EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?I. OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

ETHAIOEIAOeUe EA?ENA NA?A??AIA

OAeE 330

I?EAAOECAOe?ss AEANIINO? OA CI?IE NIOe?AEUeII-AEIIII?*II? NO?OEOO?E
NONI?EUeNOAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01. — aeiiii?/ia oai??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Nieii’yithe Iaaei A?eai?iae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ee?a 1999

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Nieii’yithe Iaaei A?eai?iae/, eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: *a?iye Aieiaeeie? Ee?eeiae/, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?, Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie;

?aae/aiei Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/, eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,
caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiii?/iee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26.02.1999?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.001.13 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ca aae?anith:

252022, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea, 90a

aeiiii?/iee oaeoeueoao, aoae. 704

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22.01.1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.Eaiiaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A?aeiineie aeaniino? i?iiecothoue anth nenoaio aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei,
oiio aeeaie? ci?ie a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? iia’ycai? c ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oeeo a?aeiinei, yea iiaeiii caaacia/eoe: a?eueia ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy;
??aiii?aai?noue ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy; a?aooaaiiy
iniaeeainoae i?eaaoecaoe?? oa ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy, noai?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo
oa th?eaee/ieo oiia aeey iiyae aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?y.

?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino?, aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee a
oiiaao iie?oe/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? e?ece iinoaaeee ia?aae noni?euenoaii
?yae neeaaeieo i?iaeai, na?aae yeeo iniaeeai aeae?eythoue aecia/aiiy
oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a i?eaaoecaoe?? oa caiia?aaiiy o oeueiio i?ioean?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?euenoaa. sseui a oiiaao
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe??
aeiiii?ee iia’ycoaaeinue c i?enei?aiiyi ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e, oi
a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo oeae i?ioean o?nii oa’yco?oueny c caoiaeaie
ii ?icaea?aeaaeaiith ? i?eaaoecaoe?? aeaniino?. I?aai aeaniino?, yea
iaaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??, iiaeiii
aooe ?aaeueiei, ae?enii caaacia/oaaoe c?inoaiiy o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?. A
aoaeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ?i?oe?aoeai?noue oa aeiiii?/ia ca?ioa?aniaai?noue
?icaeaaoenue ia ia i?aei?e?inoaao-iiiiiie?noao, ia?aoai?aieo a iaia?ia?
aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, a oai, aea ethaeeia a?ae/oaa? naaa aeanieeii.

I?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye aaaeeeaee aeaiaio
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ia? ?ica’ycaoe ieceo oaeeo caaaeaiue:
noai?aiiy aeinoaoi?o oiia aeey iiyae ?aaeueieo aeaniee?a, i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?eaaoeciaaiiai iaeia, noaiiaeaiiy
aaciina?aaeiueiai ae?iaieea ye aeanieea, ni?eyiiy no?oeoo?iei
ia?aoai?aiiyi aeiiii?ee oa ?aoi?ioaaiith aaciaeo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie.

I?eaaoecaoe?y ia iiaea aooe e?ioeaaith iaoith iiiaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aiia ?
iaeiei ?c cania?a aeinyaiaiiy iaaieo oe?eae. Oe?e? i?eaaoecaoe??
iiaeooue aooe ye aeiaaino?ieiaeie, oae ? ei?ioeino?ieiaeie, iaa?oue
iaa?aeeeaaeieie. Aiie iiaeooue noaaeoeny ye ia iae?i-, oae ? ia
i?e?i??aiyo. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ioe?iththoueny ? ?acoeueoaoe
i?eaaoecaoe??.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?
i?ioiaeeoue a oiiaao ia?aaaaeiiai cia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?,
iaaeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a o ianaeaiiy,
iaaeinoaoiueiio i?aaiaiio caoeno? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, a?aenooiino?
aeina?aeo ?, ye iane?aeie, ineoieia?/ii? iaaioiaiino? ianaeaiiy aei
i?eaaoiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Oiio iaea?eueo ae??aei iai?yieii aeey ?icaeoeo
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o a Oe?a?i? ? i?eaaoecaoe?y ooieoe?iioth/eo aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

I?iaeaia i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa — iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
? iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie. Oea
iiynith?oueny, ia?o ca ana, neeaaei?noth ? aeeaeiith aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
?aaeueieo i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a; ii-ae?oaa, ?o i?noeai ? ?ieeth a
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo; ii-o?ao?, niaoeeo?eith iayaieo ia?aaeoiia
i?iaaaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?. Oe? oa ?io? i?iaeaie aecia/athoue
ci?no iniiaieo ieoaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ??ciiiai?oi? i?iaeaie ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy oa
i?eaaoecaoe?? aeineoue aeaaii ? aeeaiei aea/athoueny iaoeiaoeyie a
aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo (I.Iannaia?na?, E.Ith?aee, Ae.Naen. ?.O??aeiai.
A.?aia/einueeee, Noioi, Aai-aea-Aae, Oiiinii, Aaeueyiianuee?, Ae.A?e oa
?io?), aiie caeeoathoueny aino?i aeooaeueieie nueiaiaei? aeey Oe?a?ie.
I?eaaoecaoe?y — oea aaaaoia?aiiee ? aeey eiaeii? ie?aii? e?a?ie aaaaoi a
/iio i?ea?iaeueiee i?ioean. Oea noino?oueny ? ia?aaeoiia ? ci?noo, ?
iane?aee?a i?eaaoecaoe??. I?ioa, yeui aeine?aeaeaiith ia?aaeoiia ?
ci?noo i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i? i?eae?ey?oueny cia/ia oaaaa a ?iaioao
A.A?eiona, Ae.Aiaei?. C.Aa?iae?y, A.Aie?eiaa, I.?uaiea,
A.Caaeieuenueeiai, ?.E?anthea. A.Eiaaeiaiea, ?.Eaci?, I.Ia?oiiaiea,
A.Iie?eoaia, I.Naaeoea, A.*ooii, A.Oaeaeaiea oa ?ioeo aeiiii?no?a, oi
i?iaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a i?eaaoecaoe??
iaeiaeine?aeaeaia (Iai?eeeaae, iniiai? iai?yiee aieeao i?eaaoecaoe?? ia
caeiyo?noue oa ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?iaioao
N.Aaiaeo?e, A.?aaaiea; nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee i?eaaoecaoe??
aiae?cothoueny a ?iaioao I.Eiaaeueiaa, I.?oae/aiea, ?.Naoi?y,
TH.Iaee?ia; aeaye? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa
no?aoeo?eaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?.Aa?ac?iei. A.?aaea?aei). Na?aae
iaeaaaeeea?oeo c oaeeo iane?aee?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie ? noai?aiiy
iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa a iinoi?eaaoecaoe?eiee ia??iae, caeo/aiiy aei
i?eaaoecaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?e (ye ?iicaiieo oae ? aioo??oi?o ?iaanoi??a),
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ae??oaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino?
ianaeaiiy, aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea,
caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Ana oea iiynith?
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai.

I?aaeiaoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c
noaiiaeaiiyi a Oe?a?i? ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, aca?iiae??th i?ioean?a
i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, noai?aiiyi i?eaaoiiai
naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, ci?iaie a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo??
noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a
i?eaaoecaoe??, ?ic?iaea oa iaa?oioiaoaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei iiaeaeueoiai i?ioeano ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? ?
noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioth/iai i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee,
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa aieeao
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ci?ie a
no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee
iinoaaeai? ? ?ica’ycai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae i?eaaoecaoe?? oa ?? ca’yceo c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi
a?aeiinei aeaniino? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii?
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeoiia i?iaaaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ci?noo
oa ?acoeueoao?a ?? ia?oiai aoaio;

— aeae?eaiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a, iniaeeainoae oa oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo ae?oaiai aoaio i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?;

— i?iaaaeaiiy e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a i?eaaoecaoe??;

— aecia/aiiy aieeao aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia oaiaeaioe??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?
?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino?.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii?
aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee. Aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ii oai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee, nioe?ieia?/i?
iieooaaiiy o/aniee?a i?eaaoecaoe??, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ae?yeueiino? i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Iaoa??aee ?icaeyaeaeenue a
eiiieaen? ?noi?e/iiai, no?oeoo?iiai, aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai ?
eia?/iiai aniaeo?a, ioe?iea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo i?iaiaeeeanue c
aeiiiiiaith oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai oa ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co c o?aooaaiiyi
a iniiaiiio a?o/eciyiiai ? /anoeiai ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

Aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? iineoaeeee a?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieoaiue i?eaaoecaoe??, ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino?
oa ci?i nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, aeai? noaoenoe/ii?
ca?oiino? I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae caeiiiaeaa/?
ii?iaoeai? ? iaoiaee/i? aeieoiaioe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue i?eaaoecaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

— oaeoe/ii aia?oa a Oe?a?i? cae?eniaii aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo i?eaaoecaoe?? c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th noni?euenoaa;

— iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy i?eaaoecaoe?? ye caaaeueiiai i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo
a?ae aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?, ye aecia/aeueii? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie
noni?euenoaa aei i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, ye aecia/aeueii? iniiae
nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

— aeae?eaii ?yae ooieoe?e i?eaaoecaoe??, ye? aiia aeeiio? a noni?eueiiio
aeeoo?, cie?aia, ooieoe??: ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith,
yeee aaco?oueny ia ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?; ainiiaea?nueei?;
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?; o?neaeueii?; aaeineiiaeaiiy
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? no?oeoo?e; iie?eooy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao;

— aecia/aii? iniiaieo ?en oa iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiaeae?
i?eaaoecaoe??;

— aeine?aeaeai? iniiaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a
i?eaaoecaoe?? c oi/ee ci?o ?inoeoooe?eieo ci?i no?oeoo?e oi?i aeaniino?,
ci?i a ??aiyo aeeooy ianaeaiiy, aeioiaeao, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe, caaacia/aii? nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? a noni?euenoa?,
caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
i?aei?e?inoa oa ?i.;

— iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? iineeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee, ?aae?caoe?? aeanii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, oaoiieia?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, caoenoo
aeanieo iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e oa a?o/eciyiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea,
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?i aeaniino?, ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe??, caaacia/aiiy
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy, noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
iineethth/e aoaeoeai?noue ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??, aea?aeaaa
ni?ey? i?enei?aiith ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? oa aeinyaiaiith
oe?eae i?eaaoecaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo oai eo?n?a «Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???», «Iie?oe/ii?
aeiiii??», niaoeeo?n?a c i?iaeai i?eaaoecaoe??. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii? i?e oi?ioaaii? i?ia?aie i?eaaoecaoe??,
oaeineiiaeaii? /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aecia/aii? iai?yie?a aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee uiaei ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 12 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o, caaaeueiee ianya 2,1 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/eee oaeo no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Nooue i?eaaoecaoe?? oa iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? iiaeae?
?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino?.

I?noea i?eaaoecaoe?? a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio nioe?aeueii-
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iniaeeaino? oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

?icae?e 2. Iiaeeaeaiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? oa caeiiii??iino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Aieea aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia aca?iica’ycie i?eaaoecaoe?? c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th noni?euenoaa.

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 163 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 25
oaaeeoeue, 6 iaethie?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 133 ?iaioe.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaoiiaeth?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny i?aaeiao,
iaoa, caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny, ui aaaeeeaith iniiaith ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ?
iiaeieaiiy iiiiiie?cio aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino?. Aiii iia’ycaia ia?o
ca ana c i?ioeanaie ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??. ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy,
ye i?ioean aeaaaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa c i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aea?aeaaiei
i?aaiai oi?aae?iiy ? ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a aeoe?iia?i? oa ?io? oiaa?enoaa,
i?aiaei?, eieaeoeai?, i?eaaoi?, eiiia?aoeai? i?aei?e?inoaa oa ?io?
iaaea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e, iia’yco?oueny ye i?i?ioi c o?ueiia i?ioeanaie:

— ?icaea?aeaaeaiiyi aeiiii?ee (nei?i/aiiy ooieoe?e aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
ii aaciina?aaeiueiio oi?aae?iith i?aei?e?inoaaie oa ?icoe?aiiyi i?aa
i?aei?e?inoa a i?eeiyoo? ainiiaea?nueeeo oa ?ioeo ??oaiue);

— ?icaea?aeaaeaiiyi i?aei?e?inoa (ia?aoai?aiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a aea?aeaai?e aeaniino? a i?aei?e?inoaa ?ioeo oi?i
aeaniino?);

— i?eaaoecaoe??th.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae o aecia/aii? noo? i?eaaoecaoe??, a
oaeiae aeoiaey/e c ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a i?eeiyoeo a iao?e
aea?aeaa?, ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui i?ae i?eaaoecaoe??th ?icoi?thoue
caaaeueiee i?ioean ia?aoiaeo a?ae aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ye aecia/aeueii?
iniiae aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa aei i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, ye
aecia/aeueii? iniiae nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Caaaeueiee i?ioean
i?eaaoecaoe?? aeeth/a?:

— aaciina?aaei? ia?aoai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? a iaaea?aeaaio;

— noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ca ?aooiie eai?oae?caoe??
iniaenoiai iaeia ? aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi oa ?o ia’?aeiaiue;

— ooai?aiiy iaaea?aeaaii? (eieaeoeaii?) aeaniino? i?aai?caoe?e
i?aiaea??a aea?aeaaiiai iaeia ia aeioiaee a?ae aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
iaeia, acyoiai a i?aiaeo;

— caeo/aiiy a aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie ?iicaiiiai i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo, ui ia
iia’ycaia c ?iaanoeoe?yie o i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino?;

— oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?eaaoiiai a?ciano.

Aecia/aiiy i?noey i?eaaoecaoe?? ia ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iae? aei
nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iio?aao? /?oeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai aiae?co
aeeaeiiino? i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae
a?aoiaioaoe?? ci?noo eaoaai??? aeaniino?, ui caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai:

— aeani?noue ?icaeyaea?oueny ia eeoa ye th?eaee/ia a?aeiioaiiy, ui ia?
iica?noi?e/ia iioiaeaeaiiy, a ye aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y;

— aeani?noue aeine?aeaeo?oueny o ?? ?aaeuei?e oi?i?, oiaoi ye ae?iaie/?
a?aeiineie;

— aeani?noue ae?aaea? ia eeoa eiie?aoio oi?io i?ioeano i?eaeaniaiiy a
eiaeiiio aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii?, aea e iaaiee eaae oeeo a?aeiinei, ?o
iaaiee ca’ycie;

— aeiiii?/ii aeani?noue ?ice?eaa?oueny /a?ac eaoaai??? ye eiie?aoi?
oi?ie (niiniae) i?eaeaniaiiy ?, c aeaii? oi/ee ci?o, o aeaniino?
o?eno?oueny aanue oe?e?niee i?ioean i?eaeaniaiiy. sse th?eaee/ia
ia?aaeoiiaa, aeani?noue iaoiiaeaia aeiiii?/ii ? ? iane?aeeii iaaieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ye ae?eniiai niiniao i?eaeaniaiiy;

— aeiiii?/iee ci?no aeaniino? a?oioo?oueny ia aecia/aii? niiniao
ii?aeiaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa;

— aeiiii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaniino? cae?enith?oueny o o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo c on??th nenoaiith noni?eueieo a?aeiinei;

— no/ania aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaniino? ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c oi?ie ??
?aae?caoe?? ye neeaaeiiai ? aaaaoiieaiiaiai i?ioeano.

?icaeyaeath/e aeani?noue ye aacenia aeiiii?/ia yaeua, i?noea oa cia/aiiy
i?eaaoecaoe?? a ?icaoaeia? nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
aecia/athoueny o ca’yceo c oeie iane?aeeaie, ye? ni?e/eiy? i?eaaoecaoe?y
o nioe?aeuei?e, iie?oe/i?e oa ?ioeo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Nooue i?eaaoecaoe?? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? iiiyooy i?iyaey?oueny o
aeanoeaeo ?e iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ooieoe?yo. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, na?oiaee aeina?ae aea? i?aenoaae aeae?eeoe oae? c ieo:

— ooieoe?y ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai eaaeo, yeee aaco?oueny ia
?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?. Oiaoi, i?eaaoecaoe?y ?icoe?th? noa?o aeeaaeaiiy
i?eaaoiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai eai?oaeo a na?aaeei? e?a?ie, ca?eueoo?
aeo?aoe ia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th i?eaaoeciaaieo eiiiai?e ? ?o
iiaea?i?caoe?th, aea? iiaeeea?noue iiaeaaaeaiiy eii’thieoo?e e?a?ie,
c?inoaiith iiieoo ? caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy;

— nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia ooieoe?y, yea iieyaa? o i?aeo?eiaii? ?icoe?aiiy
nioe?aeueii? aace aea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Ci?oeiaiiy a
i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe?? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aace aea?aeaaiiai eo?no ia
?eieiao aeiiii?eo ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi na?aaeiueiai eeano,
iniaeeai ae??aiiai ? na?aaeiueiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

— ooieoe?y aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? no?oeoo?e, yea
?aae?co?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? aeiaaino?ieiaeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai,
ui ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai aoaeoo i?ia?aneaii?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? a i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe??;

— o?neaeueia ooieoe?y i?iyaey?oueny a iai?yieo aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a a?ae
i?eaaoecaoe??;

— ooieoe?y iie?eooy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao.

I?ioeane i?eaaoecaoe?? a oe?ieiio ?o oeoia/aii? a Oe?a?i? aoee ?icii/ao?
ua ca /an?a ?nioaaiiy eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. ?acoeueoaoii
cae?eniaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aoei noai?aiiy eiiia?aoea?a
iiaiai oeio, i?aiaeieo i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia? aea?aeaaieo, ??cieo oi?i
eiia?oe?eieo i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae i?aei?e?inoa c o/anoth ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo. Aea ca oiia iiiiiieueiiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ?
ieaiiai? nenoaie, iaiiae?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ?iciiae?eii
iaoa??aeueieo oa o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a i?eaaoiee naeoi? i?a caeiyoe eeoa
aocuee? iaae?. Iaeiae ia o?eueee aea?aeaaiee naeoi? caaaaeaa ?icaeoeo
i?eaaoiiai. Ia?aaaae i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o, iia’ycai? c aioo??oiueith
ainiiaea?nueeith ?i?oe?aoeaith, ciyooyi iaaieo iaiaaeaiue o aeioiaeao
caaaaeaee, a naith /a?ao, ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o, i?ae?eaaee
eiai.

A oe?eiio aeey an?o ??ciiaeae?a i?aei?e?inoa iiainoai?thaaiiai
iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee a ia??iae aei ii/aoeo i?eaaoecaoe??
iaeia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye c ia’?eoeaieo, oae ? noa’?eoeaieo
i?e/ei, oa?aeoa?ieie aoee : neaae?noue aai a?aenooi?noue
caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeaii? aace, iieeeeaii? ?aaoethaaoe ?o noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie; naiaiaea i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iaaoea noaio
anaaeicaieaiiino? a iane?aeie aaceiio?ieueiino? aea?aeaae ca
noaiiaeaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o.

I?ioean i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai iaeia a Oe?a?i? aoei ?icii/aoi a 1992
?ioe?. Aei oeueiai /ano aeinyaoe iaaiiai i?ia?ano i?eaaoecaoe?? aoei
iaiiaeeeai aieiaiei /eiii o ca’yceo c iie?oe/iith ianoaa?euei?noth,
a?aenooi?noth ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Naia
i?eeiyooy iniiaiiieiaeieo caeii?a, ui noai?thaaee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao ?
i?aai?caoe?eio aaco aeey i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa,
aeaei iiaeeea?noue caeeanoe i?eioeeiia? iieiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiaeae?
i?eaaoecaoe??, ?? ci?no, oa?aeoa? ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee. A
aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueea iiaeaeue i?eaaoecaoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?euenoaa. I?e oeueiio ie iaiaaeeee aiae?c
neeaaeiiai ci?noo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia?aaaaeii
aiae?cii ia??aiino? ?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a ? iaeia ie?aieo a?oi ianaeaiiy.
Oea oe?eeii i?eionoeii, ia iaoo aeoieo, oae ye naia aeioiaee oa iaeii ?
iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy ??aiy oa niiniao aeeooy ethaeae /e
a?aei?iiinoae o ieo, a oaeiae naia oey i?iaeaia ? iaea?eueo aeooaeueiith
oa aino?ith.

A iniiao oe?a?inueei? iiaeae? i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai iaeia c naiiai
ii/aoeo aoei caeeaaeaii i?eioeeie nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ?
??aiino? eiai ?iciiae?eo oa i?iaeaaeo. I?e oeueiio ni?aaaaeeea?noue ia?o
ca ana iia’ycoaaeanue c aacieaoiith ia?aaea/ath cia/ii? /anoee
aea?aeaaiiai iaeia eiaeiiio a?iiaaeyieio Oe?a?ie, caaacia/aiiyi ??aiino?
i?aa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie o i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioeanao, ?c canoinoaaiiyi
i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a a i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe?? ia ieaoi?e iniia?. sse
caaacia/aiiy oiia nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ?icaeyaeathoueny
?aae?caoe?y i?eioeei?a aeaniino? i?ioean?a i?eaaoecaoe??, aeiaea?aeaiiy
aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaaeaiiy i?euea o?oaeiaei eieaeoeaai
i?aei?e?inoa, ui i?eaaoecothoueny / aea?? niiniao i?eaaoecaoe??,
i?eaeaaiiy iaeia nai?o i?aei?e?inoa /. Ii?aeiaiiy i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino? c canoinoaaiiyi iaaieo i?euea aeey o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a
a oe?a?inuee?e iiaeae? i?eaaoecaoe?? eaaeeoue a iniia? na?oiaiai
i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ? ? iaaiei eiii?ii?nii o ?ica’ycaii? noia?a/iino?
uiaei noa’?eo?a i?eaaoecaoe?? ? eiii?ii?nii o noni?eueieo oyaeaiiyo i?i
e?eoa??? nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Neeueiith noi?iiith caeeaaeaieo a iniiao oe?a?inueei? iiaeae?
i?eaaoecaoe?? i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? ??aiino? ? ??
nioe?aeueia i?eeiyoi?noue, aaceiioe?eoi?noue, a oaeiae ii??aiyii ei?ioe?
no?iee ?iciiae?eo iaeia. I?ioa cae?eniaiiy o oaeee niin?a ?iciiae?eo
aeaniino? ia? ? naith iaaaoeaio noi?iio, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui
i?eaaoecaoe?y ia i?eiineoue ?aaeueieo eioo?a i? aea?aeaai?e eaci?, i?
i?aei?e?inoaai, ui i?eaaoecothoueny. Oaeei /eiii, ?aaeueia noaiiaeua
i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ia ci?ith?oueny, oiaoi aiie ia iathoue
?aaeueieo eioo?a aeey iiaeieaiiy oaoi?/ii? a?aenoaeino?, iiaea?i?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiio i?e?iaeii, ui oe?a?inueea iiaeaeue a?oioo?oueny ia ia
aeeeth/ii aacieaoiiio i?eioeei? ?iciiae?eo, a ia ii?aeiaii? eiai c
i?eioeeiii ieaoiino? ca /anoeio iaeia, ui i?aeeyaa? i?eaaoecaoe??.

Aiae?c iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiy i?ioeano
i?eaaoecaoe??, a?eueo iiaii? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? caeeaaeaieo
i?eioeei?a, ui iaoiiaeth? ia?ao?ae aei ianooiiiai eiai aoaio. Caaaeii,
i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? i?ieoia aeae?eueea aoai?a:

— ia??iae i?aeaioiaee aei i?eaaoecaoe?? (iaoa — noai?aiiy ii/aoeiaeo
oiia aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??, eiia?oe?ae?caoe??
i?aei?e?inoa). Aoai eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? aoa eia?/ii iaiao?aeiei o
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei i?eaaoecaoe??, oae ye a?aeaoaaany iiae?e
ae?th/eo iiiiiieueieo no?oeoo? ia ie?ai? naiino?eii ooieoe?iioth/?
i?aei?e?inoaa, iaaoaaany aeina?ae naiino?eii? ?iaioe noa‘?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?aae?ciaoaaeinue i?aai o?oaeiaeo
eieaeoea?a ia aeeoi iaeia;

— i?iaaaeaiiy na?oeo?eaoii? i?eaaoecaoe??, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?noioieie ci?iaie o no?oeoo?? aeaniino? (iaoa oeueiai aoaio — noai?aiiy
iniia i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o ? aoaeoeaiiai eiai ?icaeoeo).

Oae ye a?eueo?noue i?aei?e?inoa, ui i?aeeyaathoue i?eaaoecaoe??,
iecueei?aioaaaeuei? aai caeoeia?, iio?aaothoue cia/ii? ?ai?aai?caoe??, a
ioaea, ? aaeeeeo ?iaanoeoe?e, oi aeeoi ?o c ia?aaaaeiei aeei?enoaiiyi
na?oeo?eao?a ia caaacia/o? ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai aoaeoeaii? ?o
ae?yeueiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aeii ciaoiaeeoe iia? iaoai?cie ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo
i?iaeai ca aeiiiiiaith iiooeo aoaeoeaiiai ?aaeueiiai aeanieea. Na?aae
oaeeo oeyo?a ?: ia?ao?ae aei ia?aaaaeii a?ioiai? i?eaaoecaoe??,
?aae?caoe?y aea?aeaaii? /anoee iaeia ca ?iaanoeoe?eieie eiieo?naie,
?icaeoie aoi?eiiiai ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a, aeiaeaoeiaee aeione aeoe?e
oiaa?enoa c iaoith caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, iai?aaeaiiy /anoee eioo?a a?ae
i?eaaoecaoe?? ia ?icaeoie i?aei?e?inoa, ?o ?ai?aai?caoe?th,
ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e, oiaoi ia
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th;

— i?iaaaeaiiy a?ioiai? i?eaaoecaoe??, ui ? iiceoeaiei oaeoi?ii, oaeoi?ii
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ? ?icaeoeo IOI.

I/aaeaeii, ui o a?ioia?e i?eaaoecaoe?? aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa ie?ai?
a?iiaaeyie Oe?a?ie ia ciiaeooue a?aoe iii?oii? o/ano? (/a?ac
a?aenooi?noue cia/ii? iane a?ioiaeo eioo?a). Oiio i?eaaoecoaaoe aaeee?
i?aei?e?inoaa aoaeooue th?eaee/i? iniae oa o?iainia? no?oeoo?e, ui iiaea
i?ecaanoe aei a?aenoi?iiaiiy a?iiaaeyi a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
i?eaaoecaoe?? ? aei aeeaoi? iaeiiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

Iniaeea?noth ae?oaiai (a?ioiaiai) aoaio i?iaaaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a ? i?eaaoecaoe?y no?aoaa?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa, a?eueo?noue c yeeo
iin?aea? iiiiiieueia noaiiaeua ? ia? no?aoaa?/ia cia/aiiy aeey
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio. I?aeaioiaea aei i?eaaoecaoe??
no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaeo i?aei?e?inoa iineeth? ?ioa?an a?o/eciyiiai ?
?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo aei o/ano? a ?iaanooaaii? oeeo i?ioean?a. A?eueoino?
i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ia aaeaeiny ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio ?iaanoeoe?e,
inai?oe aeione eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, ui i?ecaaei aei ci?ie
i?io?eth ie?aieie c ieo, ao?aoe aeii?eaaoecaoe?eiiai oaoiieia?/iiai
??aiy. Oiio iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi i?iieneiai? iie?oeee ? ia?iuoaaiiy
coneeue uiaei caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e aeey iiaea?i?caoe?? i?aei?e?inoa.
Oaeei /eiii, ia aoai? a?ioiai? i?eaaoecaoe?? aeieea? iiaeeea?noue
ia‘?aeiaoe i?ioean ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy c iiyaith iiaiai ?aaeueiiai
aeanieea, yeee iaoeia iai?? ia eeoa «aieiae?oe» ieie, a e aeeaaeaoe
?aaeuei? eiooe a ?o ?icaeoie.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ae?oaiai aoaio ?icaeoeo i?eaaoecaoe?? ? iio?aaa a
caaacia/aii? ca‘yceo oeueiai i?ioeano ?c ?icaeoeii i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o,
iniaeeai c iaeei a?cianii. A aeey ?icaeoeo iiceoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a
noaiiaeaii? iaeiai i?aei?e?inoaa a Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeia ?icoe?aiiy
?iiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? inoaiiueiai; i?aeo?eiea noa?e e?aaeeooaaiiy oa
no?aooaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano, a oaeiae noa?e noeioethaaiiy eiai
?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino?; ciaioaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oyaa?y ?
iiaeaoe?a; noai?aiiy oiia aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo a noa?o
iaeiai i?aei?e?inoaa; noai?aiiy ia?aae? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oa i?eaaoieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ye? a cae?enithaaee i?aeo?eieo ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co cae?eniaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aeooaeueiith
? iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a
i?eaaoecaoe?? ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? oa ?ic?iaea caoiae?a uiaei
caiia?aaiiy /e iii’yeoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.
Oiaoi, ?acii c e?euee?niei aiae?cii i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, iaiao?aeii
?icaeyaeaoe ? ye?ni? aniaeoe oeueiai i?ioeano, ye? aeeth/athoue a naaa
ia eeoa ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? (?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?i aeaniino?), aea e
aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? ci?ie (caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
i?eaaoeciaaieo aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e,
iiiiaiaiiy athaeaeaoo, ci?ie a ??ai? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, caeiyoino?,
ca?ia?oi?e ieao?, o aeei?enoaii? ?iai/iai /ano, caaacia/aii?
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa ??aiino? i?aa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie), ia ui
? caa?oa?oueny oaaaa o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe.

I?eaaoecaoe?y a Oe?a?i? caaino?eea aaaaoi nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai o
noni?euenoa?. Ia?o ca ana oea noino?oueny iino?eiiai iiaeeaeaiiy
iaeiiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy. Aecia/a?oueny cia/ia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a ??aiyo aeioiae?a, ca yeith o 1996 ?ioe? 14,6 iei.
/ieia?e / 28,5% ianaeaiiy e?a?ie/ iaee na?aaeiueiaeooiaee aeioiae
ieae/ee ca iaaeo iaeicaaacia/aiino? / 68,1 a?i. ia i?nyoeue /.I?e
oeueiio ?icaeyaea?oueny ??cia /anoea a?ioiaeo ? iaoo?aeueieo aeioiae?a,
ye eiiiiiaio?a noeoiieo, aeey ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oae, o i?nueeeo
n?i’yo a?ioia? aeioiaee ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii ?nioaaiiy, ?o /anoea
eieeaa?oueny o iaaeao 84,6 — 87,6 ca na?aaeiueiai 85,9%, a o n?euenueeeo
n?i’yo — /anoea a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a o 1,85 ?ace iaioa ? oi?io? eeoa 46,1%
noeoiieo aeioiae?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth a noni?euenoa?
caeia?oueny aeineoue iaiaaeaia e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy, niinoa??aa?oueny
oa?aeoa?ia aeey oiia ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, onoaeaia
oaiaeaioe?y ci?ie no?oeoo?e aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy ia ei?enoue aeioiae?a
a?ae i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ? aeaniino?.

??aaiue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ye a e?a?i?, oae ? ia ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny ??aiai ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.
Iaeiae /a?ac iaaeaaaeai?noue ? iaiine?aeiai?noue i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?ee aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iaaoea nei??oa aeaeyaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?? ye ?? no?oeoo?e, oae ? iniiaieo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?iii?oe?e oa caeaaeiinoae. A ?iaio? aeae?eythoueny oae? aeaee
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ye i?aenaeoi?ia, i?aeaaeocaaa,
aioo??oiueiaaeocaaa oa ?aa?iiaeueia. A ?icaeyae oeeo oi?i
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iae? i?eaiaeeoue
aei aecia/aiiy aeaio iniaeeainoae . Ii-ia?oa, iaaei??iino?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? / i?aeaaeocaaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a
Oe?a?i? nyaa? 400-500%, oiae? ye a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao aiia ia ia?aaeuo?
150-200%/. Ii-ae?oaa, aeiiii?/ia iaiaa?oioiaai?noue aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ciaioaiiy caeaaeiino? inoaiiuei?
a?ae iniiaieo aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a neeaaeiino?, ?ioaineaiino?,
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aoe?, ui, a naith /a?ao, cieaeo?
noeioethth/o e ?aaoethth/o ?ieue iniiaii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Ie??i oiai,
c?inea /anoea aeiaeaoeiaeo aeieao, ui iineeth? ia??ai?noue aeioiae?a
i?aoe?aiee?a caeiyoeo ia i?aei?e?inoaao c ??cieie o?iainiaeie
iiaeeeainoyie.

Ii?yae c oeei aecia/a?oueny ? ??ciee ??aaiue nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa. *ei ieae/ee oeae ??aaiue, oei aeua ieeii?noue
eaae??a. O 1996 ?ioe? ieeii?noue eaae??a ia i?eaaoeciaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao aoea 16,5%, oiae? ye o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? e?a?ie
aiia neeaaeaea 15,8% , oiaoi ??aaiue nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a ia i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao ieae/ee, i?ae ia
aea?aeaaieo. A naith /a?ao i?eaaoecaoe?y oaeiae caaino?eea i?iaeaio
aea?eueiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a, yea eoei a?eueo ?ioaineaii ia i?eaaoeciaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao, i?ae a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Oae, /anoea
i?aoe?aiee?a aea?eueiaieo ia i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao noaiiaeea
25,5%, oiae? ye a oe?eiio a Oe?a?i? aiia aei??aithaaea 22%, a /anoea
aaniethoiiai ciaioaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a a ?o caaaeuei?e /enaeueiino?
a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeea 11,5% ? 6,8%.

A?eueo iieaciaei uiaei nioe?aeueii cia/eii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeioiae?a
/ye ? cacia/a?oueny a ?iaio? / ? aeai? i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeioiae?a
20%, 10% iaeaaaaooeo in?a aei aeioiae?a 20%, 10% iaea?aei?oeo. A Oe?a?i?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?ae oeeie eaoaai??yie / 20% / iaeaaaaooeo ?
iaea?aei?oeo o 4-7 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae a e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith. Aaaaea?oueny, ui a?eueoa ye aeanyoee?aoiee ?ic?ea o
aeioiaeao 10% iaeaaaaooeo aei 10% iaea?aei?oeo coiiaeth?
ianoaa?euei?noue aeiiii?ee ? oa?oue o nia? iaaaciaeo nioe?aeueieo
iio?yn?iue. A Oe?a?i? na?aaei?e aeio?ae 10% iaecaiiaei?oeo a?iiaaeyi
ia?aaeuoaaa aeio?ae 10% iaeiaio ni?iiiaeieo a?iiaaeyi a 1993 ?ioe? o
6,7?aca, a 1994 ?ioe? oeae ?ic?ea noaiiaea 9 ?ac?a, a a 1995 ?ioe? — 12,
a ca iaio?oe?eieie aeaieie — 20 ?ac?a. A oie /an ye aiaeia?/i? iieacieee
a e?a?iao AN ca 1990?. noaiiaeee : o O?aioe?? — 3,44 , Aaeeeia?eoai?? —
3,24, I?ia//ei? — 2,31.

Oaeee ?iciiae?e ia? yaii aneiao?e/iee oa?aeoa? ? c o?aooaaiiyi iecueeiai
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy aeioiae?a aiai?eoue i?i iaeaea iiaio a?aenooi?noue a
Oe?a?i? oiai «na?aaeiueiai eeano», yeee ia? aooe iniiaith noni?euenoaa c
no/aniith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, iniiaith noaa?eueiino? ? aeeiai?/iiai
?icaeoeo, ye oea ? a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, aea na?aaei?e eean neeaaea?
aeecueei 80% ianaeaiiy.

3 o?aooaaiiyi «o?iueiaeo» aeioiae?a aaaaoiai i?ioa?eo noni?euenoaa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ianaeaiiy ca ?o ??aiai c?inoa? ua a?eueoa /»o?iueiaa»
aeiiii?ea ca ioe?ieaie aenia?o?a nyaioea aeecueei 40-45% AAI e?a?ie /.
I?e oeueiio cia/ia /anoeia aeioiae?a, ye? io?eiai? a «o?iueia?e
aeiiii?oe?», eiioeaio?o?oueny na?aae ae?ae aocueeiai eiea in?a,
iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua, yeeo oaeaeei c?inoa? ca ?aooiie iniiaii? iane
ianaeaiiy, a ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiy iaaaaaoi ia?aaeuo? na?aaei?e ??aaiue
niiaeeaaiiy iaa?oue 10% — ? aenieiaeio?aeii? a?oie, ? ? ni?anoaaiei c
??aiai niiaeeaaiiy aeueo aeio?aeieo a?oi iaea?eueo aaaaoeo e?a?i, ui
noai?th? aino?o nioe?aeueio iai?oao a e?a?i?.

Ioaea, aeeaiea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a noni?euenoa? ?
i/aaeaeiei, iacaia?a/iei oaeoii ? iane?aeeii oeo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoeeny i?ioyaii 90-o ?ie?a. Aea aaaeeeai aecia/eoe yeith i??ith
i?eaaoecaoe?y aieeioea ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
noni?euenoaa, iane?eueee aiia ? aeaea?aeii oaei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ? ye?
ua oaeoi?e coiiaeee ?nioth/a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ?icoa?oaaiiy
noni?euenoaa.

I?e/aoi?noue i?eaaoecaoe?? aei oiai noaio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?euenoaa,
yeee neeaany, aecia/a?oueny naiei oaeoii i?iaieioaiiy naiaiaee
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, caeiiiaeaa/ei aeciaiiyi i?eaaoii?
aeaniino?, ye iniiae cae?eniaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?
iiiyooy, a ioaea, aeciaiiyi i?eaaoecaoe?? ye iaiao?aeii? oiiae
eaa?oeiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

I?yiee ca’ycie i?ae aeani?noth, a ioaea i?eaaoecaoe??th, ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th o noni?euenoa? ?nio? a oiio
?icoi?ii?, ui aeani?noue ca nai?i ci?noii, ye aoei c’yniaaii aeua, ?, c
iaaiiai aieo, i?/ei ?ioei, ye iaaieie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
a?aeiineiaie ?iciiae?eo iaeia ? aeioiae?a, ui ? ia’?eoaie aeaniino?. ?
i?eaaoecaoe?y , ci?ithth/e a?aeiineie aeaniino?, icia/a? ci?io oeeo
a?aeiinei ?iciiae?eo iaeia oa aeioiae?a.

?aaeuei? a?aeiineie aeaniino? — oea caaaeaee, ? ia?o ca ana, iaaiee
oaeoe/iee ?iciiae?e oiia (oaeoi??a) ae?iaieoeoaa o noni?euenoa?,
?iciiae?e, yeee aecia/a? nooue naiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, noni?eueiee eaae
eiai a?aeiinei. Oiio i?yiee ? aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie iaoa??aeueiiai
noaio ethaeae / iaaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi / i?eoaiaiiee ?aaeueiei, a ia
oi?iaeueiei a?aeiineiai aeaniino?. Oeth a?aei?ii?noue iaiao?aeii
i?aee?aneeoe, aeey oiai uia c?icoi?oe, ui ia i?aeoeoe? o? i?ioeane
i?eaaoecaoe??, ye? ca nai?th aeeaeiith iaiaaeothoueny eeoa ii?iaeueiei
ia?aoiaeii i?aa aeaniino? a?ae iaeiiai aeanieea aei ?ioiai aac
aaeaeaaoieo oaeoe/ieo i?ioean?a i?eaeaniaiiy, ia iiaeooue a?aeiia?aeii
caaacia/eoe ? aaeaeaaoiiai oi?iaeueiiio i?aao aeaniino? iaoa??aeueiiai
noaio ethaeae / nioe?aeueieo a?oi /. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, ia aaa/ath/e
??cieoe? i?ae oi?iaeueiith ci?iith i?aa aeaniino? ? ?aaeueieie
a?aeiineiaie i?eaeaniaiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oiae? aeiiii?/ieo
?aoi?i, iiaeia i?eionoeoeny nooo?aeo iiieeie, aeacoth/e ia iayai?noue
aacoiiaiiai i?yiiai ? aaciina?aaeiueiai ca’yceo i?ae i?eaaoecaoe??th oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th noni?euenoaa. Ine?eueee
ni?aaaaeeeaei ? oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui ea?aeeiaeuei?noue ia?aoai?aiue
aeaniino? ia i?aeoeoe? caiaeeoueny aei i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??
aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, oiaoi aei ci?i oi?i aieiae?iiy, aei th?eaee/ii?
noi?iie, ino?eueee i?i i?eaaoecaoe?th aea?aeaaiiai iaeia iiaeia aiai?eoe
ye i?i oi?iaeueio i?e/eio (oaeoi?) nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

Aea yeui ia i?eaaoecaoe?y, oi ui ae noaei i?e/eiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?euenoaa? Na?aae iniiaieo
/eiiee?a oeueiai i?ioeano iiaeia iacaaoe:

— aeeaieo aeiiii?/io e?eco, a ye?e iieieeiny iaoa noni?euenoai,
neaae?noue aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee uiaei oi?aae?iiy ia?aaoaeia/eie i?ioeanaie,
eiio?ieth ca ieie, a oiio /ene? ca i?eaaoecaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie;

— caoaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai ?eieo aeey oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy
aeaniiai, iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeaiiai a?aenooi?noth
ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo ianaeaiiy ia a?o/eciyio i?iaeoeoe?th;

— ii?ooaiiy no?ie?a aeieao ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?aoe?aieeai, ??cea
cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ao?aoa caeaaeiino? i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie
i?aoe? ? ?? iieaoith oaeoe/ii c?oeioaaee nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? iieaoe
i?aoe? ? ca?ia?oia ieaoa ia?anoaea caaacia/oaaoe ii?iaeueia a?aeoai?aiiy
?iai/i? neee.

Neeaaei?noue ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?eieo a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea?aeaaa ?
iniiaiei aeaiaioii noa?i? nenoaie. Oiio aeieea? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy
oaeiai iai?yieo ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee e?a?ie, yeee aoaea ni?yiiaaiee ia
?aae?caoe?th caaaeueiioeea?e?ciaaieo, caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae.
Iai?yiie, iia’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii IOI, aeaiie?aoecaoe??th aeaniino? ?
an?o noa? aeeooy noni?euenoaa, ?icaeoeii nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
a?aooaaiiyi ? aeei?enoaiiyi iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaioae?oaoo
ia?iaeo, o/anoth aea?aeaae a ?aaoethaaii? aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a. Iniiao oeueiai iai?yieo noaiiaeoue iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii
i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, c oa?aeoa?ieie aeey ia? eiii?ii?naie,
ni?a?nioaaiiyi, ni?ai?aoeath. ?aei?noue aeaio ?aoe?iiaeueieo oe?eae —
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? iaenei?caoe?? aeioiaeo, ye iniiaii?
aeiiae ?eieo — neeaaeathoue iniiao nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii?
?aaoeueiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Caaaeii iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui nueiaiaei? ca oa?aeoa?ii aieeao
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane ?e aeanoea? oae? ?ene ye
iaiine?aeiai?noue, iaoe?eani?yiiaai?noue, ia?aaaaeii
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/i?, «iiaeaaei?» iaoiaee ae?e. Aeeaeia
oeueiai aieeao aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aea?aeaaa oaeoe/ii ao?aoeea
ea?iaai?noue, eiio?ieue iaae aeiiii?/ieie ? nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie, ?
ia?o, ca ana, iaae ae?iaieoeoaii, ae?? ?ic??ciaii, o?aaiaioa?ii, ia
eiioeaiooaeueii. Uiaei iaae (ianooaa?a, oe?eie) ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a
aeiiii?eo, oi aiie aecia/athoueny ii noo? oei, ui aiia oaeoe/ii eeioea
iai?ecaieyua aaeee? aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa, iaiaaaeany ?ica’ycaoe
iniiai? caaaeaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iinooiiai, iaeia ca iaeiei, a ia
ia?aeaeueii, an? iae?aco a iaaeao ?aeeiiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo.
I?iaeaia oaii?a ? e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a, cie?aia, aiae?co
i?eaaoeciaaieo ia’?eo?a ?ica’yco?oueny aac a?aooaaiiy iane?aee?a
iinoi?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, aac caaacia/aiiy oiia c?inoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Ca oiia caa?aaeaiiy ? iaaeae? oaei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?aoi?i, ? ?ie?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, aieea inoaiiuei? ia oaiaeaioe??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? o i?ioean? iiaeaeueoi?
i?eaaoecaoe?? caeeoeoueny oaeei aea iaeiaoaeoeaiei, yeei a?i ?
nueiaiaei?.

Aeey oiai, uia ci?ieoe oe? oaiaeaioe??, iiaa?iooe ia oeyo aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano, aei nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee,
iio??aii oaeoe/ii ia?aeoe aei ?aae?caoe?? eo?no ia iineeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy on?o oeo i?ioean?a, ye? caaacia/othoue oaeee
iiai?io. Aea?aeaaa ia? ao?o/aoeny ne??cue aea ? i?iaeaie, iaaaoeai?
yaeua ? oaiaeaioe?? a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, caeiyoino? oa
?i. Iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oaeei /eiii iaeii/anii ? aeey
Oe?a?ie ? no?aoaa?/iei iai?yieii, yeee caaaeii a?aeiia?aea? ? no/aniei
na?oiaei oaiaeaioe?yi iaoe iaaaeee?, aeiiii?/i? aea aoaeoeai? aea?aeaae,
? aino?i aeooaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth.

C nueiaiaei?oi?o eiie?aoieo oiia, eiee ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy ua
caeeoa?oueny ii noo? aeaci?aai?ciaaiei, a aea?aeaaa neaaei eiio?ieth?
aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane, iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ae oeneii ianoaaei iiaea a?aeaooeny ii e?i??: iaiao?aei?noue —
ia?inoath/a iiaeeea?noue. I?aeoe/i? iaiaaaiiy aea?aeaae ?oe ii oe?e
e?i??, iaieiae?oe neooaoe??th, iaeaaiaeeoe aoaeoeaiee aieea ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? oaiaeaioe??, i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaiaeiicia/ieo ?
noia?a/eeaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ae?iaeaeothoueny ?acii c iineeaiiyi
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth, o iineeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/iiai
oeneo aeaaee ia ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy ? eiai i?eaeooaiiy a?aoo?-?aoo.

I?e oeueiio c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iineeaiiy aieeao aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ia ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane ia? ?icaeyaeaoeny c oi/ee ci?o
i?inoaaiiy o no?aoaa?/iiio iai?yieo aei ?icaoaeiae nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee.

Uiaei i?eaaoecaoe?? (?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? a oe?eiio), oi
iaoe?eani?yiiaai?noue, ianenoaii?noue, iaaia iaeiiaie?noue i?iyaey?oueny
ye a iai?yieo i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, oae ? a
iai?yieo ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o. O ca’yceo c oeei
iaeia c ia?oi/a?aiaeo aieiaieo caaaeaiue aea?aeaae iieyaa? a oiio, uia
?ic?iaeoe naith iaoe?iiaeueio oe?e?nio nenoaio iiaiiianooaaiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia aeinyaiaiiy no?aoaa?/ii?
iaoe, ui caaacia/eei a ia ?oei?aiee, a oai?/ee oa?aeoa? ?aae?caoe??
aieiaieo caaaeaiue ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, aeicaieeee a coieieoe ??ceo
iiey?ecaoe?th noni?euenoaa ? caiaeii iiaeieaoe ??, i?eieieoe aeeea
coaiae?iiy oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

Naia a oaeiio eiioaeno? iiaiiianooaaii (ye i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiai? nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy) ia? cae?enithaaoeny aieea aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia
iiaeaeueoee i?ioean i?eaaoecaoe??. Eiai ci?no iiaeiai aecia/aoeny oei,
ui i?eaaoecaoe?y aoaeue-ye (aaciina?aaeiuei ? iiina?aaeeiaaii) ia? noaoe
i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith, oaeoi?ii i?inoaaiiy noni?euenoaa o
iai?yieo aei no/anieo ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, aei nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. Aiia iiaeiia aooe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ? cae?enithaaoenue o
iaaeao oe?eae naiino?eii? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, caaacia/aiiy ??
aeiiii?/ii? ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iacaeaaeiino?, no?oeoo?ii?,
?iaanoeoe?eii?, e?aaeeoii-caeoeiai? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeo?eieo
aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, caoeno a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo, caaacia/aiiy
caeiyoino?, noai?aiiy oe?ieiai i?ioa?eo na?aaeiueiai eeano.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie «I?iaeaie no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a aeiiii?oe?
?aa?iio ? ?o ?ieue o aeinyaiaii? ?ioaineaiiai oeio a?aeoai?aiiy» (1993
?. Oiaeueieoeueeee), i?e iioae?eoaaii? oac ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo:

— I?eaaoecaoeey eae aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
(Oe?aeineay iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay eiioa?aioeey “I?iaeaiu yeiiiieee e
o?oaea” — Oiaeueieoeeee, 1993 a.).

— I?iaeaie i?eaaoecaoe?? a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e noa?? ( Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y c iaaiaee i?acaioaoe?? Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey
“Iaoeia? iniiae no/aniieo i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e”- Oiaeueieoeueeee,
1994 ?.).

— Nioe?aeueia caoeuai?noue ? ocaiaeaeai?noue aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a
noa’?eo?a i?eaaoecaoe?? (Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Oaoiieia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao a nenoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? ? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio” — Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995 ?).

— I?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ? ?? aieea ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io no?oeoo?o noni?euenoaa (Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y “Noai?aiiy ii?iaoeaii? aace oi?aae?iiy eieaeoeaii?
aeaniino?” — Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995 ?.).

— I?iaeaie aaeaioaoe?? i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa aei oiia ?eieo
(I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
ca oiia ianoaa?eueii? aeiiii?ee” — Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1996 ?.).

Iaae?oeiaai? noaoo?

— «*e aeiia i?eaaoecaoe?y» (aacaoa ee?anueei? i?nueei? ?aaee ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a «O?auaoee» a?ae 27 a?oaeiy 1995 ?.) o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
eaiaeeaeaoii aeiiii?/ieo iaoe I.A. Nieii’yitheii.

— Iiaeeaeaiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? ia no/aniiio aoai? //A?niee
Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey. Aeiiii?/i? iaoee. — 1998. — ?3. —
N. 12-16 OAeE 338.242.025.8.

— Iniaeeaino? ci?i oi?i aeaniino? a i?aeaaeocyo eaaei? i?iieneiaino?
//A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey — 1998. — ?4 OAeE
338.242.025.8:67/68 (a ni?aaaoi?noa? c eaiaeeaeaoii aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaioii Aaae/ I.N.).

— I?iaeaie i?eaaoecaoe?? ia i?aei?e?inoaao eaaei? i?iieneiaino?// A?niee
Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey — 1998.- ?4 OAeE 338.242.025.8:
67/68 (a ni?aaaoi?noa? c eaiaeeaeaoii aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioii Aaae/
I.N.).

A oaeiae aoea iaae?oeiaaia iaoiaee/ia ?ic?iaea «I?iaeaie i?eaaoecaoe?? a
eo?n? iie?oaeiiii??» (OOI, 1995 ?).

Ethaioeiaoeue E.N. I?eaaoecaoe?y aeaniino? oa ci?ie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01. — Aeiiii?/ia oai??y — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?eaaoecaoe?? aeaniino? oa ??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a. A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy
i?eaaoecaoe?? ye caaaeueiiai i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo a?ae aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino? aei i?eaaoii?. Aecia/aii? iniiai? ?ene oa iniaeeaino?
oe?a?inueei? iiaeae? i?eaaoecaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iica’ycie
i?eaaoecaoe?? c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th
noni?euenoaa; iniiai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee i?eaaoecaoe?? c
oi/ee ci?o ?inoeoooe?eieo ci?i no?oeoo?e oi?i aeaniino?, ci?i a ??aiyo
aeeooy ianaeaiiy, aeioiaeao, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe,
i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa.
Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe?
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa oacao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aecia/aii? iai?yie?a
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ?
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?eaaoecaoe?y aeaniino?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae, aiae?c ,
oaiaeaioe?? i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy.

Ethaioeiaoe E.N.. I?eaaoecaoeey nianoaaiiinoe e eciaiaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao ei. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?eaaoecaoeee nianoaaiiinoe e aa
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iineaaenoaee. A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaii
iiiyoea i?eaaoecaoeee eae iauaai i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe e /anoiie. Ii?aaeaeaiea i?eaaoecaoeee caaeneo io
a?aoiaioaoeee niaea?aeaiey eaoaai?ee nianoaaiiinoe. Auaeaeytho
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea ooieoeee i?eaaoecaoeee.
Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe oe?aeineie iiaeaee
i?eaaoecaoeee, a oaeaea yoaiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe:
ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee e i?eaaoecaoeee (yoai eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee
nianoaaiiinoe); i?iaaaeaiea na?oeoeeaoiie i?eaaoecaoeee, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eciaiaieyie no?oeoo?u nianoaaiiinoe; i?iaaaeaiey
aeaiaaeiie i?eaaoecaoeee, eioi?ay aunooiaao oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa, no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee e ?acaeoey IOI. Enneaaeiaaiu acaeiinaycue
i?eaaoecaoeee n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae iauanoaa,
oi anoue, ?anniao?eaathony eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua aniaeou
aeaiiiai i?ioeanna, eioi?ua aeeth/atho ia oieueei einoeoooeeiiaeueiua
(?aoi?ie?iaaiea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe), ii e yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua
eciaiaiey (iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eniieueciaaiea eiaanoeoeee, iiiieiaiea
athaeaeaoa, eciaiaiey o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey, caiyoinoe, ca?aaioiie
ieaou, eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie, iaania/aiea nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ?aaainoaa i?aa a?aaeaeai Oe?aeiu).

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaii iiiai nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ua
iaino?eea i?eaaoecaoeey. Iaeiie ec ieo anoue oaeoaeaiea eiouanoaaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. Nouanoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
ca?aaioiie ieaou naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oiaiueoaiee caaeneiinoe iineaaeiae
io iniiaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ?acaeoey noauaeoia yeiiiieee.
Au?inea aeiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo auieao, /oi oneeeaaao ia?aaainoai
aeioiaeia ?aaioieeia caiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n ?aciuie oeiainiauie
aiciiaeiinoyie e ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

Ia ?yaeo n yoei ii?aaeaeytho ?aciue o?iaaiue nioeeaeueiie caueou
?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoee, /oi iaino?yao i?iaeaio eo aieaa eioaineaiiai
inaiaiaeaeaiey ia i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, /ai a yeiiiieea
Oe?aeiu a oeaeii. Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeioiaeia
ianaeaiey yaeyaony eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee aeioiaeia, oi anoue,
eiyooeoeeaio ii?aaeaeythuee niioiioaiea n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea 20%, 10%
iaeaieaa aeioiaeiuo naiae aei n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea 20%, 10% aaaeiiai
ianaeaiey.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaia acaeiinaycue i?eaaoecaoeee e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iauanoaa, eioi?ay
i?iyaeyaony /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe eae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiouanoaa e
aeioiaeia. A i?eaaoecaoeey, eciaiyy ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe, a naith
i/a?aaeue, eciaiyao yoe ioiioaiey.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie, eioi?ay auoiaeeo ec
neiaeiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea io eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu
e ?uieo. I?iaeaia ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee no?aiu
naycaia n ?acaeoeai IOI, aeaiie?aoecaoeeae nianoaaiiinoe, ?acaeoeai
nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, o/anoeai ainoaea?noaa a ?aaoee?iaaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Iniiao aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey
ii?aaeaeyao iiaeaeue nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiey i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi i?eaaoecaoeey aeieaeia noaoue /anoueth, oaeoi?ii
aeaeaeaiey iauanoaa e nioeeaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, inouanoaeyoueny a
?aieao oeaeae naiinoiyoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu,
iaania/eaaoue yeiiiie/aneoth e iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue, a
oaeaea caueuaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ioa/anoaaiiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou auee eniieueciaaiu a iao/iuo noaoueyo e
oacenao iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneeo eiioa?aioeee, e iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a ioiioaiee
?acaeoey ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?eaaoecaoeey nianoaaiiinoe, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa,
aiaeec, oaiaeaioeee i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea.

Lyubokhinet’ L.S. — Property Privatisation and social-economical changes
of society structure. — Manuscript.

Thesis to get scientific candidate degree of economics according to
08.01.01. speciality. — Economical theory. — National University by
T.Shevchenko, Kyiv,1999.

Thesis is dedicated to questions of propery privatisation and its
social-economical consequences. The conception of privatisation as
common process of transition from state property to private is
substantiated. The main features and peculiarities of Ukrainian model of
privatisation are determined. The connection between privatisation and
social-economical society difference; main social-economical
consequences of privatisation from the point of view of institutional
structure changes of property forms, the changes of level, income,
diferensiation of salary, rise of work effectiveness and productivity at
enterprises are investigated. The necessity of effective strengthening
of state privatisation process regulation is substantiated. The main
results of work have found the reflection in the articles of scientific
conferences and can be used in determining the main trends of state
policy concerning the developement of different forms of property and
business activity.

Key words: property privatisation, social-economical differenciation,
economical and social state policy, analysis, tendencies of
privatisation process, state regulation.

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