoo???.

?ecee iiaaiii?? yaii ciaioo?oueny, yeui aei iia?aoe?? ia aoei noiooi?o
caoai?thaaiue (AeE= 7), ia aoei oyaeeeo ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue (AeE= 8),
iia?aoe?? cae?enithaaeenue i?ae i?e?ineiiii (AeE= 7).

Iiaeeaeaiee aiae?c iaoa??aeo c ?ic?aooieii noie AeE na?ae/eoue i?i
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?eceeo ?icaeoeo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo iiaaiii?e.
O oeo aeiaaeeao, aea iieacieee NAeE aoee iaaaoeaieie, iiaaiii??
niinoa??aaeenue o?eueee o 3,2% oai?eo. O 15,9% oai?eo iiaaiii??
aeieeaee, yeui NAeE eieeaaeeny a?ae +1 aei +6. Oeae a?aenioie aeinyaaa
33, yeui NAeE aeinyaaea +7 +10 ? o 88% — yeui aoei a?eueoa +15 (iae.2).

I?io?eaeoeea i?neyiia?aoe?eieo iiaaiii?e iieyaa? a caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
iaoiaeao i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy ? niaoe?aeueieo caoiaeao,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?ioaiiy eaaaiaai? aaioeeyoe?? oa aaciiai?io. C oe??th
iaoith aei iia?aoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueiiai i?eno?ith oai??
o?aioaaee aeeaeio aeeoaiiy. A ia??iae 3-5 ae?a i?iaiaeeeeny iiaoi?i?
naaine aeeaieiai aeeoaiiy. A ?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? oai??
?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeeee naaine NAe c IOEA. I?e aenieiio ?eceeo ?icaeoeo
ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue i?iaiaeeeanue aioea?ioeeioa?ai?y.

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yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

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????yyy???? ???????Ul???????’yy???

????yyy???? ???????Ul???????ue??yyy??????-?
???u?????????»????-????
yyy???????????????????$?B??!?!ue?B?ue?B??
???u?????????»????-??????
???u??????????»????-????-????’yy???

????-????-???????????
yyy?????!?B????Lo7q??????B????yyy????????????
??!???¤?B????¤?!???w?B????w?!???K?B????K?!???
?B?????!???-????-????’yy???

????-????-????yyy???? yyy????Ul???????Lo7q?
???u?????????»????-??????????B?????????????!???
ue?!???ue?B?????B????-????-????’yy???

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???u??????????»????-??????????B????????????ue?B???
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I?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a aeicaieeei cieceoe /anoioo
iiaaiii?e c 30% o 1995 aei 10% o 1996 oa 3% o 1997 ?ieao (iae.3). O oeo
aeiaaeeao, aea ia i?iaiaeeeeny i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee i?e iiceoeaieo
aaee/eiao noie ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a o 70% oai?eo ?icaeaaeanue
iiaaiii?y, a yeui aiie canoiniaoaaeenue, oi i?e oaeeo aea iieacieeao
NAeE iiaaiii?y niinoa??aaeanue o?eueee o 10%.

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yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

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???u?????????»????-???? yyy???????????????????$?7??
? a?7?a?7?? ???u?????????»????-??????
???u??????????»????-????-????’yy???

????-????-??????????? yyy????e?
?7????71»#????1/2?7????yyy????????????1/2?
???–?7????–? ???n?7????n? ???G?7????G?
????7????? ???-????-????’yy???

????-????-????yyy???? yyy????@k???????71»#?
???u?????????»????-??????????7?????????????
???a? ???a?7?????7????-????-????’yy???

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???u??????????»????-??????????7????????????a?7????
uiy??????Iae.3. *anoioa oneeaaeiaiue a 1995,1996,1997 ?ieao.

I?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? iooeei nieiiiai iiceo iiaeooue aeieeaoe
ae?aaeai? ii?ooaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee, ye? i?iyaeyeenue a?oa??aeueiith
a?iioaic??th, ae?aaeaiei ii?ooaiiyi na?oeaaiai ?eoio, iaa?yeii eaaai?a
(o 38 oai?eo). *ano?oa anueiai aiie iaoiiaeai? e?iaiao?aoith (o 12
oai?eo), aino?ith iaaeie?eiaith iaaeinoaoi?noth (o 11), o?iiaiaiaie??th
eaaaiaai? a?oa??? (o 3).

Cia/ii aieeaa? oaeiae ?ioieneeaoe?y (i?e ceiye?nieo iooeeiao,
ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiiyo), aino?a aeeoaeueia iaaeinoaoi?noue (i?e
a?iioi-eaaaiaaeo oneeaaeiaiiyo) ? iniaeeai ii?aeiaiiy e?eueeio
iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a.

Na?aae aaaaoueio aea/aieo ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieacieeao o?eueee 7 aoee
aeinoia??ii i?iaiinoe/ieie iciaeaie iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo aino?i?
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino? i?ae /an iia?aoe?? oa o ?aii?e
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae. Aei ieo iaeaaeeoue:

1.??aaiue eieae?caoe?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano — eiee iooeeia
eieae?ciaaia ia ??ai? a?ae N1aei D2 aaee/eia ae?aaiinoe/iiai
eiao?oe??ioo iaaeeaeaeanue aei 4, a eiee aoea ieae/a L2 aei-2.

2. Eieae?caoe?y iooeeie: aioo??oiueiiiceiaa ? iicaiiceiaa (AeE=3 ? –1
a?aeiia?aeii).

3. Ae?aaeai?noue ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue — eiee aiie a?aenooi? /e aoee
iacia/ieie AeE ia ia?aaeuoaaei –8, a eiee i?iyaeyeeny o aeaeyae?
oao?aia?aco, iaaeeaeaeanue aei 2.

4. Iayai?noue noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie (AeE=1)
? o?ieia?/ieo (AeE=2). I?e ?o a?aenooiino? AeE 7.

5. Ia?aaeaa/oaaiee ia’?i iia?aoe??. Eiee ieaio?oueny aeaeaeaiiy aeoaeee
o?eueee iaeiiai o?aaoey AeE= 5, a eiee o?ueio ? a?eueoa — +1.

6. A aeiaaeeao aeei?enoaiiy i?e?ineiia (AeE= 4).

7. Ia’?i iiaeeeai? e?iaioa/?. Eiee aiia aoaea a?eueoa 500 ie AeE=2, a
eiee iaioa -2.

I?e c’ynoaaii? caeaaeiino? /anoioe ?icaeoeo aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
iaaeinoaoiino? a?ae noie ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a aoei anoaiiaeaii,
ui o oeo aeiaaeeao, aea NAeE aoea iaaaoeaia, ?ecee ?icaeoeo ANNI aoa
iacia/iei (8,3%), a eiee iaioa –10 — oea oneeaaeiaiiy ia
niinoa??aaeinue.

Eiee NAeE aoea iiceoeaiith, oi ANNI ?icaeaaeanue o 42%, a eiee aiia
ia?aaeuoaaea 10, oi o 71,4% oai?eo.

Aeua i?eaaaeai? aeai? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeiiia?aoeaiiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy ANNI oa nai?/aniiai aeei?enoaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.
Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue: ?aoaeueia aeiiia?aoe?eia i?aeaioiaea oai?eo ?c
noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie (a?ia?oii?/iith
oai?iaith, na?oeaaeie a?eoi?yie, noaiiea?ae??th, o?ii?/iith ei?iia?iith
iaaeinoaoi?noth), ei?aeoe?y ii?ooaiue aiiainoaco, caaacia/aiiy
aaeaeaaoii? aianoac??, nai?/ania iiiiaiaiiy e?iaiao?aoe, iaeio?aaiaoe/ia
iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy, caiia?aaiiy aeno?aeiiai iaa?yeo iiceo oa aaeeei?
e?iaiao?aoe.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaeio?aaiaoe/iiai iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy noa?
i/aaeaeiei eiee a?aooaaoe, ui aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo ? /anoith
i?e/eiith iae?iaaiiiai iaa?yeo eaaaiue, iiaaiii?? oa ?o ii?aeiaiiy. Oae,
?c 29 oai?eo c aeno?aeiei iaa?yeii iiceo o 18 aoei ii?aeiaiiy iaa?yeo
eaaai?a c iiaaiii??th, o 6- iiaaiii??, o 2-o — iaa?ye eaaai?a ? o?eueee
o 3-o oai?eo c iaa?yeii iiceo ia aoei oeeo oneeaaeiaiue.

I?e aeei?enoaii? i?e?ineiia aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo niinoa??aaany
o?eueee o 4.3% oai?eo , a oie /an eiee aac iueiai o 13%. A?aeiia?aeii
ANNI iaea i?noea o 4.3% ia?oi? a?oie ? o 21% ae?oai?.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy a caiia?aaii? ANNI ia? nai?/ania aaeaeaaoia iiiiaiaiiy
e?iaiao?aoe. Eiee e?iaiao?aoa ia ia?aaeuoaaea 500-1000 ie, IOeE
iiiiaithaaany e?iaicai?iieeaie (nieaa?, eiei?aei?), i?e a?eueo cia/iiio
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue e?ia aeiii?a. N?iiaoii?iaoeee, aieiaiei /eiii
aeioai?i, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o?eueee o aeiaaeeao a?aenooiino? aoaeoo
a?ae ?iooceaii? oa?ai??. Aiie, ye i?aaeei, ii?aeioaaeeny c
aetheiei?oeei?aeaie. Aeuaiaaaaeai? i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee aeicaieeee
cieceoe /anoioo ANNI ca inoaii? o?e ?iee ia 13.9%.

sse aoei a?aei?/aii ?ai?oa, iaei??th c i?e/ei ANNI aoea aaeeea
e?iaiao?aoa. K.E.Andersen et all. (1982) aaaaeathoue, ui eiee
e?iaiao?aoa ia?aaeuo? 520 ie, oi ??ci? oneeaaeiaiiy o ?aiiueiio
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? aeieeathoue cia/ii /ano?oa, i?ae i?e iaio
cia/i?e e?iaiao?ao?.

Ie iiae?eeee ianoaaeaieo iaie oai?eo ia 2 a?oie. O ia?o?e, iniiai?e,
e?iaiao?aoa ia?aaeuoaaea 500 ie (75 oai?eo), o ae?oa?e aiia aoea iaioa
– 115 oai?eo. E??i oiai aiae?coaaeenue aeiaaeee, aea e?iaiao?aoa
ia?aaeuoaaea 1000 ie (27 oai?eo). Io?eiai? iaie aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa,
ui ?c aaeeei? e?eueeino? ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a, eio?? iiaeooue
aieeaaoe ia e?iaiao?aoo o?eueee 15 aoee a iaai?e i??? ?ioi?iaoeaieie, a
6 aeinoia??ieie.

Aei ieo iaeaaeeoue:

1.Nooi?iue eiii?an?? nieiiiai iiceo (eiee <1/2 AeE= 3, 1/2 AeE=2, a eiee >1/2 AeE=4). 2.Oaii ?icaeoeo ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue (iia?eueiee – AeE=
1, no??ieee – AeE=3). 3.??aaiue aetheice e?ia? (F 6.6 iiieue/e AeE= 2,
> 6.6 iiieue/e AeE=3). 4. Aenoaineai?noue iia?aoe?? (aeaeaeaiiy aeoaeie
1-2 o?aaoe?a AeE= 2, a?eueoa 2-o AeE=3). 5.Aeei?enoaiiy i?e?ineiia
(AeE= 4). 6.Ia?aaeaa/oaaia o?eaae?noue iia?aoe?? (aei 3-o aiaeei –
AeE=3, a?eueoa – AeE=4).

I?e i?ae?aooieo noie ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a o oai?eo c ??ciith
e?iaiao?aoith aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui eiee aiia aoea iaaaoeaiith,
e?iaiao?aoa niinoa??aaeanue o 26% oai?eo, a aeiaaee?a, aea e?iaiao?aoa
aoea aeua 1000 ie ia aoei. O oie aea /an i?e iiceoeaieo aaee/eiao NAeE
o?eueee o 43.6% oai?eo e?iaiao?aoa ia ia?aaeuoaaea 500 ie, a eiee aiia
aoea aeua 10, o an?o aeiaaeeao e?iaiao?aoa aoea cia/iith.

O i?io?eaeoeoe? iia?aoe?eii? e?iaiao?aoe ae??oaeueia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
iaeio?aaiaoe/iiio iia?aoeaiiio ao?o/aiith. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oie oaeo,
ui o aeiaaeeao, aea i?ae /an iia?aoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeanue niaoe?aeueia
iioeea (i?e?ineii) aaeee? e?iaiao?aoe cono??/aeeny cia/ii ??aeoa i?ae
aac ia?. Oae, i?e NAeE +1 — +5 e?iaiao?aoa a?eueoa 500 ie
niinoa??aaeanue o 66% oai?eo aac i?e?ineiio ? o?eueee o 17% c
i?e?ineiiii, i?e aeei?enoaii? eiai i?e NAeE a?eueoa 10 ia aoei aeiaaee?a
aaeeeeo e?iaiao?ao (a?eueoa 1000 ie).

Oaeei /eiii, eiee noia AeE iaioa 1 iiaeia ia?aaeaa/oaaoe, ui e?iaiao?aoa
ia aoaea ia?aaeuoaaoe 1 e. O oie aea /an, eiee aiia aeua 10, oi o 65%
oai?eo iiaeia /aeaoe cia/ii? e?iaiao?aoe. Oe? aeiaaeee ?iaeyoue
iaa?oioiaaiei canoinoaaiiy i?ae /an iia?aoe?? iioe/ii? oaoi?ee.

O i?io?eaeoeoe? e?iaioa/ cia/ia i?noea caeia? ?aoaeueia aeiiia?aoe?eia
i?aeaioiaea (ii?iae?caoe?y aaee/eie a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo), aaeaeaaoia
aianoac?ieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy. Ea?iaaia a?iioaic?y c aeei?enoaiiyi
iae?ieaioe/ieo i?aia?ao?a, aaia?eiaeieoth/eo cania?a, neiiaoie?oee?a
cia/ii ciaioeee ?ecee aaeeeeo e?iaiao?ao. Nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? ei?aeoe?y
ii?ooaiue cai?oaiiy nenoaie e?ia? o aeiaaeeao ?o aeyaeaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiiy an?o oeeo caoiae?a aeicaieeei cieceoe /anoioo aaeeeeo
e?iaiao?ao (a?eueoa 1e) ca inoaii? 3 ?iee c 31.4% aei 3.3%.

Aeuaiaaaaeai? oneeaaeiaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue i?ae /an iia?aoe?e ? a
?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? ca iaaieo oiia iiaeooue
caaa?oeoeny eaoaeueiei e?ioeai.

I?e aiae?c? ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a o 44 iiia?eeo ? o 156, ye?
aeaeeee, aoei aeyaeaii, ui o?eueee 17 ?c ieo iaee iaaiee aieea ia
?acoeueoao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy (?c ieo 11 aeinoia??ieo). A ia?oo
/a?ao oea a?aeiineoueny aei ??aiy iioeiaeaeaiue nieiiiai iiceo. O
a?eueoino? iiia?eeo oai?eo (44.6%) iooeeie eieae?coaaeeny o oeeiiio oa
aa?oiuei-a?oaeeiiiio a?aeae?eao (AeE= 4), a yeui ieae/a Ae3, oi iiia?ei
o?eueee 7.8% (AeE= 5). Iaee cia/aiiy ?ici??e iooeei, yeui aiie
ciaiooaaee ae?aiao? nieiiiai iiceo ia 1/2 ? a?eueoa iiia?ei 21.4%
oai?eo (AeE=1), a yeui eiii?an?y aoea iaio cia/eiith, oi 12% (AeE= 3).

I?e aioo??oiueiiiceiaeo iooeeiao nieiiiai iiceo iiia?ei ia 19.3%
a?eueoa, i?ae i?e iicaiiceiaeo (AeE=3 ? –1 a?aeiia?aeii), a i?e
ceiye?nieo ia 13.1% a?eueoa, i?ae i?e aeia?iye?nieo (AeE=1 ? –2). sseui
o oai?eo ia aoei noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, iiia?ei 4.1% ianoaaeaieo (AeE=
6), a yeui aoee na?oeaai-noaeeii? – 26% (AeE=1), o?ieia?/i? – 33%
(AeE=3).

Eieae?caoe?y oa ?ici??e iooeeie aecia/aee ae?aaeai?noue iaa?ieia?/iiai
aeao?oeeoo, ui aieeaaei ia ?acoeueoao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. Na?aae
oai?eo c oao?aia?acii iiia?ei 30% (AeE=3), a yeui ?ooia? ii?ooaiiy aoee
a?aenooi? /e aoa o?eueee iiiiia?ac – 3.7% (AeE=-5). O aeiaaeeao
iayaiino? aei iia?aoe?? ii?ooaiue aeeoaiiy iiia?ei ia 15.5% a?eueoa,
i?ae aac oe??? iaoieia?? (AeE=2 ? –1 a?aeiia?aeii).

Ia? cia/aiiy oaeiae oaii ?icaeoeo ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue. Nia?oue
niinoa??aaeanue aeinoia??ii /ano?oa (ia 13,5%) i?e no??ieiio oaii?, i?ae
i?e iia?eueiiio.

Na?aae aaaaoueio i?iaiae?ciaaieo eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a aeinoia??ii
aieeaaee ia /anoioo eaoaeueiiai e?ioey o?eueee aiai?y oa a?ia?ae?eai?y.
I?e a?aenooiino? ?o AeE iaaeeaeoaaeiny aei –2. Aacoiiaii, ia
eaoaeuei?noue aieeaaa a?e oai?eo. Aei 40 ?ie?a iiia?ei 14% (AeE= 2), a
i?ney 40 – 24.4% (AeE=2). Oea ? ia?aeiieeaei iieacieeii eiiiainaoi?ieo
iiaeeeainoae iieiaeiai i?aai?cio. Inoaii? noa? iniaeeai i/aaeaeiei, eiee
a?aooaaoe, ui ceiye?ni? iooeeie c eieae?caoe??th o oeeiiio oa
aa?oiuei-a?oaeiiio a?aeae?eao nieiiiai iiceo /ano?oa niinoa??aaeenue o
ethaeae iieiaeiai a?eo.

A?aooaaiiy noie AeE o iiia?eeo oa oeo, eio?? aeaeeee, iieacaei, ui ??
aaee/eie aeinoia??ii aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy.
Eiee NAeE aoea iiceoeaiith, iiia?ei 44.8% oai?eo, a iaaaoeaiith – 5.2%.
O niinoa?aaeaiiyo, aea NAeE ia?aaeuoaaea 15 — eaoaeuei?noue aeinyaaea
68%, a eiee iaioa – 10 — o?eueee 2.1%. Oaeei /eiii ?ecee iia?aoe?e i?e
oeueiio aoa i?i?iaeueiee.

I?io?eaeoeea iaaeaaii?e?iiiai ?acoeueoaoo o ?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? a ia?oo /a?ao iieyaaea a caiia?aaii? ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue, ye?
iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei nia?o? oai?iai (a?iioi-eaaaiaa?, ai?eii-caiaeuei?,
aino?a na?oeaai-noaeeiia iaaeinoaoi?noue, aaeeea e?iaiao?aoa). O ca’yceo
c oei, ui iniiaiith i?e/eiith nia?o? aoa aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo,
i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?a? eiai iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? ooo aieiaia cia/aiiy iaea
o?aaiaoe/i?noue iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. Inoaii? iiaeeeaa o?eueee ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iioe/ii? oaoi?ee.

Cia/aia i?noea caeia? i?ioeiaa?yeiaa oa?ai?y (ae?o?aoeee,
aetheiei?oeei?aee), canoinoaaiiy OAE o ?aaeei? a?ia?aaioeeyoe??,
i?aeo?eiea aiaeiiai aaeaino, ei?aeoe?y aeaeo?ie?oieo ii?ooaiue oa
eeneioii-eoaeiiai noaio. Aeey i?io?eaeoeee OAE aoaeoeaiei yaey?oueny
canoinoaaiiy iao?aeoe?iiiaaiiai aaia?eio. Canoinoaaiiy oeeo caoiae?a
aeicaieeei cieceoe i?neyiia?aoe?eio nia?oi?noue c 5.7% aei 2.1%.
Aeuaiaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa c o?aooaaiiyi oeeo
aeaieo ?aiiueiai canoinoaaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

AENIIAEE.

1.I?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa i?ae /an
iia?aoe?? oa o ?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? iiaeeea?
oneeaaeiaiiy, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei eaoaeueiiai e?ioey. Iniiaiith
i?e/eiith eiai /ano?oa anueiai ? aeno?aeiee iaa?ye iiceo (58.5%), aino?a
na?oeaai-noaeeiia iaaeinoaoi?noue (14.6%), ai?eii-caiaeuei? (7.3%),
a?iioi-eaaaiaa? oneeaaeiaiiy (4.9%) ? o?iiaiaiaie?y eaaaiaai? a?oa???
(4.9%).

2.I?iaiicoaaiiy oeeo oneeaaeiaiue ia iniia? aeaieo eiii’thoa?iiai
aiae?co ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a ii niaoe?aeuei?e i?ia?ai?
(?ic?aooiee ?o /anoioe, e?eoa??th O2 I??niia, ae?aaiinoe/iiai
eiao?oe??ioo (AeE) ii iaoiaeeoe? Aaeueaea, ?iaeaeno ?ioi?iaoeaiino?
Eoeueaaea) aea? ciiao c aeinoia??i?noth aecia/eoe ?ecee o??o?a?/iiai
ao?o/aiiy ? ii/aoe iaiao?aei? i?io?eaeoe/i? ae??.

3.I?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeea? iciaee a?eueoino? oneeaaeiaiue, i?e yeeo
aaee/eia AeE ia?aaeuoaaea 1 aoee:

Eieae?caoe?y iooeeie o oeeiiio oa aa?oiuei-a?oaeeiiiio a?aeae?eao
(aaee/eie AeE i?e ??cieo oneeaaeiaiiyo eieeaathoueny a?ae 3 aei 5),
ceiye?niee oa?aeoa? iooeei (a?ae 1 aei 2), iayai?noue oao?aia?aco (a?ae
2 aei 4), yeee ?icaeaa?oueny oaeaeei (a?ae 2 aei 3), ii?ooaiiy aeeoaiiy
(a?ae 2 aei 3), o?io?/i? ?iceaaee (a?ae 3 aei 4), noiooi? caoai?thaaiiy
(a?ae 1 aei 2), aiai?y (a?ae 2 aei 3), a?ia?ae?eai?y (a?ae 2 aei3).

4.Aei ni?eyoeeaeo iciae c iaaaoeaieie aaee/eiaie AeE aeey ??cieo
oneeaaeiaiue iaeaaeeoue:

Aeia?iye?niee oa?aeoa? iooeeie (-2-3), eieae?caoe?y ieae/a Ae3 (-3-5),
iacia/ia eiii?an?y iiceo (-2-4), a?aenooi?noue ae?aaeaieo ii?ooaiue
aeeoaiiy (-5-10), noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue (-2-4), aiai?? (-2) ?
a?ia?ae?eai?? (-2).

5.I?iaiic o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ni?eyoeeaeo, eiee noia AeE (NAeE) aoea
iaaaoeaiith. Oneeaaeiaiee i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae niinoa??aaee o 72.8%
oai?eo i?e iiceoeai?e noi? AeE ? o?eueee o 22% i?e iaaaoeai?e.

6.*anoioa i?neyiia?aoe?eieo a?iioiiiaaiii?e caeaaeeoue e??i caaaeueieo
i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeeaeo iciae ? a?ae iayaiino? ii?ooaiue a?oaeiiai
aeeoaiiy, ooieoe?? oaciaeo i?aai?a, e?ioiiai??.

O aeiaaeeao, eiee noia AeE aoea iaioa 1, ?ecee ?icaeoeo iiaaiii?? ia
ia?aaeuoaaa 3.2%, eiee a?eueoa 1 – 49.4%, a a?eueoa 15 – 88%.

I?io?eaeoeeith oeeo oneeaaeiaiue ?: i?iaaaeaiiy naain?a aeeaieiai
aeeoaiiy aei iia?aoe??, NAe c IOEA i?ney ia? ? i?aaaioeaia aaaaeaiiy
aioea?ioee?a. Oea aeicaieeei cieceoe /anoioo iiaaiii?e ca inoaii? 3 ?iee
ia 26.7%.

7.*anoioa ?icaeoeo aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino? aecia?oueny
eieae?caoe??th iooeeie, ??aiai iaoieia??, iayai?noth ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue,
noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, aenoaineai?noth iia?aoe?e, aaee/eiith
e?iaiao?aoe.

Eiee noia AeE aoea iiceoeaiith, ANNI niinoa??aaeanue o 42.8%, a
iaaaoeaiith o — 8.4%. I?e NAeE a?eueoa 10 aiia aeieeaea o 71.4%, a iaio
-10 ia niinoa??aaeanue.

I?io?eaeoeea ANNI aeeth/a? a ia?oo /a?ao e?eoaaiiy noiooi?o
caoai?thaaiue, iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa e?eoaaiiy aaeeeeo e?iaiao?ao ? OAE,
ciaioaiiy o?aaiaoe/iino? iia?aoe??. Oea aeicaieeei ciaioeoe /anoioo ANNI
ia 13.9%.

8.Ia’?i e?iaiao?aoe i?ae /an iia?aoe?? oa i?ney ia? caeaaeeoue a?ae
?ici???a iooeeie, ?? eieae?caoe??, ??aiy aetheice e?ia?, ia’?io
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, eiai o?eaaeino? oa canoinoaaiiy i?e?ineiia.

Cia/ia e?iaiao?aoa (? 1000ie) ia niinoa??aaeanue i?e iaaaoeai?e NAeE ?
aeinyaaea 65%, eiee aiia aeua 10.

Ae??oaeueiei o i?io?eaeoeoe? oeueiai oneeaaeiaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy
iioe/ii? oaoi?ee, caiia?aaiiy a?oa??aeueii? a?ia?oaic??, ei?aeoe?y
cai?oath/i? nenoaie e?ia?. Oae? ae?? aeicaieeee ciaioeoe /anoioo aaeeeeo
e?iaiao?ao ia 28.1%

9. Eaoaeuei?noue aecia/a?oueny a?eii oai?eo, oa?aeoa?ii iooeeie, ??
eieae?caoe??th, nooiaiai eiii?an?? nieiiiai iiceo, iayai?noth noiooi?o
caoai?thaaiue, ae?aaeai?noth ii?ooaiue aeeoaiiy, ?ooiaiai aeao?oeeoo,
oaiiii eiai ?icaeoeo, iayai?noth aiai??, a?ia?ae?eai??, canoinoaaiiyi
iioeee — i?e?ineiia. O oeo aeiaaeeao, aea noia ae?aaiinoe/ieo
eiao?oe??io?a aoea aeua 1, iiia?ei 44.8%, aeua 15 – 68%, a eiee iaio 1 –
5.2%.

I?io?eaeoeea eaoaeueiiai e?ioey ni?yiiaaia o ia?oo /a?ao ia caiia?aaiiy
? e?eoaaiiy aeno?aeiiai iaa?yeo iiceo, ANNI, aaeeeeo e?iaiao?ao,
ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue ? o?iiaiaiaie?? eaaaiaai? a?oa???.
Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy o oeueiio iaeaaeeoue aaeaeaaoi?e ia?aaeiia?aoe?ei?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ? aianoac?ieia?/iiio caaacia/aiith iia?aoe??,
iaeio?aaiaoe/iiio o??o?a?/iiio ao?o/aiith (canoinoaaiiy i?e?ineiia),
iiia?aaeaeaiith ? e?eoaaiith i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue. Oea
aeicaieeei ciaioeoe eaoaeuei?noue c 5.7% aei 2.1%.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??.

1.A?iieueaa A.E. Ineiaeiaiey iinea iia?aoeee ii iiaiaeo iiooiee nieiiiai
iicaa e eo i?ioeeaeoeee // Ee?i. O??o?a?y,1998.- ?5.- N.28-30.

2.A?iieueaa A.E. I?iaiice?iaaiea e i?ioeeaeoeea iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo
a?iioi-eaai/iuo ineiaeiaiee i?e iiooieyo nieiiiai iicaa //Athe. OAI.-
1998.- ?6.-N.152-153.

3.??iieue?a A.?., *aie?e E.I., ss?ioeueeee ?.TH., Aaa?eo ?.A.,
Aeoiaanueea E.A. Caaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? a e?eoaaii?
oneeaaeiaiue o iae?io??o?a?/ieo oai?eo //Athe. OAI.-1996.-?2.-N.48-49.

4.A?iieueaa A.E.. I?iaiice?iaaiea e i?ioeeaeoeea iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo
ineiaeiaiee i?e iiooieyo nieiiiai iicaa //Iaoa??aee II Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiia?ano aianoac?ieia?a Oe?a?ie.- (24-27 aa?an.1996, Oa?uee?a). — Ee?a:
Aeua oe.,1996.-N.45-46.

5.Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Eaaeoeeee A.I., A?iieueaa A.E., Eiiaei E.A.,
I?aaeouaiei N.A.,. Aianoaceieiae/aneia iaania/aiea i?e ineiaeiaiee o?aai
a?oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea //Iaoa??aee II iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiia?ano
aianoac?ieia?a Oe?a?ie.- Oa?e?a, 1996.-N.45.

6.*aie?e E.I., ??iieue?a A.?. I?neyiia?aoe?ei? a?iioi-eaaaiaa?
oneeaaeiaiiy i?e iooeeiao nieiiiai iiceo //Oac. Aeiii. VI iaoe.
i?aeo.eiio. aianoac?ieia?a Oe?a?ie.-?aaii-O?aie?anuee,-1998.-N.26.

Aiioaoe?y.

A?iieue?a A.?. I?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeea oneeaaeiaiue o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo oa o?aaoa. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.05.-iae?io??o?a?y. ?inoeooo iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999 ??e.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaiicoaaiith oa i?io?eaeoeoe? oneeaaeiaiue
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iooeei nieiiiai iiceo. Aeei?enoai? aeai?
iiaeeaeaiiai eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co 200 ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ea?o oai?eo c
iooeeiaie iiceo. O 110 c ieo iaee i?noea iaeia /e aeae?eueea
oneeaaeiaiue, ye? aeieeaee i?ae /an /e i?ney iia?aoe??.

A ?iaio? i?eaaaeai? aeai? i?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee oaeeo
oneeaaeiaiue, ye i?neyiia?aoe?ei? iiaaiii??, cia/ii? e?iaiao?aoe,
aino?i? na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino?, a oaeiae nia?o? oai?eo.
Onoaiiaeai? aaaeo/? i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeea? iciaee oeeo oneeaaeiaiue.
Iniiaieie na?aae ieo aoee: eieae?caoe?y iooeei a oeeiiio oa
aa?oiueia?oaeiiio a?aeae?e? nieiiiai iiceo, ceiye?ni?noue iooeei
iniaeeai oeo, ye? i?i?inoaee a o?aaao, aioo??oiueiiiceiaa eieae?caoe?y.
Cia/iee ?ici?? iooeei, o?aaiaoe/ia iia?aoe?y, aaeeea e?iaiao?aoa,
iayai?noue noiooi?o caoai?thaaiue, iniaeeai o?ieia?/ieo, ii?ooaiiy
aeeoaiiy, o?io?/i? ?iceaaee, ii?ooaiiy aiiainoaco iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia
?acoeueoao iia?aoe?e. A?aenooi?noue oeeo iciae aoea i?iaiinoe/ii
aeaaii?e?iiith. I?e i?ae?aooieo noie ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a
i?iaiinoe/ii iani?eyoeeaeo ? ni?eyoeeaeo iciae aaeaaaeinue e?euee?nii
ioe?ieoe ?ecee /anoioe ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue ? nai?/anii oe?eani?yiiaaii
aeei?enoaoe eiiieaen i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Iniiaieie na?aae ieo
yaeythoueny: o?aioaaiiy aeeaeie aaeeoo, i?iaaaeaiiy naain?a NAe c IOEA,
ooaeaoii? a?iioineii??, i?aaaioeaiiai aaaaeaiiy aioea?ioee?a,
aeei?enoaiiy iioe/ii? oaoi?ee, ai?ioueaa c aeno?aeiei iaa?yeii iiceo,
nai?/ania ei?aeoe?y e?iaiao?aoe oa ii?ooaiue aiiainoaco. Oea aeaei
iiaeeea?noue cieceoe /anoioo iiaaiii?e ia 26.7%, aino?i?
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaaeinoaoiino? ia 13.9%, cia/ieo e?iaiao?ao ia 28.1%
oa nia?oaeueieo aeiaaee?a ia 3.6%.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iooeeia nieiiiai iiceo, oneeaaeiaiiy, i?iaiinoe/i?
e?eoa???, ae?aaiinoe/iee eiao?oe??io.

Aiiioaoeey.

A?iieueaa A.E. I?iaiice?iaaiea e i?ioeeaeoeea ineiaeiaiee oe?o?ae/aneiai
ea/aiey iiooieae nieiiiai iicaa e iicaiii/ieea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.05.-iae?ioe?o?aey. Einoeooo iae?ioe?o?aee
ei.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 aiae.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaiice?iaaieth e i?ioeeaeoeea ineiaeiaiee
oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey iiooieae nieiiiai iicaa. Eniieueciaaiiu aeaiiua
oaeoaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?iiai aiaeeca 200 eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ea?o aieueiuo n
iiooieyie iicaa. A 110 ec ieo eiaee ianoi iaeii eee ianeieueei
ineiaeiaiee, eioi?ua aicieeaee ai a?aiy eee iinea iia?aoeee.

A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua i?iaiice?iaaiey e i?ioeeaeoeee oaeeo
ineiaeiaiee, eae: iineaiia?aoeeiiiua iiaaiiiee, cia/eoaeueiua
e?iaiiioa?e, ino?ay na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, a oaeaea
nia?oe aieueiuo. Onoaiiaeaiu aaaeouea i?iaiinoe/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiua
i?eciaee yoeo ineiaeiaiee. Iniiaiuie n?aaee ieo auee: eieaeecaoeey
iiooiee a oaeiii e aa?oiaa?oaeiii ioaeaeao nieiiiai iicaa,
ceiea/anoaaiiinoue iiooieae a iniaaiiinoe oao, eioi?ua i?i?anoaee a
iicaiii/iee, aioo?eiicaiaay eieaeecaoeey. Cia/eoaeueiue ?acia? iiooieae,
o?aaiaoe/aneay iia?aoeey, aieueoay e?iaiiioa?y, iaee/ea niioonoaothueo
caaieaaaiee, a iniaaiiinoe o?ieiae/aneeo, ia?ooaiea aeuoaiey,
o?ioe/aneea ia?ooaiey, ia?ooaiey aiiainoaca, io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyee ia
?acoeueoao iia?aoeee. Ionoonoaea yoeo i?eciaeia auei i?iaiinoe/anee
aeaaii?eyoii. I?e iiaen/aoa noiiu aeeaaiinoe/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia
i?iaiinoe/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo e aeaaii?eyoiuo i?eciaeia oaeaaaeinue
eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue ?ene /anoiou ?acee/iuo ineiaeiaiee e
naiaa?aiaiii oeaeaiai?aaeaiii eniieueciaaoue eiiieaen i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo
ia?ii?eyoee. Iniiaiuie n?aaee ieo yaeythony: o?aie?iaea aeoaeiu aaeioa,
i?iaaaeaiea naainia NAe n IAeEA, ooaeaoiie a?iioineiiee, i?aaaioeaiiai
aaaaeaiey aioeaeioeeia, eniieueciaaiea iioe/aneie oaoieee, ai?ueaa n
ainoiaeyuei ioaeii iicaa, naiaa?aiaiiay ei??aeoeey e?iaiiioa?e e
ia?ooaiey aiiainoaca. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue nieceoue /anoioo iiaaiiiee
ia 26.7%, ino?ie na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe ia 13.9%,
cia/eoaeueiuo e?iaiiioa?ue ia 28.1% e nia?oaeueiuo neo/aaa ia 3.6%.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiooiee nieiiiai iicaa, ineiaeiaiey, i?iaiinoe/aneea
e?eoa?ee, aeeaaiinoe/aneee eiyooeoeeaio.

Summary

Ermoliev A.I. Prognosis and profilactic methods in treathment of spinal
cord tumors — Manuscript.

Dissertation work for achivment of scientific degree of candidate in
medicine /Neurosurgery speciality 14.01.05/. Institute of neurosurgery
named Romodanov A.P., AMS, Ukraine, Kiev 1999.

Dissertation work devoted for prognosis and profilactic of complications
of surgical treatment spinal cord tumors. We used the extended
informatic cards of treatment protocols of 200 patients with
computerised analysis. In 110 patients were one or more complications of
the surgery.

The work deals with dates of prognosis and profilactics of pneumonia,
huge hemorhages, acute cardial and vasculan insuficiency, death of
patients. It was singled out the main prognostic features of this grave
complications. The most valuated from this factors were: cervical
localisations of tumous, tumor malignancy, intramedullar location.

The large tumor volume, extensive operations, huge volume hemorhage,
somatic diseases, urological complications, lung problems, trophic
ulcers and hemostasis disturbanses were negatively influenses on results
of surgery. In contrary to this the absense of this features had
favorable results on surgical treatment. It was feasible to prognosise
the result of surgery by calculation of all coeficients. The main
prophylactic methods were:lung training, bronhcial tree lavage,
preventive antibioticotherapy, using operative microscope, treatment of
spinal cord edema, hemodinamic correction. The using of preventive
technique was possible to lover the pneumonia rate to 26.7%, vascular
insuficiency to 13.9%, hemorhage to 28.1%, delth to 3.6%.

Key words:spinal cord, tumors complications, prognostic criteria,
diagnostic coufficient.

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