20

I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Iioi?iee Ieeiea Aioiiiae/

OAeE. 624.131.537:624.131.31

I?iaiic no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie aeeaieeo ae?iaie

iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?.

05.23.02. — I?aeaaeeie oa ooiaeaiaioe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe.

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eaei?i?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa
oa a?o?oaeoo?e, I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, n. i. n., Oaiiaae Aieiaeeie?
A?eai?iae/, I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iniiae oa ooiaeaiaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii/oiai TH??e Ieoaeeiae/, Aea?aeaaiee
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee oa
eiii`thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe ?oaai Ieaa Aiaoie?eiae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e i?aeaaeei, ooiaeaiaio?a oa i?aecaiieo nii?oae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, iniia oa
ooiaeaiaio?a, I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iae??aea.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 13.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.085.01 i?e I?eaei?i?ianuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 49600,
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. *a?ieoaanueeiai 24a, aoae. 202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? I?eaei?i?ianueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 49600,
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. *a?ieoaanueeiai 24a

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aaoaoaaa E. A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A i?aeoeoe? aoae?aieoeoaa /anoi aeieea? i?iaeaia
i?iaiico no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a o
ieai? ? ii aeeaei?, oiaoi oaeeo, iaaeiei yeeo a?oio ciaoiaeeoueny a
noai? i?inoi?iaiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio. C iiae?aieie
ieoaiiyie aeiaiaeeoueny cono??/aoeny ? i?e aeaoooaaii? ooiaeaiaio?a ?
i?aecaiieo nii?oae niiniaii “no?ia a a?oio?”, aeaoooaaii?
i?ioeo?eueo?aoe?eieo ae?ao?aai, ia?a?eaieo i?aeii?ieo no?iie,
i?ioecnoaieo oo?eioth/eo eiino?oeoe?e, ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? i?aeneeaii?
ooiaeaiaio?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie iaoiiaeaia oei, ui i?e iiaiaaeaii? ?ici???a
ae?iaie a a?oioiaiio ianea? ?o e?eoe/ia aenioa (oiaoi aeeaeia ae?iaie)
cia/ii c?inoa? a ii??aiyii? c aeeaeiith ae?iaie iaiaiaaeaii? aeiaaeeie.
A ae?th/?e ia Oe?a?i? ii?iaoeai?e e?oa?aoo?? aei oaia??oiueiai /ano ia
iiaeai? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie
iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a. Ia ?ica`ycaiiy caaaeaieo caaea/ ? iai?aaeaia aeaia
?iaioa.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue ii eii?aeeiaoe?eiiio ieaio iaeaaaeeea?oi? oaiaoeee AeEIO
?I N?N? ? Aea?aeaoaeo N?N? a 1981…1990 ?. ?. ii oe?eueia?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e i?ia?ai? I. Oe. 031, i?iaeaia 0.55.05 — ?ic?iaea iiaeo
? aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/eo ?ic?aooie?a ooiaeaiaio?a a oiio /ene? oaeeo,
ui caiaeyoueny niiniaii “no?ia a a?oio?” (aieiaia i?aai?caoe?y AIAe?IIN
?i. I. I. Aa?naaaiiaa).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e aeeiiaii? aeaii? ?iaioe
ia?ane?aeoaaeanue iaoa aea/eoe iniaeeaino? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio iniia iaaeiei ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a, aeine?aeeoe
caeiiii??iino? ?o ?oeioaaiiy ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii aecia/aiith e?eoe/ieo ?ici???a oaeeo ae?iaie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ia iiaeaeyo ?c iioe/ii-aeoeaiiai iaoa??aeo aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeine?aeeoe ea?oeio iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaaeiei ? a iniia?
iiaeaeae ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a c canoinoaaiiyi eiia?iaoe??
iaoiae?a oioii?oaeiino?, a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy ? caii?iaeaiiy
iai?oaeaiue;

— ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy i?e
aeei?enoaii? a?oioo i?e?iaeii? no?oeoo?e ? a?oioiaeo iano,
aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeoe oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a;

— c aeei?enoaiiyi aeyaeaieo a oiae? aenia?aiaio?a oi?i iiaa?oiiue
ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a aeyaeoe ?o
e?eoe/i? ?ici??e a ieai?, ye? caaania/othoue no?ee?noue aa?oeeaeueieo
no?iie i?e caaeai?e aeeaei? ae?iaee;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo
?ici???a c o?aooaaiiyi caaaioaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaie
?iciiae?eaiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi (oaea ?ic?aooieiaa noaia cono??/a?oueny i?e
i?aeneeaii? ooiaeaiaio?a, i?e aeeiiaii? ae?iaie a aaaaoioa?iaiio, c
/a?aoaaiiyi ii aeeaei? i?uaieo ? aeeienoeo a?oio?a, ianea? a?oioo ?
?ioa) ? aac ?? o?aooaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Aeyaeai? ? onoaiiaeai? iiaeeea? oi?ie iiaa?oiiue ia?ooaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a.

2. Aeyaeaia ye?nia ea?oeia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ianeao a?oioo
iaaeiei ? a iniia? aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a.

3. A ia?oa iaea?aeaii? ??oaiiy caaea/? i?i aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ii?
aeiaaeeie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a i?eiouaii? i?i oi?io iiaa?oi?
cnoao a?oioiaiai ianeao a aeaeyae? i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie ? /aoaa?oi?
/anoeie ae?ini?aeo aac o?aooaaiiy caaaioaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaee
?iciiae?eueiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ? c eiai o?aooaaiiyi.

4. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy no?eeino? ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a
aac o?aooaaiiy ? c o?aooaaiiyi caaaioaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaee
?iciiae?eueiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue:

— aecia/eoe no?eeo aeiaaeeio ae?iaee le? aeey caaeaii? ?? aeeaeie I i?e
aeaoooaaii? ooiaeaiaio?a, ye? nii?oaeaeothoueny iaoiaeii “no?ia a
a?oio?” aac canoinoaaiiy aeeienoiai ?ic/eio /e noniaic??;

— cai?iaeooaaoe a?aenoaiue i?ae ia?eae?iiaeueieie i?ioecnoaieie
oo?eioth/eie eiino?oeoe?yie le?, eio?a caaania/o? no?ee?noue noeeo;

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeueio aeiaaeeio “caoaaoee” i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
i?aeneeaii? ooiaeaiaio?a, eio?? caaania/othoue no?ee?noue iniia.

?acoeueoao? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o?anoaie “Aei?i?iaaaeaoae” oa NIO
o?.?17 ia aoae?aieoeoa? i?iieneiaeo nii?oae c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii a?ey
200000a?eaaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a:

— i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c? iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a ? ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy;

— aea/aii? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ianeao a?oioo iaaeiei ? a
iniia? ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a, a oaeiae oi?i iiaa?oiiue ia?ooaiiy
?o aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie;

— ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? i?aeoe/ii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a aeiiouai?
i?i oi?io iiaa?oi? cnoao ianeao a?oioo a aeaeyae? i?eciaoe/iiai eeeio ?
iaei??? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ae?ini?aeo, a oiio /ene? c o?aooaaiiyi
i?eaaioaaeo aeaiii? iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaee ?iciiae?eueiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi;

— ia?aa??ea oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ia aaeaeaaoi?noue aenia?eiaioo;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a i?aeoeeo i?iaeooaaiiy ?
aoae?aieoeoaa.

A ioae?eaoe?yo a ni?aaaoi?noa? iniaenoi iiooeoaa/ai aoee aeeiiai?
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy [1, 2], iiai?noth aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia
aecia/aiiy iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie niiniaii
a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy.

Ni?aaaoi?ii Oueiee?iei A. ?. aeeiiaii ?aaeaaoaaiiy noaoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

1. Ananithcia eiioa?aioe?y “Aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o ioeueiaiai
oeeeeo c aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a iaoai?caoe?? ? aaoiiaoecaoe??”, Ooa, 1981
?.

2. Iaeania iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “?ieue ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo a
ai?iouea? ca aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? …”, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee oeaio? AI O?N?, 1983 ?.

3. ?anioae?eainueea eiioa?aioe?y “Oaoiieia?y ? i?aai?caoe?y
?aeiino?oeoe?? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?ioa”, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1985 ?.

4. ?anioae?eainueea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “?ic?iaea
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o”, IANNI O?N?, Ae?A?, 1988 ?.

5. Oe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y ii iaoai?oe? a?oio?a ?
ooiaeaiaioiaoaeoaaiith, Iaeana, 17…19 aa?aniy 1997 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a ? caaaeueieo aeniiae?a,
aeeeaaeaieo ia 129 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 48 iaethie?a
oa 7 oaaeeoeue, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 119 iaeiaioaaiue oa 2
aeiaeaoee.

Ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aeeeaaeai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aei?/ai? iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aaoi? aeiineoue ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iiaeae? a?oioiai? iniiae, ?ic?aooieia?
noaie ? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aecia/aiiy
no?eeino? noee?a ? a?aeein?a aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie, a oaeiae
aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ?
no?eeino? a?oioiaeo iniia. A ?icae?e? oaeiae aeaoaeueii noi?ioeueiaai?
iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aiae?c ?ia?o TH. I. Aaeyeiaa, I. I. Aaey?aa, A. A. Aa?acaioeaaa, A. ?.
Aeaeiaoiaa, A. I. Coaeiaa, A. Eiioia, I. I. Ianeiaa, A. A. Oei??ia, A.
A. Oaaoey ? ?ioeo aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?iaeaia
?ic?aooieo no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a
aeineoue /anoi aeieea? a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe?.

I?iaeai? no?eeino? iniia aoae?aaeue oa niii?oae, noee?a ? a?aeein?a
i?enay/ei? ?iaioe I. I. Aaey?aa, A. A. Aa?acaioeaaa, I. I.
Aieueaeooaeia, A. ?. Aeaeiaoiaa, I. A. Aei?oiaia, TH E. Ca?aoeueeiai,
A. E. Eeaeia, I. A. Iaeeoaaa, I. I. Ianeiaa, TH. I.
Ii/oiaia, I. I. Ioce?aanueeiai, A. A. Oei??ia oa ?ioeo. A oeeo ?iaioao,
ye i?aaeei, ?icaeyaea?oueny a?oioiaee ianea, eio?ee ciaoiaeeoueny a
oiiaao ieinei? caaea/?, ui ia cian?i a?aeiia?aea? oaeoe/i?e
?ic?aooieia?e noai? iniiae iaaeiei ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?.
I?ae ?ioei, ?c i?aeoeee aoae?aieoeoaa a?aeiii, ui oeyoii ciaioaiiy
?ici???a ae?iaie a ieai? aaea?oueny cia/ii ca?eueoeoe ?o aeeaeio. A
ca`yceo c oeei aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?iaeaia i?iaiico
no?eeino? ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a yaey? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ?
iio?aao? ?ica’ycaiiy.

I?e i?iaiic? no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a
aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? ieoaiiy i?oeiino? a?oioo. A oaia??oi?e /an
iaea?eueo /anoi aeei?enoiaothoueny e?eoa??? i?oeiino? Ii?a-Eoeiia,
O?anea-O?eea, I?cana-Aioe?ia, Aeaeth Oaooa, E. I. ?aceaciaa e TH. E.
Ca?aoeueeiai. Aiae?c oeeo e?eoa???a a?aeiinii ?ica`ycoaaii? caaea/?
aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a aeaiiio ?ac? e?eoa??e
Ii?a-Eoeiia ? iaea?eueo aeiionoeiei. A i?ioean? aiae?co iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie, noee?a,
a?aeein?a iaie aoee ?icaeyioo? ?iaioe E. Oa?oeaa?, I. I.
Ianeiaa, I. A. Aei?oiaia, TH. E. Ca?aoeueeiai, TH. I. Ii/oiaia, I. I.
Oeeoiae/a, I. I. Aieueaeooaeia oa ?ioeo a/aieo. ?o aiae?c iicaieea
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo no?eeino? noee?a,
a?aeein?a ? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie, eio?? canoiniaothoueny a
oaia??oi?e /an, iiaeooue aooe eeaneo?eiaai? ye ?ioaa?aeuei? (??aiyiiy
iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?aeiii cacaeaeaa?aeue, iaiao?aeii aeyaeoe eiai
ia?aiao?e) ? aeeoa?aioe?ei? ( ??aiyiiy iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy cacaeaeaa?aeue
iaa?aeiii). I?e oeueiio TH. E. Ca?aoeueeei aoei iieacaii, ui
?ioaa?aeuei? ? aeeoa?aioe?ei? iaoiaee aeathoue, ye cae/aeii, aeecuee? ii
oi/iino? ?acoeueoaoe. A ca`yceo c oeei i?e aeeiiaii? iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aoa i?eeiyoee ?ioaa?aeueiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo, ye
iaio o?oaeii?noeee a ianyao aecia/aiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?oioo ? ?ic?aooie?a.

Aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iaiao?aeii ciaoe
oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
aecia/aiith oi?ie iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie,
noee?a, a?aeein?a iiaeooue aeeiioaaoeny c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo
a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy. Oeueiio ieoaiith iinay/ai? ?iaioe A. ?.
Iie?ianueeiai, ?. A. Oaaei?iaa oa ?ioeo a/aieo. ?o aiae?c aeicaieea
iai?oeoe oae? iai?yiee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue:

— aeyaeaiiy oi?ie ? ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy oeyoii aei?iaoaaiiy ia
a?aeoeaio?ia?e iaoei? a?oioo iaii?ooaii? no?oeoo?e ? a?oioiaeo iano;

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ? iaaeiei
ae?iaie ia iniia? eiia?iaoe?? iaoiae?a oioii?oaeiino? ? a?aeoeaio?iaiai
iiaeoethaaiiy.

A oe?eiio aiae?oe/iee iaeyae aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. I?iaeaia no?eeino? no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a aeeeeea?
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an. Oea ieoaiiy aeaoaeueii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeinue i? a
oai?aoe/iiio, i? a i?aeoe/iiio ieai?.

2. Aeey aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?iaioe a?oioiaiai ianeao c ae?iaeaie
iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiae a?aeoeaio?iaiai
iiaeoethaaiiy a niieo/aii? c iaoiaeii oioii?oaeiino? ? iaoiaeo
caii?iaeoaaiiy iai?oaeaiue.

3. A i?iaaaeaii? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?ioaa?aeueiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? iaoa??aee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo
?ici???a ? caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ? iaaeiei
ae?iaie.

A i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ?ica`ycoaaeenue oae? caaea/?:

— aecia/aiiy ye?nii? ? e?euee?nii? ea?oeie ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue
iaaeiei ? a iniia? aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a;

— aecia/aiiy aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ae?iaee ia no?ee?noue ??
aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie;

— aecia/aiiy oi?ie iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie
iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a;

— aeyaeaiiy aieeao o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioo ia no?ee?noue
aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ia a?aeoeaio?ia?e iaoei?, i?e oeueiio aeey
aecia/aiiy oi?i iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany a?oio iaii?ooaii?
no?oeoo?e ? ianoa ?c oaeiai aea a?oioo, a aeey aeyaeaiiy ea?oeie
?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue — iiey??caoe?eii-aeoeaiee iaoa??ae NAe-10.

Aenia?eiaio ii aecia/aiith no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie
iaiaiaaeaieo ? iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a aoee i?iaaaeai? a a?aeoeaio?ia?e
iaoei? IAeE iaoai?ee a?oio?a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?inoeoooo ?iaeaia??a
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia c?aceao ?c
aeeienoiai a?oioo iaii?ooaii? ? ii?ooaii? no?oeoo?e (ianoao). A oiae?
aenia?eiaioo ieoiia aaaa a?oioo ci?ithaaeanue a iaaeao a?ae 16.7 aei
19.0eI/i3, aieia?noue a?ae 0.1 aei 0.21, eiao?oe??io iooeino?
aa??thaaany a 0,75a0,95, oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy a?aeoeaio?iai? iaoeie
(oeaio?eooae) neeaaeaea 150…200 ia/oa. Ia?ooaiiy no?iie ae?iaie
o?enoaaeiny eiioaeoieie aeao/eeaie. I?ney caaa?oaiiy aeine?aeo
(ia?ooaiiy no?iie) ii niaoe?aeuei?e iaoiaeeoe? aeeiioaaeenue cai??e
eii?aeeiao iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy. Iaea?aeai? oaeei /eiii aeai?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?. Nii/aoeo iaoiaeii
iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a aecia/aeenue oa?aeoa?i? ia?aiao?e iaea?aeaieo
iiaa?oiiue, i?cey /iai iaoiaeeeenue na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?ae oaeoe/ii?.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo ia
a?oio? iaii?ooaii? no?oeoo?e ? a?oioiaeo ianoao aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee.

1. Oi?ia iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?oioo ? aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ae?iaee.

2. Iaea?eueo oi/ii (a i?eeiyoiio i?e aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaioiiio
ae?aiacii? ci?ie aeanoeainoae a?oioo) i?e ao?ao? no?eeino? no?ieaie
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a, iiaa?oiy ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo iiaea aooe
ai?ieneiiaaia /aoaa?oith /anoeiith aeaini?aeo.

3. Ni?inoiaaia iiaeaiiy oi?ie iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao o
aeaeyae? o?eeooii? i?ecie oaeiae aeinoaoiuei oi/ii ni?aiaaea? c
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo.

A oiae? aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ? iaaeiei ae?iaie
aeei?enoiaoaaany iioe/ii aeoeaiee iaoa??ae NAe-10. Aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?. Iiaeaeue ?c iioe/ii-aeoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo iii?uaeanue a oa?iinoao? ? iaa??aaeanue aei oaiia?aoo?e
150…1600N. Iaa??oa iiaeaeue iii?uaeanue a eanaoo a?aeoeaio?iai?
iaoeie. I?ney oeueiai ca /an, ui aei??aith? 4…5 oa. oaeaee?noue
iaa?oaiiy a?aeoeaio?iai? iaoeie aeiaiaeeeanue aei caaeaii?, yea
aei??aithaaea 200…210 ia/oa. A oaeiio noai? c?acie aeo?eioaaany ia
i?ioyc? 2.0…2.5 aiaeeie aei eiai iiaiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy. I?ney coieiee
iaoeie c?acie aeeiaany ?c eanaoe ? eiiiiiaioe iai?oaeaiue aecia/aeenue
ii noaiaea?oi?e iaoiaeeoe?.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy (ii ?iciiae?eaiith iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ?
iaaeiei ae?iaie) c aeei?enoaiiyi iioe/ii-aeoeaiiai iaoa??aeo aeicaieeee
c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

— ai?eciioaeuei? ii?iaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy aeecueei aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie
ae?iaie cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aiaeia?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a
nooe?eueiiio (aac ae?iaie) ianea?;

— yeui ia iiaa?oi? a?oioo iaaeiei ae?iaee i?eeeaaeaia ?iciiae?eueia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ioaineai?noth “q”, oi aa?oeeaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe ?ic?aoiaai? ii oi?ioe? z=(q+z);

— a ieaei?e /anoei? ae?iaee ia? i?noea eiioeaio?aoe?y iai?oaeaiue
(eiao?oe??io eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue E a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ae?iaee ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 2,2E4,2), i?e
oeueiio iaeanoue eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue a ii??aiyii? c ?ici??aie
ae?iaee iacia/ia.

A oe?eiio aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a oiae?
?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee oai?aoe/iiai i?iaiico no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a, oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao
aeioe?eueii i?eeiyoe o aeaeyae? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ae?ini?aeo (yea
iaea?eueo oi/ii a?aeiia?aea? aenia?eiaioo) ? i?aaeeueii? o?eeooii?
i?ecie (ye iaea?eueo i?inoi?).

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ii
i?iaiico no?eeino? no?iie ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a, ye? aacothoueny
ia ?ioaa?aeueiiio iaoiae? ?ic?aooieo. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?ai?oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oi?ia iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie
ae?iaie aoea i?eeiyoa o aeaeyae? i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie ? /aoaa?oi?
/anoeie ae?ini?aeo. I?e aeeiiaii? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
i?eeiyo? oae? i?eiouaiiy:

— a eiaei?e oi/oe? iiaa?oi? neiacaiiy nooe?eueiiai ianeao a?oio
ciaoiaeeoueny a noai? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae, oiaoi iaia`yceiai
aeeiio?oueny oiiaa Eoeiia-Ii?a;

— i?e ioe?ioe? no?eeino? aieiaiei ? a?eueoee ?ici?? ae?iaee a ieai? “l”,
a ca`yceo c /ei a oiae? ?ic?aooieo aeineoue aecia/eoe oeae ?ici??, oiaoi
aeiaaeeio ae?iaee “l”;

— niiacath/ee ianea a?oioo cae?enith? iinooiiaee ?oo.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue aoee noi?ioeueiaai? a oaeiio aeaeyae?:

1. Ia iiaa?oi? i?e?iaeiiai ?aeue?oo a?aenooi? ?aciiae?eueia aai
cina?aaeaeoaaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ioaineai?noth “q”. A?aeii? ieoiia aaaa
a?oioo , eiai oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino? n ? , a oaeiae aeeaeia ae?iaee I.
Iio??aii aecia/eoe oaeo a?aie/io aeiaaeeio ae?iaee le?, i?e ye?e
caaacia/aia no?ee?noue ?? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie.

2. Ia iiaa?oi? i?e?iaeiiai ?aeue?oo i?eeeaaeaia ?iciiae?eueia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ioaineai?noth “q” ? a?aeii? ia?a?aoiaai? a i. 1
oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oioo. Iio??aii aecia/eoe a?aie/io aeiaaeeio ae?iaee
le?, i?e caaeai?e aeeaei? I, eio?a ae caaania/eea no?ee?noue ??
aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aoa aeei?enoaiee ?ioaa?aaeueiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo
a i?eiouaii?, ui oi?ia iiaa?oi? niiacaiiy ianeao a?oioo (i?e oo?ao?
no?eeino? iniiae) ia? aeaeyae o?eeooii? i?yii? i?ecie (ye iaea?eueo
i?inoi?) ? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ae?ini?aeo (ye iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeath/i?
aenia?eiaioo). E?eoa???i i?oeiino? aeey an?o aeiaaee?a aoa i?eeiyoee
caeii Eoeiia -Ii?a. I?e aeaiae? ??aiyiue ??aiiaaae iaoiaeeeenue ae?th/?
ia neiacath/ee ianea a?oioo oo?eioth/? !!! ? c?oooth/? !!! neee, i?ney
/iai noia ?o i?iaeoe?e ia ai?eciioaeueio a?nue i?e??aithaaeanue ioeth.
I?ney oeueiai iaea?aeai? oaeei /eiii ??aiyiiy ae??ooaaeenue a?aeiinii
iiooeiaiai ia?aiao?o (aeiaaeeie ae?iaee l). Aeey aecia/aiiy oo?eioth/eo
nee !!! aeei?enoiaoaaany caeii i?oeiino? Eoeiia-Ii?a.

A ca`yceo c a?ii?caee?noth iaea?aeaieo oaeei /eiii a?aeiioaiue aeey an?o
aeiaaee?a caaea/a ae??ooaaeanue /eneiaei iaoiaeii — iaoiaeii i?yiiai
neai??oaaiiy a oaeiio aeaeyae? (a oae?e iinoaa?). A?aeiiee ooieoe?iiae
l=f(, c, , L, H). Iio??aii aecia/eoe oaea cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o L, i?e
yeiio ooieoe?iiae (oiaoi aeiaaeeia ae?iaee l) ia? iaeiaioa cia/aiiy
(minimum).

A i?eiouaii?, ui oi?ia iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo ia? aeaeyae
i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie (i?yiee eeei), aoee iaea?aeai? oae? oi?ioee aeey
aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie ae?iaee le?:

— i?e a?aenooiino? ia iiaa?oi? ?iciiae?eueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy “q”

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030009000000320a6401b611010000003200700009000000320a6401b914010000003200
700009000000320a55045308010000003200700009000000320a5504bb15010000003200
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320a0105af0f010000006a00e60015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000002
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000200040000002d01020004000000f0010300
09000000320a0105610a0100000028007c0009000000320a010588130100000029007c00
0c000000320ac003671e030000006d696e0029016900c0000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102022253797374
656d0006040000002d01030004000000f0010200030000000000000054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e204379000000000000 (1)

— i?e caaaioaaeaii? iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaee ?iciiae?eueiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ?ioaineai?noth “q”

picscalex1000100090000032c0400000500150000000000050000000902000000000400
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fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014029f01db12050000001302
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4e657720526f6d616e00c48c040000002d01040004000000f00103000c000000320ac003
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2d01030004000000f0010400030000000000ff76fe57c45e0e065326c41f26ff5f2c83c4
0eeb178b46fe897ef08946f250578ec026c41d26ff5f000000000000 (2)

A i?eiouaii?, ui oi?ia iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo (i?e ao?ao?
no?eeino? iniiae) ia? aeaeyae iaeii? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ae?ini?aeo,
iaea?aeai? oae? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie ae?iaee le?:

— i?e a?aenooiino? ia iiaa?oi? iaaeiei ae?iaee ?iciiae?eueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy “q”

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60000000180000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (3)

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(4)

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6cab040000002d01040004000000f001020009000000320a400632000100000049009c00
09000000320a23052b09010000006c007b0009000000320a9a07c0080100000048004401
0f000000320a4006021205000000617263746700be009100be007b00e00009000000320a
6902f422010000006c007b0009000000320ae0048922010000004800440109000000320a
8807311e010000006c007b0009000000320aff09c61d010000004800440109000000320a
4006b22c010000006400e00015000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000000000020010
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00000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0006040000002d01020004000000f001
010003000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000

Oae ye a ni?aa?aeiioaii? (3) ? (4) iiooeiaa aaee/eia l aecia/aia
iaiaeiicia/ii (aoiaeeoue ? ae?ace ?1, ?2, ?3), oi aiia (aeiaaeeia
ae?iaee l) aecia/aeanue i?e aa??aoe?? ia?aiao??a L ? le?. I?e oeueiio
i?eeiaeinue, ui le?(0, 100i), L(0, 100i); e?ie neai??oaaiiy aeey an?o
aeiaaee?a aei??aithaaa 0.01i. ?ioaa?aee ii ia?aiao?o ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue
iaoiaeii o?aiaoe?e ii 201 oi/oe?.

A ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi?aciaeo ?ic?aooie?a aoei aeyaeaii, ui i?e ?ioeo
??aieo oiiaao a?iioaca i?i oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao,
i?e ?oeioaaii? iniiae iaaeiei ae?iaee ? aeaeyae? iaeii? /aoaa?oi?
/anoeie ae?ini?aea, i?eaiaeeoue aei caaeuaiiy ?? e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie le?
a ii??aiyii? c a?iioacith i?i oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo o
aeaeyae? i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? iaoa??aee ia?aa??ee iaea?aeaieo a ?iaio?
oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ia aaeaeaaoi?noue aenia?eiaioo, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii aeei?enoaiith iaea?aeaieo iaie oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a
a i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy ? aoae?aieoeoaa, a oaeiae iaaaaeai? i?eeeaaee
aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe?.

C?noaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? aenie?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeicaieeei
onoaiiaeoe, ui iaee?au?e ca?a i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie ? oaeoe/ieie
cia/aiiyie e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie le? ? oiaueie niiacath/iai a?oioo L
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a aeinyaa? a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui ?ic?aooiie
i?iaiaeeoueny a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?.

1. Nii/aoeo ii oi?ioeai n?=ni/Ea/E?; ?=i/Ea/E?; a=i/Ea/E? aecia/aeenue
?ic?aooieia? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oioo. Ooo ni ? n? — a?aeiia?aeii
ii?iaoeai? ? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ieoiiiai c/aieaiiy; i ? ? —
a?aeiia?aeii ii?iaoeai? ? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ieoiii? aaae a?oioo; i ?
a — — a?aeiia?aeii ii?iaoeai? ? ?ic?aooieia? eooa aioo??oiueiai oa?oy;
Ea — eiao?oe??io aaciaee ii a?oioo, yeee i?eeia?oueny ca?aeii c
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie NI?I 2.02.01.83; E? — eiao?oe??io oiiae ?iaioe a?oioo,
yeee i?eeia?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?eeiyoi? a?iioace i?i oi?io
iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo ? aei??aith? 1.0…1.3.

2. Aeae? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioo, a?aeiii?
aeeaeie ae?iaee I ii oi?ioeao 1…4 aecia/a?oueny aeiaaeeia ae?iaee le?
? oiaueia niiacath/iai ianeao a?oioo L.

3. I?ney oeueiai ii oi?ioeao li?=le?El ? Li?=Le?EL aecia/athoueny
i?i?eoi? cia/aiiy iiooeiaeo ia?aiao??a. Ooo li? ? Li? — a?aeiia?aeii
i?iaeoia aeiaaeeia ae?iaee ? i?iaeoia oiaueia niiacath/iai ianeao a?oioo
a a?aieoeyo aeiaaeeie ae?iaee; El=1; EL=0.9…1.0 — aii??e/i?
eiao?oe??ioe, ye? i?eeiathoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?eeiyoi? oi?ie
iiaa?oi? niiacaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao.

A oiae? aeeiiaieo iaie aaaaoi?aciaeo ?ic?aooie?a ? c?noaaeaiiy ?o
?acoeueoao?a c aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a aoa c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
i?e aeiiouaii? i?i oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao a?oioo a a?aieoeyo
ae?iaee iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai? o aeaeyae? i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie,
na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue e?eoe/ii?
aeiaaeeie ae?iaee li? ? oiaueie niiacath/iai ianeao a a?aieoeyo ae?iaee
Li? a?ae ?o oaeoe/ieo cia/aiue ia ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeii 20 ? 22%. I?e
oeueiio, yeui i?eeiyoi i?eiouaiiy i?i oi?io iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy ianeao
a?oioo o aeaeyae? iaei??? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ?e?ini?aeo oe? aaee/eie
a?aeiia?aeii aei??aiththoue 7 ? 24%. O ca`yceo c oeei aoa c?iaeaiee
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaea?aeai? oaeei /eiii ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia c
aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai oi/iino? canoinoaaoe i?e ?ica`ycaii? caaea/
no?eeino?.

A ?icae?e? oaeiae iiaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith
cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo no?eeino? aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo
?ici???a a ieai? (a?aooaaiiy ??cii??aeiino? ?aaeueieo a?oioiaeo oiia,
iniaeea? aeaee iaaaioaaeaiue ? o. ?.).

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee.

1. A i?aeoeoe? aoae?aieoeoaa ia? i?noea i?iaeaia ?ic?aooieo no?eeino?
ianeao a?oioo a iniia? ? iaaeiei aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a. C
oe??th i?iaeaiith aeiaiaeeoueny iaieio/a cono??/aoeny i?e ?ica`ycaii?
oaeeo i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue, ye nii?oaeaeaiiy i?ioeo?eueo?aoe?eieo caneii?a
(caa?n), oo?eioth/eo i?ioecnoaieo eiino?oeoe?e, aoae?aaeue, ye?
nii?oaeaeothoueny iaoiaeii “no?ia a a?oio?” aac aeei?enoaiiy
aaioii?oiaiai (aai ae?oaiai aeeienoiai) ?ic/eio, ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
i?aeneeaii? ooiaeaiaio?a niiniaii “i?ae??cee”, aecia/aiiy a?aenoai? i?ae
i?ioecnoaieie oo?eioth/eie eiino?oeoe?yie, ioe?ioe? no?eeino? eieaeueieo
ae?eueieoeue noee?a i?e iayaiino? a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a ? ci?ie
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia o ca`yceo c i?aeoiieaiiyi oa?eoi??e ? ?io?.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio iaaeiei ? a iniia? ae?iaie ia
iiaeaeyo ?c iioe/ii-aeoeaiiai iaoa??aeo NAe-10 c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy ? oioii?oaeiino? aeiiiiiaee aeyaeoe
eiioeaio?aoe?th iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ae?iaie. Oey eiioeaio?aoe?y
iai?oaeaiue, i/aaeaeii, ? iaei??th ?c i?e/ei oi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oi?
ia?ooaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie ae?iaie, noee?a, a?aeein?a aeeaieeo
eioeiaai?a ? aaaaoi ?ioeo nii?oae a a?oioiaiio ianea?.

3. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue a
iniia? ? iaaeiei ae?iaie c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeaeae ?c iioe/ii-aeoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo i?e a?aeoeaio?iaiio iiaeoethaaii? onoaiiaeai?:

— ye?nia ea?oeia ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue a iniia? ? iaaeiei aeeaieeo
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?;

— aieea aneiao??? ?icoaooaaiiy ae?iaie ia ye?nio ea?oeio ?iciiae?eo
iai?oaeaiue a ianea? a?oioo a iniia? ? iaaeiei ae?iaie;

— aca?iiee aieea ?icoaoiaaieo ii?yae ae?iaie (aieiaieo ?
?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo) ia ?iciiae?eaiiy iai?oaeaiue ?? eiioeaio?aoe?th a
iniia? ? iaaeiei aieiaieo ? aeiiii?aeieo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a
ieai?.

4. A oiae? a?aeoeaio?iaiai iiaeoethaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ca`yciiai
a?oioo iaii?ooaii? (i?e?iaeii?) no?oeoo?e ? aeeienoeo iano onoaiiaeaii,
ui oi?ia iiaa?oi? ia?ooaiiy (iiaa?oi? niiacaiiy) aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie
ae?iaie aeecueea aei iiaa?oi? iaei??? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie ae?ini?aeo,
iaeia ?c aieiaieo inae yeiai oi?io? aeeaeio ae?iaee I, ae?oaa —
aeiaaeeio ae?iaee l, o?aoy — oiaueio niiacath/iai ianeaa L. I?e oeueiio
c aeinoaiueith aeey i?aeoe/ieo ?iec?aooie?a oi/i?noth oi?ia iiaa?oi?
niiacaiiy iiaea aooe oaeiae ai?ieneiiaaia /anoeiith iiaa?oi? i?yii?
o?eeooii? i?ecie, eio?a aeeth/a? a naaa iniiao ? /anoeio aieiai?
iiaa?oi?, noi?iiaie yei? ? aenioa i?ecie I, oiaueia i?ecie L ?
a?iioaioca ?ici?uaiiai a ?? iniia? o?eeooieea.

5. ?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoie ?ic?aooieo no?eeino? a?aie/ii? aeiaaeeie
aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a i?eiouaii?, ui oi?ia iiaa?oi?
ia?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai ianeao ia? aeaeyae iaeii? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie
ae?ini?aeo aai i?yii? o?eeooii? i?ecie. C?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ?ic?aooieiaa e?eoe/ia aeiaaeeia ae?iaee le? i?e ?ioeo
??aieo oiiaao a 1…. ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae a ae?oaiio.

6. Aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiii?a ciaeoe ?yae aoaeoeaieo i?iaeoieo ??oaiue i?e
nii?oaeaeaii? ooiaeaiaio?a ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae iaoiaeii “no?ia a
a?oio?”, i?ioeo?eueo?aoe?eieo caneii?a (caa?n), ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
i?aeneeaii? ooiaeaiaio?a aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae.

7. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a
aoae?aieoeoa? neeaaea? aeecueei 200 000 a?eaaiue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo noaooyo:

1. Oaeeei A. E., Iioi?iue I. A. Onoie/eainoue aa?oeeaeueiuo noaiie
o?aioae i?e nii?oaeaiee noai/aouo ooiaeaiaioia. /Iniiaaiey e ooiaeaiaiou
a neiaeiuo eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo. ?3. -Eacaiue. 1979. N.
68-72.

2. Iioi?iue I. A., Oaeeei A. E. Enneaaeiaaiea oi?iu iiaa?oiinoe
ia?ooaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo ioeinia o?aioae iaoiaeii oeaio?iaaaeiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey. /Iniiaaiey e ooiaeaiaiou a aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo O?aea.
-Ia?iue, 1984. N. 59-66.

3. Iioi?iue I. A. Enneaaeiaaiea iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey ianneaa a?oioa
aie?oa e a iniiaaiee aeoaieeo o?aioae. /Iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia AeENE: -Eeaa, OIEAI, 1991.
N.106-114.

4. Iioi?iue I. A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iaaaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noee?a
aeeaieeo o?aioae. /?ioaineo?eaoe?y aoae?aieoeoaa. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue Ae?A?. -Ee?a, 1994. N. 166-170.

5. Iioi?iue I. A. Ii?aaeaeaiea onoie/eaie oe?eiu au?aaioie ia?aie/aiiuo
?acia?ia a ieaia n o/aoii i?ea?ocee iiaa?oiinoe
?aaiiia?ii-?ani?aaeaeaiiie iaa?oceie eioaineaiinoueth “q”. /A?niee
aeaaeai??: Iaoeiaee oa ?ioi?i. atheaoaiue IAeAAA, -Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1998. ?8 N. 29-31.

6. Iioi?iue I. A., Oeaiia Ae. A. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo
ia?eaeei-iaeueiuie aeanoeeie oaea?aeeaathueie eiino?oeoeaiuie
yeaiaioaie. /A?niee aeaaeai??: Iaoeiaee oa ?ioi?i. atheaoaiue IAeAAA,
-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. ?1 N. 32-36.

7. Iioi?iue I. A. Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ia aeoaieeo au?aaioie
ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia a ieaia a i?aaeiieiaeaiee yeeeinieaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe neieueaeaiey. /Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia I?eaeiai?ianeie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.
-Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999. aui. 5, /. 3, N. 21-26. (a ia/aoe)

8. Iioi?iue I. A. “Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ia aeoaieeo au?aaioie
ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia a ieaia a i?aaeiieiaeaiee yeeeinieaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe neieueaeaiey n o/aoii i?ea?ocee iiaa?oiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
iaa?oceie eioaineaiinoueth “q”.” /A?niee aeaaeai??: Iaoeiaee oa ?ioi?i.
atheaoaiue IAeAAA, -Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. ?6 N. 26-32.

Iioi?iee I. A. I?iaiic no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie aeeaieeo ae?iaie
iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.02 -I?aeaaeeie oa ooiaeaiaioe.
-I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia no?eeino? aa?oeeaeueieo
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?, oiaoi oaeeo, i?e ?ic?aooieao yeeo
ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?inoi?iao ?iaioo a?oioiaiai ianeao. Aecia/aii aieea
ia no?ee?noue ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a. Aeyaeai?
iiaeeea? oi?ie iiaa?oiae neiacaiiy i?e ia?ooaii? aa?oeeaeueieo no?iie
ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a. Aeyaeaia ye?nia ea?oeia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ianeao a?oioo iaaeiei ? a iniia?
aeeaieeo ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai?. Iaea?aeai? ??oaiiy caaea/e
ii aecia/aiith e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie ae?iaee iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a ieai? a
i?eiouaii?, ui oi?ia iiaa?oi? niiacath/iai ianeao a?oioo ia? aeaeyae
i?eciaoe/iiai eeeio ? iaei??? /aoaa?oi? /anoeie aeaini?aea aac
o?aooaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iiaa?oi? a?oioo ? c o?aooaaiiyi oaeiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeai? aaeaioiaai? aei iio?aa i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy ?
aoae?aieoeoaa iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy no?eeino? ae?iaie iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a
aac o?aooaaiiy ? c o?aooaaiiyi caaaioaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? ?iciiae?eueiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?iaea iaiaaeaieo ?ici???a a a?oioiaiio ianea?,
no?ee?noue, iiaa?oiy ia?ooaiiy, iiaa?oiy neiacaiiy, oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?oeiino? a?oioo, a?aeoeaio?iaa iiaeoethaaiiy, oioii?oaei?noue.

Motorniy N. A. Forecasting of Firmness of vertical Wallplates in Deep
Elaborations of Limited Sizes in Plan. -Manuscript.

The dissertation is represented for scientific degree of Candidate of
Technical Sciences, speciality 05.23.02 — Bases and Foundations —
Pridnieprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture,
Dniepropetrovsk, 1999 .

In this thesis is solved the problem of firmness of vertical
elaborations of limited sizes in plan i. e. such as, when it is needed
to take into account the basis of these elaborations and the area work
of real soil foundation. It is demonstrated the influence and its
geometry on firmness of elaborations of limited sizes. The possible
firms of slipping surfaces in cases of breaking of vertical wall plates
of elaborations of limited sizes are established. The qualitative
picture of stressed deformated condition of soil massif around and in
the base of deep elaborations of limited sizes is discovered in this
scientific work. The discions of the task of definition of vertical
length of elaboration of limited sizes are obtained in assumption of
form of slipping soil massif as a prismatic wedge and one fourth part of
ellipsoid without any loading on the daily base surface and with taking
it into account. The methodics of definition of firmness of elaboration
of limited sizes are adapted and developed to the practical needs of
projecting and construction without taking into account and with taking
into account the loading of base surface by the distributed.

Keywords: elaboration of limited sizes in soil base, firmness, surface
of falling, surface of slipping, durability characteristics of soil,
centrifugal modelling, photoelasticity.

Iioi?iue I. A. I?iaiic onoie/eainoe aa?oeeaeueiuo noaiie aeoaieeo
au?aaioie ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia a ieaia. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.02 — Iniiaaiey e ooiaeaiaiou. -I?eaeiai?ianeay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?aoaaony i?iaeaia onoie/eainoe aa?oeeaeueiuo
au?aaioie ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia a ieaia, o. a. oaeeo, i?e ?an/aoa
eioi?uo neaaeoao o/eouaaoue i?ino?ainoaaiioth ?aaioo a?oioiaiai
iniiaaiey. A i?aeoeea no?ieoaeuenoaa e i?iaeoe?iaaiey n yoie i?iaeaiie
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny i?e ?aoaiee oaeeo aii?inia, eae aicaaaeaiea
i?ioeaioeeueo?aoeeiiiuo e oaea?aeeaathueo eiino?oeoeee iaoiaeii “noaia a
a?oioa” aac eniieueciaaiey aaioiieoiaiai (eee ae?oaiai aeeienoiai)
?anoai?a, ?aeiino?oeoeey e oneeaiea ooiaeaiaioia iaoiaeii iiaena/ee,
iacia/aiea ?annoiyiee iaaeaeo oaea?aeeaathueie eiino?oeoeeyie, ioeaiea
onoie/eainoe eieaeueiuo o/anoeia neeiiia i?e iaee/ee y?iceiiiuo
i?ioeannia e eciaiaiee aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee e o. ae.

Enneaaeiaaiey aeeth/aee a naay yenia?eiaioaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea
iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a iniiaaiee e ie?anoiinoe au?aaioie, auyaeaiea
oi?i iiaa?oiinoae neieueaeaiey niiecathuaai a?oioiaiai ianneaa i?e
iioa?a noaieaie au?aaioie onoie/eainoe, a oaeaea oai?aoe/aneea
?ac?aaioee, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ii?aaeaeaiea e?eoe/aneeo ?acia?ia
au?aaioie ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia.

Auyaeaiea iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey iniiaaiey a ie?anoiinoe au?aaioie
ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia auiieiyeinue n eniieueciaaieai iioe/anee-aeoeaiiai
iaoa?eaea. i?e yoii aeey oeenaoeee ea?oeiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiee
aue eniieueciaai iaoiae caii?aaeeaaiey, a aeey ainnicaeaiey aeeceiai e
iaoo?iui oneiaeyi iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iniiaaiey —
iaoiae oeaio?iaaaeiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey. Auiieiaiiua a oeacaiiii
iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiey iicaieeee auyaeoue ea/anoaaiioth ea?oeio
?ani?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiee a iniiaaiee e aie?oa au?aaioie, ioeaieoue
aeeyiea ?aniieiaeaiey au?aaioie a a?oioiaie oieua ia ea/anoaaiioth
ea?oeio ?ani?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiee a eo iniiaaiee.

A oeaeii, auiieiaiiua ia iioe/anee-aeoeaiii iaoa?eaea enneaaeiaaiey
iicaieeee caeeth/eoue, /oi ai?eciioaeueiua ii?iaeueiua iai?yaeaiey
aaeece aa?oeeaeueiuo noaiie au?aaioie nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io
aiaeiae/iuo a nieioiii ianneaa; anee e iiaa?oiinoe iniiaaiey au?aaioee
i?eeiaeaia ?ani?aaeaeaiiay iaa?ocea eioaineaiinoueth “q”, oi
aa?oeeaeueiua iai?yaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?ann/eoaiu ii oi?ioea z=(q+z); a
ieaeiae /anoe au?aaioee eiaao ianoi eiioeaio?aoeey iai?yaeaiee
(eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee iai?yaeaiee E a caaeneiinoe io
aaiiao?e/aneeo ?acia?ia au?aaioee iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 2,2E4,2), i?e
yoii iaeanoue eiioeaio?aoeee iai?yaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth n ?acia?aie
au?aaioee iacia/eoaeueia.

A oiaea oeaio?iaaaeiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey n eniieueciaaieai nayciiai a?oioa
iaia?ooaiiie (anoanoaaiiie) no?oeoo?u e aeeienoie ianou onoaiiaeaii, /oi
oi?ia iiaa?oiinoe ia?ooaiey (iiaa?oiinoue neieueaeaiey) aa?oeeaeueiuo
noaiie au?aaioie aeecea e iiaa?oiinoe iaeiie /aoaa?oie /anoe yeeeinieaea
, iaeia ec aeaaiuo inae eioi?iai oi?ie?oao aeoaeio au?aaioee, ae?oaay —
aeeeio, a o?aouey — oieueio. I?e yoii n aeinoaoi/iie aeey i?aeoe/aneeo
?an/aoia noaiaiueth oi/iinoe oi?ia iiaa?oiinoe neieueaeaiey iiaeao auoue
aii?ieneie?iaaia /anoueth iiaa?oiinoe o?aoaieueiie i?yiie i?eciu,
aeeth/athuae a naay iniiaaiea e oo /anoue aa aieiaie iiaa?oiinoe,
noi?iiaie eioi?ie yaeythony auniou i?eciu e aeiioaiocu ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
aa iniiaaiee i?yiioaieueiuo o?aoaieueieeia.

A oiaea oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ?an/aoa
onoie/eainoe i?aaeaeueiuo aeeeiu li? e oieueiu L au?aaioie ia?aie/aiiuo
?acia?ia i?e ecaanoiie (caaeaiiie) aeoaeia a i?aaeiieiaeaiee i
niiecathuai a?oioiaii ianneaa a aeaea iaeiie /aoaa?oie /anoe yeeeinieaea
e i?yiie o?aoaieueiie i?eciu. Naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa
?an/aoiay aaee/eia i?aaeaeueiie aeeeiu au?aaioee li?, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo, a 1.5…1.8 ?aca aieueoa /ai ai aoi?ii. Iieo/aiiua oaeei
ia?acii ?an/aoiua caaeneiinoe auee aaeaioe?iaaiu i?eiaieoaeueii e
?aoaieth eiie?aoiuo eiaeaia?iuo caaea/.

A oiaea i?eiaiaiey ia i?aeoeea iieo/aiiuo a aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa
?acoeueoaoia iicaieee iaeoe ?yae yooaeoeaiuo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee i?e
aicaaaeaiee ooiaeaiaioia e iiaecaiiuo nii?oaeaiee iaoiaeii “noaia a
a?oioa”, ?aeiino?oeoeee e oneeaiee ooiaeaiaioia caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io aiaae?aiey ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee ninoaaee
ieiei 200 000 a?i.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: au?aaioea ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ia a a?oioiaii iniiaaiee,
onoie/eainoue, iiaa?oiinoue ia?ooaiey, iiaa?oiinoue neieueaeaiey,
i?i/iinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oioa, oeaio?iaaaeiia iiaeaee?iaaiea,
oioioi?oainoue.

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