EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

EIIIAEUe IEAIA A?IIEUeAe?AIA

OAeE 953

I?IAEAIA AACIAEE IA?NUeEI? CAOIEE A 70-o? — 90-o? ?IEE

07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

IA?AIAEEOess
A?eai??e Ieeieaeiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee
?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo

aeine?aeaeaiue,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

AII*A? Ai?en
Ieoaeeiae/

Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana

Oaa/aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iiai? oa

iia?oiuei?
?noi??? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

aeieoi?
o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

IA?AOIINUeEEE
Ai?en Ieaenaiae?iae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee
?inoeooo

oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei,

caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei

aeieoi?
?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee

iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

OeA?OEIA
Ieaenaiae? Ae?aiae/

I?i?noa?noai
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii THIANEI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAIO, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_24___” _eenoiiaaea_ 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.29 a ?inoeooo?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
ca aae?anith: 254119, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea 58, e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_23__” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eaiaiaoeueeee I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Ona?aeiieaiiy na?oo ye ?aeeiiai oe?eiai aaaea aei oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
nenoaie iiaeyae?a ia i?iaeaio aaciaee. ?nio? ia?icae?euei?noue iiiyoue ?
o?niee aca?iica`ycie o caaacia/aii? iaoe?iiaeueii?, ?aa?iiaeueii? oa
i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee. Ieoaiiy aaciaee, ui ?icaeyaeaeeny ?ai?oa aieiaiei
/eiii o ?o a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiio aei???, a iao /an aecia/athoueny
oe?ieei eiiieaenii /eiiee?a aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai, iie?oe/iiai,
aoiai?oa?iiai e aeieia?/iiai ii?yaeeo, aac o?aooaaiiy yeeo iaiiaeeeaa
ooai?aiiy iaae?eii? nenoaie ?? caaacia/aiiy.

Cae?i/aiiy aiioe aeieiaiai i?ioenoiyiiy, ?iciaae N?N? ? cieeiaiiy ?acii
c iei nenoaie a?iiey?iino? a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao iinoaaeee na?o
ia?aae iaiao?aei?noth ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoai?ci?a oa aa?aio?e caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee. Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo no/anieo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? oa, ui a?aeaoany cnoa iniiaieo aeeeee?a oa
caa?ic, ia?ao?ae i?aeia?iaeii? eiioe?eoiino? c aeiaaeueiiai ia
?aa?iiaeueiee oa noa?aa?iiaeueiee ??ai?. Aeieea? iio?aaa aeine?aeaeaiiy
ieoaiue aaciaee ia o?eueee ia caaaeueiiio — i?aeia?iaeiiio, aea e ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio, noa?aa?iiaeueiiio e iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo. Ci?ia
oa?aeoa?o caa?ic o noa?? aaciaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeiia?aeii? ci?ie
caaaeaiue, ui iinoathoue ia ii?yaeeo aeaiiiio, oa aeiaaa? i?eeiyooy
eiie?aoieo ??oaiue o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?icaeoeo a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a oiio /e ?ioiio ?aa?ii?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee iaeaaeeoue aei
iaeaino??oeo ieoaiue i?aeia?iaeiiai aeeooy e ciaoiaeeoueny o oeaio??
oaaae na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa. ??aii-??aenueea a?eia, eoaaeonueea
e?eca 1990-1991 ??., iiaeaeueo? e?ecia? neooaoe?? iaaeiei ??aeo
na?ae/eee, ui o 70-o? — 90-o? ?iee aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioe?? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ?aa?iio Ia?nueei?
caoiee. ?icaeoie iiaeo oaiaeaioe?e a noa?? aaciaee a oeueiio ?aa?ii? oa
?? aieea ia neooaoe?th ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, a oaeiae ia caaaeueiee noai
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?aeia?iaeieo
i?iaeai, aeine?aeaeaiiy yei? ia? aei oiai ae aacia?a/iee ?ioa?an aeey
iie?oe/ii? i?aeoeee Oe?a?ie.

Iaiao?aei?noue /?oei noi?ioethaaoe no/anio eiioeaioe?th caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee, ui a?aeiia?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, iiynith? aaaeeea?noue oa i??i?eoaoi?noue aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai ye ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? (aiae?c oa
aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ie?aieo e?a?i), oae ? ia ??ai? ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa
aeiaaeueiiio.

Iai?oaeai?noue o Ia?nuee?e caoioe? oi?ea?oueny iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a
Oe?a?ie, aaeaea no/ania a?o?oaeoii?ea ?? aaiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??
aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei? aaaaoiaaeoi?iino?, iaeiei c i??i?eoao?a yei? ?
?icaeoie a?aeiinei c e?a?iaie oeueiai ?aa?iio. Caoe?eaaeai?noue Oe?a?ie
a caa?aaeaii? ie?o oa noaa?eueiino? a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee ye o
?aa?iiaeueiiio ianooaa?, oae ? ia ??ai? ie?aieo e?a?i, iineoue
aeiaaino?ieiaee oa?aeoa?. Cia/aiiy aeacaiiai iai?yieo a nenoai?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i??i?eoao?a Oe?a?ie c?inoaoeia c ?icoe?aiiyi
a?aeiinei oa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c on?ia e?a?iaie ?aa?iio, ianaiia?aae o
noa?? iinoa/aiiy aia?ai?ano?n?a.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaiaoeea
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
“?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie” oa ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo “?ic?iaea i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo, iie?oe/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo iniia ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.” Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiaii ca?aeii c iaoeiaith oaiith eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia no?aoaa?y Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno?
?icaoaeiae iiai? ?a?iiaenueei? a?o?oaeoo?e”. I?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiai? iiaeae? aaciaee ioiieee ye ?a?iiaenueeee, oae ?
ac?enueeee ?aa?iie. Aiie iathoue ye naith ?aa?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo, oae
? caaaeuei? i?iaeaie oa oaiaeaioe??, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c yeeo ni?ey?
aeeaoiio inieneaiith iiai? iiaeae? caaacia/aiiy aacia/iiai ?nioaaiiy
ethaenoaa.

Iaoeiaa i?iaeaia, yeo ae??oo? aaoi? — aecia/aiiy oa aiae?c iniaeeainoae
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee ? i?e/ei
ianoaa?eueiino? o ?aa?ii? ia o?ueio ??aiyo (oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiio,
aeieo?eiaeueiiio ? i?aeoe/ii-iie?oe/iiio) oa a aeaio noa?ao
(a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i?e oa iie?oeei-aeeieiiaoe/i?e).

Eiioeaioe?y aeena?oaioa. Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c ?aea? i?i o?niee
aca?iica’ycie caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?, ?aa?iiaeueii? oa
i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee. A?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ?aa?iio a na?oia?e
iie?oeoe? oa aeiiii?oe?, a no?oeoo?? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, aei
i?iaeaie aeinyaiaiiy eiai aaciaee caeo/ai? i?ia?aei? e?a?ie na?oo.
I?ae caaacia/aiiyi aaciaee aaoi? ia? ia oaac? ?ic?iaeo iaiao?aeieo
??oaiue ? cae?eniaiiy ia ?o iniia? caoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo ?aaeueiei oa
iioaioe?eiei caa?icai.

Aaciaea Ia?nueei? caoiee ia? ?icaeyaeaoeny ? ye ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? ye noa?a a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue i?ae oeeie
noa’?eoaie. Eia?/iei oiio aaaaea?ii, ui i?aaeiaoii aeaii? i?aoe? ?
aaciaea ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a ?aa?ii? Ia?nueei?
caoiee a ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

Iiiyooy “?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea” ia? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa?.
O?iiieia?/i? iaae? ?iaioe ioiieththoue 70-o? — 90-o? ?iee. Aeae?eaiiy
oeueiai ia??iaeo iaoiiaeaia oaeeie /eiieeaie: a?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
nooo?aith o?ainoi?iaoe??th ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei, ui iaei ae??oaeueiee aieea ia i?iaeaio aeinyaiaiiy aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee. Ieaeiy o?iiieia?/ia iaaea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
oei, ui ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a, i?ney aeaaaeaiiy c ?aeiio “ia no?ae a?ae
Noaoeo” ca?ieieo nee Aaeeei? A?eoai??, oai aoei ooai?aii ieceo iiaeo
iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa — Aao?aei, Eaoa?, Iiai, IA?. A oie aea /an
aeoea?cothoueny i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? i?aenenoaie
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ye no?oeoo?inoai?thth/iai eiiiiiaioa
aeecueeino?aeii? ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie. Ae??oaeueia i?noea a oeeo
i?ioeanao iin?aeaea i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy oiia ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ice?eoo? iie?oe/ieo oa
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? o noa?? aaciaee a
Ia?nuee?e caoioe? a ia??iae 70-o — 90-o ?ie?a oa aiae?c? aieeao oe???
neooaoe?? ia caaaeueiee noai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei; aecia/aii?
i?eioeei?a aeinyaiaiiy, i?noey ? ?ie? aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a
nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae? eiie?aoi?
caaaeaiiy:

O oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiio ieai?:

— oi?ioaaiiy eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eiiai iaoeiaiai aia?aoa i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny;

— aiae?c eiioeaiooaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a c ieoaiue i?noey oa
?ie? i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao, ??
ooieoe?e oa oi?i ?aae?caoe??;

— oi?ioethaaiiy iaoe oa caaaeaiue nenoaie caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaciaee e e?eoa???a ioe?iee ?? aoaeoeaiino?.

O aeieo?eiaeueiiio ieai?:

— icia/aiiy iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo oai??e oa eiioeaioe?e, ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei aai iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaathoue ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee ye aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee, oae ?
iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa o ieoaiiyo ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee;

— aeyaeaiiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy iaoiaaiieo aieea?a oa aecia/aiiy oeyo?a
aoaeoeaiiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia ieo, aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?ic ?aa?iiaeuei?e
aaciaoe?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? icia/aiiy aeaea?ae iaaaciaee, ?o
nenoaiaoecaoe?th oa eeaneo?eaoe?th;

— aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo canaae no?aoaa?? aa?aiooaaiiy aaciaee aea?aeaaaie
Ia?nueei? caoiee, aeyaeaiiy ?o oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee;

O i?aeoeei-iie?oe/iiio ieai?:

— ia??iaeecaoe?y ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? o noa?? aaciaee ? aecia/aiiy
nooiaith aoaeoeaiino? ?? caaacia/aiiy;

— aecia/aiiy aieeao oeaio?ineeiai? aeeiai?ee a ?aa?ii? Ia?nueei? caoiee
oa ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? ia i?iaeaio caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea oa ioe?iea iniiaieo aoai?a aaiethoe?? iiceoe?? e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee, a?aanueeeo e?a?i, i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo, N?N?,
?in?? oa Oe?a?ie uiaei i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ?ic?iaeith aaoi?nueei?
eiioeaioe?? oeyo?a caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee ia i?eeeaae?
?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee, ui aea? ciiao iaaeaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie c oeueiai ieoaiiy. A
i?e aia?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny noai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a oeueiio
?aa?ii? a aaiiie?oe/ieo oiiaao no/aniino?, ui aeaei aaoi?o ciiao
aeyaeoe iaeaaaeeea?o? oaiaeaioe?? ?o ?icaeoeo. Aia?oa cae?eniaii iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaio ia??iaeecaoe?th ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? o noa?? aaciaee a
?aa?ii? Ia?nueei? caoiee ? aecia/aii nooi?iue aoaeoeaiino? ??
caaacia/aiiy. Aaoi? cai?iaaaeaeo? naith nenoaiaoecaoe?th oa
oaeineiiaeth? eeaneo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a aeanoaa?e?caoe?? neooaoe?? a
Ia?nuee?e caoioe?. C?iaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee i?iaiic ?icaeoeo
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaiaeaioe?e ia on?o no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo ?aa?iio. Aia?oa
cae?eniaii ni?iao nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa eeaneo?eaoe?? ?nioth/eo o no/ani?e
?noi??ia?ao?? iiaeyae?a, eiioeaioe?e oa oai??e noiniaii iiaeeeaino?
?ica’ycaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie. Ia i?ea?iaeuei?e aeaea?aeuei?e aac?
(aiaeiiiai? oa a?aaiiiai? aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee, aia?oa aaaaeai?
aaoi?ii o iaoeiaee ia?a) aecia/ai? oai?aoe/i? canaaee, aeyaeai?
oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? e iaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea iiceoe?e ye e?a?i
?aa?iio, oae ? iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa c aeaii? i?iaeaie. O eiioaeno?
eiiia?aoeaiiai ia?ainieneaiiy aeaea?ae aecia/aii nooi?iue aoaeoeaiino?
iaoe?iiaeueieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo, i?aeia?iaeieo iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, caeaaei?noue oeueiai i?ioeano a?ae
ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aeieo e?a?i na?oo. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
inieneaiiy ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie a aeinyaiaii? noaa?eueiino? ? aaciaee a
Ia?nuee?e caoioe?, iaaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy
oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ye eiai
iie?oe/iith aeooaeuei?noth, oae ? iaoeiaith iiaeciith. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e
noai?aii? aaoi?ii i?ia?ai aoc?anueeeo iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i “Ciai?oiy
iie?oeea e?a?i Ac??”, “Ciai?oiy iie?oeea a?aanueeeo e?a?i”,
“I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?”, “?neainueeee oaeoi? a
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao”, “Iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo nenoai oa
aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo”. Ia iniia? eiioeaiooaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii aoee i?aeaioiaeai? eo?ne “Iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie
i?aeia?iaeieo nenoai oa aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo”, “Aaiiie?oeea oa
aaino?aoaa?y”, niaoeeo?n “?neainueeee oaeoi? a i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiineiao”.

Noi?ioeueiaai? aaoi?ii iaoeia? aeniiaee oa ?acoeueoaoe iai?aaeai? aei
ICN Oe?a?ie. A ieo i?noyoueny aaoi?nuee? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee,
cie?aia c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Iaoa??aee, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a ae?yeueiino? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo oa a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinoa
Oe?a?ie, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a oa oeaio??a:

— aeey aeei?enoaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo e?a?i ?aa?iio
a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? no?aoaa??;

— aeey ?ic?iaee i?iaeaiaoeee i?aeia?iaeii? oa ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
aecia/aiiy iiceoe?? Oe?a?ie c oeeo ieoaiue;

— i?e aiae?c? oa i?iaiicoaaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo eo?n?a i?ia?aeieo
e?a?i Caoiaeo, a?aanueeeo oa ac?enueeeo e?a?i c i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny;

— aeey aecia/aiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no Oe?a?ie uiaei e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Iaoa??aee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a o aocao c i?iaeai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei,
i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee, ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee e?a?i Ac?? oa i?ia?aeieo
aea?aeaa no/aniiai na?oo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?ieoee
ai?iaaoe?th ? aoee ii?eethaeiai? o aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaeieo ?
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, o oiio /ene? ia eiioa?aioe??
Iaoeiai? ?aaee c i?iaeai aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i Ao?eee, ?inoeoooo Ao?eee ?AI oa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
“Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane ?in??, Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on? a Ao?eoe? ? ia
Aeecueeiio Noiae? (caaaeueia oa iniaeeaa)” (Ee?a, /a?aaiue 1993 ?ieo),
“O?ao?e na?o a no/aniiio na?o?” (Ee?a, n?/aiue 1992 ?ieo), Iaoeiaiio
nai?ia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Oe?a?inueei?
anioe?aoe?? noiaeiciaanoaa ? ao?eeai?noeee ?iai? A. E?einueeiai,
?inoeoooo nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i AI O?N?
“N?N?, NOA ? “o?ao?e na?o” (Ee?a, o?aaaiue 1990 ?ieo), eiioa?aioe?yo
?inoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa ?AI, cie?aia “Eiioe?eoe a e?a?iao o?aoueiai
na?oo” (1996 ??e), eiioa?aioe?? IAI Oe?a?ie “Iaoea oa oaoiieia?? a
oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee, i?iaeaie eiia?oe?ae?caoe??
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? iiaaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo” (Ee?a, a?oaeaiue 1997
?ieo), ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, a oaeiae i?e aeeeaaeaii?
aaoi?ii ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a “?noi??y i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei”, “Ciai?oiy
iie?oeea a?aanueeeo e?a?i”, “Anooi aei niaoe?aeueiino? “i?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie” aeey nooaeaio?a I — IV eo?n?a, “Iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie
i?aeia?iaeieo nenoai oa aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo”, “Aaiiie?oeea ?
aaino?aoaa?y” aeey iaa?no?aio?a ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei,
niaoeeo?n?a “?neainueeee oaeoi? a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao”,
“I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Oai?aoe/iee oa oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a. O iiiia?ao?? “Ia?nueea caoiea:
i?iaeaia aaciaee a 80-o? — 90-o? ?iee” ia oe?ieiio ?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae?
iiaeaia caaaeueia eiioeaiooaeueia iaoiaeieia?y, ia ye?e aaco?oueny
aaoi?nueea ?icoi?iiy nooiino? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa oeyo?a ?
iiaeeeainoae ?? caaacia/aiiy a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?. Aiae?cothoueny
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia aaciaeo ?aa?iio.
I?aeaeaii aiae?co ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae caaacia/aiiy aaciaee Ia?nueei?
caoiee, iiceoe?th iniiaieo aeoi??a c oe??? i?iaeaie. Aecia/aii
aaoi?nueea aa/aiiy oeyo?a ??oaiiy i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ?aa?iio
Ia?nueei? caoiee.

O iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo aeey nooaeaio?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe
“I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. OO noie?ooy” ia oe?ieiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae?
aea?oueny aiae?c iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
OO noie?ooy. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny, cie?aia, i?iaeai? aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Aeena?oaio ? ni?aaaoi?ii (?icae?e “I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie ia Aeecueeiio
oa Na?aaeiueiio Noiae?”) i?aeaioiaeaiiai aaoi?nueeei eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?IA EO iaa/aeueiiai
iin?aieea “I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie (1945-1980)”.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? i?iaeaiaoeee ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy
o 30 ioae?eaoe?? aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Neeaaei?noue i?iaeai, ui i?aeeyaathoue
aeine?aeaeaiith, coiiaeee caaaeueio eia?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?iaioe.
Aeena?oaoe?y caaaeueiei ianyaii 435 noi??iie neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e
(467 iaeiaioaaiue, 35 noi?.) oe?a?inueeith, ?in?enueeith, aiae?enueeith
oa a?aanueeith iiaaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ?ice?eaathoueny nooi?noue ? noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie oa ??
cia/ou?noue, iaa?oioiao?oueny ?? aeooaeuei?noue oa iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, oi?ioeth?oueny ?? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny o?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iienaii nooi?iue
iiaecie, iieacaii i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aeaea?aeueii-aeieoiaioaeueia oa
eiioeaiooaeueii-iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?noi??ia?ao?y
i?iaeaie” aeeeaaea?oueny caaaeueia iaoiaeeea ? iniiai? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiei aeei?enoaieo i?e ?iaio? iaae
oaiith aeaea?ae. Aiae?co?oueny nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie, iniiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee c i?iaeaie, ie?aneththoueny ieoaiiy, ui
iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Noa?a ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee — iaeei c iaeiaio ?ic?iaeaieo ia’?eo?a
iaoeiaiai aiae?co, ui aeiaaa? iniaeeai? oaaae aei aeai?o a??ii?
iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e ?c niaoeeo?ee ia’?eoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? iae?a? a yeino? iniiaieo iaoiae?a aiae?co
nenoaiiee, ii??aiyeueiee, i?iaeaiii-?noi?e/iee, aii??e/iee i?aeoiaee.
?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea iiaea aooe i?aaeiaoii ye oai?aoe/iiai, oae ?
aii??e/iiai aiae?co, ui nie?a?oueny ia ?aaeueii ?nioth/? a i?aeoeoe?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei aca?iiae?? a iaaeao aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a.
Canoinoaaiiy aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a aenooia? iaaiith caii?oeith iaoeiai?
ia’?eoeaiino? oa aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea
aeine?aeaeoaaoe nooi?noue i?iaeaie, ?? aaiaco iiaeia o?eueee ca
aeiiiiiaith cania?a oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co, iaeiei c yeeo ? iie?oieia?/iee
aiae?c. A?i aeicaiey? oyaeoe aeaiee i?ioean ye yaeua, iia’ycaia ?c
caoenoii oa i?aeo?eiaiiyi noaa?eueiino? oeyoii aea/aiiy iie?oeee
aeoi??a. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe
oe?e?nia ni?eeiyooy i?ioean?a i?aeia?iaeiiai aeeooy oa i?aaenoaaeoe
eiiieaenia aa/aiiy oeeo i?ioean?a ye noeoiiino? iiaaae?iee i?aeia?iaeieo
aeoi??a, ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, ui a eiioaeno? caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acii c eaoaai???th caa?ice.

A oe?eiio, i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee
aeei?enoiaoaaany eiaeai c oeeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a, oiio ui eeoa
a oaeiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i anaa?/iee oa oe?e?niee aiae?c
oeueiai aeooaeueiiai o iei?oi?e /an iaoeiaiai e i?aeoe/iiai yaeua.

Iaeaaaeeea?oee i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee i?iaeaiaoeee aaciaee —
aaiiie?oe/iee. Aaiiie?oeea aenooia? a eiioeaiooaeueiiio ? na?oiaeyaeiiio
aei??ao ? oiio ? iaeaaaii?oei /eiieeii iie?oe/iiai aiae?co oa i?iaiico.
Aaiiie?oe/iee aiae?c aeei?enoiao?oueny aaoi?ii aeey ioe?iee
i?aeia?iaeii-iie?oe/ieo iiceoe?e aea?aeaa, ?o i?noey a nenoai?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, aeine?aeaeaii? eiiieaeno iie?oe/ieo,
a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo ieoaiue, eio??
a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o caa?aaeaii? aai ci?i? ?aa?iiaeueiiai
aaeaino nee.

Eiaeia aea?aeaaa /e a?oia aea?aeaa aeae?a? aeey naaa iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoiee aa??aio caaacia/aiiy aeanii? aaciaee, a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino?
naiai aaia?ao?/iiai iieiaeaiiy, aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, oa?aeoa?o caa?ic
oa ?ioeo /eiiee?a. Aaiiie?oe/iee aiae?c aea? ciiao anoaiiaeoe, yeith
i??ith oa /e ?ioa iiaeaeue aaciaee a?aeiia?aea? niaoeeo?oe? aea?aeaaiiai
i?inoi?o, aaia?ao?? ie?aii? e?a?ie /e ?aa?iio a oe?eiio.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoiaeieia?/ia no?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c
iie?oeei-aeeieiiaoe/ieo oa a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie
aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee ia o?ueio ??aiyo (oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiio,
aeieo?eiaeueiiio oa i?aeoeei-iie?oe/iiio).

Aeaea?aeueii-aeieoiaioaeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue:

Aeieoiaioe ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo a?aeiinoa e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee,
aeiaiai?e, oaiaee, aeaeea?aoe??, eiithi?ea, io?oe?ei? cayae
i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aaey/eo e?e oeeo e?a?i;

Aeieoiaioe ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo a?aeiinoa ?ioeo e?a?i Aeecueeiai oa
Na?aaeiueiai Noiaeo, e?a?i Ac??;

Aeieoiaioe i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa noa?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e — I?aai?caoe?? ?neainueea Eiioa?aioe?y (I?E), E?ae
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa (EAAe), ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
Ia?nueei? caoiee (?NAAeIC);

Iaoa??aee ? ??oaiiy I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ?aciethoe?? ?aaee
Aaciaee III;

Io?oe?ei? ioae?eaoe?? caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a NOA, i?ioieiee can?aeaiue
iaio iaeao eiia?ano, neooaiiy eii?n?e oa i?aeeii?n?e, ia?o ca ana
ui??/i? neooaiiy c ieoaiue iie?oeee NOA a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, c
ie?aieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ?aa?iiaeueiith aaciaeith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ioae?eaoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oeaio??a, ui iathoue
ia no?eueee aeaaeai?/iee, ne?eueee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eii-i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?
? ni?aaeythoue cia/iee aieea ia ?ic?iaeo oa cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee e?a?i a
aaeoc? aaciaee a oeueiio ?aa?ii?.

O?yaeia? aeieoiaioe NOA, cie?aia ioae?eaoe?? aea?aeaeaia?oaiaioo NOA,
ca??ieee aenooi?a i?aceaeaio?a, aenooie aea?aeaaieo nae?aoa??a, ?ioeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a aia?eeainueeeo i?aaey/eo e?e.

I?ioieiee can?aeaiue caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a ?ioeo iica?aa?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa, ui a?ae?a?athoue iniaeeao ?ieue a caaacia/aii? aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee, cie?aia Aaeeei? A?eoai??.

Aeieoiaioe ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo a?aeiinoa Oe?a?ie, ?in??, N?N?.

10. Aeieoiaioe ?a?iiaenueeiai Ni?aoiaa?enoaa (c 1 eenoiiaaea 1993 ?ieo —
?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco).

11. Aeieoiaioe iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?oo?a e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee:
ioae?eaoe?? Ia?iaeiiai O?iioo Aao?aeio, uioeaeiaaee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
O?iioo Aecaieaiiy Iiaio, c’?cae?a Ia?o?? a?aanueeiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ??aenueeiai ?aa?iio, ?ioeo a?aanueeeo oa ionoeueiainueeeo
e?a?i.

12. Ca??ieee aenooi?a, noaoo?, eieae oa iaioa?e iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a, ye?
aeeiioaaee /e aeeiiothoue ooieoe?th oai?aoee?a oa ?aeaieia?a i?e
oi?ioethaaii? iniia iie?oeee ?o e?a?i c i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei?
caoiee — iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a e?a?i-/eai?a ?NAAeIC, ??aio, cie?aia
?.Oiiaei?, A.A.Oaoai?-?aonaiaeaeai?, A.-A.Aaeayo?. A.Iaeae?, ??aeo —
N.Oonaeia, Oa?eea Ac?ca, Niieo/aieo Ooao?a — A.E?nn?iaeaea?a,
C.Aaeaceinueeiai, E? Aai?eueoiia, Aeae.Iieana, i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
e?a?i.

?icaeyaeath/e caeiiii??iino? oa niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, iaiao?aeiei aoei ia?o
ca ana e?eoe/ii ioe?ieoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee ?noi??ia?ao?? aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? i?iaeaie aaciaee. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??cieo e?eoa???a ?nio? cia/ia e?euee?noue
eeaneo?eaoe?e no/anieo oa/?e a iaooe? i?i i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie.
Cie?aia, ia iniia? aaia?ao?/ii? oa ?aeaieia?/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? aaoi?ii
ae??ciythoueny oe?a?inueea, ?in?enueea, ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y,
cao?aei? eiioeaioe??, oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi??a e?a?i, ui
?icaeaathoueny. Uiaei cao?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao??, oi a?aeie?aieth?oueny
aeae?eueea iniiaieo iai?yi?a — iie?oe/iee ?aae?ci, iie?oe/iee
?aeaae?ci, iiaea?i?ci, o?ainiaoe?iiae?ci, iai?aae?ci (no?oeoo?iee
?aae?ci, no?oeoo?ae?ci) oa iaiia?eneci. Aaoi? aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? aeaii? i?iaeaie aeei?enoiaoaaoe ianooiio oeiieia?th:

— oe?a?inueea ?noi??ia?ao?y.

— cao?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeeth/ath/e i?aaenoaaiee?a an?o iniiaieo oe?e
oa aeae?eueeio ie?aieo oai??e;

— yiiinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y, ui ia? nai? iniaeeaino? c i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny;

— ?noi??ia?ao?y e?a?i, ui aecaieeeeny — a?aanueea, ??ainueea,
?iae?enueea, iaeenoainueea;

— ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y;

— ?in?enueea ?noi??ia?ao?y;

Aia?eeainueea oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueea ?noi??ia?ao?y. I?ioyaii ia??iaeo,
ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, i?iaeaia aaciaee ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee, yea ia?
iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aiane?aeie, ia?o ca ana, i?e/ei aaiaeiiii?/iiai oa
aaiiie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, i?eaa?oaea oaaao i?aaenoaaiee?a
aia?eeainueei? ca cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? ?noi??ia?ao??. Ne?ae
i?aee?aneeoe, ui cao?aeia e?oa?aoo?a caniiaaia ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?aeoiaeao, ii?aoeueiaaieo i?aaenoaaieeaie an?o aieiaieo iai?yi?a
no/anieo oai??e i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Oeeie i?iaeaiaie caeiaeeny
i?aaenoaaieee an?o iniiaieo oa/?e a no/ani?e iaooe? i?i i?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie — iie?oe/iiai ?aae?cio (A.E?nn?iaeaea?, ?.Oaea?), iie?oe/iiai
?aeaae?cio (C.Aaeaceinueeee), o?ainiaoe?iiae?cio (Aeae.Iae),
iaiia?enecio (O.Oiee?aeae), iiaea?i?cio (ss.?ioaiaeae), iai?aae?cio
(I.Iicaooa??) oa a?oaa?i?ecio (N.?ainii, N.Oaei), oai??? i?aeia?iaeieo
aeoi??a (Aiaao Ei?ai?), oai??? aca?iiae?? a iaaeao i?aeia?iaeieo nenoai
(Nai?? Ai?i).

Aaoi? aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia aeie?aieoe iniiai? ?ica?aeiino? a i?aeoiaeao
i?aaenoaaiee?a oeeo oa/?e aei i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee.
I?aaenoaaieee iie?oe/iiai ?aae?cio aeoiaeeee c o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeey ieo
i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ye a?aie aino?iai
i?ioeai?noaa aea?aeaa, ?icaeyaeath/e noai ie?o ye noai ??aiiaaae i?ae
aea?aeaaaie ? aaa/ath/e a caaacia/aii? aaeaino neee ?aeeiee ?aae?noe/iee
can?a caa?aaeaiiy ie?o. Uiaei ??oaiiy i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
Caoiee, oi aiie aiaaiai?, ui aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia aeiiiiiaa
iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa /a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue e?a?i ?aa?iio c?iaeoe
oea aeanieie neeaie. A 60-o? ?iee a?eueo?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/iiai
?aae?cio aaaaeaea ca ia?aae/ania ??oaiiy Aaeeei? A?eoai?? i?i aeaaaeaiiy
ca?aeoe ca?ieieo nee. A 70-o? ?iee i?aeo?eioaaee iie?oeeo
“aeainoi?iiiuei? iii?e” ia ??ai oa Naoae?anueeo A?aa?th a caaacia/aii?
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee, ia aeeeth/ath/e iiaeeea?noue ca?ieiiai ao?o/aiiy
o Caoioe? a ?ac? “caa?ice i?eaeooaiiy ?iaeono??aeueiiai na?oo”, a 90-o?
— e?eoeeoaaee iie?oeeo “iiaea?eiiai no?eioaaiiy” ??aio oa ??aeo ye
iaaaeaeo ni?iao anoaiiaeaiiy aaeaino nee . Aiie aenooiaee ca
canoinoaaiiy neee i?ioe ??aeo ? ia?iuoaaiiy a?enueeiai? i?enooiino?
Caoiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee. A iaaeao oeueiai
iai?yio oi?ioethaaeanue io?oe?eia iie?oeea NOA ? Aaeeei? A?eoai?? c
i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee acaaae?.

A oie aea /an ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo c oe???
i?iaeaie aieeaathoue e ?io? i?ia?aei? oai??? ? eiioeaioe??. Oea,
cie?aia, iiaea?i?ci, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iie?oe/iiai ?aae?cio ia?o
ca ana canoinoaaiiyi ?ioeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia
oi?iae?caoe??, iiaeaethaaiiy, aii??e/ii? aa?eo?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a. A
oeueiio ieai? oa?aeoa?ieie ? i?aoe? i?ioani?a Aeaei?aeaeoaoinueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I.Oaaeniia, a oaeiae I.Nae?ia, E.Ia?o?ia oa ?ioeo.

I?aaenoaaieee iai?aae?cio iia’ycothoue nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei c yeinoyie no?oeoo?e i?aeia?iaeii? nenoaie. C ?o oi/ee ci?o,
no?oeoo?i? yeino? i?aeia?iaeii? nenoaie ia caeaaeaoue a?ae coneeue iaeeo
oa na?aaei?o aea?aeaa, a ? iane?aeeii aca?iiae?? i?ae aaeeeeie
aea?aeaaaie. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeiuei, ui aieiaio oaaao aiie i?eae?eyee
aiae?co iie?oeee NOA oa N?N? a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee (O.Ooa?i), a ia
no/aniiio aoai? — iie?oeoe? NOA oa ?ioeo i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo.

Aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/iiai ?aeaae?cio aoa i?eoaiaiiee
ii?iaoea?nonueeee i?aeo?ae, ia?aa?eueoaiiy ?ie? i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e a ni?aa? aeinyaiaiiy ie?o ? aaciaee oeyoii i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

I?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece a cao?aei?e iie?oieia?? aeieeathoue iia?
i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie aaciaee. A iaea?eueo iiaiiio aeaeyae? aiie
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eiioeaioe?yo “caaaeueii? aaciaee”, oa “iiaiai
?ioa?aaioe?ii?cio”. Aiie iaa?oioiaoaaee iaiao?aei?noue iaiaaeaiiy
iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaa?ai?oaoo oa i?aai i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa ia aeoeai? ae?? c caaacia/aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee oa
i?eieiaiiy ae?e o??? /e ?ioi? aea?aeaae, ui ?? ii?ooo?. Aiaeii/an aeaye?
aaoi?e a?aenoithaaee oi/eo ci?o, ui oaea eiioeaioe?y aecia? i?aai ia
ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae ?ioeo aea?aeaa ? ? ?aeaieia?/iei
iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey ni?ia aeayeeo e?a?i aei?aaaeaoe nai? aaaaiii?nonuee?
i?aaiaiiy.

I?aaenoaaieee o?ainiaoe?iiaeueiiai iai?yio aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia
iineeaii? aca?iicaeaaeiino? na?oo oa a?aeiiniiio ciaioaii? ?ie? neee a
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao. Cia/iee aieea ia iie?oeeo NOA a ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee ni?aaeyee ?aea?, noi?ioeueiaai? oaeeie a/aieie, ye
A.Iaeea, Aeae.Iae, Ae.Aieaeo?i, ui ia?aaeaa/aee “ia?oia?noai”,
“aca?iicaeaaei?noue” oa “aca?iiaeiiiaiai?noue”.

??oaiiy Aaeeei? A?eoai?? a?aeiinii aeaaaeaiiy nai?o ca?ieieo nee c
?aeiio Ia?nueei? caoiee i?eaa?ioei oaaao aei oeueiai ?aa?iio, aoei
i?iaaaeaii aeae?eueea nai?ia??a c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.
Aeciaaaeanue ia?aae/ani?noue ??oaiiy Aaeeei? A?eoai??, iaiiaeeea?noue
e?a?i Caoiee caaacia/eoe aaciaeo aeanieie neeaie.

Iiaei iiooiaoii aei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?aeiio Ia?nueei? caoiee noaei
c?inoaiiy cia/aiiy iaooiaiai oaeoi?a a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao,
iineeaiiy caeaaeiino? aeiiii?ee e?a?i Caoiaeo a?ae ?iii?oo iaooe
?aa?iio. A ?iaioao Aeae.Iaoa?niia, N.O.Ai?ia oa ?ioeo iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny iie?oeoe? NOA oa Aaeeei? A?eoai??.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue c’yaeeany ia Caoiae? i?ney ?aaiethoe??
a ??ai? oa i?ae /an ??aii-??aenueei? a?eie. Oea, cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th iaeiiai c e?aea??a iiiceoe?? ?aaeeio Oiiaei?
O.Ai??caaea “Aaciaea Ia?nueei? caoiee”, i?aoe? A.Ei?aeaniaia ?
A.Iiiiaiaia. Aea icia/ai? aaoi?e caeeoathoue aac a?aeiia?ae? ?yae
eeth/iaeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi oaeoi??a
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?. Aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i? aniaeoe
i?iaeaie aaciaee ?icaeyaeathoueny ieie aeoiaey/e c ?a?iiioeaio?enonueeeo
aiaeia?e, ia a?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo e?a?i Noiaeo.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao a ieai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oeee ??aio a ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee caneoaiao? i?aoey “Caoiea oa i?aeia?iaeia aaciaea:
80-o? ?iee ? aeae?” i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th I.?.Ao?a??. Cie?aia, I.?.Ao?a??
aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeo? iie?oeeo i?aaey/eo e?e ??aio c i?iaeaie aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee, Aeae.Iie?n oa I.Eaoe aiae?cothoue i?noea oe???
i?iaeaie o a?aeiineiao ??aio c noia?aea?aeaaaie. Aaoi?e i?eoiaeyoue aei
aeniiaeo, ui iie?oeea ??aio a Ia?nuee?e caoioe? ye o ia??iae i?aae?iiy
oaoa, oae ? ca /an?a ?neainueei? ?anioae?ee, iaei a?ae??ciyeanue ? aoea
ni?yiiaaia ia caeiaoooy oai aeii?ioth/eo iiceoe?e. Aeae.Iaoa?nii
aiae?co? iie?oeeo e?a?i-/eai?a ?NAAeIC c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee,
cie?aia ?o eiioeaioe?th “iii?e ia aeani? neee”. A oie aea /an iica
oaaaith a?eueoino? aaoi??a caeeoeeanue iie?oeea ??aeo a Ia?nuee?e
caoioe?.

I?ney a?eie a Ia?nuee?e caoioe? c’yaeeany aaeeea e?euee?noue e?oa?aoo?e
c i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a ?aa?ii?. Aiia i?noeoue
aaeeeo ?ioi?iaoe?th a?aeiinii ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? a ia??iae eoaaeonueei?
e?ece ? iiaeaeueoeo iiae?e, aea iaiaaeo?oueny eiinoaooth/ei ?o
aena?oeaiiyi, oaeoe/ii caeeoath/e aac aaeaeaaoiiai iiyniaiiy i?e/eie
ianoaa?eueiino? a ?aa?ii? oa oeyoe ?o aoaeoeaiiai iiaeieaiiy. Iiaee,
aeineoue oe?eaaee ?aeo?n i?iaeaie ?icaeyaea?oueny a iiiia?ao??
“Iie?oe/ia ineoieia?y a a?ei? a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?: e?aea?e,
a?iiaaenuee?noue oa eiioe?eoiee i?ioean”. A ?? iniia? ? iaoa??aee
eiioa?aioe??, ui aoea i?aai?ciaaia oi?aa?neoaoii Iueth-Ei?ea. A
?icae?eao, iaienaieo E.A?aoiii, Ae.?anoio aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeothoueny
ia?aaeoiiae e?ece a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?. N.O?ei, Aeae.Iino, N.?ainii
aiae?cothoue ?ieue noa’?eoeaiiai oaeoi?o a eoaaeonuee?e e?ec?, i?ioean
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a?aanueeeie ea??aieeaie, cie?aia N.Oonaeiii,
i?aceaeaioii NOA Aeae.Aooai. Iaaio oaaao aeeeeea? aeniiaie E.A?aoia, ui
i?ae /an eoaaeonueei? e?ece noaeiny ineoieia?/ia a?aeiiaeaiiy a?aanueei?
?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?, /ei aeineoue aaeaei iai?ioethaaea ??aenueea
i?iiaaaiaea. I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee i?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece aiae?cothoueny a i?aoeyo
A.Aaoca, O.?nia?ea, AE.?nia?e, E.Eaioi??, Aa?aea I`Iaeea, ?.Oaeueea,
?.I.O??aeiaia, ?.Oaioa?a oa ?ioeo.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e i?iaeaiii-iaoeia? iiiia?ao?/i? i?aoe? c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a ?aa?ii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, ne?ae cacia/eoe
a?aenooi?noue oe?e?niiai ? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeaie eiai
aaciaee i?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny. A i?aoeyo
cao?aeieo aaoi??a ?ic?iaeyeenue eeoa ie?ai? aniaeoe aeacaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee.

ssiiinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y. A?aoiaoth/e cia/aiiy Ia?nueei? caoiee aeey
yiiinueei? aeiiii?ee, i?iaeaie ?? aaciaee aeeeeeaee oaaao yiiinueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a. Aeie?aieth?oueny i’youe iai?yi?a o yiiinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? c i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ui cia/iith i??ith ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi i?ioe??/ a ?? i?aaey/eo eieao c i?iaeai iie?oeee a
?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, i?noey ? ?ie? ssiii?? a nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei acaaae?. Aiae?c oeeo iai?yi?a aea? ciiao aeayeith i??ith
i?iaiicoaaoe iiaeeea? ci?ie a iie?oeoe? ssiii?? .

Ia?oee iai?yi, ui iiaeia iicia/eoe ye “i?i?iae?nonueeee”, i?aee?aneth?
iaiao?aei?noue aeey ssiii?? nei?ioeoe naith o/anoue o coneeeyo ii
caaacia/aiith aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, aeenoaioe?thaaoeny a?ae iie?oeee
NOA a ?aa?ii?, aeoeaioo? oaaao ia iniaeeainoyo iie?oeee ssiii?? a
?aa?ii? ye ac?enueei? aea?aeaae, ?? aeiiii?/ii? caeaaeiino? a?ae iaooe
Caoiee. A?i ia? iaea?eueoo i?aeo?eieo na?aae i?aaey/eo oa iaoeiaeo e?e
e?a?ie, a on?o i’yoe i?ia?aeieo yiiinueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?yo, aea
ianaiia?aae a Nioe?ae?noe/i?e oa Eiioi?noe/i?e. ?? i?ea?/ieeaie ?
a?aeii? iie?oe/i? ae?y/?, oae? ye ssnoo??i Iaeaniia, Ianaoa?o Aioiaea,
i?aaenoaaieee aeueo a?cianiaeo e?e, cie?aia Eacoi Eoeocaaa.

Ae?oaa a?oia aeine?aeiee?a, oae caai? “?aae?noe”, aenooiathoue ca
aeoeaio o/anoue ssiii?? a caoiaeao ii i?aeo?eiaiith aaciaee a ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee, o oiio /ene? ? o a?enueeiaeo. Iaea?eueo /?oei
iiaeyaee oe??? a?oie aeine?aeiee?a a?aeia?aaea? i?ioani? Oie?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Naecaao?i Naoi. Aieea ?o ia oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
aeoiee ssiii?? iiaeia ioe?ieoe ye iii??eiaaiee.

O?ao?e iai?yi, oae caai? “ii?ae?noe”, aaaaeathoue, ui a oiiaao aa?an??
i?ioe noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae, ye oea o?aieeinue i?ae /an eoaaeonueei?
e?ece, ssiii?y i?inoi ia? ii?aeueiee iaia`ycie ao?o/aoeny a?eueo
aeoeaii. ?iaeoa ?? aoaeooue ?icaeyaeaoe ye aai?noe/io, iai?eioeeiiao
e?a?io, ui caiaiiei?ia o?eueee aeanieie aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie, “e?a?io
aac iaee//y”.

*aoaa?oee iai?yi — oae caai? “oo?e?oa?enoe”. Aiie aaaaeathoue ca
iaiao?aeia i?iaiaeeoe a?eueo aeoeaio ciai?oith iie?oeeo, a oiio /ene? c
i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, ui aoaea ni?eyoe iineeaiith aieeao
ssiii?? ia i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie.

Ia?aoo?, inoaii?, oae caai? “a?eaoa?ae?noe”, ?icaeyaeathoue iie?oeeo
ssiii?? ia?o ca ana a eiioaeno? yiiinueei-aia?eeainueeeo a?aeiinei. Aiie
iaiieyaathoue ia oiio, ui ssiii?y ia? a?ae?a?aaaoe a?eueo aeoeaio ?ieue
o caaacia/aii? aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, uia ia caoeiaeeoe ?icaeoeo
yiiinueei-aia?eeainueeeo a?aeiinei.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui naia iie?oeea ssiii?? a ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee noaea ia??aeiei eaiaiai aeeneon?e c i?iaeai ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee acaaae?, ?? aeueoa?iaoea.

A?aanueea ?noi??ia?ao?y. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee aaaeooueny
a niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oeaio?ao Aeue-Eoaaeoa, Ea??a,
Aiiaia, Aae?ooa. Aiia i?aaenoaaeaia i?aoeyie oaeeo a/aieo, ye Aaaeaeea
aeue-Iao?n? (i?ia?aeiee eoaaeonueeee iie?oieia), I.?ooaeo, ssouey
Oaeuei? ?aaeaeaa, I. ?oiaeo? (aieiaiee ?aaeaeoi? aeo?iaeo aeue-A?aa?,
?aaeiee i?i?no?a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Eoaaeoo), TH.An-Naaao (i?aaenoaaiee
i?aaey/i? aeeiano?? Eoaaeoo), Coea? Ooeae?. Ne?ae iniaeeai aeie?aieoe ca
ianyaii, ?ioi?iaoeai?noth oa aeaea?aeueiei caaacia/aiiyi i?aoe?
ss.O.?aaeaeaaa “?aaea ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aea?aeaa A?aanueei? caoiee” oa
A.Aeue-Oiiaeae? “?ieue aea?aeaa A?aanueei? caoiee o aeiiiiic?
i?aeia?iaeiiio ?icaeoeo”.

A a?aanuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?nio? aeae?eueea eiioeaioe?e c i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Ia?oa, ui iaaiee /an aoea aeineoue iioe?aiith,
aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aaciaea Ia?nueei? caoiee ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
caaaeueiia?aanueei? aaciaee, aiia ia? caaacia/oaaoeny ni?eueieie
coneeeyie a?aanueeeo e?a?i. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ?yae aaoi??a
a?aeeeaeaee iaiao?aei?noue ooai?aiiy ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee (?NAAeIC), oiio ui aaea ?nio? i?aai?caoe?y, ui
ia’?aeio? an? a?aanuee? e?a?ie, a naia E?aa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
(Iooaiiaae Eaa?a Ooeae?, Aae?ae Aaaeoe Oae, Aaaeoe Ioi?i Na?ae Ae?,
Aeaeo?aeae Aeue-Aaaae). A ooai?aii? noa?aa?iiaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue aiie
aaa/athoue iaaaoeaio oaiaeaioe?th aei i?noeaaiai ?aa?iiae?cio, ui eaea
anoia?a/ caaaeueiia?aanueeei ?ioa?anai. Aiie aaaaeathoue, ui ooai?aiiy
?aaee noaei iaaaoeaiei oaeoi?ii, ui ni?eya caeaaeiino? aaciaee
a?aanueeeo e?a?i a?ae iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa, ia?o ca ana NOA,
a?aeie?aieaiith caaaeueiia?aanueei? aaciaee a?ae aaciaee Ia?nueei?
caoiee.

Ae?oaa eiioeaioe?y ?icaeyaea? aaciaeo Ia?nueei? caoiee a?aeie?aieaii
a?ae caaaeueiia?aanueeeo i?iaeai. A iaaeao oe??? eiioeaioe?? ?nio?
e?eueea i?aeoiae?a. Ia?oee i?aeo?ae, ui aoa aeie?eiaeueii ioi?ieaiee a
??oaiiyo ?NAAeIC a 80-o ?ieao, ia?aaeaa/aa “iii?o ia aeani? neee” a
caaacia/aii? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Oae? aaoi?e, ye ssouey Oaeuei?
?aaeaeaa, Ae? Oae?oa aeue-Eoaa??, Aaaeaeea aeue-Ian?oe aaaaeathoue, ui
caaaeaia i?aai?caoe?y a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue a caaacia/aii?
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Ae?oaee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/aa aeei?enoaiiy aeey
oe??? iaoe ca?ieieo nee a?aanueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia ?aeioo oa Ne???, aai
ionoeueiainueeeo e?a?i — ??aio, Iaeenoaio, Oo?a//eie, oiui. O?ao?e
i?aeo?ae, ui ciaeoia aeieo?eiaeueia cae??ieaiiy a 90-o ?ieao (?icoi?th/e
i?ae aeieo?eiith io?oe?aeueii noi?ioeueiaai? aea?aeaaaie, cie?aia
Eoaaeoii ? Iiaiii, i?eioeeie iie?oeee) ia?aaeaa/aa iii?o ia
iica?aa?iiaeuei? aea?aeaae a caaacia/aii? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee —
iino?eieo /eai?a ?aaee Aaciaee III, ia?o ca ana NOA ? Aaeeeo A?eoai?th.

Iaea?eueo aeeneon?eiei a a?aanuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ? ieoaiiy a?aeiinii
cao?aeii? a?enueeiai? i?enooiino? ? ?ie? e?a?i Caoiaeo a caaacia/aii?
aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee. I?ioe oeueiai, cie?aia, aenooiaee oae?
aeine?aeieee, ye Aoiaae aeue-?oaa? oa ?io?, ui iaiieyaaee ia a?aanueeiio
aa??aio? ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie. A oie aea /an aeaye? aaoi?e, ia?o ca
ana eoaaeonuee?, cie?aia Iaa?eue Cae?, ??oaao Na?ae, aeciaee
iaiao?aei?noue a no/anieo oiiaao aaeaaaoeny aei aeiiiiiae
iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa o caaacia/aii? aaciaee.

A?aeiinii e?ece a Ia?nuee?e caoioe? ne?ae cacia/eoe aeae?eueea
aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia aeieoi?a Ooac? Caea??y “A?aanueea eoeueoo?a oa
e?eca a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?”, a ye?e a?i aiae?co? i?aea?aanuee? a?aeiineie
a ia??iae e?ece. Aaiac? eoaaeonueei? e?ece i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
Aaaeoeee Naeiaia “I?aeia?iaeia ai?ioueaa a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee”,
Aiaa?a Iooaiiaaea “E?eca”, Aaaeoeee I?aeaean? “Eoaaeo c ?ioi? oi/ee
ci?o”, Aoo?ina Aoo?ina Aae? “Eiioe?eo a Ia?nuee?e caoioe? ? i?iaeaie, ui
aeieeathoue i?ney iueiai”.

??ainueea ?noi??ia?ao?y o?aaeeoe?eii iaea io?oe?eiee oa?aeoa? ?
a?aeaeca?eaethaaea iiaeyaee i?aaey/eo e?e. O ca’yceo c oeei iiaeia /?oei
a?aeie?aieoe aeae?eueea ia??iae?a o i?aeoiae? ??ainueeeo aaoi??a aei
i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee. Aei 1979 ?ieo a i?e ?iaeany aeoeaio
ia oiio, ui aaciaea ia? caaacia/oaaoenue ia?o ca ana aea?aeaaaie
?aa?iio, aac ao?o/aiiy ciai?. Aieiaio ?ieue a oeueiio ia? a?ae?a?aaaoe
??ai, nie?ath/enue ia a?enueeiao aeiiiiiao c aieo NOA. I?ney 1979 ?ieo
aieiaia oaca caeeoeeany — aea aoa ciyoee aeoeaio a?aeiinii iaiao?aeiino?
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o a?enueeia?e aaeoc? c iica?aa?iiaeueieie aea?aeaaaie.

?aea? ?aa?iiae?cio, a oiio /ene? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee, io?eiaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie /a?ac nenoaio eiioa?aioe?e ca o/anoth oe?ieiai eiea
iie?oee?a oa a/aieo c ??cieo e?a?i. Aaaeeeaa i?noea a eiioeaiooaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? iaeaaeeoue eiioa?aioe?yi c i?iaeai ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee,
ui i?ioiaeeee a Oaaa?ai?, ia yeeo ?icaeyaeaeeny ??ci? i?iiiceoe?? c
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee. ??ci? ca nai?i neeaaeii oa eiie?aoiith
i?iaeaiaoeeith, aiie ni?eyee ?ic?iaoe? aeaiaio?a nenoaie aaciaee, ui
noai?thaa?oueny e?ie ca e?ieii.

?iae?enueea ?noi??ia?ao?y. A?aoiaoth/e cia/aiiy oeueiai ?aa?iio a
ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? e?a?ie, ?iae?enueea ?noi??ia?ao?y i?eae?eyea
iniaeeao oaaao ieoaiiyi aaciaee a ?aa?ii? ?iae?enueeiai ieaaio, cie?aia
Ia?nuee?e caoioe?. A oeueiio ieai? ne?ae caaaeaoe iiiia?ao?? a?aeiieo
oao?aoe?a Aeaaaiae?e Eaooeea oa A.I.Aaia?aeaee. Aea a?aoiaoth/e aeaoo
aeaeaiiy, aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny iiae?yi 70-o — 80-o ?ie?a. Oeei
?iaioai i?eoaiaiia aino?a e?eoeea iie?oeee NOA oa Iaeenoaio a ?aeii?
Ia?nueei? caoiee, aiieia?y “ie?iethaiiai” oa?aeoa?o ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
?iae??. I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a 90-o ?ieao aiae?co?oueny a
i?aoeyo ss.N?iaoa oa A.O.O.Aa?ae?. C oi/ee ci?o oeeo aaoi??a, ??oaiiy
i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee iaiao?aeii ooeaoe ia?o ca ana ia
oeyoao ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae e?a?iaie ?aa?iio, ?c caeo/aiiyi ?ioeo
ac?enueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia ?iae??.

?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y. Aaoi? e?eoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaa iaoeiao
e?oa?aoo?o, ui aoea iioae?eiaaia a eieeoiueiio N?N?. Oea ia?o ca ana
caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? ?iaioe, ui aeine?aeaeoaaee o??th /e ?ioith i??ith
i?ioeane ?icaeoeo e?a?i Aeecueeiai Noiaeo, ?o ?ieue a i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiineiao. A ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a
?aa?ii? aiae?coaaeeny c oi/ee ci?o a?iiey?iiai i?ioenoiyiiy,
i?ioeai?noaa aeaio iaaeaea?aeaa. Aeey aiae?co caaaeueieo i?iaeai
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no NOA aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iiiia?ao??
A.A.O?io?iaiea ? A.O.Iao?ianueeiai, i?aoe? “Aeiaaeueia no?aoaa?y NOA a
oiiaao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaiethoe??”, “No/ani? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?
eiioeaioe?? NOA”, “NOA: a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/i? eiioeaioe??”. Ie?ai?
aniaeoe iie?oeee NOA a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee ?icaeyaeaeeny a ?iaioao
?aaeyinueeeo aia?eeai?no?a A.A.A?aaoiaa, A.A.AEo?e?ia, A.?.Iaaeth/aiea,
noiaeiciaaoe?a A.?.Ie?nueeiai, ?.I.I?eiaeiaa, I.A.Ooaaiiai? oa ?ioeo.
Caaaeueiith iciaeith, i?eoaiaiiith aeey oeeo i?aoeue, ? iie?oeciaai?noue
o caeoie iaoeiai? ia’?eoeaiino?. A oie aea /an aaoi?e aeei?enoiaothoue
cia/iee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, ui noaa o i?eaiae? i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oaie. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai “e?eciai? no?aoaa??” NOA
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?aoe? A.A.E?aiaithea oa A.A.AEo?e?ia..

Aaoi? aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia i?iaiae?coaaoe, ye i?ioiaeeei oi?ioaaiiy
aeaiiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iai?yio a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, aeie?aieoe
aeae?eueea ia??iae?a oa ie?aneeoe ieoaiiy, ui aoee aieiaiei ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oiio /e ?ioiio aoai?.

Ia?oee aoai — ae?oaa iieiaeia 40-o — 60-o? ?iee. Oaaaa aei i?iaeai
aeecueeino?aeiiai ?aa?iio iineeth?oueny a ?aaeyinuee?e e?oa?aoo?? i?ney
ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. Aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue oaeei ieoaiiyi, ye
iie?oeea cao?aeieo aea?aeaa ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe???
i?iaeaiaoeee aoei caii/aoeiaaii iiiia?ao??th i?ioani?a
A.E.Aiiaea?aanueeiai “Aiae?enueea iie?oeea ? i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a
aanaei? Ia?nueei? caoiee”. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?aeaieia?/i? ooaiie,
aeeeeeai? oiiaaie oiai /ano, aeey i?aoe? i?eoaiaiia iaoeiaa noie?ii?noue
oa aeei?enoaiiy oi?eaeueieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ui aia?oa aaiaeeeeny a
iaoeiaee ia?a.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ia A?aanueeiio Noiae?, oiio e?a?ie
Ia?nueei? caoiee (ca aeiyoeii ??aio oa ??aeo) iieieeenue inoi?iiue
aiane?aeie ?? oaeoe/ii? a?aenooiino? , ui iiynithaaeinue a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? ye a?aenoae?noth, oae ? a?enueeiaith i?enooi?noth
Aaeeeia?eoai??.

O oeae ia??iae aoei iioae?eiaaii cia/io e?euee?noue e?oa?aoo?e
e?a?iiciaa/iai oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ?o iaoeiaa
oe?ii?noue iaeaea caaaeaee ? i?i?iaeueiith .

Ae?oaee aoai — 70-o? ?iee. Iiooiaoii aei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
Ia?nueei? caoiee noaea aeoea?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae,
cie?aia a Iiai? oa Aao?aei?, a aieiaia — oea ??oaiiy Aaeeei? A?eoai??
i?i aeaaaeaiiy nai?o ca?ieieo nee c ?aa?iio oa c?inoaiiy ?ie? iaooiaiai
oaeoi?o a na?oia?e iie?oeoe?. Aieiai? i?iaeaie, ui aiae?coaaeeny a
?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ia oeueiio aoai? :

1) iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a e?a?iao ?aa?iio;

2) iie?oeea e?a?i Caoiaeo;

3) i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a ?aa?ii?;

4)ciai?oiy oa aioo??oiy iie?oeea e?a?i ?aa?iio.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue ieoaiiyi oae caaii? “aioe?iia??ae?noe/ii?
ai?ioueae”, a iaaeao yei? ?icaeyaeaeanue iaooiaa iie?oeea e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee. Iniaeeaa i?noea ooo iin?aeaee i?aoe? i?ioani?a
?.A.Oeueyiianueeiai, ui aeeiioaaa ooieoe?? io?oe?eiiai ia?o?eiiai
oai?aoeea c oeeo i?iaeai. Cacia/aii? ieoaiiy ?icaeyaeaeeny a oaeiio
naiiio aniaeo? ? a iiiia?ao?? “Aia?aaoe/ia e?eca a eai?oae?noe/iiio
na?o?”. Iaooia? i?iaeaie e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, i?iaeaia ?o
aca?iia?aeiinei a “o?eeooieeo” — e?a?ie-ae?iaieee iaooe — iaooia?
iiiiiie?? ? cao?aei? e?a?ie aeine?aeaeothoueny a ?iaio? I.?.I?eiaeiaa
“Ia?nueea caoiea: iaooa oa iiiiiie??”. Ie?ai? aniaeoe
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ia?iae?a e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee
aeineoue oaiaeaioe?icii ?icaeyaeaeeny a iiiia?ao?yo A.A.Oaaeiaa e
A.I.Aaneeue?aa.

Uiaei ieoaiue ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, oi aieiaia oaaaa, cae/aeii,
i?eae?eyeanue oaeei e?a?iai, ye ??ai ? Naoae?anueea A?aa?y. A?aeiinii
??aeo ne?ae eiinoaooaaoe iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue i?aoeue c ieoaiue eiai
ciai?oiuei? oa aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee. Oea iiynithaaeiny oei, ui i?ney
i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee a ??aeo aaanenonueeiai ea??aieoeoaa oa c ?icaeoeii
o?nieo a?aeiinei c N?N? aoei ia i?eeiyoi e?eoeeoaaoe naiai nithcieea, ui
?iaeei iaiiaeeeaei aeaoe ia’?eoeaiee iaoeiaee aiae?c iiae?e, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny a oe?e e?a?i?.

O?ao?e aoai — 80-o? — 1991 ?. Iineeaiiy oaaae aei i?iaeai Ia?nueei?
caoiee aoei iia’ycaia, ii-ia?oa, ye c iiae?yie a ??ai? oa ?o aieeaii ye
ia i?aeia?iaeio ? ?aa?iiaeueio neooaoe?th, oae ? ia aioo??oiueiiie?oe/io
neooaoe?th a N?N?, cie?aia a ?aa?iiao iioe?aiiy ?neaio.

Ana oea iaoiiaeei ? aieiai? i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny:

1) ?neainueeee oaeoi? oa eiai aieea ia i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie;

2) iie?oeea i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo, cie?aia NOA, a ?aeii? Ia?nueei?
caoiee;

3) ciai?oiy iie?oeea e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, aeioeaio?ia? oaiaeaioe??,
ooai?aiiy ?NAAeIC. Iineeaiiy ?aa?iiae?nonueeeo oaiaeaioe?e a ?aa?ii?
aeeeeeaei aeayeo ?icaoaeai?noue o ?aaeyinueeeo aaoi??a. Nii/aoeo aoea
iii?oiith oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeyaeaoe ?NAAeIC o yeino? iiaiai
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai aeieo ?iia??ae?cio. Aea iio?i c’yaeeeny a?eueo
na?eici? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c oe??? i?iaeaie, cie?aia I.N.Iaeeoiyi,
E.A.Nonaiyia, ?.A.Ia?ea?yia;

4) i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?, cie?aia aieea ia ieo
??aii-??aenueei? a?eie oa eoaaeonueei? e?ece;

5) iie?oeea ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco a Ia?nuee?e caoioe?, cie?aia a
iiiia?ao?? A.TH.Aioaaa “N?N? ? e?a?ie Ia?nueei? caoiee”;

6) ?noi??y e?a?i ?aa?iio. Caa??aathoue naith iaoeiao oe?ii?noue
iinia?oia aeaeaiiy 1986 ?ieo ?iaioe aeaeaoiiai noiaeiciaaoey
A.E.Aiaeyinueeiai “No?aeia A?aa?y”, i?aoey A.I.Aaneeue?aa “?noi??y
Naoae?anueei? A?aa??”. Aiie iaienai? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?ae, ui
aia?oa aaiaeeeenue a iaoeiaee ia?a ? aoee iaaeinooii? aeey
aeine?aeiee?a.

A ?in?enuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue oaeei
i?iaeaiai:

1) aiae?c oa e?eoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo iie?oeee ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco a Ac??, ia Aeecueeiio oa Na?aaeiueiio Noiae?. A oeueiio ieai?
caneoaiao? ia iniaeeao oaaao iiiia?ao?y A.I.Aaneeue?aa “?in?y ia
Aeecueeiio oa Na?aaeiueiio Noiae?: a?ae ian?ainoaa aei i?aaiaoecio”. Ia
iniia? cia/iiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aan?ae aaoi?a c i?ia?aeieie
?aaeyinueeeie iaoeiaoeyie oa aeeieiiaoaie ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean
i?eeiyooy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ??oaiue ea??aieoeoaii ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco oa ?o ?aae?caoe??. Uiaei Ia?nueei? caoiee, oi oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny iie?oeoe? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco i?ae /an eoaaeonueei?
e?ece 1990-1991 ?ie?a, eiai i?aeo?eioe? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a
a Iiai? oa ia Aao?aei?, i?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee oi?ea?oueny
eeoa iia?aeii;

2) noai a?aeiinei ? ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ?in?? c e?a?iaie
?aa?iio;

3) i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a ?aa?ii?, cie?aia aieea ia ieo
?neainueeiai oa iaooiaiai oaeoi??a.

Iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee ca i?iaeaiith, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, a Oe?a?i?. A no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
c`yaeeiny /eiaei aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaie
i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee, iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie. Oeeie i?iaeaiaie
ie?aeii caeiathoueny oe?a?inuee? a/ai? A.N.A?oc, I.I.A?eionia,
E.A.Aoaa?nueeee, N.I.Aaeaea, I.I.Aii/a?aiei, ?.A.Eai?inueeee,
A.A.Iaiaeiea, A.I.Ia?aoiinueeee, I.A.Iio?o?i, A.I.Ia?aiaeeoey,
I.A.Oea?oeia oa ?io?.

Oe?a?inueea ?noi?e/ia iaoea ia? aeaai? noiaeiciaa/? o?aaeeoe??, ye?
cia/iith i??ith aoee ii?ooai? a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae ao?o/aiiyi
oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee. C 60-o ?ie?a ?ic?iaea ie?aieo aniaeo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? ciia ii/eia?
cina?aaeaeoaaoeny a Oe?a?i?. Oea aoei caii/aoeiaaii ?inoeoooii ?noi???
Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N?, ?inoeoooii na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei, cie?aia, i?aoeyie N.I.Ia?oii/oea, ?.O.*a?i?eiaa, A.E.Ao?e,
A.A.Cea?ii?, I.Ae.Ianoea. Aeena?oaoe?y ?.I.Oai?inoyiiai noaea ia?oei a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeaiiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iai?yio (a eiioaeno? iie?oeee Aaeeei? A?eoai??).

C 70-eo ?ie?a ?aa?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, cie?aia ia
Aeecueeiio oa Na?aaeiueiio Noiae?, a Ao?eoe?, o non?aei?o ?aa?iiao
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iaoeiaoeyie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea ia ?noi?e/iiio oaeoeueoao? oa ia oaeoeueoao? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei oa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa (iio?i ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei). Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue i?aoe? A.I.Oea?oeiaa, A.I.Aii/a?a,
A.?.Aoiaithea, I.O.E??iaiea, ?.Ae.Eii??aiea, I.A.Eoe?i?/a, I.?.I?uaiea.
Aaoi?ii aoea caoeuaia eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y ii oai? “Iniaeeaino?
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? no?aoaa?? NOA a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee a 70-o?
?iee”. I?ae iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a aoee caoeuai? aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iona?aeii Ae?
Iniaiii “?icaeoie a?aeiinei e?a?i-/eai?a ?NAAeIC c Niieo/aieie Ooaoaie”,
Aeaoaiii Ae? Aaaeaeie “I?aea?aanueea ?ioaa?aoe?y oa i?iaeaie
noa?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a 80-o? ?iee”, aea aieiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue naia ?ioaa?aoe?eiei i?ioeanai a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee.
Aaoi? aenooiaa a yeino? eiinoeueoaioa i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aoiaaeii Aanaiii
Iioaiiaaeii Ae? Aeue-Aac? “Ooai?aiiy ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee oa iniiai? iai?yie ?? ae?yeueiino?”. Aoa
iioae?eiaaiee ni?eueiee i?ai?eio “Ia?nueea caoiea: i?iaeaie
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee”. Aaoi?ii aoea iioae?eiaaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
iiiia?ao?y “Ia?nueea caoiea: i?iaeaia aaciaee a 80-o? — 90-o? ?iee”.

Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a Oe?a?i? noai?aia ? aeineoue aeoeaii ae??
oeiea aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, ?aa?ii?, ui caeia? /?eueia i?noea a
ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia ie?aneeoe eiei
ieoaiue, ui iio?aaothoue aeieeaaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o iaeaooiueiio.
Cie?aia, oea ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie Oe?a?ie a
oeueiio ?aa?ii?, ?icaeoeii a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c e?a?iaie Ia?nueei?
caoiee. Oea i?iaeaie i?e?oa?ecaoe?? ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee oa
ia?iciianthaeaeaiiy ca?i? ianiaiai cieuaiiy. Oea oaeiae iie?oeea ie?aieo
a?aanueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia ?aeioo, Ne??? a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee.
Iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy iie?oeee oai iica?aa?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa — O?aioe??, I?ia//eie, ssiii??, ?iae??. I?aaeiaoii ie?aiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aooe iie?oeea e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, cie?aia
Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, ??aio, ??aeo c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aaiiie?oe/i? ia?aiao?e ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee oa
eiai i?noea a nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei” aiae?co?oueny ?noi?e/iee
aeina?ae caaacia/aiiy aaciaee Caoiee, i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oai ?aeeiiai
aaiiie?oe/iiai eiiieaeno, oaeoi?e aeanoaa?e?caoe?? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?.

?icaeyaeath/e i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai aaiiie?oe/iiai eiiieaeno a
?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui aui
iin?aea? iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ?aa?ii?a na?oo, aea iniaeeai aino?i
iinoa? i?iaeaia aaciaee, ui aecia/a?oueny oaeoi?aie aaiiie?oe/iiai oa
aaiaeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Aioo??oiuei?aa?iiaeueia nenoaia i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei ? aeineoue neeaaeiith oa nai???aeiith. I?eeeaae Ia?nueei?
caoiee iai/ii aeaiiino?o? aeeoo?ao aaaeeea?noue aiaeieo ?ano?n?a a
aaiethoe?? noni?euenoaa, aieea aiaeiiai i?inoi?o a yeino? oi?ioth/iai
?noi??th aeaiaioa. Ni?eueia aaia?ao?/ia i?eiaeaaei?noue, nii??aeiai?noue
aai ca?a iaoe oa caaaeaiue o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao ae?yeueiino?, ye a
aeiiii?oe?, iie?oeoe? oa nioe?aeuei?e noa??, oae ? a aaeoc? aaciaee
ni?eyea ?icaeoeo ca’yce?a i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?aenenoaie Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Ia ?aa?iiaeueio aaciaeo ni?aaeyee aieea oaeoi?e aaiiie?oe/iiai,
aeiiii?/iiai, ?noi?e/iiai oa ?ioiai oa?aeoa?o. Aaoi? iicia/a? ?yae
ia??iae?a a ?noi??? ?aa?iio. Ia?oee — aei?neainueeee, a?ae ia?oeo
a?aeiiinoae i?i oi?aiaaeuei? oa eoeueoo?i? oeaio?e ia ocaa?aaeae?
Ia?nueei? caoiee a O oeny/ie?oo? aei iaoi? a?e aei aeieeiaiiy ?neaio oa
ooai?aiiy A?aanueeiai oae?oaoo. Eiai aieiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aoea
ai?ioueaa ?iia??e ca aaaaiii?th a ?aa?ii?.

Ae?oaee ia??iae — ?neainueeee, c VI ii XV noie?ooy. ?aa?ii, aaouee?aueia
?neaio, aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo A?aanueeiai oae?oaoo, a i?ney caoiieaiiy a
1453 ?ioe? Eiinoaioeiiiiey Iniainueeith ?iia???th ainiiaea?thaaiiy oo?ie
iioe?th?oueny ia ocaa?aaeaey Ia?nueei? caoiee.

O?ao?e ia??iae — (OVI noie?ooy) ia??iae eieii?aeueieo caaithaaiue,
caaa?oo?oueny ?iciiae?eii ocaa?aaeaey Caoiee ia “noa?e aieeao” i?ae
Aaeeeith A?eoai??th oa Iniainueeith ?iia???th. Oea caaaeaei ooeiaeaeaiue
o?aaeeoe?eiei ca’yceai i?ae ie?aieie /anoeiaie ?aa?iio, ?aa?iiii oa
ciai?oi?i na?oii.

*aoaa?oee ia??iae (OVII noie?ooy — 1918 ?.) ia??iae a?eoainueeiai
aeii?ioaaiiy, a?eoainueei? aaaaiii?y a ?aa?ii?. Iaeaea any oa?eoi??y
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? oa No?aeii? A?aa?? oa?eoea aei neeaaeo a?eoainueei?
eieii?aeueii? ?iia???, ??ae noaa i?aeiaiaeaoiith oa?eoi???th Aaeeei?
A?eoai??, ??ainueea ocaa?aaeaey Caoiee oa i?eeaae? ino?iae oaeoe/ii oaae
iieieeenue i?ae ?? eiio?ieai.

I’yoee ia??iae — oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiino?, c cae?i/aiiy ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie aei ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a.

Oinoee ia??iae — 70-o? — 90-o? ?iee. Oea ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai
aaiiie?oe/iiai eiiieaeno, noaiiaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ii? no?oeoo?e
noa?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie Ia?nueei? caoiee. Ia aac? nii??aeiaiino? aai
ca?ao iaoe oa caaaeaiue o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao ae?yeueiino?, ye a
aeiiii?oe? e nioe?aeuei?e noa??, oae ? a aaeoc? aaciaee ?icaeaaeiny
aeainoi?iii? aai aaaaoinoi?iii? (?aa?iiaeueia) ni?a?ia?oieoeoai.

Naia nii??aeiai?noue e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee aeicaiey? aaoi?o iicia/eoe
o?e aaino?aoaa?/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? ciie c caaaeueiith aeey ieo on?o
neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee: e?a?ie ?NAAeIC
ia /ie? c Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th; ??ai, yeee caaaeyee /enaeueiino?
ianaeaiiy, ?ici??ai ieiu?, yeo a?i ia?eia?, ?ano?nai oa a?enueeiaiio
iioaioe?aeo, noae?e aaaaoia?eia?e ?noi?e/i?e nii??aeiaiino?, yaey?
niaith ?aa?iiaeueiee “oeaio? neee”; ??ae, oei/aniai iineaaeaiee
aiane?aeie ??aii-??aenueei? a?eie oa eoaaeonueei? e?ece, oa yeee
caa??aa? nai? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ?aa?iiaeueiiai “oeaio?o neee”.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a ?aeii? Ia?nueei?
caoiee aaoi? aeie?aieth? oa i?aeaea? aiae?co aoaie o ?icaeoeo oai
neooaoe?? o noa?? aaciaee.

Ia?oee aoai — “a?eoainueeee”, aai “aaeeeeo aea?aeaa” — a?ae ii/aoeo
aiae?enueei? eieii?aeueii? aeniain?? aei 70-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy. Ia
oeueiio aoai? aaciaea ?aa?iio caaacia/oaaeanue aiae?enueeith
a?enueeiaith i?enooi?noth i?e iinooiiaiio c?inoaii? ?ie? NOA.

Ae?oaee aoai — 1971 — 1979 ??., oiaoi a?ae aeaiaeo c ?aa?iio
aiae?enueeeo ca?ieieo nee aei iiaaeaiiy oaonueeiai ?aaeeio a ??ai?. Oeae
?aaeei aoa aieiaiith iii?ith cao?aeieo aea?aeaa a caaacia/aii?
?aa?iiaeueii? noaa?eueiino? a iaaeao “iie?oeee aeainoi?iiiuei? iii?e” ia
??ai oa Naoae?anueeo A?aa?th.

O?ao?e aoai — a?ae 1979 ?ieo aei eoaaeonueei? e?ece 1990-1991 ??.
?NAAeIC ?ic?iaeyea i?eioeeie ooai?aiiy nenoaie aaciaee ? ii/aea ?iaeoe
ia?o? e?iee ii ?? i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe??. Aea aieiaiith aaaeith oe???
nenoaie aoea ?cieyoe?y ?aa?iiaeueieo “oeaio??a neee” — ??aio oa ??aeo.
E?a?ie-/eaie ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?iaiaeeee iie?oeeo “aaeainoaaiiy”
i?ae ieie oa iii?e ia NOA. Neeaaea?oueny niaoeeo?/ia ???a?o?y: a iaaeao
?NAAeIC Naoae?anueea A?aa?y noa? aa?aioii aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino?. NOA aea? aa?aio?? caoenoo aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino? Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? oa caoenoo ?aa?iio a?ae ciai?oi?o
caa?ic (“aeieo?eia Ea?oa?a”).

*aoaa?oee aoai ioiieth? 90-o? ?iee. I?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece e?a?ie
?NAAeIC i?iaeiaaeoaaee iie?oeeo a?enueeiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a iaaeao
oe??? i?aai?caoe?? ia?o ca ana c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?. Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaciaee ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ?iaeyoueny ni?iae eiinie?aeaoe?? nee ia
i?aea?aanueeiio ??ai? oeyoii ooai?aiiy i?aea?aanueeeo nee aaciaee ca
o/anoth ?aeioo oa Ne???. Aea aieiaiith iii?ith a caiia?aaii? caa?ic noa?
aia?eeainueea a?enueeiaa i?enooi?noue. E?a?ie ?NAAeIC oeeaaeathoue
oaiaee a aaeoc? aaciaee c iino?eieie /eaiaie ?aaee Aaciaee III — NOA,
Aaeeeith A?eoai??th, O?aioe??th, ?in??th.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iiceoe?y e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee c i?iaeaie
aaciaee” aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiceoe?y c oe??? i?iaeaie ??aeo, ??aio,
Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, iiia?o?e I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? oa No?aeii? A?aa??. O
nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? iaeia c
aieiaieo i?noeue iin?aea? aniaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, yeee cia/iith
i??ith aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa? oa aaiethoe?th ?aa?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei.
Noaa?euei?noue oa aaciaea o ?aa?ii? caeaaeeoue, ia?aaeon?i, a?ae
iiceoe?? eiaeii? e?a?ie Ia?nueei? caoiee, a?ae aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
oeeie e?a?iaie. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iee aei??
aaciaee, i?ae yeei aaoi?ii ?icoi??oueny iioaioe?eia eiia??i?noue
ia?a?inoaiiy aioo??oiueiai eiioe?eoo aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie o e?eciao
neooaoe?th c iiaeeeaei aoyaiaiiyi aei ia? iaei??? aai a?eueoa ciai?oi?o
nee.

Aaoi? aiae?co? niaoeeo?eo i?aeoiaeo ??aeo aei i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaciaee. Aeie?aieththoueny oa i?aeaeathoueny aiae?co aoaie aaiethoe??
iiceoe?? ??aeo c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? aaiethoe?th iiceoe?? ??aio c i?iaeaie aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee. Eeth/iaa aaiiie?oe/ia oa aaino?aoaa?/ia iieiaeaiiy
??aio a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, eiai a?enueeiaee, aeaiia?ao?/iee,
aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae, ui ia?aaa?oo? ye ??aenueeee, oae ? e?a?i-/eai?a
?NAAeIC, aecia/a? aaaeeeaa i?noea ? ?ieue, yeo a?i oai a?ae?a?a?. Ia
iniia? aiae?co aaiethoe?? iiceoe?? ??aio c i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee aaoi?ii aeie?aieththoueny aeaa aoaie: “oaonueeee”
(70-o? ?iee) oa “?anioae?eainueeee” (80-o?-90-o? ?iee) oa
i?aenoiiaothoueny aieiai? neeaaeia? ??ainueei? eiioeaioe?? caaacia/aiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee ia oeeo aoaiao.

Aaoi? i?iaiae?coaaa iiceoe?th Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? c i?iaeaie aaciaee
a eiioaeno? caaacia/aiiy ?? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. ?? oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth ? o?niee aca?iica’ycie iaoe?iiaeueii? ? ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaciaee. ?icoe?aia oeoia/aiiy iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea aeeth/a? a
naaa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe. Aeey Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? caaaeaiiy
caaacia/aiiy aioo??oiuei? aaciaee, yeo aiia ?icoi?? ia?aaeon?i ye
noaa?euei?noue ?nioth/iai ?aaeeio, ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo. Ia iaioo
caiaiiei?i?noue aeeeeea? a i?aaey/eo e?e Naoae?anueei? A?aa??
caaacia/aiiy aioo??oiuei? iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? iaeeo e?a?i Caoiee. O
ca’yceo c oeei aaoi? aeie?aieth? oa aiae?co? /ioe?e aoaie a i?aeoiae?
naoae?anueeeo i?aaey/eo e?e aei caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee a
ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

Ciai?oiy iie?oeea iaeeo aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee oa ?oiy iie?oeea a
aaeoc? aaciaee caaaeaee aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai? caaaeaiith caa?aaeaiiy
aeaaee i?aaey/eo ?aaeei?a. ?oi? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane aoee
cina?aaeaeai? ia?aaeon?i ia ??ai? ?aa?iio e neiioeaio?iaai? ia i?iaeaiao
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

O oi?ioaaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo eo?n?a iaeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, o
oiio /ene? c i?iaeai aaciaee, aaoi?ii aecia/a?oueny e?eueea iniiaieo
iai?yie?a, ui iathoue aeanio aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo. Ia?oee – i?aeia?iaeia
ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia i??i?eoaoia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c i?ia?aeieie
e?a?iaie Caoiaeo, ia?aaeon?i o ieoaiiyo aaciaee. Ae?oaee – ?icaeoie
a?aeiinei c a?aanueeeie e?a?iaie. O?ao?e – iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a iaaeao ?NAAeIC c iiaeeeaei
caeo/aiiyi aei iueiai ??aio. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth i?aeoiaeo iaeeo
aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee aei i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aoei
i?aaiaiiy ii?aeioaaoe aacnoii?aio i???ioaoe?th ia iica?aa?iiaeuei?
aea?aeaae, ui noaea iaea?eueo i/aaeaeiith i?ney ??aii-??aenueei? a?eie
oa eoaaeonueei? e?ece, ?c caa?aaeaiiyi io?oe?eieo aeieo?ei, ye?
aeaeea?oaaee i?eoeeuei?noue i?eioeeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai noaa?ai?oaoo,
?icaeoeo e ci?oeiaiiy aca?iiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. A oe?eiio aiie
ni?iiiaeeny aeineoue aiaaiaii aaeainoaaoe i?ae ?ioa?anaie Caoiaeo oa
?ioa?anaie a?aanueeiai e ?neainueeiai na?oo.

Niinoa??aa?oueny ianooiia iine?aeiai?noue ?icaeoeo aca?iia?aeiinei iaeeo
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee c i?iaeaie aaciaee:

— ia ia?oiio aoai?, o 70-o? ?iee, aieiaiith oaiaeaioe??th ? ?icaeoie
a?aeiinei c non?aei?ie aea?aeaaaie Caoiee — Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th oa
??aiii, ui aeinyaaeiny oeyoii aeainoi?iii?o oaiae;

— ia ae?oaiio aoai?, o 80-o? ?iee, i??i?eoaoiei aeey ieo noa? ?icaeoie
a?aeiinei c Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th oa ??aeii, oa a?aeiineie a iaaeao
?NAAeIC;

— ia o?aoueiio aoai?, aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece,
?iaeoueny ni?iaa caeo/aiiy aei ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie aaciaee a?aanueeeo
oeaio??a neee — ?aeioo oa Ne???. Ia niiae?aath/enue ia aoaeoeai?noue
Aeaianueei? aeaeea?aoe??, oe? e?a?ie Caoiee aenooieee caiaeii ca
i?iaeiaaeaiiy a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c Caoiaeii, yea
neeaeiny i?ae /an eoaaeonueei? e?ece, c?iaeaoe noaaeo ia
a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/iee nithc c iei.

Ioaea, ia on?o aoaiao i?inoaaeoaaeany oaiaeaioe?y aei iii?e ia
iica?aa?iiaeuei? aea?aeaae, ia?aaeon?i NOA oa Aaeeeo A?eoai?th, i?e/iio
oey oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeaaeany ?c c?inoaiiyi.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?aeoiae?a iaeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee c i?iaeaie
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee iaoiiaethaaeany ianooiieie /eiieeaie:

— ?o noaaeaiiyi aei i?iaeai ?iicaiii? a?enueeiai? i?enooiino?;

— a?aeiineiaie c o?ueiia ?aa?iiaeueieie “oeaio?aie neee” — ??aiii,
??aeii oa Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th.

Aiia cae?enithaaeany ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: ioe?iea caa?ic; aecia/aiiy
oeyo?a caaacia/aiiy aaciaee oa i?ioeae?? aeacaiei caa?icai, cie?aia,
noaaeaiiy aei ?ie? iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa a oeueiio i?ioean?.

Ca oi?iaie oa caniaaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee e?a?ie Ia?nueei? caoiee
oiiaii ?iciiae?eythoueny aaoi?ii ia aeae?eueea a?oi. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ia i?ioyc? ia??iaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ?o iiceoe?y
caciaaaea iaaii? aaiethoe??, ui ni?eyei ia?aoiaeo c iaei??? a?oie aei
?ioi?.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue e?a?ie, ui i?aaioee caaacia/oaaoe aaciaeo
iaoe?iiaeueieie caniaaie. Aei ?o neeaaeo ne?ae a?aeianoe ??ai oa ??ae.
E?a?ie ae?oai? a?oie i?aaioee aei caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ia oeyoo
?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a iaaeao oaeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
ia’?aeiaiiy, ye ?NAAeIC (Naoae?anueea A?aa?y, Aao?aei, Eaoa?, Eoaaeo,
IA? a 80-o? ?iee).

O?aoy a?oia e?a?i i???iooaaeany ia a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ia oa no?aoaa?/ia
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c iica?aa?iiaeueieie aea?aeaaaie, ia?o ca ana c
i?ia?aeieie e?a?iaie Caoiaeo, cie?aia NOA. Oaeo iiceoe?th caeiyee
e?a?ie-/eaie ?NAAeIC i?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece, ?? caaaeaee
i?aeo?eioaaany Iiai.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a
?aa?iiaeueieo, noa?aa?iiaeueieo, oa i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo a?aeiineiao”
?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y eiioeaioe?? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee a
ae?yeueiino? ?NAAeIC, i?noea i?iaeaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a
i?aea?aanueeeo a?aeiineiao, iiceoe?y ie?aieo e?a?i I?aaeaiii? oa
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Ac?? c oe??? i?iaeaie.

Caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie aaciaee a oiiaao aeanoaa?e?coth/iai aieeao
??aii-??aenueei? a?eie i?enei?eei ia’?aeiaiiy a?aanueeeo iiia?o?e Caoiee
a cae?eoo i?aai?caoe?th — ?NAAeIC. Aaoi?ii i?aenoiiaothoueny iniiai?
i?eioeeie ?? ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? aaciaee.

Noa?aa?iiaeuei? iaoai?cie aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai caaacia/aiiy ie?o oa
noaa?eueiino? aeyaeeeny iaaecae/aeii neaaeeie e ia?icaeiooeie. Ona oea
niiioeaei /eai?a ?NAAeIC c iaeiiai aieo aei ca?eueoaiiy e
aaeineiiaeaiiy nai?o a?enueeiaeo iioaioe?ae?a, a c ?ioiai — aei
ci?oeiaiiy ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c ieoaiue iai?iie ye a iaaeao oe???
i?aai?caoe??, oae ? c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie, ye ia i?aea?aanueeiio ??ai?,
oae ?c i?ia?aeieie e?a?iaie Caoiaeo.

O ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, iniaeeai a 80-o?-90-o? ?iee, i?iaeaia
aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, ?acii c i?iaeaiith aeecueeino?aeiiai
a?aaoethaaiiy, noa? oeaio?aeueiith i?iaeaiith i?aea?aanueeeo a?aeiinei,
?icaeyaeaeanue a?aanueeeie e?a?iaie ye iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa /anoeia
caaaeueiia?aanueei? aaciaee.

Aaoi? aecia/a? i?aeoiaee a?aanueeeo e?a?i aei i?iaeaie ?? caaacia/aiiy.
Ia?oee ia?aaeaa/a?, ui oey i?iaeaia iiaeiia ae??ooaaoenue a iaaeao
i?aea?aanueeeo a?aeiinei, ca o/anoth o?eueee a?aanueeeo e?a?i. Ae?oaee
i?aeo?ae ia aeeeth/a? iiaeeeaino? caeo/aiiy ?ioeo ionoeueiainueeeo
e?a?i, cie?aia ??aio, Oo?a//eie oa Iaeenoaio. O?ao?e i?aeo?ae ?icaeyaea?
a?enueeiao i?enooi?noue NOA aieiaiei aa?aioii caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaciaee.

I?ii?aeia iiceoe?y ie?aieo e?a?i ia aeeeth/a? iaaieo ciai?oi?o aa?aio?e
aaciaee c aieo iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa aai iino?eieo /eai?a ?A III.

A ?icae?e? i’yoiio — “I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a iie?oeoe?
ciai??aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa” i?aeaea?oueny iaoeiaiio aiae?co iiceoe?y
i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo, N?N?, Oe?a?ie, ?in?? c oe??? i?iaeaie.

Iniaeeao ?ieue o caaacia/aii? aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a?aee NOA. A
70-o? ?iee Ia?nueea caoiea inoaoi/ii a?aeie?aieth?oueny ye naiino?eiee
?aa?iiaeueiee iai?yi o iie?oeoe? NOA, a aia?eeainuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
oeae ?aa?ii ii/eia? ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iniaeeaa aaiiie?oe/ia ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ni?eueiioa c i?eoaiaiieie ?e niaoeeo?/ieie
iciaeaie. Ia i?ioyc? ia??iaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, aieiai? oe?e?
iie?oeee Niieo/aieo Ooao?a iaeaea ia caciaee aaiethoe??. ?o iiaeia
i?aenoioaaoe ianooiiei /eiii: caaacia/aiiy aeinooio aei iaooe;
i?aeo?eiea aioo??oiuei? noaa?eueiino?, ui ?icaeyaeaeanue ye ae??oaeueiee
/eiiee o caaacia/aii? aeinooio aei iaooe; i?ioeae?y ?aaeyinueeiio
ao?o/aiith a ?aa?ii (aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a); caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
?c?a?eth oa i?icao?aeieo ?aaeei?a ?aa?iio. Iie?oeea NOA a ?aa?ii?
aacoaaeanue ia iniia? aeiaaeueieo aeieo?ei, ye? noaaeee aieiai?
caaaeaiiy ? aecia/aee oeyoe ?o ?aae?caoe??.

Ia i?ioyc? 70-o — 80-o ?ie?a i?ia?aei? e?a?ie Caoiaeo, cie?aia NOA,
cae?enithaaee iie?oeeo iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae iaeiiio aai aeae?eueeii
?aa?iiaeueiei “oeaio?ai neee” aeey caaacia/aiiy aaciaee. Ia ia?oiio
aoai? — a 70-o ?ieao, oea aoa oaonueeee ??ai oa Naoae?anueea A?aa?y a
iaaeao iie?oeee “aeainoi?iiiuei? iii?e”. A 80-o? ?iee, ia ae?oaiio
aoai?, oea aoee e?a?ie-/eaie ?NAAeIC ia /ie? c Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th.
I?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece NOA ia?aeoee aei iie?oeee “iiaea?eiiai
no?eioaaiiy”, oiaoi ?cieyoe?? aeaio ?aa?iiaeueieo “oeaio??a neee” —
??aio oa ??aeo.

I?ney eoaaeonueei? e?ece NOA ii/aee noai?aiiy oaeiai
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy aaciaee, iniiaith yeiai
aoea ?o aeania a?enueeiaa i?enooi?noue i?e ooo/i?e ?cieyoe?? aeaio
?aa?iiaeueieo “oeaio??a neee” — ??aio oa ??aeo. A?i ia?aaeaa/aa
caa?aaeaiiy a?enueeiai? i?enooiino?; noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? a?enueeiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, aeeth/ath/e noiaeua a?enueeiai? oaoi?ee, c aeiiiiiaith
yeeo iiaeia oaeaeei ?icaa?iooe NO?; oaiaee a aaeoc? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
c e?a?iaie ?aa?iio; iie?oeea “iiaea?eiiai no?eioaaiiy” ??aio oa ??aeo;
caeo/aiiy nai?o nithciee?a ii IAOI, ia?o ca ana Aaeeei? A?eoai??.

Iiceoe?y ?ioeo i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Caoiaeo caciaea iaaii? aaiethoe?? ? iaea
nai? iniaeeaino?. Iaea?eueo aeoeaio iie?oeeo a aaeoc? caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee i?iaiaeeea Aaeeea A?eoai?y. O?aioe?y
aeneiaethaaea iacaaeiaieaiiy a?enueeiaith i?enooi?noth NOA a Caoioe? ?
i?aeo?eiaea coneeey ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee ia i?aea?aanueeiio ??ai?. A
ssiii?? iie?oeea a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee noaea i?aaeiaoii aeoeaii?
aeeneon?? a i?aaey/eo oa iaoeiaeo e?oaao, ui a?aeaeca?eaeth?
?ica?aeiino? o iiaeyaeao ia ciai?oith iie?oeeo e?a?ie acaaae?.

Aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiceoe?y ?aaeyinueei? iaaeaea?aeaae c i?iaeaie aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee. Oeae ?aa?ii iaeaaeaa aei noa?e ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo oa ?ioeo
?ioa?an?a. A 70-o? — 80-o? ?iee c oi/ee ci?o i??i?eoaoiino? iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeie ?ioa?anaie N?N? aoee iie?oeei-no?aoaa?/i?, a naia:
aaaeeea?noue oeueiai ?aa?iio aeey eiai aaciaee, caa?aaeaiiy
noaa?eueiino? ia i?aaeaiieo ei?aeiiao, aeei?enoaiiy eiai ye a?aie
?aaeyinueei-aia?eeainueeiai i?ioeai?noaa.

?aaeyinueea iaaeaea?aeaaa i?iaiaeeea oai iie?oeeo, ni?yiiaaio ia
ci?oeiaiiy nai?o iiceoe?e oa aieeao. Aeey iiceoe?? N?N? c i?iaeaie
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee aoee oa?aeoa?ieie aioeaia?eeainueea
ni?yiiaai?noue, iie?oeea i?aeo?eiee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a,
iii?a ia ??ae.

Aiae?co?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee Oe?a?ie oa ?in?? c oe???
i?iaeaie. Aeathoueny aaoi?nuee? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo ?ioeo e?a?i a oi?ioaaii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie ii
i?iaeai? aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?iaeaiaoeea ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iaaeinoaoiuei ii?aoeueiaaiith a
iaoeiaiio ieai?, iaeaaeeoue aei iaeiiai c iaeiaio ?ic?iaeaieo ia’?eo?a
iaoeiaiai aiae?co. A?aenooi? caaaeueiii?eeiyo? i?eioeeie ??
caaacia/aiiy, ?niothoue na?eici? i?iaeaie c oi?ioaaiiyi
eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, c aecia/aiiyi e?eoa???a
?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa i??i?eoao?a ae?yeueiino? c ?? caaacia/aiiy.

Aaoi?ii aecia/aii ye?ni? ia?aiao?e eaoaai??? “?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea” oa
?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c eaoaai??yie “i?aeia?iaeia” oa “iaoe?iiaeueia
aaciaea”, “iaoe?iiaeueiee ?ioa?an”, “caa?ica”. ?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea
aecia/a?oueny ye oaea ii?aeiaiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o oiia, i?e yeeo
a?aenooi? caa?ice e?eoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o oa ?nio? ni?iiiaei?noue
aaeaeaaoiiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia caa?ice o aeiaaeeo ?o aeieeiaiiy. I?e oeueiio
i?ae iiiyooyi “caa?ica” aaoi? ?icoi?? oaeo aca?iiae?th /eiiee?a
ia’?eoeaiiai oa noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui iiaea ni?e/eieoe ii?ooaiiy
noaa?eueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie.

?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea ioiieth? ieceo aca?iiiia’ycaieo eiiiiiaio?a:

— o?ce/ii-aaia?ao?/ieo (iaaeioi?eai?noue ei?aeii?a, oa?eoi??aeueio
oe?e?ni?noue e?a?i ?aa?iio, eiio?ieue iaae aeanieie i?e?iaeieie
?ano?naie oa oeyoaie ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy);

— aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo (iie?oe/ia noaa?euei?noue ?aa?iiaeueii?
nenoaie a oe?eiio oa ie?aieo ?? eiiiiiaio?a);

— i?aeia?iaeiee aniaeo (caoeno a?ae ciai?oi?o caa?ic).

I?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiue ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee aaoi?ii canoiniao?oueny
aiae?c aca?iiae?e o??? /e ?ioi? i?aenenoaie c aeiaaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie
oa aeaiaioaie nenoaie i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei ??cieo ??ai?a oa
iai?yi?a: ?aa?iiaeueii-aeiaaeueiiai; aeainoi?iiiueiai c aeaiaioaie
??cieo ??ai?a; i?ae neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie i?aenenoaie.

No/ania nenoaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee ciaoiaeeoueny ia aoai?
oi?ioaaiiy, eiee cia/iee aieea i?iaeiaaeothoue iaoe aeanoaa?e?coth/?
oaeoi?e. ?icaeyaeath/e Ia?nueeo caoieo ye naiino?eiee ?aa?ii, a oaeiae
ye noa?aa?ii aeecueeino?aeii? ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie oa no?oeoo?io /anoeo
nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii?, aaoi? cai?iaaaeaeo? aeanio eeaneo?eaoe?th caa?ic
eiai aaciaoe?. Ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith aiie ? aaaaoia?aiieie ?
aecia/athoueny aaoi?ii ye aioo??oi?, aai aioo??oiueiiaoe?iiaeuei? (ia
??ai? ie?aieo e?a?i), ?aa?iiaeuei? (ia ??ai? ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee),
noa?aa?iiaeuei? (ia ??ai? Aeecueeiai Noiaeo) oa ciai?oi?.

Aieiai? /eiieee, ui a oe?eiio aecia/athoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiioe?eoiino?
oa noaa?eueiino? a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, ocaaaeueiththoueny oaeei
/eiii:

— ciai?oi? caa?ice, aeeth/ath/e iaaaciaeo a?enueeiai? aa?an?? c aieo
iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa;

— noa?aa?iiaeuei? caa?ice (a?aai-?c?a?euenueea i?ioenoiyiiy,
i?aea?aanuee? eiioe?eoe, ?neainueeee oa?i?eci, ye?nia oa e?euee?nia
i?e?oa?ecaoe?y ?aa?iio);

— ?aa?iiaeuei? caa?ice, aeaea?aeii yeeo ? a?aai-??ainuee? i?ioe??//y
oa ?nioth/? i?ioe??//y i?ae a?aanueeeie e?a?iaie Caoiee);

— aioo??oi? caa?ice (aioo??oiy iie?oe/ia oa nioe?aeueia
ianoaa?euei?noue, ?ae?a?ei? oa aoi?/i? eiioe?eoe, noia?a/iino?, ui
?niothoue a iaaeao noni?euenoaa, i?ae aeaaeith oa ia?iaeii aai
ona?aaeei? naii? aeaaee).

Iaea?eueo ?aaeueieie caa?icaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee ? caa?ice
ia?oiai, ae?oaiai oa o?aoueiai ??ai?a.

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o Ia?nuee?e caoioe?,
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a aeanoaa?e?caoe?? aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui i?iaeaia aaciaee Caoiee a iaeaooiueiio aoaea caeeoaoeny
aaaeeeaei iaaaoeaiei /eiieeii ye ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio, oae ? ia
aeiaaeueiiio ??ai?. Aea aaciaea oa oni?oiee ?icaeoie e?a?i Ia?nueei?
caoiee aecia/athoueny ia aeinyaiaiiyi iiaii? aaceiioe?eoiino?, a
ona?aeiieaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieie noa’?eoaie iiaeeeaeo aeaea?ae caa?ic ?
canoinoaaiiyi ieie ae?eiaeo cania?a ?o iaeo?ae?caoe??.

No/ania eiioeaioe?y aaciaee iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iaiao?aeiino?
aeinyaiaiiy iie?oe/ieo oaiae oa o?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a ye iaoe?iiaeueii?,
oae ? ?aa?iiaeueii? oa i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee. A no/anio aiioo ia ?nio?
?aaeueieo iaae?eieo cania?a aa?aiooaaiiy aaciaee, ie??i oe?ieiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai oa iaae?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee, a?aoiaoth/e nai???aei?noue
aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?, ia iiaea aooe
a?aeie?aieaia a?ae aeiaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ui aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo
i?aeia?iaeii-iie?oe/iiai ee?iaoo ia iaae? aeaio oeny/ie?oue. Cae/aeii,
eiaeia ?aa?iiaeueia nenoaia ciaoiaeeoueny a iino?ei?e aca?iiae?? c
ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai, ui ioi/o? nenoaio. Aea /ei a?eueoa aeiiii?/ia
cia/ou?noue ?aa?iio, /ei a?eueoa aea?aeaa iathoue oai nai? ?ioa?ane, oei
aino??oa iinoa? i?iaeaia eiai aaciaee.

Iineeaiiy ?ie? aeiiii?ee a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao ni?aaey? cia/iee
aieea ia ci?io i?aeoiae?a no/anii? iaoee aei o?aeoiaee iiiyooy aaciaea.
Ne?ae aeciaoe, ui caaacia/aiiy aaciaee i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie coneeeyie iaeiiai /e aeae?eueeio e?a?i. Oea iaea?eueo
ae?aceeai i?iyaey?oueny ia i?eeeaae? e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? iiae?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai oa aeiaaeueiiai ianooaa?a e?ioey
80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a aieeaaee ia noai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a
?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, ia oa?aeoa? oa iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?
e?a?i ?aa?iio uiaei i?aeo?eiaiiy oai ie?o e noaa?eueiino? oa
iaeo?ae?caoe?? aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o caa?ic. E?ea?aeaoe?y a?iiey?ii?
no?oeoo?e i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia e?ea?aeoaaea oai i?e/ei oa aeaea?ae
caa?ice ie?o oa noaa?eueiino?. Oea noeioethaaei e?a?ie ?aa?iio aei
iiooeo noaa?e?coth/eo nee ca eiai iaaeaie. A 90-o? ?iee i?inoaaeo?oueny
/?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei iineeaiiy ?ie? iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa o
caaacia/aii? aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee. Oey oaiaeaioe?y ciaoiaeeoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a c?inoaii? ?iicaiii? a?enueeiai? i?enooiino?, ci?i?
oa?aeoa?o nithcieoeueeeo oaiae e?a?i Caoiee c iica?aa?iiaeueieie
aea?aeaaaie. Aianie iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa o caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee ia caaaeaee iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ye iiceoeaiee. ??oaiiy
?aaee Aaciaee III aeathoue NOA iiaeeea?noue caaaeaee ciaeoe i?ea?ae aeey
ao?o/aiiy, a oiio /ene? e a?enueeiaiai, ui Aaoeiaoii aaea iaiaeii?aciai
cae?enithaaa ia i?ioyc? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, a oea caaaeii
iaaaoeaii iicia/aeiny ia aaciaoe? ?aa?iio.

O no/anieo oiiaao ni?iiiaei?noue aea?aeaa i?aeo?eioaaoe a?iiaaenueeo
??aiiaaao, caaacia/oaaoe ?aa?iiaeueio aaciaeo ciaioo?oueny. Iaea?eueoith
i??ith oea aeanoeaa aeey aea?aeaa I?aaeiy o nenoai? eii?aeeiao
I?aaeaiue-I?ai?/, ui iniaeeai iai/ii aeaiiino?o?oueny i?eeeaaeii e?a?i
?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee. Niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeo?ae a?ae oaiaeaioe??
iineeaiiy aea?aeaae ye iniaeeaiai ?inoeoooo, ui iiaea i?eaanoe aei
ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i o iai?yiao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iineaaeaiiy
aea?aeaa oa aea?aeaaiino? iaaiith i??ith i?ae?eaa? e i?aeia?iaeio
nenoaio, ?? ?aa?iiaeuei? oa noa?aa?iiaeuei? i?aenenoaie. A oiiaao
iaaeinoaoiuei? aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaa o noa?? caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aoaea iineethaaoeny oaiaeaioe?y uiaei ?? caaacia/aiiy ia
eieaeoeaiiio ??ai? — noa?aa?iiaeueiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio, i?aeia?iaeiiio.

?aaeueia nenoaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee iiaea aooe ooai?aia eeoa ia
iniia? eiinainono oa ni?eueii? ?ic?iaee eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?iaeaie aaciaee c aieo an?o aea?aeaa. Aieiaiei iai?yiii ae?yeueiino?
uiaei i?aeo?eiaiiy ie?o e noaa?eueiino? a ?aa?ii? Ia?nueei? caoiee oa
iaeo?ae?caoe?? ye aioo??oi?o, oae ? ciai?oi?o caa?ic iiaeiia noaoe
?ic?iaea iie?oe/ieo iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy aaciaee.

E?a?ie, ui aoiaeyoue aei aeaiiai ?aa?iio, iiaeooue ni?eueii i?ioenoiyoe
caa?ic? aaciaoe? oeyoii iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?ae niaith oaeeo a?aeiinei, ui
ia?aaeaa/aee a ye aeainoi?iii?, oae ? aaaaoinoi?iii? ciaia’ycaiiy, a
oaeiae ciaia’ycaiiy eiaeii? e?a?ie uiaei ?aa?iio a oe?eiio. ?aa?iiaeueia
nenoaia aaciaee, aei yei? iathoue aooe caeo/ai? on? aea?aeaae ?aa?iio, a
oiio /ene? ??ai oa ??ae, iiaeiia i?aeo?eioaaoe ia?aaeon?i
aioo??oiueinenoaiio noaa?euei?noue, ?aaoethaaoe oa?eoi??aeuei?,
?ae?a?ei?, aoi?/i?, aeiiii?/i? oa ?io? i?ioe??//y, oiaoi aooe
iaeaooiaaiith i?ioe aioo??oi?o oa ?aa?iiaeueieo caa?ic. Ni?eyoeeaee
aieea ia aaciaeo Ia?nueei? caoiee iaea a oaiaeaioe?y aei ?icoe?aiiy
?NAAeIC ca ?aooiie ??aio oa ??aeo, ui i?enei?eei a i?ioean ooai?aiiy a
Caoioe? ?aeeii? ?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie. ?icaeoie iiae?e aea? i?aenoaao
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a ?noi?e/i?e ia?niaeoea? oeae i?ioean iaiaaii
noaia iaieio/ei, aea iiee ui oea ieoaiiy a?aeaeaeaiiai iaeaooiueiai.

Ooai?aiiy aoaeoeaii ae?th/i? nenoaie aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee ?
iaiiaeeeaei aac ii?iae?caoe?? caaaeueii? neooaoe?? ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?,
a?aaoethaaiiy aeecueeino?aeiiai eiioe?eoo.

Ia?aoo?, nenoaia ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee iiaeiia noaoe neeaaeiaei
aeaiaioii nenoaie aeiaaeueii? aaciaee.

Ioaea, ooai?aiiy aoaeoeaii ae?th/i? nenoaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee aaoi?
aaaaea? iaiiaeeeaei aac caeo/aiiy aei iueiai, ii-ia?oa, an?o aea?aeaa
?aa?iio, cie?aia ??aio oa ??aeo. Ii-ae?oaa, aeoeaio o/anoue o ?icaoaeia?
no?oeoo?e ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee iiaeii? a?aoe ?io? a?aanuee? e?a?ie.
Aaciaea Ia?nueei? caoiee iiaeiia noaoe neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
aeecueeino?aeii? nenoaie aaciaee, ui aeiaaa? caeo/aiiy aei ia? ?c?a?eth,
ac?enueei? nenoaie aaciaee c caeo/aiiyi ionoeueiainueeeo oa ?ioeo
ac?enueeeo e?a?i, i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Ia?aoo?, aa?aioii aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee iiaeiia noaoe III, ?? ?aaea Aaciaee .

Aeena?oaoe?ei? aeniiaee caaa?oothoueny aaoi?nueeeie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie
uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a ?aeii? Ia?nueei?
caoiee, cie?aia c i?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

NIENIE I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao??

Eiiiaeue I.A. Ia?nueea caoiea: i?iaeaia aaciaee a 80-o? — 90-o? ?iee. —
E.: Oeiey?, 1998. — 200 n.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Ia?oii/oe I.N. I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. OO noie?ooy.
Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee aeey nooaeaio?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe. — E.:
Oeiey?, 1999. — 256 n.

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

Eiiiaeue I.A. Nacii iaeiiieoeoaa ia No?ae // Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1980. —
? 4. — N. 56-59.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Aacaeocaeee eiioe?eo. // Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1984. — ? 10.
— N. 46-49.

Eiiiaeue I.A.Iaia? e aein? ie?o i?ae ieeaaie. // Ethaeeia ? na?o. —
1985. — ? 9. — N. 54-58.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Aeecueeee No?ae: “a?eia ssoaa c Aeeaoii”. // Ethaeeia ?
na?o. — 1988. — ? 6. — N. 51-56.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Nayuaiia a?eia aac ia?aiiaeoe?a // Ethaeeia ? na?o.
-1989. — ? 1. — N. 49-54.

Eiiiaeue I.A. E?aai: ?iceieioa e?a?ia// Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1989. — ? 9.
— N. 43-47.

Eiiiaeue A.A. Oneeaiea aa?anneaiinoe NOA a ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa a
80-a aiaeu // Aanoiee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey
e iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai. — 1987. — Aui. 25. — N. 25-29.

Eiiiaeue A.A. Ieeeoa?ecaoeey aeeaeiaainoi/iie iieeoeee NOA a 80-a aa. //
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Eiiiaeue A.A. Yaiethoeey eo?na NOA a ioiioaiee ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai
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Eiiiaeue A.A., Aeaoai Aee Aaaeoeea. Iaaea?aaneea eioaa?aoeeiiiua
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Eiiiaeue A.A. Caiaaeiay Aa?iia e e?ecen a ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa //
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Eiiiaeue I.A. Aieea ?a?aenueei? ai?a?aoe?? ia noaiiaeua ia Aeecueeiio
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Eiiiaeue A.A. Eoaaeoneee aii?in a iaaea?aaneeo ioiioaieyo (60-80-a
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Eiiiaeue A.A., Ia?oii/oe A.N. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu ?acaeoey ioiioaiee
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eiioa?aioeee, ninoiyaoaeny a a. Eeaaa, 9-11 ethiy 1993 a. Iaoeeiiaeueiua
eioa?anu ?innee, Oe?aeiu e Aaea?one a Ao?eea e ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. —
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Eiiiaeue I.A. I?iaeaia aaciaee e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee // Ieoaiiy iiai?
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Eiiiaeue A.A., Ia?oii/oe A.N. Aa?aeneay yiea?aoeey e iaeioi?ua aniaeou
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?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee. Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/iue nai?iee. — 1994. —
Aui. 114. — N. 56-62.

Eiiiaeue I.A., Ia?oii/oe I.N. III ? i?iaeaia no?eioaaiiy aiiee ica?i?iue
a ?aeii? Ia?nueei? caoiee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. — 1995. — Aei. 3. — N. 31-36.

Eiiiaeue I.A., Ia?oii/oe I.N. I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae eiiaa?n?? ia
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I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. — 1996. — Aei.5. — N. 28-40.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Ia?oii/oe I.N. Aeaye? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c
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Eiiiaeue I.A. Iaio?euenueea O.A., Ia?oii/oe I.N. Caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe??
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Eiiiaeue I.A. Caa?ice aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee: iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
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A?ioo?e

Eiiiaeue A.A., Ua?aae I.A. E niauoeyi ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. — E.:
Ecae-ai eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiiai oeaio?a Eeaaneiai ai?eiia e iaeiia
EIO, 1991. — 32 n.

Eiiiaeue A.A., Aeue-Aace Aoiaae Ia?neaeneee caeea: i?iaeaiu
?aaeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. — E., 1995. — 48 n.

Eiiiaeue A.A., Ia?oii/oe A.N. I?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe e ia?niaeoeau
eiiaa?nee ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea (aiaeec ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa aeey Oe?aeiu).
— E., 1995. — 40 n.

Aeaiiiiaai? oa aiioiaai? noaoo?

Eiiiaeue A.A. Ea?a Aaaeaeueaaie. OVIII nanney Iaoeeiiaeueiiai Niaaoa
Iaeanoeiu e iiceoeey a?aaneeo no?ai. Aeai. a EIEII AI NNN?, 20.06.1988,
?34362. 1,0 ae.a.

Eiiiaeue A.A., Eiie?aiei E.Ae. Iiaua iiaeoiaeu NNN? e i?iaeaia
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AIIOAOe??

Eiiiaeue I.A. I?iaeaia aaciaee Ia?nueei? caoiee a 70-o? — 90-o? ?iee. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — anana?oiy ?noi??y. — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aaciaee ?aa?iio Ia?nueei? caoiee ia o?ueio ??aiyo
(oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiio, aeieo?eiaeueiiio oa i?aeoeei-iie?oe/iiio)
oa a aeaio noa?ao (a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i?e oa iie?oeei-aeeieiiaoe/i?e).
?ice?eoi iie?oe/i? oa a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? o
noa?? aaciaee a oeueiio ?aa?ii? a 70-o? — 90-o? ?iee. Neeaaeaii iaoeiaee
i?iaiic ?icaeoeo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaiaeaioe?e ia on?o no?oeoo?ieo
??aiyo ?aa?iio. Aecia/aii i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy, i?noea ? ?ieue aaciaee
Ia?nueei? caoiee a nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th oeyo?a caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaciaee ia
i?eeeaae? Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Aeneiaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie a ?aa?ii? Ia?nueei? caoiee, cie?aia c i?iaeaie aaciaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Ia?nueea caoiea, i?aeia?iaeia nenoaia, ?aa?ii,
?aa?iiaeueia aaciaea, iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea, caa?ice

Koppel H.A. The Problem of Persian Gulf Security in the 1970-s —
1990-s. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor degree on specialty 07.00.02 — universal history.
The Institute of International Relations at Taras Shevchenko University,
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to studying peculiarities of formation process
of the Persian Gulf security system at three levels (theory and
concept, doctrine practical and political). Described are political and
military political aspects of situation development in the area of
security in this region during the 70-90 -ies. Scientific prognoses has
been elaborated for development of destabilizing tendencies at all
structural levels of the region.

The principles for provision, place and role of security in the Persian
Gulf in international relations system are determined.

The author`s concept of directions to provide regional security at the
example of the Persian Gulf is proposed.

Given are recommendations concerning formation and realization of
Ukrainian policy in the Persian Gulf region security problem included.

Key words: Persian Gulf, international system, regional security,
national security, threats.

Eiiiaeue A.A. I?iaeaia aaciianiinoe Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa a 70-a — 90-a
aa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — anaiauay enoi?ey. — Einoeooo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaiee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco iniaaiiinoae i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
nenoaiu aaciianiinoe ?aaeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa e i?e/ei
ianoaaeeueiinoe ia o?ao o?iaiyo (oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiii,
aeieo?eiaeueiii e i?aeoeei-iieeoe/aneii) e a aeaoo noa?ao
(aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie e iieeoeei-aeeieiiaoe/aneie). ?ane?uou iieeoe/aneea
e aiaiii-iieeoe/aneea aniaeou ?acaeoey neooaoeee a noa?a aaciianiinoe a
?aaeiia a 70-a — 90-a aiaeu.

?ane?uoa nouiinoue eaoaai?ee “?aaeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue” e aa
niioiioaiea n eaoaai?eyie “iaaeaeoia?iaeiay” e “iaoeeiiaeueiay
aaciianiinoue”, “iaoeeiiaeueiue eioa?an”, “oa?icu”.

?anniio?aii ninoiyiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee a ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai
caeeaa a eciaiythueony aaiiieeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo, auyaeaiu aaaeiaeoea
oaiaeaioeee eo ?acaeoey.

Aia?aua inouanoaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey ?acaeoey neooaoeee a noa?a
aaciianiinoe Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi ia yoaiao
oi?ie?iaaiey e noaiiaeaiey nenoaiu aaciianiinoe, eiaaea aioo?aiiyy
no?oeoo?a aua iaoiaeeony a noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey, iniaia aeeyiea eiatho
aeanoaaeeece?othuea oaeoi?u. E?aii-e?aeneay aieia, eoaaeoneee e?ecen e
aieia e Ia?neaeneii caeeaa, iineaaeothuea e?eceniua neooaoeee aie?oa
E?aea yaeythony naeaeaoaeuenoaii e?ecena anae nenoaiu
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee a ?aaeiia, a oaeaea nenoaiu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee a oie aa /anoe, eioi?ay eanaaony Ia?neaeneiai
caeeaa.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia aaoi?neay nenoaiaoecaoeey e oniaa?oainoaiaaia
eeanneoeeaoeey oaeoi?ia aeanoaaeeecaoeee neooaoeee a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa.
Iaicia/aiu iniiaiua oa?icu aaciianiinoe ?aaeiia, aeai iao/iue i?iaiic
?acaeoey aeanoaaeeece?othueo oaiaeaioeee ia anao aai no?oeoo?iuo
o?iaiyo.

Aia?aua i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea nenoaiaoecaoeee e eeanneoeeaoeee
nouanoaothueo a nia?aiaiiie enoi?eia?aoee acaeyaeia, i?aaenoaaeaiee,
eiioeaioeee e oai?ee a ioiioaiee iooae iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiua oai?ee e
eiioeaioeee, eioi?ua i?yii eee einaaiii aeeytho ia i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
e ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee no?ai Caeeaa, aia?aaeiiaeueiuo aea?aeaa ii
oeacaiiie i?iaeaia.

Ia aaca iaoe?iiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea ii?aaeaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau, auyaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe e iaoeeiiaeueiay niaoeeoeea
iiceoeee eae no?ai Caeeaa, oae e aia?aaeiiaeueiuo aea?aeaa ii aeaiiie
i?iaeaia. Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea e ioeaiea iniiaiuo yoaiia yaiethoeee eo
iiceoeee ii i?iaeaia ?aaeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe.

A ?aaioa eceiaeaii aaoi?neia iiieiaiea aeeyiey oeaio?ineeiaie aeeiaieee
ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea ia i?iaeaio aaciianiinoe Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa,
iieacaia iiceoeey Eeae a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa, ioaeaeueiuo a?aaneeo no?ai
ii oeacaiiie i?iaeaia.

Ii?aaeaeaia noaiaiue yooaeoeaiinoe nouanoaothueo iaoaieciia iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa ia iaoeeiiaeueiii, ?aaeiiaeueiii e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia, caaeneiinoue aeaiiiai i?ioeanna io aaaeoueo
no?ai Caiaaea.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iooe iaania/aiey, ianoi e ?ieue i?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe
Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee. I?aaeeiaeaia
aaoi?neay eiioeaioeey iooae iaania/aiey ?aaeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ia
i?eia?a Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa.

Aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aii?ino oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee
Oe?aeiu a ?aeiia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, a oii /enea ii i?iaeaia aai
aaciianiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Ia?neaeneee caeea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiay nenoaia, ?aaeii,
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Eiioeaioeey “eneaineiai aaeeinoaa”e eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a
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Iaeeoiyi A.N. NNAAIC e i?iaeaia nicaeaiey eieeaeoeaiie aaciianiinoe //
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Ia?niaeoeau. — I.: Iaoea, 1986. — 157 n.; Ieyciaoia O.ss. E?aii-e?aeneee
eiioeeeo. Enoi?e/aneea i/a?ee. I.: Iaoea, 1989. E.A. Nonaiyi. A?aaeeneea
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Aioaa A.TH. NNN? e no?aiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. — I.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
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Aiaeyineee A.E. Ainoi/iay A?aaey. Enoi?ey, aaia?aoey, ianaeaiea,
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Aaneeueaa A. ?inney ia Aeeaeiai e N?aaeiai Ainoiea: io ianneainoaa e
i?aaiaoecio. I.: Iaoea. Ecaeaoaeueneay oe?ia “Ainoi/iay eeoa?aoo?a”. —
1993. — 399 n.

?inney — NIA — Acey (i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau nio?oaeie/anoaa).
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay Annioeeaoeey oiiaeia ie?a. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
Annioeeaoeey “Ca aeeaeia e nio?oaeie/anoai a Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineii
?aaeiia”. Einoeooo ainoieiaaaeaiey ?AI. I., 1993. — 158 n.; ?inney e
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Iinoeiio?iioaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee e Acey.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay Annioeeaoeey “Ca aeeaeia e nio?oaeie/anoai a
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Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey a THai-Caiaaeiie Acee. (Oo?oeey, Iaeenoai,
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?inneeneay Aeaaeaiey iaoe. I?aeaia O?oaeiaiai E?aniiai Ciaiaie Einoeooo
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O ai?iouea? ca e?ea?aeaoe?th eieii?ae?cio. Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia
ai?ioueaa ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ca inoaoi/io e?ea?aeaoe?th eieii?ae?cio
oa o/anoue a i?e Oe?a?inueei? ?N? — Ee?a.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1974. — 366
n. E?a?ie Noiaeo. ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue. Ca??iee noaoae. — Ee?a.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1974. — 206 n.

Eiiiaeue A.A., Aoiaae Aanai Iioaiiaae Aee aeue-Aace. Ia?neaeneee
caeea: i?iaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. — Ee?a, Aeoa. 1995. — 48 n.

Eiiiaeue I.A. Ia?nueea caoiea: i?iaeaia aaciaee a 80-o? — 90-o? ?iee.
— E.: Oeiey?, 1998. — 200 n.

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