IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? I.I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

ssOeAIEI Na?oeaia ?aaai?aia

OAeE 372.851

I?AAI?CAOe?ss IAA*AEUeII-AEOIAIIAI I?IOeANO

IA O?IEAO IAOAIAOEEE A EEANAO C IIAEEAEAIEI

AEA*AIIssI I?AAeIAOA INIIAII? OEIEE

13.00.02 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NE?IEAIUe C?IA?AeA ?AAI?AIA,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

iaoaiaoeee oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIEEIA TH??E ?AAIIAE*,

E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.
Aeiie/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoeee

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

OIA?A OAIA?A IEEIEA?AIA,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
eaai?aoi??? iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoeee oa o?ceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a aeaaa?e oa aaiiao???.

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Caii??aeaey

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1345 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.053.03 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa ca aae?anith:

252601, Ee?a, aoe. Ie?iaiaa,9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa,9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “6” aa?aniy 1999 ?

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ei?oae
?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Caaaeueiiaeciaiei ? oie oaeo, ui iaeaooi?
aoaeue-yei? aea?aeaae aecia/a?oueny oei, yea a i?e aoaea noai?aia
nenoaia ina?oe. Ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy aeey aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? e?a?ie, caaacia/aiiy ?? ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
iioaioe?aeo ? aeaniiai i?noey a no/aniiio na?o? iaaoaathoue iaoeia?,
oaoi?/i? ciaiiy, aenie? ii?aeuei? yeino? iniaenoino?, ?? oai?/ee
iioaioe?ae, ?i?oe?aoeaa, a?ae/oooy iiaiai, caeaoi?noue aaeaiooaaoeny aei
oiia, ui oaeaeei ci?iththoueny. Oe? aeiiae noni?euenoaa aei iniaenoino?
aeeeeeai? oei, ui nueiaiaei? ca iayaiino? aeineiiaei? oaoi?ee ? aenieeo
oaoiieia?e, ?o aenieiaoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ca iayaiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a c aeacaieie yeinoyie.

Nueiaiaei? ana /ano?oa cao/aoue ia?aeiiaiiy a oiio, ui eeth/ aei
iaeaooiueiai, aei ?ica’ycaiiy no/anieo i?iaeai ethaenoaa, aei ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa eaaeeoue a ina?/aiino? anueiai ianaeaiiy ? o iino?eiiio
i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy eiai ina?oe (i?eioeei aacia?a?aiiai iaa/aiiy).
Ouaieaiiy i?aaa ia ina?oo ? ?? iaeaaeio ye?noue i?ecaaaeooue aei
?ioaeaeooaeueii? ? eoeueoo?ii? aeaa?aaeaoe??, ui ianoi?nia c ?icaeoeii
noni?euenoaa.

A inoaii?e ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Ina?oo”, a iaoe?iiaeuei?e
i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)” aecia/aii iai?yiie ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, yeee ni?yiiaaiee ia i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoe??, ia aeoiaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino?,
caeaoii? aei aeoeaii? o/ano? a ?icaoaeia? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Oiio
naia ca?ac, ye i?eiee, n?i’y, oeiea, a?iiaaenuee?noue iathoue aooe
caoe?eaaeai? ? ianoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca noai?aiiy iaeneiaeueii
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeieo caaeaoe?a ae?oae a ocaiaeaeai? c
i?eioeeiii i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, ia ui caa?oaa oaaao a na?e /an ua
E.Ae. Ooeinueeee.

Aiae?c i?ioean?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ina?oiuei? nenoaie a onueiio na?o? e
cie?aia a Oe?a?i? cana?ae/ea iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo ? oi?ioethaaiiy iiai?
no/anii? ia?aaeeaie ina?oe. Oea ia iiaeiii caanoeny aei ?icoe?aiiy
ianyao ci?noo iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i aai oa?i?io iaa/aiiy. Iiaa ia? eoe
i?i i?eioeeiiai iiao iaoo ina?oe, yea iieyaa? a aeinyaiaii? iiaeo ??ai?a
ina?/aiino? ie?aii? iniaenoino? ? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.

Aeiiae no/aniiai noni?euenoaa aei caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee c iaei???
noi?iie, i ?ioa?ane iniaenoino?, ui ?icaeaa?oueny, c ?ioi?, aeeeeeathoue
iaiao?aei?noue iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano oeiee. Iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue iaaoaa? ca?ac i?iaeaia
oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eiino? ieneaiiy o/i?a, ni?iiiaeiino? io?eioaaoe,
aiae?coaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th ? i?eeiaoe aaeaeaaoi? ??oaiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaoe
a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? iia? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??. O ca’yceo c
oeei iniaeeaa ?ieue a?aeaiaeeoueny ? oe?eueiiio eo?no iaoaiaoeee.

Noniieueii-iaiaoiaeiith noa? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
cae?aiinoae o/i?a, o?aooaaiiy ?o ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae, iio?aa,
?ioa?an?a i iaoee?a. Ia i?aeoeoe? oea ae?aaea?oueny a ??ciiiai?oieo
oeyoao i oi?iao ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? i aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, aaeaioaoe??
iaa/aiiy aei a?eiaeo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae o/i?a. A oiiaao
eeanii-o?i/ii? nenoaie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae iiaeia cae?enieoe
oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy,
cie?aia /a?ac oeiee e eeane c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa. Iaeiae i
a i?io?eueieo eeanao caaaeaee ? o/i? ??ciiai ??aiy iaa/aiino? e
iao/oaaiino?, ui aeiaaa? cae?eniaiiy ?iaiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee iiaeiia i?aai?ciaoaaoenue ia iniia?
Aea?aeaaiiai ina?oiueiai noaiaea?oo, yeee aecia/a? iaia’yceiaee i?i?ioi
ci?noo iaoaiaoe/ii? ina?oe ? i?i?iaeuei? aeiiae aei oeueiai ci?noo. A?i
iiaeiai noaoe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee ??cii??aiaaeo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai,
ye? a caaacia/oaaee aaciaa ? iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy iaoaiaoee.

O 1991 ?ioe? a ia?o?e ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo” aoei
iaieioaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nooiaiaai? ina?oe. I?aeoe/ii eeoa nueiaiaei?
iiaa no?oeoo?a oeiee, ui caniiaaia ia o?ueio a?eiaeo nooiaiyo iaa/aiiy,
aea? iiaeeea?noue ?aae?ciaoaaoe ?aeath ainueieaeanyoe??/ii? aeaaiino? ia
i?aeoeoe?. Aaea ia ae?oaiio aoai? iaa/aiiy (iniiaia oeiea), cie?aia o
8-9 eeanao, 45% iaa/aeueiiai /ano noaiiaeoue aa??aoeaia /anoeia, ui
caaacia/o? oiiae aeey aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a ca aeai?ii o/i?a. Oea
aeicaiey? iine?aeiaii caaaa/oaaoe ciaiiy o/i?a, ?icoe?thaaoe i
iiaeeaethaaoe ?o ca ia?aiei iai?yieii ia iniia? naiino?eii? ?iaioe.
O/eoaeue i?e oeueiio io?eio? aeeaeaeoe/io i???ioaoe?th ia iioeiaeueia
ii?aeiaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i eieaeoeaiiai i?aeoiae?a o iaa/aii? c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy i iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae e iaoee?a nai?o
aeoiaaioe?a. I?ioa ?aae?caoe?y oe??? ?aea? iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e ae?eia?o?e
iii?? a i?aeoe/i?e iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? ia eiiieaen iaeiia?oeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaaaeai? a ineoieia?? e aeeaeaeoeoe?, oa ia
iiceoeaiee iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eueii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

Aeine?aeaeaiith ??cieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie iaa/aiiy cae?aieo ?
iaaea?iaaieo ae?oae, ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?enay/aii
aaaaoi ?ia?o ineoieia?a, cie?aia, TH.C.A?eueaooa, I.ss. Aaeueia?iia,
A.A. Aeaaeaeiaa, E.I. Eaaaiiai?-Iaeea?, C.I. Eaeieeiai?, A.I. E??naiiaa,
A.N. Einothea, A.A. E?ooaoeueeiai, I.N.Eaeoana, I.A. Iai/einueei?, I.I.
Iaothoeiia, ?.N. ?aaoinueeiai, N.E. ?o-aiiooaeia, I.A. Oio A.Ae.
Oaae??eiaa oa ?ioeo; aeeaeaeo?a A.I. Aeaenthea, E.A.Caieiaa, ?.ss.
Ea?ia?a, I.?. Iaoiooiaa, A.I. Iieuoea, A.O. Iaeaia?/oea, I.ss Naa/aiei,
I.I. Neaoe?ia. Ieie anoaiiaeaii, cie?aia, ui iaaea?iaai? o/i?
aieiae?thoue iaaieie ineoieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie. I?ioa oe?e?nii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy iaaea?iaaieo ae?oae iiee ui a
iaeaaeiiio aeae? ia noai?aii.

Ia??oiooaaiith ci?noo iaoiae?a, cania?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iaa/aiiy
oa aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe I.?.
Ao?aee, I.?. AEaeaeaea, I.ss. ?aiaoaiea, C.?. Ne?ieaiue, O.I. Oia?e,
I.?. Oe?ey oa ?ioeo.

I?aeneeaia oaaaa noni?euenoaa i oeiee aei ?iaioe c iaaea?iaaieie o/iyie
i?aee?aneth?oueny o i?aoeyo ? aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.Ae. Aieiaiii?, A.A.
Aeiaeee, A.A. Aei?i-o??aa, I.I. Ca?iiueoa, A.I. Caieyeiaa, A.I.
Iaai?oeia, TH.I. ?iiiia, A.I. Eie-iiai?iaa, I.A. Eyioiiaa, I.ss.
Aieaieiia, A.A. Eiaaeaiea, E.A. Eiaaioeiai?, TH.I. Eieyaiia, A.I.
Iiiaoiaa, I.?. Naiiaiea, I.O. Oaneaiea, O.I. O?ooaiiii?, I.O. Oa?ea?ia,
N.I.Oaa?oeao?aea oa ?ioeo.

Cacia/aia i?iaeaia ?ic?iaey?oueny ? ca?oa?aeieie aeine?aeieeaie,
cie?aia, E.Oa?iaiii, E. Oieeiiaanii, ?. No?aiaii, O. Oinoiiii, I. Oiooi,
O. Oieniiii (NOA), I. Ia?oaeeii, E. Aaoa?ii, A. ?aeainii (I?ia//eia) oa
?ioeie.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iaoaiaoeee, cana?ae/eei, ui an? aiie i?iaiaeeeenue a noa?oeo eeanao
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e aai a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
oeieao. Aea o ieo ia a?aoiaai? i?iaeaie iaiayceiaeo ?acoeueoao?a
iaa/aiiy i ?iaiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a iniiai?e oeie?, aeinoaoiueith
i??ith ia aeine?aeaeaia i?iaeaia aeii?ioieueiiai iaa/aiiy, cie?aia
i?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee
a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa iniiaii? oeiee. Iaiao?aei?
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy iaoaiaoeee ia
aoai? aeii?ioieueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ina?oiueiai
noaiaea?oo e ?iaiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a iniiai?e oeie?.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth ?aiiuei?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy o/i?a a iniiai?e oeie? aeey na?aeiiiai aeai?o
ieie oeyo?a caaa?oaiiy ina?oe, iaaeinoaoiueith ?ic?iaeith aeaii?
i?iaeaie a iaoiaeeoe? iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee ? i?aeoeoe?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? i?ioean iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee o/i?a
eean?a c ?? iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi a iniiai?e oeie?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaee/ia nenoaia i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio ia??oiooaaii? oa a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a ia
o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei ?? aea/aiiyi a iniiai?e oeie?
oa a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? ?? aoaeoeaiino?.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee iniiaii? oeiee ia iniia?
ae?aaiinoe/iiai a?aeai?o o/i?a i ?iaiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ni?eyoeia
?icaeoeo iniaenoino? aeeoeie, caaeiaieaiith ?? iaoee?a i ?ioa?an?a,
anaa?/ii ?ice?eaath/e ?? oai?/? iiaeeeaino?, ni?eyth/e oei naiei
aoiai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy, na?aeiiiio aeai?o iiaeaeueoiai
aeeoo?aiai oeyoo.

Iaoa oa aenoiooa a?iioaca aecia/eee iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ii i nioe?aeuei? ia?aaeoiiae
i?aai?caoe?? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee ye iaei??? ?c
oi?i i?io?eueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy, ?o iaoo i caaaeaiiy ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

2. Aeine?aeeoe no/aniee noai i?iaeaie a iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i
oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?, ocaaaeueieoe iiceoeaieeee aeina?ae ?iaioe a/eoae?a
iaoaiaoeee 8-9 eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa.

3. ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaio iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio iaoiaeeeo i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa iniiaii? oeiee.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe ?ic?iaeaio iaoiaeeeo i noi?ioethaaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aiae?c aee?aeoeaieo i ii?iaoeaieo iaoa??ae?a i?i oeieo i eeane c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee;

-aiae?c ineoieia?/ii?, iaaeaaia?/ii?, iaoiaee/ii? i iaoaiaoe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— aan?aee c o/eoaeyie, aee?aeoi?aie i caao/aie oe?e, i?aoe?aieeaie
nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe;

— aiae?c o?ie?a a/eoae?a iaoaiaoeee c iaoith aea/aiiy iiceoeaiiai
aeina?aeo ?iaioe a 8-9 eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa;

— oe?eani?yiiaai? iaaeaaia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy;

— aieaooaaiiy i c??ce ii ia?aiao?ao, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny;

— aan?aee c o/iyie, ?o aaoueeaie, nooaeaioaie-aeioneieeaie eean?a c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee;

— i?iaaaeaiiy eiinoaooth/iai, iiooeiaiai e iaa/ath/iai aenia?eiaioo oa
aiae?co eiai ?acoeueoao?a.

Aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aii??e/ia /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue
ca aeiiiiiaith iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, a i?ioean? yeiai ii?o/ c
aeine?aeiei iaa/aiiyi canoiniaoaaany iaoiae aenia?oii? ioe?iee c
??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??. A?i caaacia/o? a?eueo cia/eio
aeinoia??i?noue aeaieo, ine?eueee a oeueiio aeiaaeeo o ae?th anooia?
i?eioeei iaaeeeoeiaiai eiio?ieth.

O aeine?aeaeaiiy caeo/aeanue aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue o/i?a oe?e i. Ee?aa
oa i. Iaeeia AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?. Onueiai ia ??cieo eiai aoaiao a
aenia?eiaio? acyei o/anoue aeecueei 490 o/i?a.

Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie i?iaiaeeeinue a ?? ooieoe?iiaeuei?e oa ?ao?iniaeoeai?e
oi?iao. Oei naiei aeinyaaeanue aaaaoiiiceoeieia ?icii?iaiaaa ioe?iea
??cieo oiia, eiiiiiaio?a, aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano ia aoai? aeii?ioieueiiai iaa/aiiy. Oaea aea/aiiy
cae?enithaaeinue ia eeoa c iiceoe?? o/iy i a/eoaey, aea e c iiceoe??
ea??aiee?a oe?e, ?ioeo iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, nooaeaio?a. Inoaii?,
ye a?aeiii, aieiae?thoue iacaeaaei?noth i??eoaaiue. E?eoa???i
aeinoia??iino? noaeaeaiue i ioe?iie iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu, ui aea/aeenue,
iiaea aooe a?aenooi?noue a ieo ?noioieo ?icoiaeaeaiue.

Ii/aoeiaee aoai (1989-1991 ??.) aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe iieyaaa o
aea/aii? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a oeieao i 8-9 eeanao c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee aeey ?icoi?iiy caeiiii??iinoae i
a?aeiioaiue a oiae? iaa/aiiy i io?eiaiiy caaaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ii
iniiaieo iai?yiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiae aaea ia oeueiio aoai?
noaaeeinue caaaeaiiy aea/aiiy iaoai?cio eiiieaeooaaiiy oaeeo eean?a,
io?eiaiiy i aiae?c aeaieo, ye? a aeicaieeee cynoaaoe i?eaeeciee ??aaiue
oa iai?aaeai?noue ?ioa?an?a o/i?a. Aecia/aeenue ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
ae?th/eo i?ia?ai, iaa/aeueiiai ieaio oa iieiaeaiue i?i oe? eeane.
Aiae?coaaany iaoa??ae uiaei a?aen?ao oa i?a?aoe?? o/i?a a ia??iae
aaeaioaoe?eiiai aoaio, yeeo ia oieeiooe, ye caeiiii??iino?. Aeyaeyeenue
iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? oaeiai iaa/aiiy.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1992-1994 ??.) i?aai?ciaoaaeinue aeine?aeia iaa/aiiy,
a i?ioean? yeiai cae?enithaaeinue aeiaaio?eaaea oe?eani?yiiaaia
iaaeaaia?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca eiai noaiii, ?acoeueoaoaie a iaia?aae
caaeaieo a?aei?iieo iaeia a?ae iaeii? oiiaao, ia?aa??yeanue
aoaeoeai?noue ie?aieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oa
ie?aieo aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, i?iaiaeeeenue eiio?ieuei? c??ce
??aiy ciaiue i iaoaiaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo, ioe?iea aeeiai?ee ?ioa?an?a,
iaa/aiino? oa iao/oaaiinoi.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1995-1997 ??.)aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee, ei?aeooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy. O oeae ia??iae aei aenia?eiaioo aoee caeo/ai?
nooaeaioe, a ieioeiio o/i? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee, c
iaoith ia?aia?aa??ee i ooi/iaiiy aeaieo, io?eiaieo ia iiia?aaei?o aoaiao
?iaioe e aiae?co ia?eoeaiinoi i aeinoia??iino? iiia?aaei?o aeniiae?a.
Iiaa aeaea?aei aenia?oii? ioe?iee aaaeeeaa ia eeoa oei, ui ia? ia?aaaae
c??eino? noaeaeaiue ii??aiyii c nueiaiaei?oi?ie o/iyie, a oei, ui ia?
caeaoi?noue eaae?o?eiaaii noaeeoe i?i iiaeeeaino?, iaoai?ci,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy. Eiai ia?aaaae oaeiae o
iacaeaaeiino? aeneiaethaaiue, ui ia? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
aeinoia??iino? aeniiae?a. Ony aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa cae?enithaaeanue
o 1989-1997 ??., cie?aia a Oe?a?inueeiio eieaae? ?iai?
A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai (oeiei-eaai?aoi?i? ?272 i. Ee?aa), aea aaoi?,
i?iaiaey/e aenia?eiaio, i?aoethaaa o/eoaeai o eean? c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia i oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa
iniiaii? oeiee c o?aooaaiiyi iio?aa ??aiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??;
ia??oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo ? ?aae?caoe?? iiaeo iaa/aeueieo
oaoiieia?e iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy iaoaiaoeee, ii/eiath/e c 8 eeano, ?
cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa??? a?aeai?o o/i?a o oe? eeane; aeine?aeaeaia i
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ia??iaeo aaeaioaoe?? o/i?a aei iiaeo
oiia ?iaioe, ye aaaeeeai? i?aaiicaoeieii-iaaeaaiai/ii? oiiae
iioei?caoe?? caiyoue ca aeai?ii; iieacai? aoaeoeai?noue
eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ii?, iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiai? nenoai iaa/aiiy oa
eiio?ieth oni?oiino? o/i?a oaeeo eean?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui:

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a eeanao
c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee iniiaii? oeiee ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, aoaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith eiai aoaeoeaiino?
? ??aiy ooieoeiiioaaiiy;

— i?aeaioiaeai? iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee aeicaieyoue i?aai?coaaoe ia
iaeaaeiiio ??ai? aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
ai?iue ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/;

— neeaaeai? aeeaeaeoe/i? iaoa??aee caaacia/aoue i?aai?caoe?th eiio?ieth
ciaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeea
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee iniiaii? oeiee aoea ai?iaiaaia a Oe?a?inueeiio
eieaae? ?iai? A.I. No-oiieeinueeiai (oeiea-eaai?aoi??y ?272 i. Ee?aa), a
Iaeeinuee?e caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie? ?1 ?iai? I?ie Nini?ii? ?-???
nooiai?a AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? i iaaiai?ai? ia Ananithciiio
nai?ia??-ia?aae? (i. Aoe?noai, 1990); ia ?anioae?eainueeiio iaoiaee/iiio
nai?ia??.(i. Ee?a, 1997); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo IIO ?iai?
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (1990-1999 ??.), ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
a/eoae?a i.Ee?aa oa Ee?anueei? iaeano? (1992), ia naeoe?? a/eoae?a
iaoaiaoeee ? ?ioi?iaoeee Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio (1992). Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 2-o iin?aieeao aeey a/eoae?a, 2-o
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, a 2-o oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia a/eoaeyie oe?e aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aiiy o/i?a, aeeeaaea/aie iaaeaaia?/ieo aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe i?e i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
oaeoeueoao?a aeey ?iaioe a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee
iniiaii? oeiee, a oaeiae ?inoeooo?a i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe aeey caiyoue
c o/eoaeyie c i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a oaeeo
eeanao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, o?ueio
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 205 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 15 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o?
303 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeth?oueny eiai ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aeaco?oueny noa?a ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa” cae?eniaii aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie a oai???, i?aeoeoe? no/anii? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. Aea/aii
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie oe?e ? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee.
Aeai? noaoenoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe na?ae/aoue i?i
iaaei?aaaeaio oaiaeaioe?th ianiaiai a?aee?eooy oaeeo eean?a, ye? /anoi
ii/eiathoue ooieoe?iioaaoe noeo?eii, aac o?aooaaiiy iio?aa noni?euenoaa,
iaeaaeiiai a?aeai?o o/i?a, iiaeeeaino? oeiee ye?nii caaacia/eoe iaa/aiiy
iaoaiaoeee ia a?aeiia?aeiiio ??ai?. O oaeee niin?a aaei?i?no?aoe?y oeiee
ooo/ii i?aei?ia? aaoi?eoao naiai caeeaaeo, ca?eueoo? e?euee?noue aiaeei,
uia oieeiooe i?iaeaie nei?i/aiiy eaae??a.

Ia? aooe ia’?eoeaiee a?aea?? o/i?a oeyoii ae?aaiinoeee ?o cae?aiino? ?
?ioa?ano aei iaoaiaoeee, ??aiy iaa/aiino? ? iao/oaaiino?. Aeey oeueiai
oeieai iio??aia aeiiiiiaa ineoieia?a. A?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeieo oano?a
ciooo? a/eoae?a ea?oaaoenue nai?th ?ioo?oe??th, noa’?eoeaiith aeaniith
aeoieith, ye? aoaeothoueny ia neiiao?? oa aioeiao?? aei o/i?a, aaaeaiiyo
aaouee?a, ui iaaeiionoeii i?e i?aaeeuei?e i?aai?caoe?? a?aeai?o ?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oaeeo eeanao.

Aieaooaaiiy o/i?a 8-11 eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee
i.Ee?aa, Ee?anueei? oa AEeoiie?nueei? iaeanoae, aan?aee c a/eoaeyie, ye?
i?aoeththoue c ieie, iieacaee, ui aei oeueiai /ano /ano?oa anueiai a
oeieao cae?enith?oueny ia a?aea??, a iaa?? aei oaeeo eean?a. Ia aac?
iaeiiai eeano, ui “aeinya oni?o?a” a iaoaiaoeoe? (ia aeoieo a/eoaey e ca
aeac?aeith aaei?i?no?aoe??) noai?th?oueny eean c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
i?aaeiaoa. I?e oeueiio neaae?o? o/i? ia?aaiaeyoueny a ia?aeaeueiee eean,
a ?o i?noey caiiaiththoueny o/iyie ?ioeo eean?a. Ia caaaeaee
a?aoiao?oueny iaa?oue aaaeaiiy naieo ae?oae, ?o noeeuei?noue aei
iaoaiaoeee.

A?aei?iia ioe?iea c iaoaiaoeee ua ia iiaea neoaeeoe ?aeeiith i?aenoaaith
uiaei iiaeeeaino? ca?aooaaiiy o/i?a a i?io?eueiee eean. O/aiue iiaeiai
iaoe i?aai aeai?o eeano, oi/a iaeiiai aaaeaiiy i?e oeueiio ia
aeinoaoiuei. I?iaaaeaia iaie aieaooaaiiy iieacaei, ui iioeae aeai?o
i?io?eth eeano c? noi?iie oeiey?a ??ci?: 1) caoiieththoueny
iaoaiaoeeith, iathoue aeeaie? i?oei? ciaiiy, oi/ooue na?eicii caeiaoeny
?? aea/aiiyi — 45%; 2) i?aaiooue iaaeieoaeeoe ao?a/aia, ine?eueee ciaiiy
c iaoaiaoeee, iaaiith i??ith, iaiao?aei? ?i aeey iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?? —
35%; 3) ciai?oi? iioeae (aaaeaiiy aaouee?a; oiaa?eo ia?aeoia a
iaoaiaoe/iee eean; eiioe?eo c o/eoaeai, eeaniei ea??aieeii aai
iaeiieeanieeaie ? o.i.) — 15%; 4) aeiaaeeia? iioeae (“ca?aaee ?ioa?ano”,
“/iio a ? i?”) — 5%.

O ca’yceo c oeei oeiea (iaia’yceiai ineoieia), aea ieaio?oueny
a?aee?eooy eeano c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee, i?ioyaii
iiia?aaeiueiai iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo iiaeiia i?aai?coaaoe a?aea?? o/i?a ca
?acoeueoaoaie iioi/ii? oni?oiino?, iao/oaaiino?, ie?ii?aae, aan?ae c
o/eoaeyie, o/iyie oa ?o aaoueeaie a iaaeao ia iaei??? oeiee, a ?aeiio.
I?e oeueiio e?aua a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao i?iaaaeaiith ni?aaan?aee, ai?ae
ienueiiaei caaaeaiiyi, aaeaea aan?aea aeicaiey? a?eueoith i??ith
aecia/eoe aeeaeio ciaiue, ?icoi?iiy oai???, ?ioa?an aei i?aaeiaoa.
Ni?aaan?aeo aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe, ye oea /ano?oa ? ?iaeoueny, o
o?aai?-/a?ai? i?ney cae?i/aiiy iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo a ia ia ii/aoeo iiaiai.
Oea aeicaieeoue ye?ni?oa i?iaanoe a?aea?? o/i?a, aeaoe ?i ianoaiiae
uiaei i?aeaioiaee aei ianooiiiai ?ieo, a a na?ii?, ca iaiao?aeiino?
i?iaanoe aeiaeaoeiaee iaa??.

Iacaaaeath/e ia /eiaeee aeina?ae ooieoe?thaaiiy eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee, i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ieo
ia iicaaaeaia iaaeie?e?a. Iniiaieie c ieo ?: oi?iaeueia i?iaaaeaiiy
a?aeai?o o/i?a; iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa aei eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy, aei
aea/aiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy ? iioe?aiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe e?aueo oe?e oa
a/eoae?a; iaaeinoaoi? caaacia/aiiy iaa/aeueiith e?oa?aoo?ith o/i?a;
iaeaea a?aenooiy iaoiaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a aeey a/eoae?a; oaeoe/ia
a?aenooi?noue oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aeioneo iai/ieo iin?aiee?a; neaaea
caaacia/aiiy oe?e eiii’thoa?iith oaoi?eith ? i?ia?aiieie i?iaeoeoaie;
a?aenooi?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeina?ae ?ica’ycaiiy iiae?aieo i?iaeai ca
ei?aeiiii.

O nenoai? ?iaioe oe?e Oe?a?ie aein? ua ia a?aei?aoeueiaaiee iaoai?ci
ineoieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca o/iyie, ae?aaiinoeee ?o iayaieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo cae?aiinoae ? ?icaeoeo o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy. Oey i?iaeaia
iio?aao? niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y iaa/aiiy /a?ac aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ia? nai? iiceoeai?
noi?iie. I?ioa oeae i?ioean ia? aooe iaia?a?aiei ? nie?aoeny ia
ia’?eoeaio ae?aaiinoeeo. O oae caaiee i?aeaioia/ee ia??iae (5-7 eeane)
oea aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe /a?ac ??aiaao aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th.
Ii/eiath/e c 8 eeano iaiao?aeia i?io?eueia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, yea a
?aae?coaaeanue a iino?eieo eeanao (a?oiao). Iiynith?oueny oea oei, ui ia
e?iaoeue 7 eeano o aaaaoueio o/i?a ??cei cieaeo?oueny ??aaiue
iaoaiaoe/ieo ciaiue, i?e/eiith /iai, cie?aia, ? a?eia? iniaeeaino?
i?aee?oe?a, o?oaeiiu?, ye? aeieeathoue i?e aea/aii? nenoaiaoe/ieo eo?n?a
aeaaa?e oa aaiiao??? oiui.

Aeey oeiee caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c
i?aai?caoe??th iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oaeeo eeanao. Oeae
i?ioean niaoeeo?/iee, ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. I?ney a?aeai?o, yeee iiaeiai
a?aoiaoaaoe cae?aiino?, noeeueiino? ? ?ioa?an o/i?a aei ia?aiiai
i?aaeiaoa, ianoa? aeoaea a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ? neeaaeiee aoai ye aeey oeo,
ooi iaa/a?, oae ? aeey oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui iaa?oue i?e ?aoaeueiiio a?aeai?? a eean? c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee iiaeooue iieieoenue o/i?, ye? c ??cieo
i?e/ei iii?oii a?aenoathoue a?ae nai?o ?iaaniee?a o iiaioaaii? iiaeo
ciaiue, o oi?ioaaii? iaae/ie ? ai?iue. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui o? o/i?, ye?
?aaeueii ia ioe?iththoue nai? iiaeeeaino?, ia aieiae?thoue aeinoaoiueith
neeith aie?, i?aoeaethanoaii, iiaeii? i?iaeiaaeoaaoe iaa/aiiy o
cae/aeiiio eean?. Caaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?a ? aaouee?a, oe?eueieo ineoieia?a
c?iaeoe ana iiaeeeaa aeey oiai, uia iaaaea/a oaeiai ?iaeo ia aeyaeeanue
ineoieia?/iith o?aaiith aeey aeeoeie. Aiaeii/an ie i?ioe iini?oieo
aeniiae?a uiaei i?a?aoe?? o/i?a, ine?eueee aaaaoi c oeo, ooi nii/aoeo
a?aenoaaaa a?ae nai?o iaeiieeaniee?a, aea aeyaeya noa?aii?noue ?
iaiieaaeea?noue, aeiaeaaeenue iii?oieo oni?o?a a iaa/aii?. Naia ?i o?aaa
/an aeey onoiaiiy i?iaaeei a ciaiiyo ? ai?iiyo, aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo
oiia i?aoe?.

I?aeoeea ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui iaeaea an? o/i? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee a ieioeiio i?e iaa/aii? a cae/aeieo eeanao ia
caciaaaee iii?oieo o?oaeiiu?a. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y ?o iaa/aiiy a e?auiio
aeiaaeeo aeyaeyeanue a oiio, ui a/eoaeue i?iiiioaaa aeiaeaoeiai aeeiiaoe
ie?ai? caaaeaiiy. Oae?, caeaa?eueoiai aacnenoaii?, caaaeaiiy iaei
ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo o/i?a. O oie aea /an iaa/aiiy a niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio
eean? ci?ith? ianoaiiaeo. Oaea i?ney ia?oeo o?ie?a a?eueo?noue o/i?a
ia?aeiiothoueny a oiio, ui i?ioean i?ciaiiy aaciaaeiee, ui aiie ciathoue
? ai?thoue ia oae aaaaoi, neaaei aieiae?thoue i?eeiiaie iaa/aeueii?
?iaioe.

Ia?oa aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy iaaeaaiaa — iaa/eoe oeiey??a a/eoeny a iiaeo
oiiaao: neooaoe ? eiiniaeooaaoe eaeoe?th, i?aoethaaoe c aeiaeaoeiaith
e?oa?aoo?ith, naiino?eii aeeiioaaoe caaaeaiiy ??ciiai ??aiy neeaaeiino?,
cae?enithaaoe aca?iieiio?ieue ? naiieiio?ieue, aeaaaoe ioe?ieo
a?aeiia?aeae oiaa?eo?a, ia’?eoeaii ioe?ithaaoe naaa.

Ia?o? iaaaea/? iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei /anoeiaiai cieaeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei
iaoaiaoeee, ine?eueee ?ai?oa ia an? o/i? noeeaeeny c na?eicieie
i?iaeaiaie ? ia iaa/ai? ?o ae??ooaaoe. Aeey aaaaoueio c ieo ianoa? oaeee
e?eoe/iee iiiaio, ye i?aaeei, a ia?o? i?nyoeue-i?aoi?a i?ney ii/aoeo
iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, eiee aeieea? aaaeaiiy iieeiooe iaa/aiiy a oeueiio
eean? ? iiaa?iooenue o cae/aeiee. Oea coiiaeaia caeaa?eueoiai oei, ui
i?aoethth/e ?ai?oa oi?aneee, o/i? ieoo?ai io?eioaaee ?acoeueoaoe, i?i
ye? na?ae/eee aenie? ioe?iee. Oea, a naith /a?ao, noai?thaaei
aiaaiai?noue o nai?o i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoyo, o aeaniiio aenieiio
??ai? ?icaeoeo.

O iiaeo oiiaao nii/aoeo aeiaiaeeoueny iaaaaaoi a?eueoa /ano ? nee
aeo?a/aoe ia aea/aiiy i?io?eueiiai i?aaeiaoa, i?aoethaaoe naiino?eii, ui
coiiaeaii c?inoii oaii?a iaa/aiiy, oneeaaeiaiiyi iaoa??aeo, iineeaiiyi
aeiia aei ai?iue ? ciaiue. Ona oea iio?aao? a?eueoi? noa?aiiino? ?
cia/ieo aieueiaeo coneeue. ?acii c oei caeiiii??ii, ui ia ia?oiio aoai?
o /anoeie o/i?a ciai?oi? oni?oe iacia/i? aai e cian?i a?aenooi?,
niinoa??aa?oueny iii?oia a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae neeueieo, c’yaey?oueny
iaaiaaiai?noue a nia?.

Oaeiae aaaeeeai iai’yoaoe ? a?aoiaoaaoe, ui o?oaeiiu?, ye? aeieeathoue
ia?aae o/iyie, iiaeii? iaoe naith i??o. Ae?yeuei?noue a/eoaey ia iiaeiia
aooe ni?yiiaaia ia cieaeaiiy o?oaeiiu?a. I?aaeeueii aecia/eaoe ciie
iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai o/iy, o?aaa noaaeoe ia?aae iei iineeuei?
iaa/aeuei? caaaeaiiy. ?iaeoa iino?ei? iaaaea/? a iaa/aii?, a?aenooi?noue
iiceoeaieo aiioe?e i?ecaaaeooue aei cieaeaiiy, a oi ? aei ao?aoe
?ioa?ano, aei iaaaaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe acaaae? — ? iaa/aiiy noaia oyaa?ai.

Ua iaeia i?iaeaia, yea ia iao iiaeyae caneoaiao? ia oaaao, iieyaa? o
oiio, ui o/i? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee iii?oii
a?ae??ciythoueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ineoieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie. sse
i?aaeei, aiie iathoue aa?io iao/oaai?noue ? c ?ioeo oe?eueieo
i?aaeiao?a. O/eoae? iai?io?eueieo aeenoeeie?i /anoi ceiaaeeaathoue oeei.
Io?eioth/e caaeiaieaiiy a?ae ?iaioe c oaeeie o/iyie, aiie caaeuothoue
aeiiae aei ??aiy ?o ciaiue, i?iiiiothoue aaeee? ca ianyaii aeiiaoi?
caaaeaiiy, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean aoaeothoue oae, ui aeii?ioth/ith noa?
naiino?eia ?iaioa o/i?a. Ona oea ni?e/eiy? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy oeiey??a.
Iaaeinoaoi?noue /ano ia ye?nia aeeiiaiiy an?o caaaeaiue aaaea aei
iai?oaeaiiy, ia?aoaaiiy, ae?aoeeaino? /a?ac aiyciue io?eiaoe iecueeo
ioe?ieo aai caoaaaeaiiy a/eoaey. Uia oieeiooe oaeeo iai?e?iiinoae,
aeaye? o/i? a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao caiyooyi o cae/aeieo eeanao. Aiie
a?aeiiaeythoueny a?ae iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy iaoaiaoeee, ia a?aoiaothoue
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo i?e oaeiio iaa/aii?. O ca’yceo c oeei iio??aia
niaoe?aeueia ?iaioa ea??aieoeoaa oeiee c iaaeaaia?/iei eieaeoeaii aeey
ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a ia o?ieao a eeanao iaoaiaoe/iiai i?io?eth iniiaii? oeiee”
?ic?iaeaii ieaioaaiiy ?iaioe a/eoaey iaoaiaoeee o 8-9 eeanao, ?ice?eoi
iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, oa
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ a i?ioean? iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoa,
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee uiaei cae?eniaiiy ?aeoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth
ca i?ioeanii ? ?acoeueoaoaie iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

I?ae ieaioaaiiyi ?iaioe a/eoaey iaoaiaoeee a 8-9 eeanao ?c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa ie ?icoi??ii: 1) ?iciiae?e iaoa??aeo, ui aea/a?oueny
i?ioyaii ?ieo, a?aeiia?aeii aei iaa/aeueiei ieaiii ? ae?th/ith
i?ia?aiith aeey eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee; 2) oaiaoe/ia
ieaioaaiiy c aecia/aiiyi aeeaeaeoe/ii? iaoe nenoaie o?ie?a eiaeii? oaie,
cania?a iaa/aiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi i?noey e /ano i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii?
?iaioe o/i?a, nenoaie eiio?ieth; 3) i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey aei i?iaaaeaiiy
eiie?aoiiai o?ieo o nenoai? o?ie?a oaie, yea aea/a?oueny.

I?aai?caoe?th aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aa?oi ?icii/eiaoe c
eia?ei-aeeaeaeoe/iiai aiae?co caaa?oaieo oai i?ia?aiiaiai iaoa??aeo.
Oaia i?ia?aie c iaoaiaoeee, ye a?aeiii, ? aeeaeaeoe/iith iaeeieoeath
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ui aeicaiey? ?ice?eoe eia?/io e iaoaiaoe/io
i?aai?caoe?th e o?aeooaaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?ae niaith ieoaiue, /?oei
aeae?eeoe e noi?ioethaaoe iaoo aea/aiiy iniiaieo ieoaiue, iai?oeoe
iiaeeea? aoaeoeai? aa??aioe iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a iaa/aiiy,
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, cania?a, i?iaeoiaoe nenoaio eiio?ieth e ioe?iee
canai?ii? nenoaie ciaiue, iaae/ie ? ai?iue.

Iiieeeiai aaaaeaoe, ui a o/i?a eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee
iniiaii? oeiee iioeae iaa/aiiy no?ee?. ?o a?e, nioe?aeuei? oiiae a
e?a?i?, noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie caeaoi? ci?ithaaoe i???ioe?e iaa/aiiy o/i?a,
a ioaea, ? ?o iaoo. Aeey ceeooy iioeao ? iaoe o i?ioean? aea/aiiy oaie
a/eoaeue ia? aeaaoe i?i i?aeo?eiaiiy e ci?oeiaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai
?ioa?ano, a iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue iaieiae?iiy iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieie
ae?yie ? iaoaiaoe/ieie iaoiaeaie oa i?eeiiaie.

Aeeiioth/e eia?ei-aeeaeaeoe/iee aiae?c oaie, iaiao?aeii noi?ioethaaoe
iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?? aea/aiiy, a?aoiaoth/e ?o ??aaiue
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ia??oiooaaiiy. sseui a caaaeueiiina?oi?o eeanao aeey
a?eueoino? o/i?a oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeeth/athoue a naaa ciaiiy
ie?aieo eiie?aoieo oaeo?a, ia canai?iiy yeeo ni?yiiaai? coneeey, oi a
eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee ?acoeueoaoe ciaiiy o/i?a
aeeth/athoue cia/iith i??ith aeaee icia/aiue ? oai?ai c ?o eia?/iith
no?oeoo?ith, niaoeeo?eo iaoiae?a aeiaaaeaiiy oaa?aeaeaiue, oeiieia?th
caaea/.

Oea ia?oa iniaeea?noue iinoaiiaee iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue. Ine?eueee aeey
aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aieo ?acoeueoao?a iaiao?aeii a?aeae?aoe aaeaeaaoi?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei? ae??, oi ae?oaith nooo?aith iniaeea?noth
iinoaiiaee iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue i?e aea/aii? oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?
a?aea??, c’ynoaaiiy i?eeii?a aeeiiaiiy iaa/aeueieo ae?e.

Cae?eniaiiy iinoaiiaee iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue ii aea/aiith oai?aoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo aecia/a? iaaiith i??ith aea?? iaoiae?a oa cania?a iaa/aiiy.
Niaoeeo?ea oi?ioaaiiy ae?? ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai caaaeaiiy
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o iia?aoe?eiiai neeaaeo, a?ae ??aiy iaa/aiino? oa
iao/oaaiino? eeano a oe?eiio ? eiaeiiai o/iy cie?aia, a?ae cania?a
iaa/aiiy, ye? ia? oeiea, a?ae iniaenoino? a/eoaey ? oaea ?ioa.

Uiaei ieoaiiy i?i aea?? iaoiae?a oa i?eeii?a iaa/aiiy, oi caeaaeii a?ae
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, aeioe?eueii aa??thaaoe
?o ye ca aeaea?aeaie ciaiue, oae ? ca aeaeaie ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ?
o/i?a. O eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee ia?aaaaa
a?aeaea?oueny i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a o caeiaooo?
iiaeo ciaiue, aeine?aeieoeueeiio iaoiaeo aea/aiiy iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaie i?iaaaeaiee eia?ei-aeeaeaeoe/iee
aiae?c iaa/aeueieo oai eo?no aeaaa?e oa aaiiao??? o 8-9 eeanao.

I?e aea/aii? oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aeaaa?e oa aaiiao??? a eeanao c
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee o?eueee aeioe?euei? eiia?iaoe?? oi?i ?
iaoiae?a caaacia/aoue aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano i?ciaiiy. Aeina?ae
a/eoae?a-iiaaoi??a, aeaniee aeina?ae, ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeathoue
i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaei??th c aoaeoeaieo oi?i iaa/aiiy a
eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee a iniiai?e oeie? ?
eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ia. I?ioa, ie noeeuei? aei aeoiee, ui “a /enoiio aeae?”
oeth nenoaio ia caaaeaee aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe. Ie aeae?ey?ii ?yae
oai?aoe/ieo oaeo?a, ye? o/i? iiaeooue iiaioaaoe naiino?eii aai ae
ia?aa?aee?eoe aeey naaa i?ae ea??aieoeoaii a/eoaey.

Noai iaoaiaoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a, aeeaeia canai?iiy iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo a ia?oo /a?ao oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ai?iiyi ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?.
?acii c oei caaea/? ? caniaii iaa/aiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy a/eoaeyie iaiiaiith
i??ith an?o ooieoe?e caaea/ a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui
o/i?a a ?aoo? ?aoo ia ai?thoue ?ica’ycoaaoe iaa?oue i?ino? caaea/?.
I?aeoeea iieaco?, ui a?eueo?noue a/eoae?a eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iaoaiaoeee aeei?enoiaothoue o nai?e ?iaio? caaea/? c i?ciaaaeueieie oa
eiio?iethth/eie ooieoe?yie. Iacaneoaeaii, ia iao iiaeyae, a/eoae? oaeeo
eean?a ?aii?othoue aeeaeaeoe/i? ooieoe?? caaea/, ine?eueee naia oe?
caaea/? iaaoaathoue iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy i?e oi?ioaaii? iaea?eueo
aano?aeoieo iiiyoue, aeey ?ice?eooy ca’yce?a iaei??? nenoaie iiiyoue c
?ioeie. ?ioa ni?aaa, ui ia o?aioaaeuei? ai?aae iiaeiii a?aeaiaeeoe /an
iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiee aei ??aiy iaa/aiino? ? iao/oaaiino?.

Eiaeia caaea/a, ui ?ica’yco?oueny, ia? naith iaoiaee/io iaoo. Iaeia
ni?aaa, eiee o/aiue ?ica’yco? caaea/o naiino?eii aaeiia, ?ioa, eiee oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ea??aieoeoaii a/eoaey. Oiio a/eoaeth aa?oi i?aaiooe
a ia?oo /a?ao ia aei oiai, uia caaea/a aoea ?ica’ycaia oaeaeei ?
aaciiieeeiai, a aei oiai, uia aiia aoea ?ica’ycaia o/iyie oai?/i ? uia c
ia? iiaeia aoei io?eiaoe yeiiiaa a?eueoa ei?eno? aeey ?o iaoaiaoe/iiai
?icaeoeo (c?iaeoe iio??ai? iia/aeuei? aeniiaee, ye? ia caaaeaee iiaea
iii?oeoe o/aiue, i?aoethth/e naiino?eii, canoa?aaoe a?ae oeaiiai oeyoo,
aeine?aeeoe ci?io ?acoeueoaoo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie ii/aoeiaeo oiia
oiui). C iaeyaeo ia oea ia aa?oi i?aaiooe ?ica’ycaoe ia o?ioe? aaaaoi
caaea/. A?eueo ei?eniei aoaea iiaia aeei?enoaiiy eiaeii? caaea/?.
I?aeae?ath/e nenoaio caaea/ aeey ?iaioe ia o?ioe?, ie ea?oaaeenue oaeeie
i?eioeeiaie: 1) a?aeiia?aei?noue iaoa??aeo, ui aea/a?oueny; 2)
aeinooii?noue ?ica’ycoaaiiy ia?aaaaeiith a?eueo?noth o/i?a aeaiiai
eeano; 3) ianya ei?enii? ?ioi?iaoe??, io?eiaii? a ?acoeueoao? ??
?ica’ycoaaiiy; 4) ?icaeoie a i?ioean? ?? ?ica’ycoaaiiy eiie?aoieo
iaaee?a ? iaieiae?iiy iiaeie iaoiaeaie ? i?eeiiaie aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy
ianooiieo caaea/; 5) a?aeiia?aei?noue caaea/? ?? i?noeth na?aae ?ioeo
aea?aieo caaea/.

Ii?o/ ?c caaea/aie, ni?yiiaaieie ia a?aei?aoethaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai
iaoaiaoe/iiai iaaeeo, caaea/aie ?ethno?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o,
o?aioaaeueieie ai?aaaie cia/ia i?noea a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iaoaiaoeee ia? a?aeaiaeeoenue caaea/ai, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeo?eiaiiy
no?eeiai ?ioa?ano aei aea/aiiy iaoaiaoeee, ?icaeoeo oai?/iai ieneaiiy,
?ioa?ano aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? iaoaiaoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Iaiao?aei? niaoe?aeuei? ai?aae aeey iaa/aiiy o/i?a niiniaai naiino?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, caaaeueiei iaoiaeai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

O/i?a iio??aii a/eoe aiae?coaaoe, ei?enooaaoenue ii??aiyiiyi,
aano?aaoaaoe, ocaaaeueithaaoe, anoaiiaethaaoe aiaeia?th. Iaiao?aeii
i?euaiethaaoe ia o?eueee iaaeee eia?/iiai, aea e aa?enoe/iiai ieneaiiy,
?icaeaaoe ?ioo?oe?th. O nenoaio ai?aa iathoue aoiaeeoe ? oae?, i?ney
?ica’ycoaaiiy yeeo o/i? iiaeooue io?eiaoe iiao ei?enio aeey naaa
?ioi?iaoe?th, iayaii caaeaio a oiia? aai aeniiaeo.

Ia?aa??ea ciaiue ? niinia?a ae?yeueiino? ioneoue aecia/aoe ??aaiue ?o
canai?iiy ? aeoeaiino? o/i?a, caeaoi?noue aei naiino?eii? oai?/i?
ae?yeueiino?. E?eoa???i aeey aecia/aiiy oaeiai ??aiy a i?ioean?
ia?aa??ee ciaiue ? noa’?eoeai? ? ia’?eoeai? iieacieee aeoeaiino?, ui
??oioothoueny ia aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a oai?/i? naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aieiaiee iaaeie?e ?nioth/i? nenoaie eiio?ieth — a?aeoai?thth/ee oa?aeoa?
ieoaiue, ye? niiioeathoue o/i?a eeoa iiaoi?thaaoe aaea a?aeiia,
o?aioaaoeny a ae?yo ca c?aceii. O oiae? iiooeiaiai aenia?eiaioo ie
i?iiiioaaee nenoaio caaaeaiue ? ai?aa, ye? ia?aaeaa/aee aeeaieee
naiino?eiee aiae?c neooaoe?e; naiino?eia c’ynoaaiiy ca’yce?a;
ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiiiai; aeania aaaeaiiy o/i?a ?iaeoe aeniiaee ?c
anoaiiaeaieo iieiaeaiue; iio?aao a o/i?a aeae?eyoe aieiaia; niiioeaiiy
aei i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo ciaiue; i?aaiaiiy aei
aeiaaaeaiue, ii??aiyiue, ni?anoaaeaiiy oaeo?a; iaieiae?iiy iaoiaeaie
aeiaaaeaiue ? ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

Nai?/ania ? nenoaiaoe/ia ia?aa??ea ciaiue o/i?a aeeiio? ia eeoa
eiio?iethth/o ooieoe?th, a ? aeicaiey? iiaa/eoe o/iyi nai? oni?oe, ?o
aeeiai?eo, iaaaea/?. Iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaiith a oeueiio iai?yi? noa?
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaa nenoaia iaa/aiiy ? ioe?iee oni?oiino? o/i?a.
Iaaeie?eii o o?aaeeoe?eiiio eiio?ie? ? ioe?ithaaii? ciaiue ?
aeene?aoi?noue oi?ioaaiiy ciaiue ? iaae/ie. Aaaaoi ooi c o/i?a,
io?eiaaoe ioe?ieo ia o?ioe? nueiaiaei?, ia caao?a aaea ia oae ?aoaeueii
aeeiio? caaaeaiiy, ye aeiaaa?oueny. C oe??? i?e/eie c’yaeythoueny
i?iaaeeie a ciaiiyo, iaae onoiaiiyi yeeo iio?i i?aoeth? oe?eee eieaeoea:
a/eoaeue, o/aiue, eiai aaoueee, ae?oc?. Ia aeiionoeoe oeueiai iiaeia,
noai?eaoe oiiae, ca yeeo o/aiue aoaea ciooaiee i?aoethaaoe nenoaiaoe/ii.
Ae??oaiith oeueiai ? neoaeeoue iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaa iaa/aiiy, yea
iia’yco? i?aenoieiaee eiio?ieue c aoaiii-eiiiiiaioiei ioe?ithaaiiyi ?
aaaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeiiai ?aeoeiao. Ia nueiaiaei? oey nenoaia oe?iei
ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe Oe?a?ie. I?eeeaaeaie iiaeooue
aooe aeina?ae ?iaioe eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee oa
ano?iiii?? IIO ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (caa. eaoaae?e i?ioani? ?.?.
Oe/eia), aeina?ae ?iaioe aeioeaioa eaoaae?e iaoaiaoeee ? iaoiaeeee
iaoaiaoeee oeueiai ae caeeaaeo A.A. A?ioieuenueei?, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa ?i. Iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaa
iaa/aiiy oni?oii aeei?enoiao?oueny ? o na?aaei?o caeeaaeao ina?oe iiaiai
oeio, cie?aia a Euea?anueeiio e?oea?.

Ine?eueee a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee ie i?iiiio?ii aeey
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/io nenoaio iaa/aiiy,
oi oea i?e?iaeii aeiaaa? ia?aoiaeo aei iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy ?
?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie eiio?ieth. Ia ii/aoeo iiai? /aa?o? a/eoaeue neeaaea?
eaeaiaea?iee a?ao?e iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c aeaii? aeenoeeie?ie, yeee
?icaea?oueny eiaeiiio o/ith. Neeaaeath/e eaeaiaea?iee a?ao?e, iio??aii
a?aoiaoaaoe oae? aeiiae: 1) e?euee?noue iiaeoe?a iio??aii ocaiaeaeoaaoe
c e?euee?noth caieaiiaaieo eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o; 2) e?euee?noue oa oi?ie
eiio?ieueieo caoiae?a iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe neeaaei?noue iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo a eiaeiiio iiaeoe? ie?aii; 3) no?iai ?a?eaiaiooaaoe eiaeai
aeae eiio?ieth; 4) oa?i?ie i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieueieo caoiae?a aeey
eiaeiiai iiaeoey ne?ae ocaiaeeoe c a?ao?eii eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o a/eoae?a,
ye? i?aoeththoue a aeaiiio eean?, c a?ao?eii aee?aeoi?nueeeo
eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o.

Aeey oeueiai a i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth aaaeeeaa i?noea a?aeaaaeaia
o?enoaaiith ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy. Ia?aae aea/aiiyi iiai? oaie o/iyi
iia?aeiiey?oueny: 1) ia?ae?e oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue c cacia/aiiyi ?o aeeae
aea/aiiy; 2) nenoaia caaea/ aeey ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?iaioe ii oi?ioaaiith
iaae/ie ? ai?iue; 3) oi?ie eiio?ieth ??aiy ciaiue, iaae/ie, ai?iue; 4)
oa?i?i eiaeiiai aeaeo eiio?ieth.

I?e oeueiio an? ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieth o?enothoueny. Aeey iae?eo ie??i
eeaniiai aeo?iaeo a/eoae? aeei?enoiaothoue ea?oee iae?eo, ae?aie
oni?oiino?. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ae?ai oni?oiino? aenooia? a?eueoa ye
iaaaoeaiee can?a aieeao. Ia caaaeaee oa, ui ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aiiy
noathoue aeinooiieie aeey an?o, a?ae?a?a? iiceoeaio ?ieue. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny ia??iaeo aaeaioaoe?? o/i?a eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iaoaiaoeee aei iiaeo oiia iaa/aiiy. O oeae ia??iae aaaeaii, uia
?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieth aoee a?aeii? oei, ooi eiio?ieth?, ? eiai
eiio?ieththoue, oiaoi a/eoaeth oa o/ith. O nai?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino? ie ei?enooaaeenue a?aeiiei i?aaeeii Ianoaeeioeoe?, yeee
?aaeea i?eiee ia ii??aithaaoe iaeio aeeoeio c ?ioith. Eeano ae
iia?aeiieyany i?ia?an a iaieiae?ii? oei /e ?ioei o/iai iiaeie ciaiiyie.
I?ioa c ineoieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, o/ith iio??aia ia o?eueee ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?i eiai aeinyaiaiiy o a?aeiioaii? aei naiiai naaa, aea e oaea, yea
iieaco?, iane?eueee eiai nueiaiaei?oi?e ??aaiue aeuee ii??aiyii c ??aiai
?ioeo o/i?a. C oe??th iaoith a aenia?eiaio? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee cioeo
iae?eo.

Iane?aeee aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee a?iioaco ?
a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaa/aiiy 8-9 eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee oaeoe/ii ?
aeii?io?eueiith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th. A?ae i?aaeeueii? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oeeo eeanao caeaaeaoeia inoaoi/iee aea??
o/i?a a iiaeaeueoiio i?io?eth iia’ycaiiai c aenieei ??aiai iaoaiaoe/ii?
i?aeaioiaee.

2. Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith ae?yeueiino? eean?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iaoaiaoeee a iniiai?e oeie? ? i?aaeeueiee a?aea?? o/i?a. A?i iiaeeeaee
eeoa i?e a?aeiia?aei?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?aaiinoeee iaa/aiino?,
iao/oaaiino? ? ?ioa?ano aei i?aaeiaoa. ??aaiue iaoaiaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
iao/oaai?noue i?yii caeaaeaoue a?ae ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? caaaeueieo ?
niaoeeo?/ieo ae?e ? i?eeii?a ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?. Aeina?ae ?
aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a/eoae? aeineoue eaaei
aeyaeythoue ??aaiue iaa/aiino? ? cono??/athoueny c iaaaeyeeie
o?oaeiiuaie, eiee o?aaa aeyaeoe ??aaiue caaaeueiiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
?icaeoeo. Oea noa? iiaeeeaei c?iaeoe ia’?eoeaii i?e noi?ni?e ni?ai?aoe?
a/eoaey iaoaiaoeee, oe?eueiiai ineoieiaa oa aaouee?a.

3. ?acii c oei i?aaeeueii i?iaaaeaiee a?aea?? ia iiaea caaacia/eoe
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue o ia?o?e iaa/aeuei?e /aa?o? 8 eeano,
oiaoi a ia??iae aaeaioaoe??. Ooo iaiao?aeii noai?eoe ni?eyoeea?
ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ye? iia’ycai? c caeeaiiyi o/i?a aei iiaeo oiia
ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia aei i?aeaeuaiiy i?ia?aiieo aeiia, aei iniaenoino?
iiaiai aeey o/i?a o/eoaey iaoaiaoeee. O/eoaeue i?e oeueiio iiaeiai
aeyaeyoe oaeo, ia aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao eieaeoeao o aeiaaeeo oei/aniaiai
a?aenoaaaiiy o/i?a, ye? a cae/aeieo eeanao aoee e?aea?aie. Aenia?eiaio
iieacaa, ui a ca’yceo c oeei aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe oe?ieo oeaeo
ioe?ithaaiiy, yea ?ethno?o? aeeiai?eo oni?o?a o/i?a.

4. Aeooaeueiei caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy aeaui a?aei?iiiai a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eiiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai i?ia?aiith. Cie?aia, aeioe?eueii oaie “Eii?aeeiaoe ia
ieiuei?” ? “Aaeoi?e” aea/aoe ia?aeaeueii. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui ia
a?aei?io a?ae caaaeueiiina?oi?o, a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaie
noaaeeinue ca iaoo iiaioaaiiy o/iyie eii?aee-iaoiei ? aaeoi?iei
iaoiaeaie ?ica’ycoaaiiy iiceoe?eieo ? iao?e/ieo caaea/.

5. Iaoiaee i?iaeaiiiai iaa/aiiy a?ae?a?athoue iniiaio ?ieue a
iaoaiaoe/iiio ?icaeoeo o/i?a c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa. ?acii c
oei ia iiaeia iaaeiioe?ithaaoe ?ieue iiynithaaeueii-?ethno?aoeaiiai ?
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai iaoiae?a, ye? oi?iothoue oiiae ae?eiaeo ciaiue.

6. O eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee ? iiaeeea?noue aeey
aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?. ?acii c oei,
ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeieo eean?a, ooo aeieea? a?eueoa iiaeeea?noue aeey
naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, aeey ?iaioe ia eeoa iaae i?ae?o/ieeaie ?
iin?aieeaie, a ? aeey ?iaioe c iaoeiai-iiioey?iith e?oa?aoo?ith,
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieie ia??iaee/ieie aeaeaiiyie “O na?o? iaoaiaoeee”,
“Iaoaiaoeea a oeie?”, “Eaaio” oa ?i. Aeina?ae iieacaa, ui iaiao?aeia
niaoe?aeueia ?iaioa, ni?yiiaaia ia iaa/aiiy o/i?a naiino?ei?e ?iaio? ye
ia o?ioe?, oae ? a iicao?i/iee /an. Aaaeeeai, uia o/eoaeue nai?/anii
ieaioaaa ? aeiaiaeea aei a?aeiia o/i?a ia eeoa oa?i?ie aeeiiaiiy, aea ?
oi?ie eiio?ieth ca naiino?eiith ae?yeuei?noth. O?aaa iaa/aoe o/i?a
neeaaeaoe oace, ii?aoeueiaaii? ieie e?oa?aoo?e, oi?ioethaaoe caieoaiiy,
aeiiia?aeaoe ia o?ieao ? o.i.

7. Aoaeoeaiith aeyaeeanue eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ia nenoaia ye oi?ia
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, i?ioa ia aei eiaeii? oaie. I?e aeei?enoaii? oe???
oi?ie aaaeeeaei ? ia?oee o?ie. Ia iueiio aecia/a?oueny iaoa aea/aiiy
iiai? oaie. O/iyi iia?aeiiey?oueny ieai aea/aiiy oaie (iiaeoe?
oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo). Ii?o/ c oai?aoe/iei iaoa??aeii i?iiiiothoueny
aeiee caaea/, ye? o?aaa ?ica’ycaoe, ? oa?i?ie eiio?ieth.

8. A i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth iiaeii? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye o?aaeeoe?ei?,
oae ? iia? eiai oi?ie — ?aeoeiiaiaa nenoaia eiio?ieth, yea aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?aai?coaaoe nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy o/iyie iaoa??aeo ?
nai?/anio ?o ca?oi?noue i?i oea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aeeaeaeoe/i? iaoa??aee c iaoaiaoeee aeey 8 eeano: Iin?aiee aeey
a/eoaey / Oaaoeue A.I., Aea?ea/ O.A., Eiia? I.A., ssoeaiei N.?. – E.:
Ina?oa, 1997. – 75 n.

2. Aeeaeaeoe/i? iaoa??aee c iaoaiaoeee aeey 9 eeano: Iin?aiee aeey
a/eoaey / Oaaoeue A.I., Aea?ea/ O.A., Eiia? I.A., ssoeaiei N.?. – E.:
Ina?oa, 1997. – 75n.

3. ssoeaiei N. ?. ??aiaaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee a iniiai?e oeie? // Iaoaiaoeea a oeie?, — 1999. —
?2. – N. 13-15

4. ssoeaiei N. ?. Iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? canai?iiy oai?aoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee a iniiai?e oeie?
// Iaoaiaoeea a oeie?, — 1999. — ?3. – N. 27-28

5. ssoeaiei N.A. I iaeioi?uo i?iaeaiao i?aaiecaoeee oaeoaeaiiiai
eco/aiey iaoaiaoeee a 8 – 9 eeannao // Niaa?oainoaiaaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aiiaeaaaiey iaoaiaoeee, eioi?iaoeee e
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee a oeieao e iaaeaocao: Oacenu aeieeaaeia
Ananithciiai naieia?a-niaauaiey, /.2.-Aoeenoai, 1990. – N. 59-60

6. ssoeaiei N.?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue ??aiaai?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi iaoaiaoeee
iniiaii? oeiee // Iaoeia? caienee. Iaoa??aee ca?oii-iaoe. eiio. aeee.
Oe?. aea?ae. iaae. oi-oo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa ca 1992 ?. – E. 1993. –
N. 77-79

AIIOAOe?ss

ssoeaiei N.?. I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia o?ieao
iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa iniiaii? oeiee. —
?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ?c
niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.02 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia o?ieao
iaoaiaoeee a eeanao c iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa iniiaii? oeiee.
Caoeua?oueny iaiao?aei?noue nenoaie ae?aaiinooaaiiy e a?aeai?o o/i?a
aeey iaa/aiiy a oaeeo eeanao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oe?eani?yiiaaia ??aiaaa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a i?io?eueieo eeanao ii oi?ioaaiith i?ciaaaeueiiai
?ioa?ano o/i?a ia aoai? aaeaioaoe?? aecia/a? nooi?iue noaa?eueiino?
eeano. I?aeoaa?aeaeaia iniiaia ?ieue iaoiae?a i?iaeaiiiai iaa/aiiy a
?icaeoeo o/i?a oaeeo eean?a. I?iaeaiiino?iaaia ?ieue
iiynithaaeueii-?ethno?aoeaiiai ? ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai iaoiae?a, ye?
oi?iothoue oiiae ae?eiaeo ciaiue. Aenia?eiaioii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ?
ii?aeiaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy (eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ia nenoaia,
?aeoeiaiaee eiio?ieue) c o?aaeeoe?eieie oi?iaie iaa/aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean, iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy
iaoaiaoeee, ae?aaiinoeea, aaeaioaoe?y, eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ia nenoaia,
?aeoeiaiaee eiio?ieue.

AIIIOAOeEss

ssoeaiei N.A. I?aaiecaoeey o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ia o?ieao
iaoaiaoeee a eeannao n oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai i?aaeiaoa iniiaiie oeieu. —
?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie nooiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey iaoaiaoeee.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

?iaioa iinayuaia i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ia
o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a eeannao n oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai i?aaeiaoa iniiaiie
oeieu. Caueuaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiu aeeaaiinoeee iao/aaiinoe,
iao/aiinoe, eioa?ana e i?aaeiaoo, /oi aeieaeii neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey
ioai?a o/aueony a oaeeo eeannao. Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee a
eeannao n oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai i?aaeiaoa iniiaiie oeieu n o/aoii
iio?aaiinoae o?iaiaaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iao/aiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay o?iaiaaay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a i?ioeeueiuo eeannao ii
oi?ie?iaaieth iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana o/aueony ia yoaia aaeaioaoeee e
iiaui oneiaeyi o?oaea oeieueieeia ii?aaeaeyao noaiaiue noaaeeueiinoe
eeanna. Aianoa n oai, iea?aoeey i?aaenoaaeyao iau?eoeaii caei?iaia
iaaeaaiae/aneia yaeaiea, /oi eiaao naiae ineoieiae/aneie iniiaie
aeeiaieeo eioa?ania e iio?aaiinoae oeieueieeia. Enneaaeiaaia e iao/ii
iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aaaeiinoue ia?eiaea aaeaioaoeee o/aieeia e
iiaui oneiaeyi ?aaiou eae aaaeiiai i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai
oneiaey iioeiecaoeee caiyoee ii auai?o.

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaia iniiaiay ?ieue iaoiaeia i?iaeaiiiai iao/aiey a
iaoaiaoe/aneii ?acaeoee o/aieeia oaeeo eeannia. I?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia
aaaeiay ?ieue iauynieoaeueii-eeethno?aoeaiiai e ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
iaoiaeia, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho oiiae aeaenoaaiiuo ciaiee. Ia ?yaeo n yoei
iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea e ?aaeecaoeee iiauo o/aaiuo oaoiieiaee
oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey iaoaiaoeee, ia/eiay n 8 eeanna.

?ane?uou aiciiaeiinoe aeey eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aianoa n yoei iainiiaaia aieaa oe?ieay aiciiaeiinoue
aeey naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony. Ii i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeia
niaoeeaeueiay ?aaioa o/eoaey iai?aaeaiiay ia iao/aiea oeieueieeia
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaioa.

Yooaeoeaiie ieacaeanue a yoeo eeannao eaeoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneay nenoaia,
eae oi?ia iao/aiey, ii iia ia i?eiaieia e eaaeaeie oaia. Eniieueciaaiea
oaeie oi?iu iao/aiey anoanoaaiiui iooai o?aaoao ia?aoiaea ia
?aeoeiaiaoth oi?io eiio?iey. ?aeoeiaiaay nenoaia eiio?iey aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaieciauaaoue nenoaiaoe/aneia eco/aiea o/aieeaie
iaoa?eaea e nenoaiaoe/aneoth eo io/aoiinoue ia yoii. Yenia?eiaioii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui a i?aaiecaoeee
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna anoue ni/aoaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee
iao/aiey (eaeoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneay nenoaia, ?aeoeiaiaue eiio?ieue) n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie oi?iaie iao/aiey. A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia
ianeieueei eiii no?oeoo?e?iaaiee niaea?aeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea
i?aaeoniio?aiiiai i?ia?aiiie.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aiaae?aiu a ?aaioo o/eoaeae eeannia n
oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai iaoaiaoeee iniiaiie oeieu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue i?ioeann, oaeoaeaiiia eco/aiea
iaoaiaoeee, aeeaaiinoeea, aaeaioaoeey, eaeoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneay nenoaia,
?aeoeiaiaue eiio?ieue.

ANNOTATION

Yatsenko S.Y. — Education and instruction management for profound math
course at base school. – Manuscript.

Thesis on the Theory and Methods of Math Teaching 13.00.02. National
Pedagogical University.

Thesis covers education and instruction management for profound math
course at base school The method of students prescreening and selection
for the said classes is advocated. It is recognized that the targeted
level adjusted differentiation for the classes with profound discipline
instruction objected to the learning process at the stage of adaptation
is responsible stability level in students groups. At the same time,
migration is the objective sound pedagogical tool which is pedagogically
based on students dynamics and interests. Experience showed that
combination of advanced instruction technologies is the most efficient
in education and instruction management (lecturing, rating control) and
conventional instruction practices.

Key words: education-and- instruction process, profound math study,
prescreening, adaptation, integration of lecturing and practical
classes, rating control.

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