OIAINUeEA N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEA AEAAeAI?ss

Inaae/ee Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 634.11:631.541.11

I?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e

o i?aaeaii?e /anoei? Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie

06.01.07 – ieiae?aieoeoai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oiaiue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oiainuee?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e aeaaeai??,
I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaeueiee Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,

Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ieiae?aieoeoaa ? aeiia?aaea?noaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoeueei ?aai Iao?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ieiaeiiai/?aieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy ?

ia?a?iaee ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe??

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Nooieeoeee Ieoaeei Aeieo?iae/,

Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueea aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ia aeaaeai?y,

a.i. aeioeaioa eaoaae?e ieiaeiiai/?aieoeoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. I 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 74.844.01 a Oiainuee?e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e

aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 258900, *a?eanueea iae., i. Oiaiue, aoe.
Aeaaeaeaiea, 1,

iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?2, aoaeeoi??y 142.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 258900, *a?eanueea
iae., i. Oiaiue, aoe. Aeaaeaeaiea 3, a?ae?ioaea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Caii?nueeee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eiino?oeoe?y ianaaeaeaiue — aieiaiee
oaeoi?, ui aecia/a? ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino? naaeo – aeeth/a?
a?aeiia?aeii i?ae?a?aia ni?oii?aeuaiia eiia?ioaaiiy, aonoioo naae?iiy,
niin?a oi?ioaaiiy ? ia??coaaiiy aea?aa. I?aaeeueia ii?aeiaiiy oeeo
oaeoi??a aea? ciiao io?eiaoe aenie? o?iaea? aeia?iye?nieo ieiae?a.

Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie eeiiiaeie i?aeuaiaie yaeoi? o Oeaio?aeueiiio
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ? ea?eeeiaa I9 oa iai?aea?eeeia? I26 ? II106, aea
ieiua i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiue ia oeeo i?aeuaiao ua aeineoue iacia/ia. O
ca(yceo c oeei, aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe??
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo ni?o?a ia i?aeuaiao ??cii? neee ?inoo aeey
aeacaii? ciie.

Aeey io?eiaiiy noaa?eueieo o?iaea?a a ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo yaeoi?
ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ne?ae iino?eii i?aeo?eioaaoe ??aiiaaao i?ae
i?ioeanaie ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy. Oeueiai aeinyaathoue eiiieaenii
aa?ii?eeii?a, na?aae yeeo – ?aoe?iiaeueia ia??coaaiiy ieiaeiiinieo
aea?aa. O i?iieneiaiio naae?aieoeoa? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i oe?iei
canoiniao?oueny i?ciueie?oi? ia??coaaiiy aea?aa, oiae? ye a Oe?a?i?
ieiaeia? ianaaeaeaiiy ia??cothoueny ia?aaaaeii aceieo. Oiio canoinoaaiiy
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy a ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo yaeoi? a oiiaao
Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaiai aea/aiiy.

Ioaea, aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacaieo iai?yieao aeineoue aeooaeuei?, oae ye
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaa?oiooaaoe iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? naae?a
?ioaineaiiai oeio ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ??cii? neee ?inoo oa anoaiiaeoe
no?iee ? niiniae ia??coaaiiy ieiaeiaeo aea?aa o ianaaeaeaiiyo oaeiai
oeio.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ?
/anoeiith eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiith 2.12 –ie “?ic?iaea
aeieia?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia ae?iaieoeoaa ieiae?a o nei?iie?aeieo
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo yaeoi? ei?ioeiai
oeeeeo aeei?enoaiiy”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194U038350.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue — ?ic?iaea
iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ?c aenieei
??aiai caaouaiiy aea?aa oa anoaiiaeaiiy iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo no?ie?a
? niinia?a ia??coaaiiy aea?aa neeueii?ineeo ni?o?a. O caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei:

— aecia/eoe ??aaiue ceiino?eeino? aea?aa yaeoi? ??cieo ni?oii?aeuaiieo
eiia?ioaaiue o ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c ??ciei nooiaiai caaouaiiy;

— anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? ?inoo iaaecaiii? /anoeie yaeoi? caeaaeii a?ae
i?aeuaie, ni?oo ? nooiaiy caaouaiiy aea?aa;

— aecia/eoe ??aaiue ina?oeaiiy ??cieo /anoei e?iie o ianaaeaeaiiyo
??cieo eiino?oeoe?e;

— aecia/eoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aa yaeoi? caeaaeii a?ae ni?oo, i?aeuaie
oa nooiaiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c oiaa?iino?, o?i?/ieo oa o?ce/ieo iieaciee?a yaeoe
caeaaeii a?ae i?aeuaie, ni?oo oa aonoioe naae?iiy aea?aa;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy aea?aa yaeoi? neeueii?ineiai
ni?oo Iae?ioc caeaaeii a?ae no?ie?a ? niinia?a ia??coaaiiy;

— aeaoe aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo ae?iaieoeoaa ieiae?a o ianaaeaeaiiyo ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e oa canoinoaaiiy no?ie?a ? niinia?a ia??coaaiiy aea?aa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue. A oiiaao Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie aia?oa: eiiieaenii aea/aii i?ioeane ?inoo oa ieiaeiiioaiiy
aea?aa yaeoi? o ianaaeaeaiiyo ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e o a?oe? 15-17 ?ie?a;
aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? no?iee oa niiniae ia??coaaiiy aea?aa
neeueii?ineiai ni?oo o naaeo ?ioaineaiiai oeio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue ae?iaieoeoao cai?iiiiiaai? iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe??
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo nei?iie?aeieo naae?a o a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao
Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ?aoe?iiaeuei? no?iee oa niiniae
ia??coaaiiy aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc oa noiaeeo aei iueiai ca neeith ?inoo
ni?o?a. A ENI “I?aae?anueea” O?enoei?anueeiai ?aeiio *a?eanueei? iaeano?
o 1996 ?ioe? caeeaaeaii naae ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? ia ieiu? 5 aa
?c. O iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeiiio ainiiaea?noa? “?iaeiee?aea” Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? o 1995-97 ??. cai?iaaaeaeai?
?aeiiaiaeiaai? no?iee ia??coaaiiy ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ceiiaeo ni?o?a ia
ieiu? 2 aa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o i?aeoe/iiio aeeiiaii?
aenia?eiaio?a, ocaaaeueiai? aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e, aiae?c? aeanieo
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o i?aeaioiaoe? aei ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ena(y/ai?e 100-??//th aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy I.I. Oeaa?oea (Oiaiue, 1998?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
nai?ia?ao “?ioaineai? oaoiieia?? — o naae?aieoeoai” (Oiaiue, a?oaeaiue
1998?., n?/aiue, ethoee 1999?.); can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ieiae?aieoeoaa ?
aeiia?aaea?noaa Oiainueei? NAA (1995-98 ??.);.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 3 iaoeia?
i?aoe?, a oiio /ene? 2 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 1 noaooy a ca??ieeo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, ainueie ?icae?e?a iniiaii? /anoeie, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui ia?aoiao? 170
iaeiaioaaiue (c ieo 41 ?iicaii?), 46 aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee iaoa??ae
aeeeaaeaiee ia 150 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 29 oaaeeoeue
oa 16 ?enoie?a.

OIIAE, IA’?EOE ? IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e i?iaiaeeeenue o naaeo iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
«?iaeiee?aea» Oiainueei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??,
?icoaoiaaiiio a i?aaeaii?e /anoei? Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.
Ee?iao Oiainueeiai aa?ia?oioiaiai ?aeiio iii??ii eiioeiaioaeueiee c
iano?eeei caieiaeaiiyi, ia??aiii??i?noth aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ?
oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y. Na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y eieeaa?oueny a
iaaeao +6,9…+7,6 SYMBOL 176 \f «Symbol» \s 16 ° N, i?i?iaeueia
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a iaea?eueo oieiaei? ceie aoaa? a n?/i? – ethoiio
–34…36 SYMBOL 176 \f «Symbol» \s 16 ° N, iaeneiaeueia- a /a?ai? – na?ii?
— +36…38 SYMBOL 176 \f «Symbol» \s 16 ° N. Na?aaeiuei??/ia e?euee?noue
iiaae?a noaiiaeoue 480-540 ii c iaeneioiii a /a?ai?-eeii? – a?eueoa 25%
a?ae ?o ??/ii? aaee/eie. Na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia aieia?noue iia?o?y
neeaaea? 77…78%, i?e/iio a eenoiiaae?-a?oaei? — 88…89, a o eeii?-na?ii?
– 46…48%. E?euee?noue noia?ii? OA?, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ca aaaaoaoe?th,
noaiiaeoue 1561,6 Eaeae/i2.

A?oio aeine?aeii? ae?eyiee – /i?iicai ii?aecieaiee aaaeeinoaeeienoiai
iaoai?/iiai neeaaeo c aeia?a ?icaeiaiei aoioniei ai?eciioii caaoiaoee
40-45 ni – oo?eioaaany i?ae /i?iei ia?ii c ?o/iei ia?ia?oeii
i?eooaiaiaeo nioa. O i?iiio oa?? a?oioo ciaoiaeeoueny ia?an?/ii 3%
aoiono, 0,3% caaaeueiiai acioo, 0,1…0,25% oinoi?o ? 2…2,4% eae?th; ?I
nieueiai? aeoyaeee neeaaea? 5,9, a noia iiaeeiaieo iniia – 26,2 ia/aea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaee o 1995-97 ??. o aeaio iieueiaeo aeine?aeao.

O ia?oiio c ieo, caeeaaeaiiio i?io. A.E.Ea?iai/oeii o 1981 ?ioe?,
aea/aee i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e.
Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ni?oe yaeoi? Iae?ioc ? Aeaea?aae uaieai?
ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao I9, I26 ? II106, aenaaeaeai? ?c ??ciei nooiaiai
caaouaiiy aea?aa: ia I9 -1250, 1428, 1666 aea?./aa, ia I26 -1000, 1250,
1666 aea?./aa, ia II106 — 833, 1000, 1428 aea?./aa. E?iia oi?ioaaeanue
ca oeiii a?ocaae aac iino?eii? i?aeii?e. Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo
/ioe?e?aciaa.

O ae?oaiio aeine?ae? iaeeaaeaiiio o 1995 ?ioe? aea/aee aieea aeae?a ?
no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy ia ??no ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aa yaeoi?
neeueii?ineiai ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 (1250 aea?./aa), I26 (1000
aea?./aa) ? II106 (833 aea?./aa).

Noaia aeine?aeo aeeth/aea 7 aa??aio?a o 5 iiaoi?aiiyo: 1) ceiiaa
ia??coaaiiy ca o?aaeeoe?eiith oaoiieia??th (eiio?ieue); 2) ceiiaa
ia??coaaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c i?ciueie?oi?i aeaeaeaiiyi iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a
o i?noeyo caaouaiiy; 3) ceiiaa ia??coaaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c i?ae??coaaiiyi
ei?ai?a aea?aa ia aeeaei? 0,4 i c? noi?iie iaeiiai c i?ae?yaeue ia
a?aenoai? 0,5 i a?ae e?i?? ?yaeo; 4) ia??coaaiiy aea?aa i?ney cae?i/aiiy
oea?o?iiy; 5) ia??coaaiiy aea?aa i?ney /a?aiaaiai iiaaeaiiy caa’yc? (“ii
caa’yc?”); 6) i?ciueie?oi? ia??coaaiiy o na?ii? i?nyoe?; 7) ceiiaa
ia??coaaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a o e?ioe?
e?oa (na?iaiue i?nyoeue).

O i?ioean? aaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee iieueiaee,
eaai?aoi?iee ? noaoenoe/iee iaoiaee.

Ceiino?ee?noue aea?aa aecia/aee ca i?aeia?caiiyi oeaiei iaeii- ?
aeai??/ii? aea?aaeie, aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo a?oiueie ca
iaoiaeeeith I.I. Nieiaeiai? (1982). Ioe?ieo iioeiaeaeaiue aaee ca
i’yoeaaeueiith oeaeith (iaeneiaeueia iioeiaeaeaiiy — 5 aae?a).

O?oiiao?e/i? aei??thaaiiy ? oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ca
iaoiaee/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie Oiainueei? n.-a. aeaaeai?? (1987). Ieiuo
eenoeiai? ieanoeiee aecia/aee a e?ioe? aaaaoaoe?? iaoiaeii “aen?/ie”, a
ieiuo eenoiai? iiaa?oi? – iiiaeaiiyi e?eueeino? eenoy ia ieiuo eenoeiai?
ieanoeiee. *enoo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith
A.N. Ianyii?eiaa (1979).

??aaiue ina?oeaiiy e?iie aea?aa aea/aee ca iaoiaeeeith A.A. O?iiaiea
(1987) aeueaaaeiiao?ii I-69. Aei??e aaee o /a?ai? i?nyoe? c 10 aei 14
aiaeeie ca ynii? niiy/ii? iiaiaee. ?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy ana?aaeei?
e?iie o aa?oeeaeuei?e i?iaeoe?? aei??thaaee a oiiaiiio eaaae?ao?, 2 o 2
i, ?icoaoiaaiiio a oeaio?? aea?aaa a ieiuei? ?yaeo. Aei??thaaiiy aaee
/a?ac eiaei? i?aiao?a aei 1 i a ??ci? noi?iie a?ae oeaio?aeueiiai
i?ia?aeieea aei aenioe 2 i.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo i?aiaio?a a eeno? aeeiioaaee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei
iaoiaeii ca O.I. Aiaeiaaei (1952) ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-16 oa
niaeo?ieiei?eiao?? «Specol».

O?iaeaei?noue aecia/aee i?ae?aooieii e?eueeino? ieiae?a c ianooiiei
iiiaeaiiyi ia na?aaeith iano ieiaea, yeo aecia/aee caaaeoaaiiyi 100
yaeoe ?c eiaeiiai aa??aioo.

Oiaa?iee aiae?c ieiae?a aaee ca?aeii AINO 21122-75. Aeey aea/aiiy
eaaeeino? a?aeae?aee c?acee ?c 200 yaeoe c eiaeiiai aa??aioa aeine?aeo,
a aeey aecia/aiiy o?ce/ieo iieaciee?a ? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo – ii 2 ea
ieiae?a c aa??aioo. Caa??aaiiy aaee aei ii/aoeo ea?oiy o oieiaeeeueieeo
c oaiia?aoo?ith -1 SYMBOL 176 \f «Symbol» \s 16 ° …+1 SYMBOL 176 \f
«Symbol» \s 16 ° N ? 85%-iith aieia?noth iia?o?y (yueee c ieiaeaie
aenoaeyee iie?aoeeaiiaith ie?aeith).

O?ceei-o?i?/i? aiae?ce yaeoe aeeiioaaee i?ney cae?aiiy ? /a?ac eiaei?
o?e i?nyoe? caa??aaiiy. Eiao?oe??io a?aeaeaaiiy na?oea a?ae iiaa?oi?
ieiae?a aecia/aee niaeo?ieiei?eiao?ii «Specil» ia aeiaaeei? oaee? 675
ii. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia ae?eyieao oe??i/ee aac iie?eaiiai
aioioe?aiiaiai caaa?aeaiiy. Ie?ae ?ici?uoaaee a ieaeiueiio a?ei?
?ioaa?oth/i? noa?e ? cae?eaaee na?oeiiai?iieeiei iaoa??aeii (I.A.
Iaeueiee, 1985).

U?euei?noue yaeoe aecia/aee iai?aaaoiiaoe/iei i?eeaaeii c naiiienoeai
ENO-4 oa i?eno?i?i iaaaioaaeaiiy c oaici?acenoi?ieie aeao/eeaie ?
ieoiaea?ii ae?aiao?ii 6 ii c aaoiiaoe/iei eiio?ieai aeeaeie eiai
aoiaeaeaiiy a c?acie. Ia?aae aecia/aiiyi u?eueiino? iyeooa oe??i/eo
ieiae?a c??caee (I.A.Iaeueiee, A.I.Iae/aiei, 1983).

Ai?no nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei aecia/aee ?ao?aeoiiao?ii ?IE-3, oeo?iaaio
eeneioi?noue – oeo?oaaiiyi 0,1I ?ic/eiii eoao c ia?a?aooieii ia yaeo/io
eeneioo ca iaoiaeeeith A.I.Oe?ieiaa (1974).

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?aoiaoaaee ii?iaoeaiei iaoiaeii,
ii??aithth/e cao?aoe i?aoe? ? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ia ae?iaieoeoai ieiae?a
c ?aae?caoe?eiith aa?o?noth a?iaeath (ca ?aae. I.I.Oanoiiaey, 1985).

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aaaaoioaeoi?iiai
aeenia?n?eiiai ? ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?c?a (A.A. Aeiniaoia, 1985) ia
i?e?iAII ca ?ic?iaeaieie a Oiainuee?e n.-a. aeaaeai?? i?ia?aiaie
(I.A.Iaeueiee, 1996).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

CEIINO?EE?NOUe AeA?AA ssAEOI? ??CIEO NI?OII?AeUAIIEO EIIA?IOAAIUe

Aaniethoiee iieaciee iioeiaeaeaiiy aea?aa aceieo 1995-96 ??. iaeaea
ao?e/?, (0,36 aaee), aeuee a?ae 1996/97 ??. (0,11 aaee). Oea
iiynith?oueny a?eueo noai?eie oiiaaie ceie 1995/96 ?ie?a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ??ceeie eieeaaiiyie oaiia?aoo?, iniaeeai a ethoiio ?
aa?aci? i?nyoeyo. Ca aaniethoieie iieacieeaie ceiiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue
niinoa??aa?oueny /?oea caeiiii??i?noue: ia on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?aeuaiao aea?aaa ni?oo Aeaea?aae iaee ieae/o no?ee?noue aei iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?, i?ae ni?oo Iae?ioc. Iaeiaioee nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiue aea?aaa
iaio ni?o?a iaee ia i?aeuai? I26, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeuo ??
ceiino?ee?noue o ii??aiyii? c i?aeuaiaie I9 ? II106. Ceiino?ee?noue
aea?aa ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? II106 iaei a?ae??ciy?oueny: ??aaiue
iioeiaeaeaiue eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 0,21-0,28 aaee. ??aaiue ceiiaeo
iioeiaeaeaiue oeaiei oaae a?ae??ciyany iaaiith caeiiii??i?noth:
i?aeoe/ii ia o?aaeothoueny ei?a ? eaia?e (a?aeiia?aeii 0,03 ? 0,16
aaee), o?ioe aeuee nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiue o aea?aaeie (0,26 aaee) ?
iaea?eueoa o?aaeo?oueny na?oeaaeia — 0,48 aaee.

O?OIIAO?E*I? IIEACIEEE ?INOO ss AEOI? CAEAAEII A?Ae I?AeUAIE, NI?OO ?
U?EUeIINO? NAAe?IIss AeA?AA

Ca io?eiaieie aeaieie o a?oe? 15-17 ?ie?a iaea?eueoei ae?aiao?ii ooaiao
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? II106. Ca?eueoaiiy
u?eueiino? naae?iiy aea?aa ni?e/eieei ciaioaiiy aeaiiai iieacieea
o?eueee aeey aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? I26 oa ni?oo
Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuaiao I26 ? II106, oiae? ye aeey on?o ?ioeo
ni?oii?aeuaiieo eiia?ioaaiue ae?aiao? ooaiao ciaoiaeeany ia iaeiiio
??ai?. Ca ?iee aaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ae?aiao? ooaiao o aea?aa ni?oo
Iae?ioc aoa a?eueoei, i?ae o ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia on?o o?ueio i?aeuaiao.
I?e oeueiio aaee/eia iieacieea c?inoaea ?c ca?eueoaiiyi neee ?inoo
i?aeuaie, a ?aaeoe?y aeine?aeieo aea?aa ia ci?io u?eueiino? ianaaeaeaiue
iieyaaea ia ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie ae?aiao?a ooaiao ?c ciaioaiiyi
e?eueeino? aea?aa ia aaeoa??.

O aeaiiio a?eiaiio ia??iae? ieiaeia? aea?aaa aeinyaee iioeiaeueii?
aenioe ? ca aenioith e?iie a?ae??ciyeeny iaei. O iaaeao iaeiiai
iiiieia?/iiai ni?oo ??cieoey ca aenioith aea?aa ia ia?aaeuoaaea 0,1-0,3
i, iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio i?aeuaie ? ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue.
Iaea?eueoi? aenioe aea?aaa iaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a aeinyaee ia
i?aeuai? I26. sseui o ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? II106 aenioa
aea?aa ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caaouaiiy c?inoaea ia 0,1-0,2 i, oi o ni?oo
Aeaea?aae ia oeeo aea i?aeuaiao niinoa??aaeany cai?ioiy oaiaeaioe?y: o
ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c a?eueoei caaouaiiyi aea?aaa iaee iaioo aenioo.

O 1995 ?ioe? noia?ia aeiaaeeia iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc
ia on?o o?ueio i?aeuaiao aoea o 1,5-2 ?ace a?eueoith, i?ae o ni?oo
Aeaea?aae. O iaio ni?o?a iieaciee aoa iaeiaioei ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai?
I9. O ianooii? ?iee noia?ia aeiaaeeia i?e?inoo iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a
?noioii cieceeanue, ui, a??ia?aeii, iiynith?oueny iani?eyoeeaeie
ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie ia?acei?ae? 1996/97 ?ie?a, iioe?aiiyi ai?ioienoi?
?ine (iniaeeai ni?oo Aeaea?aae) oa ia?aaaioaaeaiiyi o?iaea?i o 1997
?ioe?.

O ianaaeaeaiiyo 15-??/iiai a?eo aeiaaeeia iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a
ciaoiaeeeany a iaaeao iioeioio, e??i ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia ea?eeeia?e
i?aeuai? I9. O a?eueo neeueii?ineiai ni?oo Iae?ioc oeae iieaciee aoa,
a?aeiia?aeii, o 1,5-2 ?ace aeuei i?ae o ni?oo Aeaea?aae.
Iacaeaaeii a?ae aonoioe naae?iiy, a iaaeao iaeiiai ni?oii?aeuaiiiai
eiia?ioaaiiy, aaee/eia iieacieea caeeoaeanue iino?eiith.

Caeiiii??ii, ui a ii??aiyii? c ni?oii Aeaea?aae, e?iie aea?aa a?eueo
neeueii?ineiai ni?oo Iae?ioc cia/ii e?aua inai?ee a?aeaaaeaio ?i ieiuo
aeeaeaiiy ia on?o o?ueio i?aeuaiao. Ca i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy caaouaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue ia i?aeuaiao I9 oa II106 e?iie aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc
iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a ia aeinyaee ? iaaeinoaoiuei inai?ee a?aeaaaeaio ?i
ieiuo aeeaeaiiy. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue aea?aaa cia/ii
?ic?inoaeeny, i?iieeath/e iniiaieie a?eeaie a e?iie non?aei?o aea?aa.
A?aeaaaeaio ieiuo aeeaeaiiy a iaaeao iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy inai?ee o?eueee
aea?aaa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? I26 ca ??aiy caaouaiiy 1250 oa 1666
aea?./aa. Aeey on?o ?ioeo aa??aio?a oeueiai ae ni?oo niinoa??aa?oueny
cia/ii ieae/a aaee/eia iieacieea.

Aea?aaa ni?oo Iae?ioc ca ?ici??aie e?ii iaeaea o aeaa ?ace ia?aaeuoaaee
ni?o Aeaea?aae, i?e/iio iaea?eueoee ia’?i e?ii aea?aaa iaio ni?o?a iaee
ia i?aeuaiao I26. Ia oe?e aea i?aeuai? niinoa??aaeinue ciaioaiiy ?ici??o
e?ii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue. I?ioeeaaeia
oaiaeaioe?y niinoa??aa?oueny aeey aea?aa ia i?aeuai? I9, aea ?c
c?inoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy ia’?i e?ii aea?aa ca?eueooaaany.

AIEEA NI?OII?AeUAIIEO EIIA?IOAAIUe ? CAAOUAIIss

IANAAeAEAIUe IA INA?OEAI?NOUe OA I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe

E?II AeA?AA

Ianaaeaeaiiy ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? I9 oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue e?auei
na?oeiaei ?aaeeiii, i?ae ni?oo Iae?ioc. sseui ia aenio? 1-2 i
?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy aea?aa ni?oo Aeaea?aae neeaaeaea 75-100% a?ae
iiaiiai, oi o ni?oo Iae?ioc o iaaeao 30-98%. E?aua ina?oethaaeanue
ia?eoa??y e?ii o ii??aiyii? ?c oeaio?aeueiith ?? /anoeiith. Cia/iee
aieea ia ci?io ??aiy ina?oeaiino? ni?e/eithaaea aonoioa naae?iiy aea?aa.
Aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc i?e caaouaii? 1250 aea?./aa ina?oeaiiy aea?aa ia
aenio? aei 1 i a?ae ??aiy a?oioo ia ia?aaeuoaaei 30% a?ae iiaiiai, a ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino? naae?iiy ?ioaineai?noue niiy/iiai ina?oeaiiy a
oe?e cii? cia/ii iie?auoaaeany ca iaea?eueoiai caaouaiiy (1666 aea?./aa)
? eeoa i?eooaiaiaa ciia iaea ieae/o ca 30% ina?oeai?noue.

Ina?oeai?noue e?ii aea?aa ia i?aeuai? I26 aoea e?auith o ni?oo
Aeaea?aae. Ia i?aeuai? II106 e?auei na?oeiaei ?aaeeiii
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue e?iie aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc. Ia ia?eoa??? ? o
na?aaei?e /anoei? e?ii ?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy o aea?aa oeueiai ni?oo
aoea cia/ii aeua, i?ae o Aeaea?aaeo.

Ca ?iee aaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?eueoith ieiuath eenoiaiai
iie?eao oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny ianaaeaeaiiy ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? I9 ca
iaea?eueoiai caaouaiiy (1666 aea?./aa) – 8198 i2/aa, ui, iaeiae,
noaiiaeei o?eueee 20% a?ae iioeioio. O ?ic??c? ni?o?a iieaciee aoa aeuei
aeey aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? II106 ca iaea?eueoiai
caaouaiiy; a on?o ?ioeo aa??aioao ia?aaaaeaa ni?o Aeaea?aae. Iaeiaioa
ieiua anei?eyoe?eii? iiaa?oi? niinoa??aaeanue o aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia
i?aeuai? II106 ca ??aiy caaouaiiy 833 aea?./aa — anueiai 7,6% a?ae
iioeioio.

O 15-17 ??/iiio a?oe? ai?no i?aiaio?a o eenoeao aea?aa ni?oo Aeaea?aae
aoa cia/ii aeuei, i?ae o ni?oo Iae?ioc. Aaee/eia oeueiai ia?aiao?a o
aea?aa ni?oo Aeaea?aae c?inoaea ?c ca?eueoaiiyi neee ?inoo i?aeuaie,
oiae? ye aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc iaeaeuee ai?no i?aiaio?a niinoa??aaany o
aea?aa ia i?aeuai? II106, ieae/ee — ia ea?eeeia?e I9 ? iaeiaioee — ia
iai?aea?eeeia?e I26. Aieea ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ia ai?no
i?aiaio?a o eenoeao aeine?aeieo aea?aa iaa iaiaeiicia/iee oa?aeoa?.
sseui o aea?aa iaio ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? I26 oa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai?
I9 ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy aaee/eia aiae?ciaaiiai iieacieea
c?inoaea, oi aeey iaio ni?o?a ia II106 oa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia I9 ai?no
oei?io?eo a eenoeao cieaeoaaany ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caaouaiiy.

Iaea?eueoei oioineioaoe/iei iioaioe?aeii aeey ni?oo Aeaea?aae (8,8
a/i2(aeiao) oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa ia i?aeuai? II106 ca iaea?eueoiai
caaouaiiy, a aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc — aea?aaa ia i?aeuai? I9 oaeiae i?e
iaeneiaeueiiio caaouaii? (6,1 a/i2(aeiao). Ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9
/enoa i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco aoea aeuith aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc, a ia
i?aeuaiao I26 ? II106 — aeey Aeaea?aaeo. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy
caaouaiiy ia an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo niinoa??aaeinue cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy
/enoi? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco.

I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe IANAAeAEAIUe ? ssE?NOUe IEIAe?A ssAEOI?

O?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiiieia?/ieo ni?o?a
caeaaeaea a?ae aaaaoueio /eiiee?a ? iaea iaiaeii??aeiee oa?aeoa? (oaae.
1). Ni?o Iae?ioc o 1995 ?ioe? iaeaeuith i?iaeoeoeai?noth (16 o/aa)
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9 ?c caaouaiiyi 1666
aea?./aa. Iaeaeuee o?iaeae ni?oo

Oaaeeoey 1

O?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo ni?oii?aeuaiieo eiia?ioaaiue ca
?iee aeine?aeaeaiue o caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy caaouaiiy aea?aa, o/aa

I?aeuaie ??aaiue caaouaiiy, aea?./aa

Ni?oe

Iae?ioc Aeaea?aae

1995?. 1997?. 1995?. 1997?.

I9 1250 7,7 23,8 9,4 15,4

1428 6,4 23,9 8,3 18,6

1666 16,0 30,9 8,2 28,2

I26 1000 5,9 13,5 10,4 18,4

1250 3,7 14,5 7,5 21,9

1666 5,4 18,2 8,1 26,3

II106 833 2,6 10,8 6,1 15,3

1000 3,8 6,9 3,9 15,1

1428 1,7 7,8 4,7 21,3

I??05 2,9 3,9 2,9 3,9

Aeaea?aae (10,4 o/aa), oiae? io?eiaii ia iai?aea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I26 ca
i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy caaouaiiy – 1000 aea?./aa. Iaeieae/ith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa iaio ni?o?a ia i?aeuai?
II106: 1,7-3,8 o/aa aeey Iae?ioca oa 3,9-6,1 o/aa aeey Aeaea?aaeo. ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy aea?aa o?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue a
iniiaiiio cieaeoaaeanue, e??i ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? I9, aea ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino? naae?iiy aea?aa iieaciee c?inoaa a?ae 6,4 aei 16
o/aa.

O 1997 ?ioe? o?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? cia/ii c?inea. sse ? o
iiia?aaeiueiio ?ioe?, aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc iaeaeua i?iaeoeoeai?noue (30,9
o/aa) niinoa??aaeanue ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9 ca iaeneiaeueiiai
caaouaiiy (oaae. 1). Iaeneiaeueiith aiia aoea oaeiae aeey Aeaea?aaeo ia
i?aeuai? I9 – 28,2 o/aa. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo, ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy aea?aa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia on?o o?ueio
i?aeuaiao oa Iae?ioco ia I9 ? I26 ?o o?iaeaei?noue cia/ii c?inoaea.
Iaeiae aeey aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? II106 ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
caaouaiiy c 833 aei 1428 aea?./aa o?iaeaei?noue cieaeoaaeanue c 10,8 aei
7,8 o/aa.

Ioaea, o 17-??/iiio a?oe?, iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie aeyaeeenue
ianaaeaeaiiy ni?oo Iae?ioc ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9 c o?iaeaei?noth
23,8…30,9 o/aa oa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia iai?aea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I26 –
18,4…26,3 o/aa. O oe?eiio o?eueee aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? II106
?c caaouaiiyi 1000-1428 aea?./aa o?iaeaei?noue ia ia?aaeuoaaea 10 o/aa,
a a on?o ?ioeo aa??aioao aeine?aeo aiia eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 10,8…30,9
o/aa. Iaea?eueoee aieea ia aaee/eio aiae?ciaaiiai iieacieea ni?e/eiaiee
iiaiaeieie oiiaaie ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue, /anoea ae?? yeeo o noeoii?e
ae?? oaeoi??a neeaea 52%. Aieea ni?oii?aeuaiieo eiia?ioaaiue ciaoiaeeany
a iaaeao 25%, a ?io? oaeoi?e oa ?o aca?iiae?y ?noioiiai aieeao ia
o?iaeaei?noue aeine?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue ia iaee (/anoea ?o aieeao ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 4%).

Aiae?c oiaa?ii? yeino? o?iaeath cana?ae/ea, ui iaea?eueoo eiai /anoeio
neeaaeaee ieiaee aeuiai ? ia?oiai oiaa?ieo ni?o?a (oaae. 2). I?ae
o?iaeaei?noth aea?aa oa oiaa?iith ye?noth yaeoe niinoa??aa?oueny
iaa?iaiii?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue: ca iaioiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aea?aa
ieiaeaie ?o ye?noue i?aeaeuo?oueny, a ?c c?inoaiiyi o?iaeaeiino?,
iaaiaee — cieaeo?oueny. Ieiaee ni?oo Iae?ioc cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaee

Oaaeeoey 2

Oiaa?ia ye?noue ieiae?a yaeoi? (noia aeuiai ? 1 ni?o?a) ?c ??cieo
ni?oii?aeuaiieo eiia?ioaaiue caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue,
%

I?aeuaie ??aaiue caaouaiiy, aea?./aa

Ni?o Iae?ioc Ni?o Aeaea?aae

1995?. 1997?. 1995?. 1997?.

I9 1250 100 82 74 79

1428 97 82 77 74

1666 94 78 80 72

I26 1000 98 74 65 80

1250 100 78 70 77

1666 100 73 57 63

II106 833 99 67 67 67

1000 98 73 67 74

1428 94 76 71 76

I??05 22 14 22 14

ni?o Aeaea?aae ca oiaa?i?noth. O 1995 ?ioe? aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc noia
aeuiai oa ia?oiai ni?o?a noaiiaeea 94-100% a?ae caaaeueii? iane
o?iaeath, a aeey ni?oo Aeaea?aae – 57-82%. O ca’yceo c i?aeaeuaiiyi
o?iaeaeiino? o 1997 ?ioe? oeae iieaciee cieceany, neeaaeath/e 67-82%
aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc oa 63-80% aeey Aeaea?aaeo.

O 15-??/iiio a?oe? e?auith oiaa?iith ye?noth a?ae??ciyeenue ieiaee c
aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? oeio I26 (98-100%) e Aeaea?aaeo ia
i?aeuai? I9 (74-80%), a o ianooii? ?iee — iaeaeaa iiiieia?/i? ni?oe ia
ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? oeio I9, a?aeiia?aeii, 78-82 ? 72-79%. ?c ci?iith
??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue oiaa?ia ye?noue ieiae?a iaa?iaii
i?iii?oe?eii caeaaeaea a?ae o?iaeaeiino?: ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ?c
?inoii caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ni?e/eithaaei cieaeaiiy oiaa?iino?
ieiae?a ? iaaiaee.

U?euei?noue i’yeooa ieiae?a ni?oo Aeaea?aae aoea cia/ii aeua, i?ae ni?oo
Iae?ioc. Ca aeiyoeii iaio ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? I26 ca ??aiy caaouaiiy 1250
oa 1666 aea?./aa, aea cia/aiiy iieacieea aoei iaeiaeiaei. Iaea?eueoith
u?euei?noth i’yeooa ieiaee iaio ni?o?a a?ae??ciyeenue ia i?aeuai? II106:
7,9…8,2 ea/ni2 aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc oa 8,4…9,1 ea/ni2 aeey Aeaea?aaeo.
I?ney i’yoe i?nyoe?a caa??aaiiy u?euei?noue i’yeooo ieiae?a cia/ii
cieaeoaaeanue, neeaaeath/e 6,3-7,2 ea/ni2 aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc oa 6,6-8,0
ea/ni2 aeey Aeaea?aaeo. Ca ia??ae caa??aaiiy u?euei?noue yaeoe ni?oo
Iae?ioc ?c aea?aa ia i?aeuai? oeio I9 ciaioeeanue ia 10% a?ae
ii/aoeiai?, c i?aeuaie oeio I26 – ia 7% ? c II106 – ia 15%. Aeey ni?oo
Aeaea?aae ciaioaiiy u?eueiino? ieiae?a, a?aeiia?aeii, neeaei: 15, 12 oa
18%.

Aeuei ai?noii nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei ia i?aeuaiao oei?a I26 ? II106
a?ae??ciyeenue ieiaee ni?oo Iae?ioc, oiae? ye ia i?aeuai? I9 ?o
i?noeeinue a?eueoa o ieiaeao ni?oo Aeaea?aae. O oe?eiio, aaee/eia
iieacieea aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc ciaoiaeeeanue o iaaeao 12,5-15,1% ?
noaiiaeea 13,2-14,5% aeey ni?oo Aeaea?aae. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy
caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ai?no nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei o ieiaeao ni?oo
Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao oei?a I9 ? I26 ? ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? I9
c?inoaa ?, iaaiaee, cieaeoaaany o ieiaeao iaio ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? II106
oa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia I26. Ca ia??iae o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy ai?no nooeo
?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei o ieiaeao cia/ii cieceany, neeaaeath/e 11,1-12,9% aeey
ni?oo Iae?ioc oa 10,5-12,4% aeey ni?oo Aeaea?aae.

Iaeaeuei ai?noii i?aai?/eo eeneio a?ae??ciyeenue ieiaee iaio
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? oeio I106 – 0,37%, iaioei ia I26 ?
iaeiaioei ia I9. ?c c?inoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue oeo?iaaia
eeneioi?noue ieiae?a c?inoaea aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? II106
oa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? II106. O ieiaeao ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia
i?aeuai? I26 eeneioi?noue ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aea?aa ia aaeoa??
cieaeoaaeanue, a o ?ioeo aa??aioao caeeoaeanue i?aeoe/ii ia iaeiiio
??ai?. I?ae /an caa??aaiiy ai?no i?aai?/ieo eeneio a ieiaeao
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a cia/ii cieaeoaaany.

?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy caa??aaiiy yaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a iieacaee,
ui eaaee?noue ieiae?a ni?oo Iae?ioc aoea e?auith i?ae ni?oo Aeaea?aae, c
noia?iei aeoiaeii aeuiai ? ia?oiai ni?o?a ia ??ai? 91,2-97,2%. Aeo?ae
oiaa?ieo ieiae?a ni?oo Aeaea?aae noaiiaea 88,6-95,3%. Ieiaee ni?oo
Iae?ioc c i?aeuaie oeio I9 iaee?aua caa??aaeenue i?e caaouaii? 1666
aea?./aa (98,5%) oa Aeaea?aaeo ia i?aeuaiao I9 oa II106 ca
iaeneiaeueiiai caaouaiiy (95,3%). O iaaeao iaeiiai ni?oii?aeuaiiiai
eiia?ioaaiiy ?acoeueoaoe caa??aaiiy ieiae?a iie?auoaaeenue ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue.

Iaea?eueoee aieea ia aeo?ae aeia?iye?nieo ieiae?a i?ney caa??aaiiy iaee
a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iiiieia?/ieo ni?o?a, oiiae ?inoo, ?icaeoeo, oaiio
ia?aae- ? i?neycae?aeueiiai aeinoeaaiiy ieiae?a. Aieea ??cieo oei?a
i?aeuai oa ??aiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ia aaee/eio aeaiiai iieacieea
aoa iacia/iei.

AIEEA NIINIA?A ? NO?IE?A IA??COAAIIss IA ??NO OA

IEIAeIIIOAIIss AeA?AA ssAEOI? NI?OO IAE?IOC

Aenioa aea?aa neeueii?ineiai ni?oo Iae?ioc a?eueoa caeaaeaea a?ae neee
?inoo i?aeuai ? iaioa ?aaaoaaea ia aeaee oa no?iee ia??coaaiiy. Ia
o?ao?e ??e aaaeaiiy aeine?aeo iaeiaioo aenioo iaee aea?aaa ia ea?eeeia?e
i?aeuai? oeio I9 — 2,7…3,0 i, a aenioa aea?aa ia i?aeuaiao I26 ? II106
noaiiaeea, a?aeiia?aeii, 2,8…3, oa 2,8…3,1 i. O 1995 ?ioe?, ia?an?/ii
aeey aa??aio?a aeine?aeo, iaea?eueoo aeiaaeeio iaeii??/ieo i?e?ino?a
iaee aea?aaa ia iai?aea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? II106, iaioo – ia I26 ?
iaeiaioo – ia I9. Aeine?aeaeoaai? aeaee ? no?iee ia??coaaiiy ia aeaiee
iieaciee ae?yee iaiaeiaeiai.

O aea?aa ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9 i?ae aieeaii e?oiueiai
ia??coaaiiy noia?ia aeiaaeeia iaaii?a, o ii??aiyii? c ceiiaei
ia??coaaiiyi ca o?aaeeoe?eiith oaoiieia??th (eiio?ieue), a on?o
aa??aioao cieceeanue ia 38-49%, e??i aea?aa, ui ia??coaaeenue i?ney
oea?o?iiy, aea aaee/eia iieacieea ia?aaeueea eiio?ieue ia 36%. O aea?aa
ia i?aeuai? I26 canoinoaaiiy ??cieo no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy ni?e/eieei
cia/ia c?inoaiiy noia?iiai i?e?inoo iaaii?a ? o?eueee i?e ia??coaaii?
“ii caa’yc?” a?i aoa iaioei a?ae eiio?ieth ia 15%. O ianooii? ?iee
i?e??no iaaii?a c?inoaa, ca ia??coaaiiy i?ney oea?o?iiy, “ii caa’yc?” oa
i?ciueie?oiueiai a?i ciaiooaaany a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Iaaeae?
iaea?eueoa aeoeai?noue ?inoo niinoa??aaeanue o ca ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai oa
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy, a iaeiaioa –i?ney canoinoaaiiy
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy. Aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y neeaaea?oueny aeey
aea?aa ia i?aeuai? II106, aea o?eueee i?ae aieeaii i?ciueie?oiueiai
ia??coaaiiy noia?iee i?e??no iaaii?a cieceany ia 1,4 i, o oie /an ye o
?ioeo aeiaaeeao — c??n ia 36-61%. O 1997 ?ioe? ??cieoey a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai noaiiaeea 8…43%.

Ca ia?an?/ieie aeaieie aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co,
inai?iiy ieiu? aeeaeaiiy aea?aa ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue caeeoaeiny
noaeei, ciaoiaey/enue ia ??ai? 62-65%. Aeecueeei aei iioeiaeueiiai
iieacieeii (70%) a?aecia/aeenue aea?aaa ia i?aeuai? I9, iaioei – 62% —
ia I26 ? iaeieae/ei – 58% — ia II106. Canoinoaaiiy aeae?a ? no?ie?a
ia??coaaiiy neaaei aieeioei ia inai?iiy aea?aaaie a?oioiaiai i?inoi?o. O
aa??aioao i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy oa ca ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ?c
a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a ae?oeo iieaciee ciaoiaeeany ia ??ai? eiio?ieth,
noaiiaey/e 65% (a on?o ?ioeo aa??aioao a?i aoa ieae/ei ia 1-3%). Eeoa ca
ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c i?ciueie?oi?i eiai cia/aiiy aoei
i?i?iaeueia 59%.

Ca?aeii c ia?an?/ieie aeaieie aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co ?ici??e e?ii aea?aa
ni?oo Iae?ioc ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ciaioeeenue ia 0,6 i3 (6%), a
aeei?enoaiiy i?aeuai a?eueoi? neee ?inoo ni?e/eieei ?? c?inoaiiy. Ia
ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? oeio I9 ia?an?/iee ia’?i e?ii aea?aa neeaaeaa 8,4
i3, ia I26 ? II106, a?aeiia?aeii, 9,9 ? 11 i3. I?ae aieeaii aeae?a ?
no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy ia?an?/i? ia’?ie e?ii ci?ithaaeenue iacia/ii,
ciaoiaey/enue ia ??ai? eiio?ieth (10 i3), e??i aa??aioo ii?aeiaiiy
ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c i?ciueie?oi?i, aea aeyaeaia iaeneiaeueia (12%)
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae eiio?ieth – 1,2 i3.

Iaeaeuee o?iaeae c 15-??/ieo aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuai? I9
io?eiaiee ca i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy. Aeaui iaioo a?iaeaei?noue —
14,4 o/aa — iaee aea?aaa i?ney ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy c a?aeaeiaiiyi
iaaii?a a e?ioe? e?oa, ia?aaeuoth/e eiio?ieue ia 20%. A on?o ?ioeo
aeiaaeeao o?iaeaei?noue aea?aa aoea ia 11-38% iaioith a?ae eiio?ieth
(oaae. 3). O 1997 ?ioe? o?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue caaaeii cia/ii
c?inea, aea iaea?eueoo i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaee aea?aaa ca i?ciueie?oiueiai
ia??coaaiiy oa ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a o
e?ioe? e?oa, a?aeiia?aeii 28,2 ? 27,8 o/aa (i?eaaaea aei eiio?ieth
neeaea 9 ? 8%).

O oe?eiio i?iaeoeoeai?noue cia/ii eieeaaeanue: yeui o 1995 ?ioe? aiia
ia?an?/ii neeaaeaea 5,4 o/aa, oi o 1997-io c?inoaea o o?e ?ace – aei
18,3 o/aa. Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie (16,5 o/aa) aeyaeeenue ianaaeaeaiiy
ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? I9, oaea?/? iaioo o?iaeaei?noue (7,6 o/aa) iaee
aea?aaa ia II106. Aeua a?ae eiio?ieueii? ae?eyiee o?iaeaei?noue
cao?eniaaia aeey aea?aa o aa??aioao ?c i?ciueie?oi?i ia??coaaiiyi oa ca
ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a iai?ee?ioe?
e?oa. Aeii?ioth/ei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/aa ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ianaaeaeaiue ni?oo Iae?ioc, ye ? aeey iiia?aaei?o iieaciee?a, aoee
aa?iee?iaoe/i? oiiae ?ie?a i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aeieueiaa /anoea
yeeo o noeoii?e ae?? oaeoi??a neeaaeaea 62%. Aieea ??cieo oei?a i?aeuai
neeaa 20% ? anueiai 3% i?eiaaeaei ia aieea aeae?a oa oa?i?i?a
ia??coaaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 3.

Aieea aeae?a ? no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy ia ieiaeiiioaiiy yaeoi? ni?oo
Iae?ioc , o/aa

Aeaee ? no?iee

ia??coaaiiy Oei i?aeuaie ? ??aaiue caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue

I9 (1250 aea?./aa) I26 (1000 aea?./aa) II106 (833 aea?./aa)

1995 1997 No-ia O % aei eiio?. 1995 1997

No-ia O % aei

eiio?. 1995 1997 No-ia O %

aei

eiio?.

Ceiiaa (eiio?ieue) 9,5 25,7 35,2 100 5,9 18,3 24,2 100 1,1 13,0 14,1 100

Ceiiaa c

i?ciueie?oi?i 7,7 20,2 27,9 79,3 3,0 15,2 18,2 75,2 2,2 11,6 13,8 97,8

Ceiiaa c i?ae??coaai-

iyi ei?ai?a o o?aai? 5,9 24,0 29,9 84,9 5,3 18,6 23,9 98,8 2,2 11,1 13,3
94,3

I?ney oea?o?iiy 7,5 20,2 27,7 78,7 5,5 14,3 19,8 81,8 2,5 11,4 13,9 98,6

“Ii caa’yc?” 8,5 19,5 28,0 79,5 4,8 16,7 21,5 88,8 1,9 13,0 14,9 105,7

I?ciueie?oi? 13,7 28,2 41,9 119,1 4,9 22,8 27,7 114,5 3,7 16,2 19,9
141,1

Ceiiaa c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a o na?ii? 11,4 27,8 39,2 111,4 4,9 20,7
25,6 105,8 1,4 15,2 16,6 117,7

I??05 3,2 2,8

3,2 2,8

3,2 2,8

AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe AE?IUOAAIIss IANAAeAEAIUe ss AEOI? ??CIEO
EIINO?OEOe?E, CANOINOAAIIss AEAe?A ? NO?IE?A IA??COAAIIss AeA?AA

Noia /enoiai aeioiaeo caeaaeaea a?ae ??aiy o?iaeaeiino? ianaaeaeaiue c
iaeeieoe? ieiu?, yeee cia/iith i??ith aecia/aany ??aiai aonoioe naae?iiy
ieiaeiaeo aea?aa. ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi o?iaeaeiino? iieaciee c?inoaa, a
ca?aeii c oeei i?aeaeuoaaany ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?. O iaio
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a oe? iieacieee aoee iaeaeueie o aea?aa ia
i?aeuai? I9, iaioeie ia I26 ? iaeiaioeie ia II106. Iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ianaaeaeaiiy iaio ni?o?a iaee ia i?aeuai? I9 i?e
caaouaii? 1666 aea?./aa, ui aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc neeaei 370%, a aeey
Aeaea?aaeo – 253%.

O a?oe? 15-17 ?ie?a ianaaeaeaiiy ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? I26 oa
Aeaea?aaeo ia I9, I26 ? II106 aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe cia/i? i?eaooee c
??aiai ?aioaaaeueiino? iiiaae 100%.

Iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe i?e canoinoaaii? ??cieo aeae?a oa no?ie?a
ia??coaaiiy aea?aa ni?oo Iae?ioc io?eiai? o aa??aioao ?c i?ciueie?oi?i
ia??coaaiiyi oa ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a
o e?ioe? e?oa.

AENIIAEE

1. Ceiino?ee?noue aea?aa yaeoi? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ni?oii?aeuaiieo eiia?ioaaiue aecia/aeany a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
ni?o?a oa oei?a i?aeuai, iiaiaeieie oiiaaie ? aa?ioaoi?eith ae?iuoaaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue. I?aeaeuaiith ceiino?ee?noth oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa ia
i?aeuai? I26, a neeuei?oa iioeiaeaeoaaeenue aea?aaa ia i?aeuaiao I9 ?
II106, i?e/iio ni?o Iae?ioc ca ceiino?ee?noth ia?aaaaeaa Aeaea?aae.
Iacaeaaeii a?ae ni?oii?aeuaiiiai eiia?ioaaiiy, i?ae aieeaii iecueeeo
ceiiaeo oaiia?aoo? iaea?eueoa iioeiaeaeoaaeenue aaia?aoeai? a?oiueee,
ni?e/eithth/e cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aea?aa.

2. Aea?aaa ni?oo Iae?ioc o a?oe? 15-17 ?ie?a a?ae??ciyeeny
cia/ii aeuith ?ioaineai?noth ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a, ia?aaaaeath/e
Aeaea?aae ca on?ia o?oiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie, i?e/iio iaeaeuith
aeoeai?noth ?inoo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue ianaaeaeaiiy iaio ni?o?a ia
i?aeuai? I26, aeaui iaioith ia II106 ? cia/ii ieae/ith — ia I9.

Ae?aiao? ooaiao, aenioa aea?aa ? aeiaaeeia iaeii??/eo iaaii?a cia/ii
ci?ithaaeenue i?ae aieeaii ni?oii?aeuaiiiai eiia?ioaaiiy. Aeii?ioth/ee
aieea ia iieacieee ?inoo ni?e/eiaiee oeiii i?aeuaie, a aieea
iiiieia?/iiai ni?oo aeyaeaiee o?eueee aeey ci?ie aenioe aea?aa (49-53%)
oa na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a (12-30%). Aea?aaa ni?oo
Iae?ioc ia on?o oeiao i?aeuai oa ni?oo Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? oeio I26
iiai?oa inai?ee a?aeaaaeaio ?i ieiuo aeeaeaiiy (70-81%), i?ae aea?aaa
ni?oo Aeaea?aaeo ia i?aeuaiao oeio I9 ? I26.

3. Canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ? no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy ni?e/eieei cia/iee
aieea ia ?ioaineai?noue ?inoo yaeoi? ni?oo Iae?ioc. Aenioa aea?aa
a?eueoa caeaaeaea a?ae neee ?inoo aeei?enoaieo oei?a i?aeuai ? iaioa –
a?ae aeae?a oa no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy.

Iaeiaioee noia?iee i?e??no iaaii?a aeinyaiooee cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy o na?ii? oa ia??coaaiiyi iae?aco i?ney
iiaaeaiiy caa’yc?. I?ciueie?oi? ia??coaaiiy oa ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai
ia??coaaiiy ?c i?ae??coaaiiyi ei?ai?a caaacia/eee iaeiaioo aeiaaeeio
iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a.

4. ??aaiue inai?iiy ieiu? aeeaeaiiy aea?aaaie ni?oo Iae?ioc ca ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue ciaoiaeeany a iaaeao 62-65% ? iacia/ii ci?ithaaany a?ae
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ? no?ie?a ia??coaaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy oa ca ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c
a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a ae?oeo iieaciee ciaoiaeeany ia ??ai?
o?aaeeoe?eiiai ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy, noaiiaey/e 85%; o ?ioeo aa??aioao
a?i aoa ia 1-3% ieae/ei.

5. ?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy ??cieo /anoei e?iie aea?aa aecia/aeanue
ni?oii?aeuaiiei eiia?ioaaiiyi oa ??aiai caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue. Ia
i?aeuaiao I9 ? I26 e?auee na?oeiaee ?aaeei iaee aea?aaa ni?oo Aeaea?aae.
?c ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ia i?aeuaiao I9 ? II106
??aaiue ina?oeaiiy aea?aa iaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo ni?o?a iie?auoaaany,
caeeoath/enue iaci?iiei ia i?aeuai? I26.

6. Ieiua eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? aea?aa aecia/aeany neeith ?inoo
iiiieia?/ieo ni?o?a oa oeiaie i?aeuai. Aea?aaa ia i?aeuai? I9 oi?ioaaee
a?eueoo ieiuo anei?eyoe?eii? iiaa?oi?, i?ae ia I26 ? II106, i?e/iio ni?o
Iae?ioc cia/ii ia?aaaaeaa Aeaea?aae. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino?
ianaaeaeaiue ieiua eenoyiiai iie?eao o ?ic?aooieo ia aaeoa? c?inoaea.

7. Eiioeaio?aoe?y oioineioaoe/ii aeoeaieo i?aiaio?a aoea cia/ii aeuith
o eenoeao aea?aa ni?oo Aeaea?aae, i?ae ni?oo Iae?ioc. Iaeaeuei ?o
ai?noii oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa iaio ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? II106, iaioei
ia I9 ? iaeieae/ei ia I26. O iiae?ai?e caeaaeiino? ciaoiaeeany iieaciee
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco aea?aa yaeoi?, c iaeaeuei ??aiai o ni?oo
Aeaea?aae ia i?aeuai? II106 (8,8 a/i2aeiao) ca iaeneiaeueiiai caaouaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue.

8. Aeii?ioth/ee aieea (36-38%) ia o?iaeaei?noue 15-17-??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ni?e/eieee oeie i?aeuai, i?e/iio e?aua o?iaeaei?noue
ia i?aeuai? I9 cao?eniaaia aeey ni?oo Iae?ioc, oiae? ye ia I26 ? II106 –
aeey ni?oo Aeaea?aae. O ia??iae caaa?oaiiy no?ieo aenieoaoaoe??
ianaaeaeaiue c?inoaiiy ??aiy caaouaiiy ni?e/eith? ciaioaiiy o?iaeath c
aea?aaa, aea a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? o?iaeaei?noue cia/ii
c?inoa?.

Iaeaeuei ?iaeaenii i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aea?aaa iaio
ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? I9 ? iaea?eueo iecueeei – ia II106. Oey
caeiiii??i?noue caa??aaeany oaeiae aeey iaaaioaaeaiiy ieiaeaie ia
iaeeieoeth ieiu? aeeaeaiiy oa ia’?io e?iie aea?aa.

9. Iaeaeuo o?iaeaei?noue caaacia/eee aea?aaa ni?oo Iae?ioc ca
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy oa ii?aeiaiiy ceiiaiai ia??coaaiiy ?c
a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a ae?oeo. O ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei ceiiaei
ia??coaaiiyi i?ciueie?oi? i?aeaeueei i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aa oeueiai
ni?oo ia i?aeuai? I9 ia 19%, ia I26 – ia 15% ? ia II106 – ia 41%.

10. Ieiaee aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiiieia?/ieo ni?o?a yaeoi?,
iniaeeai ni?oo Iae?ioc, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny aenieith oiaa?iith ye?noth.
Oiaa?ia ye?noue yaeoe caeaaeaea a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy aea?aa o?iaea?i,
cieaeoth/enue ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi o?iaeaeiino?. ?c c?inoaiiyi neee ?inoo
i?aeuai a?ae I9 aei I26 ? II106 oiaa?i?noue ieiae?a ni?oo Iae?ioc
cieaeoaaeanue ia 3-5%, a Aeaea?aaeo – ia 8-10%. ??ci? ??ai? caaouaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue ?noioiiai aieeao ia ci?ie oiaa?ii? yeino? ieiae?a ia
ni?e/eieee.

11. O?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee yaeoe caeaaeaee a?ae iniaeeainoae
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiiieia?/ieo ni?o?a. Ia i?ioyc? i’yoe i?nyoe?a
caa??aaiiy ieiaee ni?oo Aeaea?aae a?ae??ciyeenue a?eueo u?eueiei
i’yeooai oa aeuei eiao?oe??ioii a?aeaeaaiiy na?oea a?ae iiaa?oi?
oe??i/ee, i?ae ni?oo Iae?ioc.

Aeuei ai?noii nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei iai?ee?ioe? 5-i?ny/iiai
caa??aaiiy oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny yaeoea ni?oo Iae?ioc. I?ae /an caa??aaiiy
aeacaiee iieaciee ye ? ai?no i?aai?/ieo eeneio cia/ii cieaeoaaany.
Ieiaee ni?oo Iae?ioc iaee oaeiae cia/ii e?auo eaaee?noue.

12. Aeei?enoaiiy 15-17-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ni?o?a Iae?ioc ia
i?aeuaiao I9 ? I26 oa Aeaea?aaeo ia i?aeuaiao I9, I26 ? II106 ?
i?eaooeiaei. Canoinoaaiiy i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy oa ceiiaiai
ia??coaaiiy o ii?aeiaii? ?c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaaii?a ae?oeo o ianaaeaeaiiyo
ni?oo Iae?ioc ia i?aeuaiao I9, I26 ? II106 i?aeaeuo? aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue, cieaeoth/e ?ioaineai?noue ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a oa
iie?auoth/e no?oeoo?o e?ii aea?aa.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

A oiiaao /i?iicaiieo aaaeeinoaeeieiaeo a?oio?a i?aaeaii? /anoeie
Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie aac c?ioaiiy aenieo oa noaa?eueio
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia i?ioyc? 17 ?ie?a aenieoaoaoe?? caaacia/othoue
ianaaeaeaiiy yaeoi? ia aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuaiao c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith. Neeueii?ineee ni?o Iae?ioc oa iiae?ai? aei
iueiai ca neeith ?inoo ni?oe yaeoi? ooo aeioe?eueii aenaaeaeoaaoe ia
ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao (I9) ?c u?euei?noth 1250-1666 aea?./aa, noaia
naae?iiy 4o1,5-2i, a neaaei?ine? ni?oe (Aeaea?aae) ia ea?eeeiaeo oa
iai?aea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao (I26) ?c 1666 (4o1,5 i), a oaeiae a?eueo
aenieei /eneii aea?aa ia iaeiiio aaeoa??. Ianaaeaeaiiy oaeeo
eiino?oeoe?e ia i?ioyc? 17 ?ie?a caaacia/othoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia
??ai? 20 o/aa ? aeua.

2. Cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo cao?ao oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
yaeoi?, iniaeeai neeueii?ineeo ni?o?a, caaacia/o?oueny cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
i?ciueie?oiueiai ia??coaaiiy, ii?aeioaaoe ?c a?aeaeiaiiyi iaeii??/ieo
iaaii?a o caaouaieo /anoeiao e?iie aei iiieeeiai iieiaeaiiy.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Inaae/ee A.I., Iaeueiee I.A., Oee?oa A.N. Niiniae ? no?iee ia??coaaiiy
oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aa yaeoi? // Iiaeie naae?aieoeoaa.-1998.-?
3-4.-N. 14-16 (aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioi?ieaia
noaooy).

Inaae/ee A.I., Iaeueiee I.A., Oee?oa A.N., Ia?oiae E.N. Iae?ioc –
oe?iiee ceiiaee ni?o yaeoi? // Iiaeie naae?aieoeoaa.- 1998.-? 3-4.- N.
28-29 (aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioi?ieaia noaooy).

Iaeueiee I.A., Ia?oiae E.N., Oee?oa A.N., Inaae/ee A.I. I?iaeoeoeai?noue
yaeoi? ia aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuaiao a caeaaeiino? a?ae
u?eueiino? naae?iiy / Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oiainueei? NAA.- Oiaiue,
1998.- N. 124-127 (aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioi?ieaia
noaooy).

Inaae/ee A.I. I?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e o
i?aaeaii?e /anoei? Oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.07 –
ieiae?aieoeoai. Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y. Oiaiue,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii anoaiiaeaiith iioeiaeueieo ni?oii?aeuaiieo
eiia?ioaaiue, nooiai?a caaouaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueieo no?ie?a ? niinia?a
ia??coaaiiy aea?aa yaeoi? a ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo 15-17-??/iiai
a?eo. Iiaeaia ioe?iea ?o ceiino?eeino?. Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? ?inoo oa
ieiaeiiioaiiy aea?aa yaeoi? o ianaaeaeaiiyo ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e,
oa?aeoa? na?oeiaiai ?aaeeio o e?iiao aea?aa ca ??ciiai nooiaiy caaouaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue, aieea ??cieo no?ie?a oa niinia?a ia??coaaiiy ia
?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a ?inoo oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aa ? ye?noue
ieiae?a yaeoi? o ianaaeaeaiiyo 15-17-??/iiai a?eo. Aecia/aii aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo aa?icaoiae?a.

Aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ?aeiiaiaeiaai? iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi? ia aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuaiao ??cii? neee ?inoo (I9,
I26, II106), e?oi? ia??coaaiiy (e?iaoeue eeiiy – ii/aoie na?iiy) aea?aa
ni?oo Iae?ioc oa iiae?aieo aei iueiai ca neeith ?inoo ni?o?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: yaeoiy, eiino?oeoe?y, ianaaeaeaiiy, ni?oii?aeuaii?
eiia?ioaaiiy, nooi?iue caaouaiiy, ia??coaaiiy, ??no, i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Inaae/ee A.A. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie ?aciuo eiino?oeoeee a
thaeiie /anoe Oeaio?aeueiie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiieo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.07 – ieiaeiaiaenoai.
Oiaineay naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeaaeaiey. Oiaiue, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth ni?oiiiaeaieiuo eiiaeiaoeee, o?iaiae
ieioiinoe aea?aaueaa a naaeo, ?aoeeiiaeueiuo n?ieia e niiniaia ia?acee
aea?aaueaa yaeiie a eioaineaiuo ianaaeaeaieyo 15-17-eaoiaai aic?anoa.
Aeaia ioeaiea eo ceiinoieeinoe. Eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe ?inoa iacaiiie /anoe
aea?aaueaa yaeiie a caaeneiinoe io iiaeaiy, ni?oa e ieioiinoe
ianaaeaeaiee. Ii?aaeaeaiu o?iaie inaauaiey ?aciuo /anoae e?iiu e
eioaineaiinoue i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia oioineioaca aea?aaueaa yaeiie a
ianaaeaeaieyo ?aciuo eiino?oeoeee. Onoaiiaeaia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
aea?aaueaa yaeiie a caaeneiinoe io ni?oa, iiaeaiy e ieioiinoe
ianaaeaeaiee. Aeaia ioeaiea oiaa?iiai ea/anoaa, oece/aneeo e oeie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae ieiaeia. Eco/aii aeeyiea ?aciuo n?ieia e niiniaia ia?acee ia
eioaineaiinoue i?ioeannia ?inoa e ieiaeiiioaiey aea?aaueaa yaeiie a
ianaaeaeaieyo 15-17-eaoiaai aic?anoa. Aeaia yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ieiaeia a ianaaeaeaieyo ?aciuo eiino?oeoeee e i?eiaiaiey
?aciuo n?ieia e niiniaia ia?acee aea?aaueaa a naaeao eioaineaiiai oeia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a aic?anoa 15-17 eao oaaee/aiea ieioiinoe ianaaeaeaiee
aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth o?iaeay ieiaeia n aea?aaa, ii a ia?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee o?iaeaeiinoue cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao. I?eiaiaiea
eaoiae ia?acee aea?aaueaa ni?oa Iae?ioc iiauoaao eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ia
iiaeaia I9 ia 19%, ia I26 -–ia 15% e ia II106 – ia 41%.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ?aeiiaiaeothony iioeiaeueiua eiino?oeoeee
ianaaeaeaiee ia aaaaoaoeaii ?aciiiaeaaiuo iiaeaiyo n ?aciie neeie ?inoa
(I9, I26, II106), eaoiyy ia?acea (eiiaoe ethiy – ia/aei aaaonoa)
aea?aaueaa yaeiie ni?oa Iae?ioc e noiaeiuo n iei ii neea ?inoa ni?oia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yaeiiy, eiino?oeoeey, ianaaeaeaiey, ni?oiiiaeaieiua
eiiaeiaoeee, o?iaaiue ieioiinoe, ia?acea, ?ino, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Osadchyi V.O. Productivity of various constructions apple orchard in the
Southern part of Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.-Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degree of candidate of Agricultural science mator
06.01.07 – fruit growing. Uman Academy of Agriculture, Uman, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the establishing of optimal
variety-rootstock, combinations, density of planting and rational terms
and methods of apple-tree pruning in 15-17 year-old intensive orchard.
The estimation of their winter hardiness is presented too. Growth and
fruit yield peculiarities of apple-trees in orchard of various
constructions, character of light regime in tree crown under various
density degrees of orchard, influence of time difference and ways of
pruning on the intensity of growth and productivity of apple-trees in
15-17 year-old orchard have been studied. The economic efficiency of
elaborated agronomic measures has been determined.

According to the results of experiments the optimal
constructions of apple-tree orchard on clonal rootstocks of various
vigour (M9, M26, MM106), summer pruning, (the end of July – the
beginning of August) of Melrose trees and those of similar growth
strength have been recommended.

Key words: apple-tree, construction, plantation,
variety-rootstock combinations, density of planting, pruning, growth,
productivity.

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